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HE RANGA

HAPORI
A model for raising Mori
community wellbeing
1
The Mori Economic Taskforce thanks Te Rp Pakihi for their work in preparing this report.
The authors would like to thank the individuals and organisations that generously gave their time
to this project.
In particular, our appreciation goes to the Emeritus Professor Whatarangi Winiata and Dr
Anthony Cole of Te Wnanga o Raukawa for their contributions to the He Oranga Hapori project.
Further we acknowledge the efforts of the project team who participated in surveying, analysis
and report preparation: Linda Pene, Dylan Constantine, Samantha Morrell, Natalie Pene, and
Darren Luke.
Our gratitude goes to the Te Papaioea and Te Aho communities that gave so willingly and openly
to the study. We also thank Shane Royal who as the Te Aho coordinator provided a good deal of
the background material for the case study.
Finally the team wishes to acknowledge the support of the Mori Economic Taskforce chaired by
the Minister of Mori Affairs, Hon Dr Pita Sharples.
The sponsor of this project, Te Rp Pakihi, has made every effort to ensure that the information
in this report is reliable but makes no guarantee of its accuracy or completeness and does not
accept any liability for any errors. The research undertaken reflects circumstances as understood
by the authors in November 2010.
The information and the opinions contained in this report are not intended to be used as a
basis for commercial decisions and the Taskforce accepts no liability for any decisions made as
a consequence of them. The authors may change, add to, delete from, or otherwise amend the
content of this report at any time without notice.
The material contained in this report is subject to copyright protection unless otherwise
indicated. The copyright material may be reproduced free of charge in any format or media
without requiring specific permission. Where the material is published or issued to others,
the source and copyright status should be acknowledged. Permission to reproduce copyright
protected material does not extend to any material in this report that is identified as being the
copyright of a third party. Authorisation to reproduce such material should be obtained from the
copyright holders.
2
Acknowledgements
Contents
Executive Summary
Introduction
Whereas Mori are determined to survive as a people;
The cultural threshold
Competing Worldviews
Dual Economies
Quantitative Economics - Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
Qualitative Economics - Genuine Progress Index (GPI)
Mori Economics
Whereas survival as a people will be happening when communities of Mori find the
expression of kaupapa uplifting, rewarding and preferred;
Kaupapa and tikanga framework
Golden Age of Entrepreneurship
Exchanges of kaupapa
Whereas it is possible to actively pursue the expression of kaupapa through tikanga
selected by the community;
Trading Tikanga
Statements of Wellbeing
Types of Indicators
Measuring expressions of kaupapa tuku iho
Method explained
Results
What the use of this tool should tell us
A contribution to whakatupu mtauranga
Whereas the pursuit of tikanga can be planned and results measured;
Case Study 1 : Mori Community Wellbeing in Kapiti and Horowhenua
Te Aho, a Mori model for regional development
Our People, Our Future Summit September 2009
Analysis of contributions
Case Study 2 : Te Papaioea describes Mori Community Wellbeing
Key themes
36 He Oranga Hapori - a model for raising Mori community wellbeing
3
References & Appendices
References
Appendix 1: Background information and data
Appendix 2: Statements of Mori wellbeing
Appendix 3: Worksheet for the growth and growth quality score calculation
Appendix 4: Worksheet for the relationship and relationship quality score calculation
Appendix 5: Table 7 : Statements of Mori Wellbeing and associated kaupapa tuku iho
Appendix 6(a): Te Aho Quarterly Report
Appendix 6(b): Statements of Mori Wellbeing and associated kaupapa tuku iho
Appendix 7: Te Aho community and arrangements
Appendix 8: Potential for Manawatu groups to raise Mori community wellbeing
Appendix 9: Potential means to monitor and measure displays of tikanga
Appendix 10: Worksheet for the Te Papaioea Study
Appendix 11: QuickStats About Manawatu District
Appendix 12: QuickStats About Palmerston North City
Appendix 13: QuickStats About Horowhenua District
Appendix 14: QuickStats About Kapiti Coast District
Appendix 15: QuickStats About Porirua City
He Oranga Hapori: Glossary
4
This Mori Community Wellbeing study was developed and implemented by the Small-Medium
Enterprise (SME) Workstream of the Mori Economic Taskforce. It was prompted by the need
to understand how local communities can develop local solutions to address the impacts of the
2009 global recession.
Historically, recessions have had a disproportionately negative impact on Mori compared
to non-Mori largely because of where Mori have been concentrated in the labour market
and industry sectors. In recent years Mori have made significant gains in terms of skills
and education. Significant numbers of Mori are in sectors particularly vulnerable to current
international economic developments, including the construction and manufacturing industries.
Reviews of global reactions including the 2008 I&DEA publication on regional leadership
through the recession identified innovative and creative responses by local authorities and
their communities
1 2
; and prompted the question how can Mori communities ensure their
wellbeing? This naturally led to the question, what is Mori community wellbeing?
He Oranga Hapori is a term used at Te Wnanga o Raukawa
3
to describe Community Wellbeing
or Mori Economics and is defined as the management of the resources, systems, rules
and behaviours in a Mori society that contribute to the wellbeing of the people and the
environment using a wholistic
4
approach.
The aim of He Oranga Hapori is to progress thinking related to the wellbeing of Mori
communities with emphasis on the indicators that should be used to assess that wellbeing.
For the purposes of this study Mori wellbeing is described as a Mori state of being that is
characterised by the abundant expression of kaupapa tuku iho.
