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OBJECTIVE

To design a sewage treatment plant (STP) for Universiti Teknologi Petronas to meet
sewage discharge of Standard A.


INTRODUCTION
Universiti Teknologi Petronass Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) was built to
treat all municipal wastewater from the students villages (V1, V2, V3, V4, V5 and
V6). According to law and regulations, the effluent discharged from the treatment
plant must meet the requirement stated in Environment Quality Act (EQA) 1974.
Standard A and Standard B of EQA 1974 are stated as below:

Parameter Unit
Standards
A B
Temperature C (Celcius) 40 40
pH Value - 6.0-9.0 5.5-9.0
BOD5 at 20C mg/l 20 50
COD mg/l 120 200
Suspended Solids mg/l 50 100
Mercury mg/l 0.005 0.05
Cadmium mg/l 0.01 0.02
Chromium,
Hexavalent mg/l 0.05 0.05
Arsenic mg/l 0.05 0.1
Cyanide mg/l 0.05 0.1
Lead mg/l 0.1 0.5
Chromium, Trivalent mg/l 0.2 1
Copper mg/l 0.2 1
Manganese mg/l 0.2 1
Nickel mg/l 0.2 1
Tin mg/l 0.2 1
Zinc mg/l 1 1
Boron mg/l 1 4
Iron (Fe) mg/l 1 5
Phenol mg/l 0.001 1
Free Chlorine mg/l 1 2
Parameter Unit
Standards
A B
Nitrate-Nitrogen
(river)
mg/l 20 50
Nitrate-Nitrogen
(enclosed water body)
mg/l 10 10
Phosphorous
(enclosed water body)
mg/l 5 10
Sulphide mg/l 0.5 0.5
Oil and Grease mg/l 5 10
Ammoniacal
Nitrogen (enclosed
water body)
mg/l 5 5
Ammoniacal
Nitrogen (river)
mg/l 10 20
Extracted from Environmental Quality (Sewage) Regulations 2009 (PU(A) 432)

*Standard A is defined as the effluent which are released or discharged into the river
from upstream of existing water intake point.
Standard B is defined as the effluents which are released or discharged to main
drain and then to the river.

Currently, the sewage water treatment plant in Universiti Teknologi Petronas
has a supporting capacity of 23,000 people. However, there are only about 10,000
students in UTP for this semester. Therefore, only about half capacity of the sewage
water treatment plant is being used.
















FLOW DIAGRAM OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT
















Raw Sewage
Primary
Screen
Chamber
Pumping
Station
Secondary
Screen
Chamber
Grit
Remover
Chamber
Oil & Grease
Remover
Chamber
Distribution
Chamber
Anoxic
Zone
Aeration
Tank
Sedimentation
Tank
Chlorination
Tank
Treated
effluent of
plant.
Sludge Dewatering
Facilities
Drying bed Filter Press
Solid
Solid
Landfill area Landfill area
8% to 10% solid
contents dewatered
sludge
Liquor of sand bed/
filter press to primary
screen chamber of STP.
RAS
LAYOUT OF UTPS SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT (STP)


















A
n
o
x
i
c

T
a
n
k



Aeration Tank
A
n
o
x
i
c

T
a
n
k


Aeration Tank
Secondary
Screen
Grit
Chamber
Grease
Trap
Secondary
Clarifier
Secondary
Clarifier

Chlorination
Tank
Gravity
Thickener
Drying
Bed
Pump
Station
Primary
Screen
Process
The step by step processes of the plant, the defects of the plant, and the
rectification methods can be summarized as so:
Process Defects Suggested Rectification
a)Primary Bar Screen
-There are two types of bar
screen systems in the
Primary Bar Screen, namely
the Automated Bar Screen
and the Manual Bar Screen.
In this system an
Automated Bar Screen is
situated between two
Manual Bar Screens.
Wastewater from the
university, namely
washrooms, cafeteria
kitchens, labs (including the
chemical labs of Building
3,4and 5), etc will flow
through here.
The Automated Bar Screen
is used to automatically
scrap away large solid
waste to a rubbish bin.

1. In the case of the Automated
Bar Screen, the hole is too
big for the cover. Therefore
leakage happens even though
the cover is being closed.

2. Both the Manual Bar Screens
holes are too high up. As the
water level is now too low to
go through the Manual Bar
Screen thus it is not being
used.
1. The cover to cover up the hole
should be made into a bigger one
so that leakage does not happen
this time.

