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Thickness measurement and close-up survey guidance

Part 8, Assessment of protective coatings in ballast tanks


All ships

June 2014


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for a safer world
Thickness Measurement And Close-Up Survey Guidance
Contents Part 8

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PART 8 Assessment Of Protective Coatings In Ballast Tanks

Chapter 1 Introduction (8.1)

Chapter 2 Coating Conditions (Good, Fair, Poor) (8.2)

Chapter 3 Areas Under Consideration (8.3)
Section 1 General (8.3.1)
Section 2 Ballast tanks in oil tankers (8.3.2)
Section 3 Ballast tanks in ships other than oil tankers (8.3.3)

Chapter 6 In-Service Ballast Tank Condition Monitoring (8.4)


Thickness Measurement And Close-Up Survey Guidance
Introduction Part 8, Chapter 1

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8.1 Introduction
This guidance is to assist surveyors, shipowners, shipyards, flag Administrations and other
interested parties involved in the survey and assessment of protective coatings in ballast tanks.
The ability of the coating system to reach its target useful life depends on the type of coating
system, steel preparation, the design of the structures, application and coating inspection and
maintenance. All these aspects contribute to the good performance of the coating system.
Maintenance and repair of the protective coating system should be included in the ships overall
maintenance and repair scheme.

These Guidelines apply to all LR classed ships and focus on assessment of coatings in dedicated
seawater ballast tanks of all types of ships and double-side skin spaces of bulk carriers, hereinafter
referred to as ballast tanks. Corrosion prevention systems other than coating are not covered.
The methodology for coating assessment as detailed subsequently should be used for inspection of
all ballast tanks on all ships.





Thickness Measurement And Close-Up Survey Guidance
Coating Conditions (GOOD, FAIR, POOR) Part 8, Chapter 2

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8.2 Coati ng Condi ti ons (Good, Fair, Poor)

The condition of the coating in ballast tanks is assigned and categorised as GOOD, FAIR or
POOR based on visual inspection and estimated percentage of areas with coating failure and
rusty surfaces.
The definitions of coating conditions GOOD, FAIR and POOR are as follows:
GOOD: Condition with only minor spot rusting.
FAIR: Condition with local breakdown of coating at edges of stiffeners and weld connections
and/or light rusting over 20% or more of areas under consideration, but less than as
defined for POOR condition.
POOR: Condition with general breakdown of coating over 20% or more of areas or hard scale at
10% or more of areas under consideration.
These Guidelines clarify the above definitions in order to achieve a unified assessment of coating
conditions as follows, see also the table below:
GOOD: Condition with spot rusting on less than 3% of the area under
consideration without visible failure of the coating. Rusting at edges or
welds, should be on less than 20% of edges or weld lines in the area under
consideration.
FAIR: Condition with breakdown of coating or rust penetration on less than 20%
of the area under consideration. Hard rust scale should be less than 10% of
the area under consideration. Rusting at edges or welds should be on less
than 50% of edges or weld lines in the area under consideration.
POOR: Condition with breakdown of coating or rust penetration on more than
20% or hard rust scale on more than 10% of the area under consideration
or local breakdown concentrated at edges or welds on more than 50% of
edges or weld lines in the area under consideration.

GOOD
(3)
FAIR POOR
Breakdown of
coating or area
rusted
(1)

< 3% 3 - 20% > 20%
Area of hard rust
scale
(1)

< 10% 10%
Local breakdown of
coating or rust on
edges or weld
lines
(2)

< 20% 20 - 50% > 50%
Notes:
1 % is the percentage calculated on basis of the area under consideration or
of the critical structural area
2 % is the percentage calculated on basis of edges or weld lines in the area
under consideration or of the critical structural area
3 spot rusting, i.e. rusting in spot without visible failure of coating

Thickness Measurement And Close-Up Survey Guidance
Areas Under Consideration Part 8, Chapter 3

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8.3 Areas Under Consideration