The project captures the experiences of two Mori communities. First, the Kapiti and
Horowhenua community that prescribes a definition of its own Mori community wellbeing; in
addition to planning and implementing initiatives that can make measurable contributions to
their wellbeing. The second is the experience of Te Papaioea which described Mori community
wellbeing through the expression of kaupapa. At the time, arrangements were not in place to
develop strategies and activities to advance this work.
This report sets out a method for measuring Mori community wellbeing using growth
indicators; relationship indicators; and descriptive indicators. The determination of Mori to
survive as a people through the expression of kaupapa underpins the design of the He Oranga
Hapori model. This makes the model meaningful for Mori communities and has obvious
implications for policymakers.
1 Improvement & Development Agency, No
council of despair: positive local leadership
in a recession (2009).
2 Public & Corporate Economic Consultants,
From Recession to Recovery (2008).
3 A Mori centre of higher learning based at
taki delivering 14 undergraduate and 8
postgraduate courses.
4 a wholistic approach where the sum is
more than the total of the parts.
5
Whereas Mori are determined to survive as a people;
Whereas survival as a people will be happening when communities
of Mori find the expression of kaupapa tuku iho uplifting,
rewarding and preferred;
Whereas it is possible to actively pursue the expression of kaupapa
tuku iho through tikanga selected by the community; and
Whereas the pursuit of tikanga can be planned and results measured;
THEN,
the wellness of Mori communities can be measured by identifying
the preferred tikanga of the community and measuring the levels
at which these tikanga are displayed.
This statement was developed by members of the He Oranga Hapori study group following a
series of focus group sessions to discuss how he kkano i ruia mai i Rangitea can contribute to
their survival as a people; and how he kkano will know that this is happening.
He Oranga Hapori is a term used at Te Wnanga o Raukawa
5
to describe Community Wellbeing
or Mori Economics and is defined as the management of the resources, systems, rules
and behaviours in a Mori society that contribute to the wellbeing of the people and the
environment using a wholistic
6
approach.
In this study Mori wellbeing is defined as a Mori state of being that is characterised by the
abundant expression of kaupapa. This state is described in the following narrative, developed by
the Kapiti and Horowhenua community during their pilot.
Once upon a time, in the not too distant future you will drive over the Pukerua Bay hill and see
across to Kapiti Island; shimmering like a jewel in the sea. As you look directly below you on the
left in the harbour, youll see a Ngti Toarangatira whnau gathering shellfish at the beach.
Up to her ankles in the water and with her youngest mokopuna holding the kete, a kuia prises
paua from the rock with her knife and monitors her nephews catch as he fishes koura from
the rock pools. She hears her daughters singing behind her as they gather harakeke and pngao
from the hillside, and she smiles satisfied that they will weave knae to hold their dinner
tonight. The smoke from the fire wafts past her as her son feeds the flames and places parcels
of kai within the embers to cook; just as his father had done for years. She wonders where
her tane is and spies him on the top of the hill with three of his eldest grandsons. From their
silhouettes she can see him pointing to the island, to the hill tops, to the rivers and she knows
he is teaching them whakapapa, describing the history of this whenua and the role their tpuna
have played in developing this land. Shes secure in the knowledge that the natural resources
are healthy, that her whnau are knowledgeable, self sufficient and that thanks to Mori having
tino rangatiratanga over taonga tuku iho, all is well in her natural world.
Lets leave this Ngti Toarangatira whnau and head north... to where the people of Te Ati Awa
5 A Mori centre of higher learning based at
taki delivering 14 undergraduate and 8
postgraduate and programmes.
6 A wholistic approach where the sum is
more than the total of the parts.
6
ki Whakarongotai are gathering at the marae. The Kaunihera Kaumtua has called a wnanga
whakapapa for the iwi. They sit at the front of the house proud of their sons and daughters
that are confidently completing the protocols of powhiri. The smells from the kitchen are
enticing the people as the final waiata are sung by the crowd that has gathered. Despite the
rain and cold wind, the wharenui is warm and dry. Following the karakia, the marae committee
congratulates the tamariki who won the local te reo competition and are off to the regionals
next week escorted by their kura kaupapa. The iwi have been fundraising and are able to
provide transport for the three local kura to go. Through the days activities of mteatea, mau
rkau, carving, weaving, preparation of rongoa and kai; whakapapa is taught, whanaungatanga
is encouraged, the kaumtua are engaged in decision making and learning. In these ways the
marae expresses kaupapa abundantly. We travel to the north again and we cross the mighty
taki River! Where the tuna swim from bank to bank feeding and to the place where Te
Wnanga o Raukawa helps us to see the world through Mori eyes.
Travelling through town we know that many of the buildings are owned by Raukawa and that
the shopkeepers are Mori - we know this because the signage is in te reo, and people greet us
with kia ora. Groups of rangatahi are on the street, and are campaigning for their whanaunga
who is standing for election as a Mori Party candidate. Arriving at the Wnanga, we see the
wharekai is full of students flowing out onto the courtyard for their dinner. The local Mori
business network is hosting the International Business Networks in the conference centre;
the conference is exploring how the inherited values of indigenous peoples can be a bridge
between the Pkeh cultures of the two or more countries. Whakatupu mtauranga is active
and returning benefits to the people, Mori are hosting events of international significance,
pkengatanga is growing and Mori are expressing their tino rangatiratanga.
In the great Horowhenua, the local Mayor is holding his Council meeting at Kawiu Marae. His
Muapoko whnau attend in support, and thanks to his skilful oratory the resolutions are
passed unchallenged. They are keen to finish early to attend the national Mori business awards
being held tonight in town. Mori are involved and influencing community directions and
celebrating Te Ao Mori events, relationships between Mori and others are strong.
