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**Bernoulli Equation and Flow Meters
**

Purpose

The objective of this experiment is to experimentally verify the Bernoulli Equation and to show how pressure measurements can be used to measure ﬂow rates in pipes.

Apparatus

This laboratory exercise involves two separate pieces of equipment. One setup is used to verify the Bernoulli equation and the other is used to measure ﬂow rate of water with two diﬀerent types of obstruction meters. Figure 6.1 depicts the apparatus used to verify the Bernoulli equation. It consists of a blower connected to a duct with a Venturi. At the exit of the duct is a support for a Pitot probe. The support allows the probe to be positioned at diﬀerent axial locations in the duct. The Pitot tube (see Munson et al., §3.5) is a device that enables simultaneous measurement of the total and static pressure of a moving ﬂuid. For the Pitot probe used in the this experiment the distance between the total and static pressure ports is 11/16 inch. This dimension will be important while making pressure measurements in regions of the duct with varying cross- sectional area. On the opposite end of the Pitot probe from the measuring tip are taps that allow the static and total pressure lines to be connected to a pressure measuring device. Not shown in Figure 6.1 are three Utube manometers that are used to measure the static pressure, dynamic pressure and total pressure from the Pitot probe. Figure 6.2 is a schematic of the apparatus used to demonstrate obstruction-type ﬂow meters. The apparatus is a ﬂow loop with a Venturi meter, a sharp-edged oriﬁce, a paddle- type ﬂow meter, a pump, and a collection tank. The pressure taps around the ﬂow loop have quick-disconnect connectors. By switching taps it is possible to measure pressure diﬀerentials at diﬀerent points around the loop with a single U-tube manometer.

26

Bernoulli Equation and Flow Meters

blower Venturi Pitot probe flow straightener

Figure 6.1: Apparatus for verifying the Bernoulli Equation.

pressure taps

Venturi meter

sharp-edged orifice meter

paddle wheel flow meter

collection tank

flow control valve

pump

Figure 6.2: Flow loop for testing obstruction-type ﬂow meters.

27

Theory

Bernoulli Equation

The Bernoulli equation applies to steady, incompressible ﬂow along a streamline with no heat or work interaction. One form of the Bernoulli equation is p1 1 1 p2 p0 = + ρV12 + gz1 = + ρV22 + gz2 ρ ρ 2 ρ 2 where p is the pressure, ρ is the density, V is the ﬂuid velocity, g is the acceleration of gravity, and z is the elevation measured from an arbitrary datum. The subscripts 1 and 2 denote two positions along the streamline. The total or stagnation pressure, p0 , is a measure of total energy of the ﬂowing stream. When the Bernoulli equation applies the stagnation pressure is constant along a streamline. Figure 6.3 is a sketch of the ﬂow ﬁeld near the tip of the Pitot probe. The streamline that terminates at point A is called the stagnation streamline because as the ﬂuid approaches A it decelerates until it has zero velocity. The ﬂuid velocity is V on the stagnation streamline far upstream of A. If we assume that the deceleration is reversible, the pressure tap at point A measures the total pressure in the vicinity of the tip. Note that there is no ﬂow through the Pitot tube. The Pitot probe is a small aerodynamic body that does not signiﬁcantly disturb the ﬂow ﬁeld except for the stagnation streamline. Although the streamlines curve as the ﬂuid passes around the tip there is negligible change in velocity for ﬂuid that follow streamlines near the probe. Along the streamline through point C, for example, the ﬂuid velocity is assumed to be constant. In addition, over distances on the order of the Pitot tube diameter, elevation changes are negligible. All the streamlines in Figure 6.3, therefore, have the same stagnation pressure p0,A = p0,C There is a diﬀerent relationship between points B and C. Since there is no velocity in the direction between B and C the static pressure is the same at these points, pB = pC In other words the pressure tap at point B measures the static pressure in the vicinity of the probe tip. Combining the foregoing equations and assumptions, the pressure diﬀerence between point A and point C is the dynamic pressure pA − pB = 1 2 ρV 2

**Obstruction Flow Meters
**

Obstruction type ﬂow meters work on the principle that changes ﬂow area result in changes in ﬂuid velocity as required by continuity, and the changes in velocity result in changes in ﬂuid pressure. The theory of ﬂow meters is discussed in § 3.6.3 and § 8.6 of Munson et al. The volumetric ﬂow rate through an obstruction type ﬂow meter is Q = CA ∆p ρ(1 − β 4

where β = d/D, d is the diameter of the oriﬁce (or throat of the Venturi), and D is the diameter of the pipe.

28

C B A

Bernoulli Equation and Flow Meters

Uniform flow at velocity V

static pressure taps

stagnation point

Figure 6.3: Flow ﬁeld near the tip of a Pitot probe.

Procedure

Veriﬁcation of the Bernoulli Equation

By sliding the Pitot tube through its support, traverse the ﬂow channel along the axis and record the static, dynamic (velocity) and total pressures indicated by the U-tube manometers. In sections of the duct where the ﬂow area is changing the Pitot tube must be moved 11/16 inch between the total and static pressure measurements to insure the pressure readings are made at locations with the same cross-sectional area.

**Obstruction Flow Meter Experiment
**

1. Turn on the pump and choose a ﬂow rate. 2. Move the pressure lines connected to the U-tube manometer to the taps on either side of one of the ﬂow meter (oriﬁce or Venturi). 3. Record the pressure drop across the ﬂow meter (oriﬁce or Venturi). 4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 for a total of six diﬀerent ﬂow rates. 5. Repeat steps 2 through 4 for the other ﬂow meter

Report

Veriﬁcation of the Bernoulli Equation

1. Plot the total pressure along the duct. 2. Plot the variation of the centerline velocity along the duct. 3. Calculate the ﬂow rate through the duct. 4. When using a Pitot tube in a duct of constant cross-sectional area the total and static pressure are measured at two streamwise locations. What assumption is being made when the distance between these locations is neglected?

29

**Obstruction Flow Meter Experiment
**

1. Calculate the discharge coeﬃcient, C, for each ﬂow meter at each ﬂow rate. 2. Calculate the Reynolds number for each ﬂow rate. 3. Make a plot of C versus Re on semi-log paper for the oriﬁce and the Venturi. Discuss any discrepancies with your results and the curves in Munson et al.

Reference

B.R. Munson, D.F. Young, and T.H. Okiishi, Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, 3rd ed., 1998, Wiley and Sons, New York.

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