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BIO152 Lab 3 Cell cycle, mitosis and meiosis vocabulary

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Term Definition
Allele Any of the alternate versions of a gene that may produce
distinguishable phenotypic effects
Anaphase The third stage of mitosis, beginning when the centromeres of
duplicated chromosomes divide and sister chromatids separate
from each other, and ending when a complete set of daughter
chromosomes are located at each of the two poles of the cell
Asexual
reproduction
The creation of offspring by a single parent, without the
participation of sperm and egg
Aster A radial array of short microtubules that extends from each
centrosome toward the plasma membrane in an animal cell
undergoing mitosis
Autosomes A chromosome not directly involved in determining the sex of an
organism
Benign tumour A mass of abnormal cells with specific genetic and cellular
changes such that the cells are not capable of surviving at a new
site and generally remain at the site of the tumours origin
Binary fission A means of asexual reproduction in which a parent divides any
two individuals of about equal size
Cancer Cells Cells that grow and divide at an unregulated, quickened pace
Cell cycle An orderly sequence of events (including interphase and the
mitotic phase) from the time a eukaryotic cell divides to form two
daughter cells to the time those daughter cells divide again
Cell Cycle Control
System
A cyclically operating set of molecules in the eukaryotic cell that
both triggers and coordinates key events in the cell cycle
Cell division The reproduction of cells
Cell Plate A membrane-bounded, flattened sac located at the midline of a
dividing plant cell, inside which the new cell wall forms during
cytokinesis
BIO152 Lab 3 Cell cycle, mitosis and meiosis vocabulary

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Centrioles A structure in the centrosome of an animal cell composed of a
cylinder of microtubule triplets arranged in a 9 + 0 pattern. A
centrosome has two centrioles.
Centromere The region of a chromosome where two sister chromatids are
joined and where spindle microtubules attach to the
chromosome during mitosis and meiosis. The centromere
divides at the onset of anaphase during mitosis and anaphase II
of meiosis
Centrosome A structure present in the cytoplasm of animal cells that
functions as a microtubule organizing centre and is important
during cell division. A centrosome has two centrioles.
Checkpoint A control point in the cell cycle where stop and go-ahead signals
can regulate the cycle
Chiasma The X-shaped microscopically visible region where crossing
over has occurred earlier in Prophase I between homologous
nonsister chromatids. Chiasmata become visible after synapsis
ends, with the two homologues remaining associated due to
sister chromatid cohesion
Chromatin Diffuse, very long, coiled fibers of DNA with proteins attached,
the form taken by the chromosomes when a eukaryotic cell is
not dividing
Chromosomes A threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus of all
eukaryotic cells and most visible during mitosis and meiosis.
Chromosomes consist of DNA and protein
Cleavage furrow The first sign of cytokinesis during cell division in an animal cell;
a shallow groove in the cell surface near the old metaphase
plate
Crossing over The reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister
chromatids during Prophase I of meiosis
BIO152 Lab 3 Cell cycle, mitosis and meiosis vocabulary

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Cytokinesis The division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter
cells. Cytokinesis usually occurs together with telophase of
mitosis, and the two processes make up the mitotic (M) phase of
the cell cycle
Diploid cells In an organism that reproduces sexually, a cell containing two
homologous sets of chromosomes, one set inherited from each
parent
Fertilization The union of haploid gametes to form a diploid zygote
G0 Phase A nondividing state occupied by cells that have left the cell cycle,
sometimes reversibly.
G1 Checkpoint Checkpoint in the cell cycle where if a cell is given the go-
ahead signal it then usually completes G1, S, G2, and M phases
and divides. If it does not receive the go-ahead signal it will exit
the cycle and switch into a nondividing state called G0 Phase.
G1 Phase The first gap, or growth phase, of the cell cycle, consisting of the
portion of interphase before DNA synthesis begins
G2 Phase The second gap, or growth phase, of the cell cycle, consisting of
interphase after DNA synthesis occurs
Gametes A sex cell; a haploid egg or sperm
Genetic
Recombination
General term for the production of offspring with combinations of
traits that differ from those found in either parent by crossing
over of chromosomes
Genetic variation Differences among individuals in the composition of their genes
or other DNA segments
Genome A complete (haploid) set of an organism's genes; an organism's
genetic material
Growth factor A protein released by certain cells that stimulates other cells to
divide
Haploid cell In the life cycle of an organism that reproduces sexually. a cell
containing a single set of chromosomes
BIO152 Lab 3 Cell cycle, mitosis and meiosis vocabulary