Under the windmill in Foxton, above the whispering harakeke you can hear the Chairman of
the Foxton River group recite his whakapapa to Ngti Kahungunu. He is hosting the local
tautangata Mori association and is happy that he and thousands of Mori from other iwi
are supporting the tangatawhenua, and being supported as they seek to make their own
contributions to this wonderful place they now call another home.
Te kkano i ruia mai i Rangitea, also known as the Mori people of Aotearoa New Zealand,
have flirted with physical extinction. Their adventures around Polynesia required them to adapt
to different environmental conditions for their survival. Their arrival on the islands of Aotearoa
and the shaping of their world view to explain and understand their discoveries here proved
successful. Their observations of these as explanations of their new homeland were conducive
with good health, population growth and refinement of the mtauranga continuum with which
they arrived on these shores.
Following the arrivals of James Cook and the large numbers who were attracted to these islands
7 In the event of cultural decline, the
threshold is the point beyond which there
is no return.
7
following his visits, the survival of Mori as a people became less certain. Their physical survival
was threatened following the signing of Te Tiriti o Waitangi in 1840. By the mid 1890s, the Mori
population had fallen to 42,000 from the estimated 90,000 in 1840. Disappearance was predicted;
the designers of public health policy preached the smoothing of the pillow of a dying race.
Exactly the reverse occurred. The population of Te kkano i ruia mai i Rangitea multiplied 15
times to 600,000 as we entered the 21st century. Physical survival is now assured. Survival as a
people is not.
Mori will be surviving when a large and growing number of Te kkano i ruia mai i Rangitea are
living according to kaupapa tuku iho (inherited values) and tikanga (ways of expressing these
values) that distinguish Mori in the global cultural mosaic.
In 1835, 60 years after Cook they declared to the world their independence; five years later they
built on this with Te Tiriti o Waitangi. In 1858 the Kingitanga was established and in 1868 Mori
took up representation in Parliament. Since then there has been a re-emergence of Mori socio-
political bodies, Mori religious bodies, Mori educational institutions, Mori sports bodies across
many codes, Mori regional and national cultural festivals, Mori broadcasting organisations and
so on. These examples of Mori responses to the approaching cultural threshold are affirmations
that Mori are determined to maximise their chances of survival and enrich their distinctive
worldviews.
It is important to understand there are two streams of knowledge that influence our current
thinking and behaviours in Aotearoa - western science epistemology and the Mtauranga Mori
continuum. In the former, there is no place for the kaupapa and tikanga framework to explain
Mori behaviour.
Fundamental aspects of western science epistemology derive from the work of Galileo articulated
in the 16th century.
European scholars used mathematics to describe and explain the workings of the physical
world. They insisted on the physical truth of their mathematically derived explanations, and they
searched for physical causes to account for the mathematics.
Galileo Galilei
8
was a chief architect of this thinking. An Italian physicist, mathematician,
astronomer, and philosopher he played a major role in the Scientific Revolution
9
. Galileo made
original contributions to the science of motion through an innovative combination of experiment
and mathematics. Albert Einstein referred to him as the Father of modern science.
10

Galileo was perhaps the first to clearly state that the laws of nature were mathematical. More
typical of science at the time were qualitative studies
11
. His mathematical analyses are a further
development of a tradition employed by late scholastic natural philosophers.
Though he tried to remain loyal to the Catholic Church, his adherence to experimental results
and their most honest interpretation led to a rejection of blind allegiance to authority, both
philosophical and religious, in matters of science. This aided the separation of science from both
philosophy and religion; a major change in human thought patterns. Concurrently, on the other
side of the globe, tpuna Mori were shaping their own worldviews in which kaupapa tuku iho
would fill distinctive roles.
8 15 February 1564 8 January 1642.
9 5th - 16th century.
10 Einstein (1954, p.271). Propositions
arrived at by purely logical means are
completely empty as regards reality.
Because Galileo realised this, and
particularly because he drummed it into
the scientific world, he is the father
of modern physicsindeed, of modern
science altogether.
11 Qualitative researchers aim to gather
an in-depth understanding of human
behaviour and the reasons that govern
such behaviour. The qualitative method
investigates the why and how of decision
making, not just what, where, when.
Hence, smaller but focused samples are
more often needed, rather than large
samples.
8
By the standards of his time, Galileo was often willing to change his views in accordance with
observation. In order to perform his experiments, Galileo had to set up standards of length
and time, so that measurements made on different days and in different laboratories, could be
compared in a fashion that could be repeatedly duplicated. This provided a reliable foundation
on which to confirm mathematical laws using inductive reasoning.
In the course of their isolation over a period of nearly 1350 years Mori
12
emerged with their
own view of the world. In the absence of any contact with peoples of different cultures, Mori
developed distinctive understandings of the world they occupied. Tpuna Mori used their
intellectual knowledge to name and categorise hundreds of plants and species of insects, birds
and animals in Aotearoa New Zealand.
Our understanding of Mori society sits within the mtauranga continuum that has evolved over
the centuries and is encapsulated in the comprehensive definition of the world view offered by
the late Reverend Mori Marsden.
Priest and philosopher, Rev Marsden left for our contemplation the following statement on
worldview:
Cultures pattern perceptions of reality into conceptualisations of what they perceive
reality to be; of what is to be regarded as actual, probable, possible or impossible. These
conceptualisations formed what is termed the world view of a culture. The World (sic) view
is the central systemisation of conceptions of reality to which members of its culture assent
and from which stems their value system. The world view lies at the very heart of the culture,
touching, interacting with and strongly influencing every aspect of the culture.
13

He complemented this with the following:
(T)he Mori does not and never has accepted the mechanistic view of the universe which
regards it as a closed system into which nothing can impinge from without.