2. In the second case the water level
can be raised to a higher level or
the holes can be lowered down so
that the wastewater is able to go
through to undergo the Manual
Bar Screen process.
c)Grit Chamber
-After the Sludge Pump
Sump, the wastewater is
now transported to the grit
chamber. The main use of
the grit chamber is to settle
the heavymetals and to
separate the suspended
1. The Grit Chamber has
not been in working
condition since operation
started.
2. The second grit chamber
has not been used since
the start of operation and
has only been used to
collect rainwater

1. The whole chamber should
be repaired and made sure
that this time a technician is
positioned to make sure that
it is in working condition.
2. The grit chambers should
be able to interchange
during operation so that
both resources can be put
into use.
solids from the wastewater.


d)Oil & Grease Chamber
-The wastewater is then
flown to the oil and grease
chamber. Bubbles formed
here are used to get rid of
grease and oil.

1. Out off the two oil and grease
chambers the one that is
being used is not in working
condition while the other has
not been used since the start
of operation.

1. The first chamber should be
repaired as soon as possible
while the other chamber should
be able to interchange during
operation as not to waste
resources.

e)Anoxic Chamber
-Since all the processes that
the wastewater went
through before were not in
working condition, in the
end the wastewater now is
full with suspended solids
by the time it is sent to this
process. The anoxic
chamber is used to mix the
wastewater without aeration
with one propeller within it.
-Process by which nitrate
nitrogen is converted
biologically to nitrogen gas
in the absence of oxygen.
This process is also known
as anaerobic denitrification.
1. No specific problems were
found in the anoxic chamber.

f)Aeration Tank
The wastewater from the
anoxic chamber is then
flown to the aeration tank.
For the condition of the
UTP wastewater treatment
plant, there are 2 aeration
tanks but only 1 is being
1. Foam can be seen in the tank
that is not being used
indicating that there is a
diffusion leak.
2. The tank is not mud brown in
color as it is supposed to be
indicating concentrated
bacteria.

1. The leak should be covered as
to not leaking towards the other
aeration tank.
2. The recycling of the bacteria
from the clarifier should be
looked through again.

used. The other only
collects rainwater.
The aeration tank uses
bacteria to degrade organic
matters. As the degrading
process begins the bacteria
starts to multiply. When
the bacteria concentration is
too high in the aeration
tank, the water will be
flown to the clarifier. The
biomass that has been
degraded will settle there.

g)Clarifier
When the clarifier is too
concentrated with biomass,
the wastewater will be
pumped back to the anoxic
chamber to remove NO
3

(recycle process) or the
biomass is sent to the
thickener to be thrown
away. There is a scrapper to
remove any solid waste in
the clarifier. The clarifier is
an oval tank, which the
water at the top part of the
tank will flow into the
effluent tank. The effluent
tank will flow the water to
the chlorination tank.

1. There is algae growing on
top of the clarifier indicating
that the water has a lot of
nutrients that provide food to
the bacteria.
2. The scrapper is broken.
3. The effluent tank is not clear,
indicating that the treatment
process is not done
efficiently.
1. NO
3
should be well treated off
before sending the wastewater
to the clarifier.
2. Repair the scraper.
3. Review the whole entire
treatment plant and do any
rectification that is needed.

h)Thickener
The sludge will be flown
into the sludge chamber,
1. The plate and frame press is
not working.

1. The plate and frame press
should be sent for repairs in
order to co-work with the sand
beds to produce higher quality
where it goes to the sludge
storage. From here it goes
to the four sand beds
available for filtration
process.
The wastewater can also be
sent to the plate and frame
press, where the sludge is
compress into a cake-like
matter and all remaining
wastewater is flowed down.

water.

i)Chlorination Tank
After getting rid of all the
solid waste and degrading
organic matters, the water is
sent for chlorination to kill
off all microorganisms
before finally discharging
the water into the nearby
river.

1. The chlorination tank is not
being used due to the fact
that they say Malaysian water
standard does not need
chlorination.

1. The chlorination process should
be undergone to ensure that the
water is free from
microorganisms and the water
will not make anyone sick.
















Parameter Used
Flow rate = 320m
3
/h = 7680m
3
/d
Temperature = 20C
Clarifier Height = 30ft = 9.144m
Based on wastewater laboratory results:


0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
6
a
m
7
a
m
8
a
m
9
a
m
1
0
a
m
1
1
a
m
1
2
p
m
1
p
m
2
p
m
3
p
m
4
p
m
5
p
m
6
p
m
7
p
m
8
p
m
9
p
m
1
0
p
m
1
1
p
m
1
2
a
m
1
a
m
2
a
m
3
a
m
4
a
m
5
a
m
Influent
TBOD(mg/L)
Time Of Day(h)
Graph Of Influent TBOD(mg/L) Aganist Time (h)