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Heredity The transmission of traits from one generation to the next
Histone A small protein with a high proportion of positively charged
amino acids that binds to the negatively charged DNA and plays
a key role in chromatin structure
Homologous
chromosomes
The two chromosomes that make up a matched pair in a diploid
cell. Homologous chromosomes are of the same length,
centromere position, and staining pattern and possess genes or
the same characteristics at corresponding loci. One homologous
chromosome is inherited from the organisms father, the other
from the mother
Independent
Assortment
Mendel's law that states that allele pairs separate independently
during the formation of gametes. Therefore, traits are
transmitted to offspring independently of one another.
Interphase The period in the eukaryotic cell cycle when the cell is not
actually dividing
karyotype A display of the chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size
and shape
Kinetochore A structure of proteins attached to the centromere that links
each sister chromatid to the mitotic spindle
Life cycle The entire sequence of stages in the life of an organism, from
the adults of one generation to the adults of the next
Locus The particular site where a gene is found on a chromosome.
Homologous chromosomes have corresponding loci
M Phase Portion of the cell cycle that includes both mitosis and
cytokinesis
M Phase
Checkpoint
Where the separation of sister chromatids does not begin until
all the chromosomes are properly attached to the spindle at the
metaphase plate.
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Malignant tumour A cancerous tumour containing cells that have significant
genetic and cellular changes and are capable of invading and
surviving in new sites
Meiosis In a sexually reproducing organism, the division of a single
diploid nucleus into four haploid daughter nuclei. Meiosis and
cytokinesis produce haploid gametes from diploid cells in the
reproductive organs of the parents
Metaphase The second phase of mitosis. During metaphase, all the cell's
duplicated chromosomes are lined up at an imaginary plane
equidistant between the poles of the mitotic spindle
Microtubule
organizing center
(MTOC)
A specialized place in the cell where microtubules of the mitotic
spindle begin to form
Mitosis The division of a single nucleus into two genetically identical
daughter nuclei. Mitosis and cytokinesis make up the mitotic (M)
phase of the cell cycle
Mitotic spindle A spindle-shaped structure formed of microtubules and
associated proteins that is involved in the movements of
chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis
Nondisjunction An error in mitosis or meiosis in which members of a pair of
homologous chromosomes or a pair of sister chromatids fail to
separate properly from each other
Nucleolus Structure in the nucleus consisting of chromosomal regions
containing rRNA genes along with ribosomal proteins imported
from the cytoplasm; site of rRNA synthesis and ribosomal
subunit assembly
Nucleus The organelle of a eukaryotic cell that contains the genetic
material in the form of chromosomes made of chromatin
Oncogene A gene found in viral or cellular genomes that is involved in
triggering molecular events that can lead to cancer
BIO152 Lab 3 Cell cycle, mitosis and meiosis vocabulary

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p53 Specific transcription factor that promotes the synthesis of cell
cycle-inhibiting proteins
Prophase The first stage of mitosis, during which duplicated chromosomes
condense from chromatin, and the mitotic spindle forms and
begins moving the chromosomes toward the center of the cell
Proto-oncogene A normal cellular gene that has the potential to become an
oncogene
Recombinant
Chromosome
A chromosome created when crossing over combines DNA from
two parents into a single chromosome
S Phase The synthesis phase of the cell cycle; the portion of interphase
during which DNA is replicated
Sex chromosomes A chromosome that determines whether an individual is male or
female
Sexual
reproduction
The creation of offspring by the fusion of two haploid sex cells
(gametes) forming a diploid zygote
Sister chromatids One of the two identical parts of a duplicated chromosome in a
eukaryotic cell. Consisting of copies of a long, coiled DNA
molecule with associated proteins, sister chromatids are jointed
at the centromere of the chromosome.
Somatic cells Any cell in a multicellular organism except a sperm or egg cell or
a cell that develops into a sperm or egg
Telophase The fourth and final stage of mitosis, during which daughter
nuclei form at the two poles of a cell. Telophase usually occurs
together with cytokinesis
Tetrad A four-part structure that forms during prophase of meiosis and
consists of two homologous chromosomes, each composed of
two sister chromatids
Zygote The diploid cell produced by the union of haploid gametes during
fertilization; a fertilized egg