14
This comment appears to be addressing the approach of Galileo to the exclusion of cultural
variables; suggesting that rather than falling captive to the logic of exclusion where there is no
place for kaupapa tuku iho, Mori call upon the logic of inclusion.
A consequence of Mori refusal to accept the mechanistic view of the universe as described by
Rev Marsden is that this logic places Mori society in a position where multiple and alternative
perceptions can be not only entertained but respected. The logic of inclusion emerges.
Despite the fact that tpuna Mori developed complicated religious beliefs and comprehensive
values systems, there is no Mori word for what we now describe as economics or the economy.
We understand that economics is a system of management that provides governments and
others with a framework to manage society.
There would be little argument from Mori whether they are representing whnau, hap, iwi or
some other rp Mori that their people are their wealth. Whilst the accumulation of individual
wealth is a primary motivator of western economics; the health and wellbeing of their people is
the compelling factor in Te Ao Mori.
The following statement is as true today as it was when Professor Winiata said it at a National
Library seminar in Wellington over a decade ago.
15

12 Durie, Mason (2003) Launching Mori
Futures p14 Regarding the settlement
of these islands, there is DNA and other
evidence that a significant colony of
Mori settlers was firmly established some
eight hundred or so years ago. by 1200AD.
13 Royal, Te Ahukaramu (2003) The Woven
Universe: Selected Writings of Rev, Mori
Marsden, pp177-178.
14 Royal, p178.
15 Whatarangi Winiata, Perspectives on
Partnerships National Library of New
Zealand Treaty of Waitangi Seminar,
Wellington Feb 1999.
9
Aotearoa New Zealand has a dual economy. There is the Mori economy; there is the western
economy. The unemployment experience, the level of training, the age distribution, the health
experience, the housing condition, the degree of diversification and liquidity of the asset
base and so on are quite different between the two economies. Each economy requires quite
different prescriptions to prosper.
The prescriptions of the Mori economy maintain that Mori will behave in one of two ways,
they will:
(a) strive to maximise financial returns subject to the expression of kaupapa tuku iho; or
(b) seek to maximise the expression of kaupapa tuku iho subject to financial requirements.
Governments, economists and economic development groups manage community wellbeing with
economic indicators that reflect what the national economy requires to prosper. That is:
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) market value of all goods and services made within a year;
number of business units the ability to generate goods and services;
industry and sector activity who and how money is generated;
number of car registrations consumption of goods and services;
balance of trade the difference between how much we import and export;
building consent numbers an indication of market demand for construction activities;
occupancy rates in tourism money brought into the local economy; and
retail sales figures consumption rates.
The saying money makes the world go round comes to mind because thats exactly what these
indicators are measuring - money movements within a community, region or nation. Money
is the form of measurement or unit-of-account used by the western theory of economics to
measure the wealth of regions and nations.
GDP refers to the total market value of goods and services produced within a given period in
a country. It is often used as a monetary or economic measure of a countrys performance
in production over a given period. For example, an increase in GDP is celebrated as a sign of
economic progress.
Clearly, GDP is essentially a measure of economic progress because it can capture only
production or consumption of goods and services during a period of time. Hence, non-market
activities such as volunteer or unpaid work, externalities such as pollution caused in the process
of production, loss of leisure or family time due to extra hours of work done, the time spent
doing volunteer or community work and so on are not accounted for in GDP calculations.
In order to challenge effectively the mistaken assumption that economic growth necessarily
makes us better off; the new measures must go beyond adding indicators to create a new
economic accounting system that includes social and environmental benefits and costs. GDP-
based measures of progress are challenged on the grounds that they:
count the depletion of a countrys natural wealth as if it were economic gain;
make no qualitative distinctions, so that crime, sickness, accidents, pollution, disasters, war
and other liabilities may spur economic growth and contribute to progress; exclude the
value of unpaid voluntary and household work;
ignore the value of free time, leading to the anomaly that overwork and stress spur
economic growth and are therefore mistakenly counted as signs of progress; and
10
fail to account for equity and distributional issues.
It is argued that an indicator and accounting framework that explicitly values natural, human
and social capital in addition to produced capital can help overcome these major flaws.
The GPI is a concept that is becoming increasingly popular worldwide as a measure of human
welfare.
16
Over the past decade the GPI has been promoted internationally as an alternative to
the GDP measure. Like GDP, the GPI is a measure of economic progress. The difference is that GPI
also takes into account social and environmental costs as well as the benefits of growth.
The concept has been around for some time now, both here and abroad. It emerged in response
to perceived shortcomings of the GDP as a measure of societal and environmental wellbeing.
As discussed previously, GDP simply measures the market value of all final goods and services
made within the borders of a community or nation in a year. It will note an oil spill as a benefit
because work is created as a result of the clean up. In the GPI the environmental and societal
costs of an oil spill are subtracted from the economic benefits.
It must be recognised that GDP was not designed to measure social wellbeing and is incapable
of assessing quality of life. GDP must be relegated to the purpose for which it was originally
designed as a simple quantitative measure of the size of the economy.
The capital accounting model adopted by GPI recognises that a societys actual assets and
wealth transcend the produced and financial capital that are accounted for in conventional
economic statistics.
17
A societys total wealth also includes:
natural resources water, forests, soils, fish stocks, minerals; human resources health,
education, skills and time of its population;
social resources its communities and networks of organisations, associations and formal
and informal bonds that enable its citizens to act in concert; and
cultural resources sets of values, history, traditions and behaviours that link a specific
group of people together.