Since that the BOD, COD and TSS obtained from the laboratory experiment is too small,
therefore the influent BOD, COD and TSS from the typical composition of untreated
domestic wastewater(Table 3.15).
BOD = 200 mg/L
COD = 430 mg/L
TSS = 200 mg/L
Assuming the students population equivalent is 23000 PE.
23000 x 225L/day = 5175 m
3
/d (Q= 7680m
3
/d as the influent flow rate)
Laboratory Result MLSS MLVSS
Aeration Tank Sample 1 1950.00 1500.00
Aeration Tank Sample 2 2400.00 1866.67
Aeration Tank Sample 3 2466.67 2250.00

Actual MLSS = 2216.6667 mg/L
Actual MLVSS = 1884.1667 mg/L
Actual MLSS Return Sludge = 8600 mg/L
Design MLSS = 5000 mg/L
Design MLVSS = 4250 mg/L

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
6
a
m
7
a
m
8
a
m
9
a
m
1
0
a
m
1
1
a
m
1
2
p
m
1
p
m
2
p
m
3
p
m
4
p
m
5
p
m
6
p
m
7
p
m
8
p
m
9
p
m
1
0
p
m
1
1
p
m
1
2
p
m
1
a
m
2
a
m
3
a
m
4
a
m
5
a
m
Influent TSS(mg/L)
average =
21.8685mg/L
Hour
Graph Of Influent TSS (mg/L) Against Time(h)

Sample
Name
Bottle
of
sample
Nitrate,
NO3
-

(mg/L)
Ammonia,
NH3
-
(mg/L)
Phosphorus,
PO3
-
(mg/L)

Sample
Name
Bottle of
sample
Nitrate,
NO3
-

(mg/L)
Ammonia,
NH3
-
(mg/L)
Phosphorus,
PO3
-
(mg/L)
Influent
6am
I1 1.70 3.40 3.20
Effluent
6am
E1 4.00 -0.60 2.10


Influent
7am
I2 1.30 4.30 3.00
Effluent
7am
E2 3.50 -0.40 2.35


Influent
8am
I3 1.50 5.20 2.80
Effluent
8am
E3 3.80 1.60 3.15


Influent
10 am
I5 0.60 2.00 2.65
Effluent
10 am
E5 3.10 -0.10 2.15


Influent
11m
I6 0.30 5.90 3.70
Effluent
11 am
E6


Influent
12pm
I7 0.75 7.50 overdose
Effluent
2pm
E9
3.20 -0.50 2.70



Influent
1pm
I8 1.20 7.90 3.80
Effluent
3pm
E10 0.25 -0.30 4.95


Influent
2pm
I9 1.00 6.90 4.75
Effluent
4pm
E11 2.30 0.80 3.10


Influent
3pm
I10 0.70 7.50 4.35
Effluent
6pm
E13 0.81 -1.00 3.40


Influent
4pm
I11 1.00 6.10 3.15
Effluent
7pm
E14 1.50 -0.70 3.00


Influent
6pm
I13 3.40 7.10 3.15
Effluent
8pm
E15 1.30 -0.03 3.62


Influent
7pm
I14 0.80 6.90 1.70
Effluent
9pm
E16 0.54 -2.00 3.15


Influent
8pm
I15 0.70 7.40 4.85
Effluent
10pm
E17 0.53 -0.10 2.65


Influent
9pm
I16 -0.40 9.30 4.80
Effluent
12am
E19 0.40 -0.10 5.75


Influent
10pm
I17 -0.20 6.50 3.60
Effluent
2am
E21 1.90 0.10 3.00


Influent
12am
I19 1.90 8.40 3.85
Effluent
5am
E24 3.60 0.60 2.30


Influent
2am
I21 0.40 5.70 3.75
Anoxic
Tank
1.80 4.40 7.20


Influent
5am
I24 1.40 5.80 2.75
Aeration
Tank
1.90 6.40 3.20




TKN = 40mg/L
From the average of composite sample,
NH
4
-N= 6.322 mg/L, NO
3
-N= 1.0028mg/L, TP = 3.325mg/L
Alkalinity as CaCO
3
=140mg/L as CaCO
3
SVI = 370mL/g
Q
w
Wasting Flowrate = 4L/min = 0.24m
3
/h = 5.76m
3
/day






















THE STP DESIGN PROJECT
Type of biological treatment: Extended Aeration Activated Sludge
Wastewater flow rate, Q = 320 m
3
/hr = 7680 m
3
/day
Aeration basin mixed-liquor temperature = 20
o
C
Effluent NH
4
-N concentration= 1.81 g/m
3

Wastewater characteristics:
Constituent Concentration (g/m
3
)
BOD 200
COD 430
TSS 200
MLVSS 5000
TKN 40
NH
4
-N 14
TP 8
Alkalinity 140 as CaCO
3
MLVSS 3200
Effluent TSS 22