8.3.1 General
Recognising that different areas in the tank experience different coating breakdown and
corrosion patterns, the intent of this section is to subdivide the planar boundaries of the tank for
evaluation of coating into areas small enough to be readily examined and evaluated by the
surveyor. However, the areas subdivided should not be so small as to be structurally insignificant
or too numerous to practically report on. Coating condition in each area should be noted using
current practice and terminology (frame numbers, longitudinal numbers and/or strakes numbers,
etc.). Each area is then rated GOOD, FAIR or POOR and the tank rating should not be higher
than the rating of its area under consideration having the lowest rating.
Special attention should be given to coating in critical structural areas which are defined as
locations which have been identified from calculations to require monitoring as indicated in the
Coating Technical File (CTF) from new building stage or from the service history of the subject ship or
from similar or sister ships (if available) to be sensitive to cracking, buckling or corrosion which would
impair the structural integrity of the ship. Each critical structural area is rated GOOD, FAIR or
POOR, applying the table above and the rati ng of each area under consideration should then
not be hi gher than the rati ng of its critical structural area (if present) havi ng the lowest rating.
The area under consideration with the worst coating condition should determine the frequency
of surveys. Hence, it is not intended to average the coating condition for all areas under
consideration within a tank, to determine an average coating condition for the entire tank.
8.3.2 Ballast tanks in oil tankers
Definitions of areas under consideration for ballast tanks in oil tankers are as follows (also illustrated
for a wing ballast tank, a fore peak ballast and aft peak tank in Figures 1, 2 and 3 below, respectively).
Single-hull tanker wing ballast tanks
- Deck and bottom
Areas of deck and bottom plating with attached structure (one area to consider for deck and one
area to consider for bottom).
- Side shell and longitudinal bulkheads
Areas of side shell and longitudinal bulkheads with attached structure, in lower, middle and upper
third (three areas to consider for side shell and three areas to consider for longitudinal bulkhead).
- Transverse bulkheads (forward and aft)
Areas of transverse bulkhead and attached stiffeners, in lower, middle and upper third (three areas
to consider for forward transverse bulkhead and three areas to consider for aft transverse bulkhead).
Double-hull tanker Double bottom ballast tanks
Areas of tank boundaries and attached structure, in lower and upper half of tank (two areas to
consider).
Double-hull tanker Double bottom side tanks
- Deck and bottom
Areas of deck and bottom plating with attached structure (one area to consider for deck and one
area to consider for bottom).
- Side shell and longitudinal bulkheads
Thickness Measurement And Close-Up Survey Guidance
Areas Under Consideration Part 8, Chapter 3

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Areas of side shell and longitudinal bulkheads with attached structure, in lower, middle and upper
third (three areas to consider for side shell and three areas to consider for longitudinal bulkhead).
- Transverse bulkheads (forward and aft)
Areas of transverse bulkhead and attached stiffeners, in lower, middle and upper third (three
areas to consider for forward transverse bulkhead and three areas to consider for aft transverse
bulkhead).

Figure 1 Areas under consideration indicated for a wing ballast tank, from
one side, i.e. deck, side shell, longitudinal bulkhead and transverse bulkheads
Single-hull and Double-hull tanker Fore peak tanks
Areas of tank boundaries and attached structure, in upper, middle and lower third of tank (three
areas to consider).

Figure 2 Areas under consideration indicated for a fore peak ballast tank

Thickness Measurement And Close-Up Survey Guidance
Areas Under Consideration Part 8, Chapter 3

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Single-hull and Double-hull tanker After peak tanks
Areas of tank boundaries and attached structure, in lower and upper half of tank
(two areas to consider).

Figure 3 Areas under consideration indicated for an aft peak tank
8.3.3 Ballast tanks in ships other than oil tankers
Definitions of areas under consideration for ballast tanks and double-side skin spaces in ships
other than oil tankers, which are based on representative tank configuration, are as follows (also
illustrated for topside tanks, hopper tanks, double bottom tanks, side tanks, fore peak tanks and
after peak tanks in Figures 4 to 9 below, respectively):
Topside tanks
- Deck, vertical strake and bottom
Areas of deck, vertical strake and bottom plating with attached structure (one area to consider for
deck and vertical strake with attached structure and one area to consider for bottom).
- Side shell
Side shell with attached structure, in lower and upper or in lower, middle and upper depending on
the vertical height (two areas to consider for side shell, but if the vertical height is more than 15
m, three areas to consider).
- Transverse bulkheads (forward and aft)
Areas of transverse bulkhead and attached stiffeners, in lower and upper or in lower, middle and
upper depending on the vertical height (two areas to consider for forward transverse bulkhead
and aft transverse bulkhead, but if the vertical height is more than 15 m, three areas to consider).