From the perspective of a capital approach, natural, human, social and cultural capital are
subject to depreciation, just like the plant and equipment of factories. They require periodic
re-investment to maintain and enhance their value.
Depreciation of all forms of capital can occur in two forms through quantitative depletion
and through qualitative degradation, both of which in turn may affect economic productivity.
In theory, at least, and increasingly in practice, depreciation of all these forms of capital
is measurable and, in many cases, quantifiable. Such measures allow assessment of new
investment needs, which then allow estimates of projected rates of return on investment.
This approach, therefore, has the advantage of allowing policy makers to assess the potential
long-term returns on investment in all these forms of capital, and thus to compare alternative
interventions with a view to achieving the best results.
A Mori perspective was expressed in Te Tiriti o Waitangi through its reference to taonga in
Article 2. The definitions of taonga are broader than those that appear in the previous list, and
include resources that are both tangible and intangible in nature. They are recorded as ...te
tino rangatiratanga o o rtou wenua, o rtou kainga me o rtou taonga katoa... which may be
translated as the unqualified exercise of their chieftainship over their lands, over their villages,
and over their treasures all.
18

16 Auckland Regional Council, A Genuine
Progress Indicator for the Auckland region,
2009.
17 Coleman, R, The Nova Scotia Genuine
Progress Index: Insights for New Zealand
(2004)
18 Translation by IH Kawharu in Kawharu (ed)
Waitangi: Maori & Pakeha Perspectives of
the Treaty of Waitangi (1989) Appendix, pp
319-321.
11
Mana is formed around the success with which a person or rp is perceived to be managing
their affairs and their observed willingness and ability to express manaakitanga. Mana-a-iwi or
more generally mana-a-rp is the principal currency of rp tuku iho and this includes, but is
not limited to, financial transactions.
19
Mana is the commodity and the accumulation of mana is the means that determines ones value
within that society. Mana is attributed to a person or rp based on their expression of kaupapa
or their practice of mana enhancing behaviours that provides for the management of the
resources, systems, rules, and behaviours within the Mori economy.
In order to capture this thought, consider the following. The western economic model dictates
that monetary price is the form of currency used in the market. Prices are exclusively determined
by two values (supply and demand). By contrast, in Te Ao Mori, we need to include many values
(multiple expressions of a multitude of kaupapa) in the assessment of mana.
It is the tikanga that tpuna Mori developed as expressions of kaupapa tuku iho and passed
onto this generation that has ensured our survival as a people thus far. We must rise to the
challenge and ensure that our contributions add to the distinctiveness of he kkano i ruia mai i
Rangitea within the global community.
19 Winiata, Cook & Luke, Iwi
Entrepreneurship: an Exploration (2009)
p5.
12
Kaupapa tuku iho are values inherited from tpuna Mori. The processes we follow as part of the
implementation or expression of kaupapa we know as tikanga. In this report we define tikanga
as the policies, practices and organisational arrangements associated with the expression of
kaupapa tuku iho.
The choice of kaupapa is for the organisation to decide. Te Wnanga o Raukawa, after operating,
implicitly and informally, within kaupapa Mori for 20 years, chose to give more formality to
the process. The selection of the 10 kaupapa emerged from ongoing discussions with kaihaut;
20

kaumtua,
21
staff; and with members of Te Manawhakahaere.
22
These are 10 kaupapa tuku iho
we would rather have expressed than not expressed.
23
KAUPAPA BRIEF DESCRIPTION
24
Kaitiakitanga Caring for creation including natural resources, inherited treasures, other
forms of wealth and communities, including Mori as a people
Kotahitanga Pursuing a unity of purpose and direction where all are able and encouraged
to contribute
Manaakitanga Behaviour featuring generosity, care, respect and reciprocity toward others
25
Pkengatanga Processing knowledge creation, dissemination and maintenance that leads to
scholarship and contributes to the mtaurangs (knowledge) continuum of Mori
Rangatiratanga Reflecting chiefly attributes, seen as walking the talk, integrity, humility
and honesty
Whanaungatanga Expressing relationships built on common ancestry and featuring
interdependence, reciprocal obligations, support and guidance within rp
tuku iho
26
Whakapapa The inter-relationships of all living things by virtue of descent from
Papatanuku and Ranginui.
Wairuatanga The recognition of the intimate spiritual connections that link atua,
humankind and nature in the past, present and future.
Te reo The acknowledgement that the preservation of te reo is crucial to our survival
as Mori; the responsibility to ensure the transmission of te reo to future
generations.
kaiptanga The importance of trangawaewae, a place where one belongs, feels valued
and is able to contribute.
The choice was made from the many kaupapa derived from the Mori worldview as it evolved
during the millennium of isolation; and when Mori survived and flourished a worldview that
was pure and unspoiled by the thoughts and ideas of others. These kaupapa tuku iho continue to
be part of Mori life 250 years later.
20 Academic and administrative directors.
21 Elders who are known for their scholarship.
22 Council of Te Wnanga o Raukawa.
23 A value is something one would rather
have than not have.
24 Prepared by Pakake Winiata, Te Wnanga o
Raukawa.
25 Petrie, Hazel, (2003) Chiefs of Industry,
p176.
26 Whakapapa based entities, whnau, hap
and iwi.
13
Closer examination of the above descriptions
27
reveal that Pakeke is working in an educational
environment. Other organisations such as Te Rp Pakihi, the Kapiti and Horowhenua Mori
business network may have different descriptions that provide an understanding of what
the kaupapa means to those involved in the network. One example of this is in the case of
kaiptanga which the network defines as the importance of nurturing the creation and
sustenance of Mori enterprise. The fundamental essence of the kaupapa is intact, but the
description has been developed to reflect an entrepreneurial application.