A) Size of aeration tank required (compare with the present size volume)
Biomass production:

)
(

)(

)(

)
(

)
(

)


Q = 7680 m
3
/d
Y = 0.40 VSS/g bCOD
S
o
= 320 g bCOD/m
3

K
d
= 0.12 g VSS/g VSSd

m
= 6.0 g VSS/g VSSd
SRT = 30 days

-Determine S:

[ (

)]
(

[ ()]
( )


Y
n
= 0.12 g VSS/g NO
x

K
dn
= 0.08 g VSS/g VSSd
Assume NO
x
80% (TKN) as nitrogen balance cannot be done yet. The error in
assuming that NO
x
80% (TKN) is small as the nitrifier VSS yield is a small fraction of
total MLVSS concentration.


-Substitute the above values and solve P
X,bio

[
()()( )
()

()()()()( )
()

()()()
()
] (


Amount of nitrate oxidized of nirate:


()()(

)
()




The aeration tank volume:

)() (

) ()()
At MLSS = 5000 g/m
3


( )(

)
(




Existing Aeration Tank Volume in STP
Dimension of each tank = 9m width x 27m length x 4m depth
Number of aeration tank = 2
Volume of existing aeration tanks = 9 x 27 x 4 x 2
Volume of existing aeration tanks = 1944 m
3
By comparing the design aeration tank and existing aeration tank, the current aeration
tank volume in STP is not enough to sustain population of 23500. (The volume of
existing aeration tanks is 1944 m
3
whereas the volume of required aeration tank is
2380.5 m
3.
)The depth can be increased to 5 m from 4 m, hence providing volume of
2430 m
3
, which will be adequate to meet the requirement as calculated.



B) Size and number of clarifier required
Assume a hydraulic application rate of 12m
3
/m
2
.d at average flow for the second clarifier
(table 8-7); the range is 8 to 16m
3
/m
2
.


Since we design for 2 clarifiers,


F/M and volumetric loading:

()()
()()

()()
(

)()

( ) () ()()

C) Return activated sludge (from clarifier to aeration tank) using the present
pumping system.
()
(

)
( )

( )


Present STP RAS ratio

() ()



Presence RAS ratio = 4.557 ( > 1.389 )
In sum, sludge is able to be pumped at very fast rate.
D) Amount of sludge to be wasted from the clarifier.


5000mg 1L
396750000mg


Assume the technician dispose waste of 60m
3
/d, waste dispose is not sufficient to
clear the waste produced. Therefore, waste disposed should be change from
60m
3
/d to 80m
3
/d.





E) Amount of alkalinity required.
Alkalinity to maintain pH 7 = Influent Alk Alk used + Alk to be added
Influent Alkalinity: 140 g/m
3
as CaCO
3

Amount of nitrogen converted to nitrate: NO
x
= 34.5 g/m
3

( )()


Residual alkalinity concentration needed to maintain pH in the range of 6.8-7.0 = 70-80
g/m
3
as CaCO
3
; select 80 g/m
3


()()(


Amount of Na(HCO
3
) needed:
Equivalent weight of CaCO
3
= 50 g/equivalent
Equivalent weight of Na(HCO
3
) = 84 g/equivalent
(

)
()()
()



F) Amount of phosphorus and nitrogen required.
Assume the biomass contain 12% nitrogen and 2% phosphorus



()()(

)
(

)(

)

TKN = 40 mg/L
Since TKN > nitrogen required, TKN is adequate, no additional TKN is required.



()(

)
(

)(

)

TP = 8 mg/L
Since TP > phosphorus required, phosphorus is adequate for microorganisms to grow. No
additional phosphorus is required.











Design Summary of UTPs STP:
Design Parameter Unit Value
Average wastewater flow m
3
/d 7680
SRT d 30
Aeration tank volume m
3
2380.5
MLSS g/m
3
5000
MLVSS g/m
3
4250
F/M g/g d 0.152
Sludge production kg/d 337.238
Oxygen required Kg/h 3129.62
RAS ratio - 4.557
Clarifier hydraulic application rate m
3
/m
2
d 12
Total Area of Clarifier m
2
640
Alkalinity addition as Na(HCO
3
) kg/d 2425.3
Nitrogen required g/m
3
5.27
Phosphorus required g/m
3
0.88

Conclusion:
The objective of this report is to design for sewage treatment plant to meet standard A. In
this report, parameters such as volume of aeration tank, sludge production and wasted,
nutrients required, alkalinity to be added and others were calculated and compared.
Therefore, the objectives had been achieved












Appendix



.