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Official status[edit]Marathi is the official language of Maharashtra and co-offi

cial language in the union territories of Daman and Diu[3] and Dadra and Nagar H
aveli.[4] In Goa, Konkani is the sole official language; however, Marathi may al
so be used for all official purposes. The Constitution of India recognizes Marat
hi as one of India's twenty-two official languages.[11]
In addition to all universities in Maharashtra, Maharaja Sayajirao University of
Baroda in Vadodara,[12] Osmania University in Hyderabad,[13] Karnataka Universi
ty in Dharwar,[14] Gulbarga University in Gulbarga,[15] Devi Ahilya University i
n Indore[16] and Goa University in Goa[17] have special departments for higher s
tudies in Marathi linguistics. Jawaharlal Nehru University (New Delhi) has annou
nced plans to establish a special department for Marathi.[citation needed]
History[edit]Main article: Marathi literature
Marathi is one of several languages that descend from Maharashtri Prakrit. Furth
er change led to apabhra?sa languages like Marathi, which may be described as be
ing a re-Sanskritised, developed form of Maharashtri Apabhra?sa.
Marathi Literature 12th century to 1905[edit]Yadava[edit]Marathi literature bega
n and grew owing to the rise of both the Yadava dynasty of Devgiri (who adopted
Marathi as the court language and patronized Marathi scholars) and two religious
sects - Mahanubhav Panth and Warkari Panth, who adopted Marathi as the medium f
or preaching their doctrines of devotion. Marathi had attained a venerable place
in court life by the time of the Yadava kings. During the reign of the last thr
ee Yadava kings, a great deal of literature in verse and prose, on astrology, me
dicine, Puranas, Vedanta, kings and courtiers were created. Nalopakhyan, Rukmini
swayamvar and Shripati's Jyotishratnamala (1039) are a few examples.
The oldest book in prose form in Marathi, Vivekasindhu (??????????), was written
by Mukundaraj, a yogi of Natha Pantha and arch-poet of Marathi. Mukundaraj base
s his exposition of the basic tenets of the Hindu philosophy and Yoga Marga on t
he utterances or teachings of Shankaracharya. Mukundaraj's other work, Paramamri
ta, is considered the first systematic attempt to explain the Vedanta in the Mar
athi language. One of the famous saints of this period is Sant Dnyaneshwar (12751
296) who wrote Bhavarthadeepika, popularly known as Dnyaneshwari (1290), and Amr
itanubhava. He also composed devotional songs called abhangas. Dnyaneshwar gave
a higher status to Marathi by bringing the sacred Bhagavad Gita from Sanskrit to
Marathi.