The kaupapa descriptions reflect the context of the user; this adaptability is one of the strengths
of the kaupapa. Similarly, when tikanga are used to give expression to the kaupapa, there is an
assortment of options available to us. There is an unlimited number of tika (right or correct)
ways to express any particular kaupapa tuku iho, these ways are called tikanga. Mori are
constantly developing and adapting tikanga to give expression to kaupapa tuku iho within the
context of the environment of operation.
In the past, hap controlled the allocation of resources, manufacture, production, and
distribution of the products of Mori economic activity. Hap groups and sometimes individuals
had inheritable rights to the use of land and fishing sites, but these rights could not be alienated
outside the iwi without the consent of the numerous hap making up the iwi.
Mori emerged in the middle decades of the 19th century as the dominant entrepreneurial
group in Aotearoa. According to researcher and author Dr Hazel Petrie
28
the 1840s and 1850s
were properly called the golden age of Mori enterprise. Throughout the golden age, Mori
embraced imported technologies and knowledge. Hap were involved in international shipping
and transportation, manufacturing and production, retailing and other commercial activities.
Mori organised and coordinated economic activities by utilising their hap groups. At times
hap members combined their resources with those of other hap to purchase capital assets
such as flour mills, or to organise themselves for activities such as crewing schooners. This
provides a successful example of coordinated economic action of moderately large communities
at a regional level.
This success can be attributed to the determination of Mori to express certain kaupapa tuku
iho, namely, whanaungatanga, rangatiratanga and kaitiakitanga. In this context, these kaupapa
straddle social, political and environmental considerations. Moreover, the expression of the
values inherent in these activities would have been subject to there being financial and other
benefits flowing to rp tuku iho.
29
Various authors, particularly Petrie
30
and Merrill
31
have
emphasised the place of whnau, hap and iwi, commonly referred to as kinship groups in the
political and economic life of Mori.
The activity of Mori cannot be explained by the assumption that economic interests and needs
determined the social structure. The expression of kaupapa was the determining influence and
the notion of utilitarianism in economics, explains Mori behaviour better than economics.
This is consistent with the proposition that Mori will seek to express kaupapa and enjoy the
multiple, tangible and intangible benefits
In Mori society today, kaupapa tuku iho provide he hapori Mori with emotional, physical,
and spiritual security; the expression of kaupapa are enriching to those enacting the tikanga.
27 Petrie, pp 12-13.
28 Merrill, pp 402-403.
29 Developed with the assistance of Pakake
Winiata, Kaihaut, Mtauranga Mori at
Te Wnanga o Raukawa and author of the
initial Wnanga statement on kaupapa as
guiding principles to direct the affairs of
the Wnanga.
30 Using these three classifications; there
were 43 growth indicators, 5 descriptive
indicators and the remaining 43 were
relational indicators.
31 Ideally, the person who identified the
indicator would have also identified the
tikanga.
14
Whnau members are expected to reciprocate by contributing skills, labour or goods to the
whnau and hap resource base. Kaupapa such as kotahitanga, manaakitanga, wairuatanga,
whakapapa and whanaungatanga place rights and responsibilities on Mori to care for each
other and work together for the greater good of whnau, hap iwi and the society they live in.
Consequently, the expression of kaupapa designed to contribute to the wellbeing of the whnau
is a factor in fulfilling obligations to the whnau.
Other kaupapa including kaitiakitanga, pkengatanga, te reo and rangatiratanga place
obligations on Mori to care for, protect, and manage other things such as natural resources,
the language, knowledge, and Te Ao Mori as a whole. The expressions of kaupapa allow
Mori individuals to contribute to the wellbeing of whnau and hap and are rewarded by
social approval, honour, respect and esteem. These expressions are mana enhancing, and their
expression through tikanga contributes to the survival of Mori as a people.
The economy of Mori prior to settlement by other people has been previously described
as a subsistence economy. It was very closely linked to the natural world and provided the
environment in which enough food is grown, hunted or gathered to provide for the people. One
tikanga of the time was that a surplus was only grown if a community desired or needed to trade
with neighbouring communities.
Within the trade element where as an example, coastal iwi trade fish with inland iwi for
vegetables; are expressions of manaakitanga in the context of reciprocal exchanges. In these
trading tikanga, the notion of economics is contained within the many and varied concepts of
manaakitanga.
The true foundation of Mori economics is the reciprocal exchange of kaupapa that are mana
enhancing and contribute to the wellbeing of the whnau, hap and iwi. This poses the question,
How do you measure Mori community wellbeing?
To fully answer the question above many things must be considered including choice of
indicators, how measurements are made, how often and how the information is presented. All
of the above implies an understanding of what Mori community wellbeing is and how it can be
effectively measured.
The tikanga (policies, processes and arrangements) used to manage a Mori communitys
wellbeing are developed using a selection of indicators or statements of wellbeing. This is best
arrived at by the community in question.
Kaupapa and tikanga should provide appropriate indicators to measure Mori community
wellbeing. The He Oranga Hapori study asked 25 individuals to consider the question what
do you look for to know that your Mori community is doing well? In conjunction with that
question, participants were asked to decide which of the 10 kaupapa tuku iho derived from
the 10 guiding kaupapa of Te Wnanga o Raukawa
32
were being expressed in the activity. The
resulting contributions were not filtered or edited.
32 For example, at Te Wnanga-o-Raukawa
a small number of financial tikanga
are employed under the kaupapa
kaitiakitanga to guide the financial
management of the institution.
15
Within a month, these individuals had contributed 91 indicators under the different kaupapa.