Figure 4 Areas under consideration indicated for a topside tank
Thickness Measurement And Close-Up Survey Guidance
Areas Under Consideration Part 8, Chapter 3

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Hopper tanks
- Hopper, side girder and bottom
Areas of hopper, side girder and bottom plating with attached structure (one area to consider for
bottom and side girder with attached structure and one area to consider for hopper).
- Side shell
Side shell, including bilge plating, with attached structure, in lower and upper or in lower, middle
and upper depending on the vertical height (two areas to consider for side shell, but if the vertical
height is more than 15 m, three areas to consider).
- Transverse bulkheads (forward and aft)
Areas of transverse bulkhead and attached stiffeners, in lower and upper or in lower, middle and
upper depending on the vertical height (two areas to consider for forward transverse bulkhead
and aft transverse bulkhead, but if the vertical height is more than 15 m, three areas to consider).

Figure 5 "Areas under consideration" indicated for a hopper tank
Double bottom tanks
Areas of tank boundaries and attached structure, in lower and upper half of tank (two areas to
consider).

Figure 6 "Areas under consideration" indicated for a double bottom tank
Thickness Measurement And Close-Up Survey Guidance
Areas Under Consideration Part 8, Chapter 3

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Side tanks
- Deck and bottom
Areas of deck and bottom plating with attached structure (one area to consider for deck and one
area to consider for bottom).
- Side shell and longitudinal bulkheads
Side shell and longitudinal bulkheads with attached structure, in lower and upper or in lower,
middle and upper depending on the vertical height (two areas to consider for side shell, but if the
vertical height is more than 15 m, three areas to consider).
- Transverse bulkheads (forward and aft)
Areas of transverse bulkhead and attached stiffeners, in lower and upper or in lower, middle and
upper depending on the vertical height (two areas to consider for forward transverse bulkhead
and aft transverse bulkhead, but if the vertical height is more than 15 m, three areas to consider).

Figure 7 "Areas under consideration" indicated for a side tank
Fore peak tanks
Areas of tank boundaries and attached structure in upper and lower or upper, middle and lower
depending on the vertical height (two areas to consider for fore peak tanks, but if the vertical
height is more than 15 m, three areas to consider).

Figure 8 Areas under consideration indicated for a fore peak ballast tank
Thickness Measurement And Close-Up Survey Guidance
Areas Under Consideration Part 8, Chapter 3

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After peak tanks
Areas of tank boundaries and attached structure in upper and lower (two areas to consider).

Figure 9 Areas under consideration indicated for an aft peak tank

Notes:
1. Each area includes plating and attached structural members.
2. A tank configuration which is a combination of two or more tank configurations may be dealt
with separately in accordance with its unit shape or tank configuration, e.g., a combined hopper
and double bottom tank or a combined topside, side and double bottom tank.
3. For fore peak tank or after peak tank, which consists of a ballast tank and a void space, they
should be separately considered. Void spaces are not considered under these guidelines.
If the vertical height of a ballast tank other than a double bottom tank, fore peak tank or after
peak tank is more than 15 m, it should be divided into three areas under consideration as shown
in the table below.
Maximum vertical height (h) of tank Areas under consideration (vertical)
h 15 m Two areas (lower/upper)
h > 15 m Three areas (lower/middle/upper)
When deciding the boundary between lower/(middle)/upper parts for areas under consideration of
the vertical surface, other than dividing the vertical surface equally by the number of areas
decided according to the table above, the conspicuous structural member(s) such as stringers
and/or horizontal girders on bulkheads or side shell may be the boundary.
Thickness Measurement And Close-Up Survey Guidance
In-Service Ballast Tank Condition Monitoring Part 8, Chapter 4

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8.4 In-Service Ballast Tank Condition Monitoring
It is recommended that all ballast tanks, especially for ships over six years of age, are inspected at
least annually by the crew.
Standardized reports should be used with the following information, where applicable:
1. ships name;
2. tank number/designation;
3. inspection date;
4. inspection by whom;
5. year coated;
6. coating name/type;
7. last repaired;
8. surface area;
9. coating condition (GOOD, FAIR or POOR);
10. Pitting corrosion Yes/No;
11. amount of rust scale (in m2 or % of areas under consideration);
12. access arrangement condition;
13. sounding pipe condition;
14. vent pipe condition;
15. ballast pipes condition;
16. structural damage, mechanical damage, location and extent; and
17. other comments.
The coating condition rating is used to give an objective report of the condition so that the
urgency of the repairs can be established and the most cost effective solution found. The suitable
rating system for this purpose is GOOD/FAIR/POOR as specified in Section 8.2.








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