The indicators are illustrated in Table 2. Again it is important to note that these indicators have
not been edited in their phrasing or deciding which kaupapa were being expressed.
Whakapapa Whanaungatanga
Hap and iwi registers Sense of community
Hui a tau attendances Communication streams with whnau abroad,
or living away
Inter iwi activities (events, planning, JVs) Hui and noho with other indigenous groups
Iwi Asset Base (value & make up) Newsletters and websites for whnau away
from home
Kaumtua noho
Whakapapa hikoi/haerenga
Rangatahi at the marae
We like each other!
No whnau politics, its all about the hap
Family reunions
Tuakana/teina relationships intact
Wairuatanga Kaitiakitanga
Physical state of marae Tino rangatira over taonga
Local waiata and stories shared Business survival rates
Annual marae revenue Settlements secure and growing
Sunday School programmes Inter-generational wealth assured
We have our own waiata Whnau are healthy
Taiaha lessons Rahui are respected by all
Matariki & other events celebrated Retirement strategies and succession planning
Weavers, taiaha, speakers, singers, fishers, kai
gatherers, cooks aplenty!
Long term planning on marae
Physical & mental wellbeing
16
Pkengatanga kaiptanga
Kura and Kohanga at capacity Number of marae
Wnanga and Mori TEO enrolment targets met
annually
Knowing our community
Wnanga and Mori TEO completion rates met
annually
Population base
Regional Mori mtauranga strategy in place
(by Mori)
Personal asset base
Skilled and qualified labour force Ethnicity & iwi
Employed labour force Age & gender
Whakatupu Mtauranga activities occurring
and application of results
Knowing business and enterprise
Numbers & structure
Sector/industry
Staffing
Asset base
Networks available
Enterprise rate
Growth & export rates
Rangatiratanga Kotahitanga
Completion of settlements Regional Mori Wellbeing strategy in place (by
Mori)
Investment strategies that provide employment
and enrichment for members
Regulation interaction and communication
between
Iwi-Crown investments Rp tuku iho, and
Mori models of governance and management Rp pakihi, and
Celebrations (people, rp, language) Rp mtauranga, and
Mori management of Mori matters Rp tautoko, and
Mori in positions of community decision
making i.e. Councils, government
Taurahere, and
Kaumtua involved in iwi decision making and
education
Tauiwi, and
Kaumtua trust pakeke to manage the hap Kawanatanga
Financially sound Strategic plans
Expression of kaupapa is the norm! Hui a tau are well attended
Whnau are visibly supportive
Individual hap have relationships with council
and crown agencies
Happy & productive marae meetings
17
Manaakitanga Te reo
Volunteers i.e. ringawera at marae Bilingual signage in the community
Increased health and social wellbeing by Mori
accessing services
Healthy paepae
Nurturing key firms Language revitalisation plans in place
Business support services Te reo celebrations and competitions
Great kai provided to manuhiri Mori radio station
People wanting to help Bilingual signage on the marae
When evaluating these indicators at the end of four weeks, it was noted that different types of
indicators were evident, making it therefore difficult to develop one method of measurement.
Three different classifications of indicators were identified.
33
Growth Indicator that measures a change in quantity or size over a period of time such as
the number of people registered with their iwi.
Relationship or State Indicator that is used to assess the existence of, quality and
influence of relationships in a particular developmental area of interest. An example from
Table 2 might be that a regional Mori education strategy is in place. This developmental
output indicates that certain relationships had to be in place in order for this stage in
development to be achieved. To further investigate this indicator it would be beneficial to
know how well these relationships enhanced or positively influenced the expression of other
kaupapa. This idea is further developed thinking on the following methods.
Descriptive Indicator that identifies pure data such as gender, or iwi affiliation. This type
of indicator does not feature in the following measuring systems as it exists and generally
there is no relationship change or growth to measure.
The indicators were transformed to tikanga; based on the idea that the indicator measured is the
goal or desired end point and which a given tikanga is designed to move towards. As an example,
the indicator healthy paepae was transformed into a tikanga Develop numbers of whaikorero,
kaikaranga and waiata through the provision of learning to kaumtua wanting to learn and by
kaumtua who are willing to teach.
There are a number of other tikanga that might have been developed to achieve this indicator
and express the kaupapa.
34

Consider a Mori approach where expressions of kaupapa are measured to provide an indication
of the wellbeing of a community. What do you measure and how?
This study sets forth a method developed as a contribution towards this important area of
whakatupu mtauranga. The method is an adaption of theory developed by western scientists
to make accounting adjustments to GDP in order to make corrections for some of its failings. As
discussed previously, while GDP is a good measurement of growth, it completely fails to reflect
in any way the full range of costs and benefits associated with achieving economic growth of
this kind. The genuine progress indicator (GPI) involves the use of accounting adjustments that
seek to correct these problems.
33 For growth measurements above 100 it
would be necessary to correspondingly
scale the values used in the score strategy.
For example, for a growth score of
75,000, the score strategy would involve
adjustments of +/- 1,000. Likewise, for
a growth score of 750,000, the score
strategy would involve adjustments of
+/- 10,000. The scale adjustment made
to the score strategy involves division of
the growth score by a factor of 100. This
correction would mean that quality score
adjustments were of consistent scale
across all growth score measurements.
34 Dr Cole believes 10-15% would be the
minimum you would use - He ranga
Academic Paper.
18
Likewise, we look at how growth in the expression of individual kaupapa and or tikanga
on the part of a Mori community does not reflect the full range of influences (positive or
negative) this growth has had on the expression of other kaupapa and tikanga. For example, the
community might experience growth in the area of pukengtanga. While this is a good outcome
as far as it goes, the measurement of the expression of pukengtanga alone may fail to reveal
how the hours of study required to achieve this result led to a decline in the expression of
whanaungatanga. In net terms, this would not be a desirable outcome.
Thus the GPI method focuses our attention not on the growth indicator, but on the question of
just how we grew. A worked example of a simple non-financial accounting method can be used
to explore Mori community wellbeing from a Mori worldview in which kaupapa tuku iho are
the guiding values.
The study explores a way to assess the amount and quality of kaupapa expression by he hapori.
To assess the wellbeing of a Mori community, it is necessary to look at the expression of
kaupapa tuku iho with tikanga.
It has been proposed that the real currency of a Mori theory of economics are kaupapa and
tikanga. There may be debate over the selection of kaupapa tuku iho, the choice could be wide
ranging and varied however Te Wnanga o Raukawa has been working with the set of 10 in Table
1 that fit the purposes of this project.
Each kaupapa has, however, many different shades of meaning; a consequence is that each can
be expressed in different ways, one or more for each shade of meaning.
The diversity of rp Mori and consequently their differing world views will ensure that deeper
understandings of the meaning of these kaupapa is also diverse. However, there is comfort in the
knowledge that the community described is thoroughly familiar with the essence of each of the
10 described above.
For the purposes of the study and this report, 29 indicators were selected and developed
corresponding tikanga within a context of whnau, hap and iwi wellbeing. It is the tikanga
developed to express the different kaupapa that are measured. The 29 tikanga developed are
listed in Table 3 below. Table 3 indicates the type of community developmental process that
each tikanga promotes. The capital letter G to the right of each tikanga implies that it is an
indicator of community growth. The capital letter R to the right of each tikanga implies that it
is an indicator of community relationships being expressed. In some cases, both G/R symbols
are included together to signify that this particular tikanga includes aspects of developmental
growth and relationship influences.
19
Whakapapa Manaakitanga
Rangatahi regularly attend the marae
R
People want to help on the marae,
and with hapu/iwi activities
R
Family reunions are held regularly
R
People want to help on the marae,
and with hapu/iwi activities
R
Monitor hui-a-tau attendances
35
G
Encourage whnau to access health
and social services
G
Pkengatanga Te reo
Wnanga and Mori TEO enrolment
targets met annually
G
Language revitalisation are plans in
place
R
A regional Mori Mtauranga
strategy is in place (by Mori)
R
Bilingual signage is on the marae
G/R
Encourage Whakatupu Mtauranga
activities
G
Develop numbers of whaikorero,
kaikaranga and waiata
G
Whanaungatanga Kotahitanga
Communication streams are open
with whnau abroad, or living away
R
A regional Mori Wellbeing strategy
in place (by Mori)
R
Hui and noho are held with other
indigenous groups R/G
Regular interaction and
communication occurs between
businesses
R
Newsletters and websites are
available for whnau away from home
R/G
Individual Hap have relationships
with Council and Crown agencies
R
kaiptanga Kaitiakitanga
Business Networks operate in the
region
R
Retirement strategies and succession
planning are completed
R
Monitor number of marae
G
Long term marae planning is held
regularly
R/G
Monitor Enterprise Numbers annually G Protect our natural world R
Wairuatanga Rangatiratanga
Develop skills in weaving, taiaha,
speaking, singing, fishing, kai
gathering, cooking
G
Investment strategies provide
employment and spiritual enrichment
for members
R/G
Establish 2 minita a Iwi per hapu
G/R
Kaumtua are involved in Iwi decision
making and education
R
Matariki & other Mori events are
celebrated G/R
Encourage Mori to occupy positions
of community decision making i.e.
Councils, government
G
The tikanga listed in Table 3 should not necessarily be thought of as fully representative of Mori
community wellbeing at this stage. However, what they show is that those who participated in
the choice of appropriate indicators fully identify with the idea that Mori community wellbeing
is best measured using those values which identify Mori as a people distinctive from all others.
We draw this conclusion because of the noticeable absence in Table 2 of economic indicators.
This is not to imply that economic indicators are irrelevant.
36
Commenting on the noticeable
absence of economic indicators draws attention to the fact that in Te Ao Mori they do not
35 The area was later expanded to include
the tribal boundaries of the five iwi
participating in the study, that is, Porirua
to Rangitikei. This decision was made at
the September 2009 summit.
36 Appendix 2 - Statements of Mori
Wellbeing and associated Kaupapa tuku
iho.
20
dominate and are, by themselves, therefore incomplete as a measure of Mori community
wellbeing.
Having chosen these preferred indicators and illustrated how they can be expressed as tikanga
(Table 3), the question of how to measure these activities in a way that yields appropriate
indicators of Mori community wellbeing is raised.
With two different types of Mori community wellbeing indicators (growth and relationship)
identified, it was necessary to develop appropriate ways of measuring each. In the case of a
tikanga that promotes growth, the measurement challenge is to measure the change in size or
quantity over time. For example, in Table 3 under the kaupapa pkengatanga is the tikanga
Encourage whakatupu mtauranga activities. The measurement of this tikanga might involve
counting the number of whakatupu mtauranga activities that are started and completed within
a given time period (e.g. one year). Growth indicators are usually expressed as rates (i.e. projects/
year). This is not the case with relationship indicators.
In the case of a tikanga that promotes the development and maintenance of kaupapa/tikanga
relationships between rp Mori, the measurement challenge is different. In this case, the
existence of relationships does not increase in size from one time period to another. In this case,
the measurement required is simply to answer the question does the desired output that gives
physical evidence of the existence of extended relationships exist or not? The answer is either
yes or no.
The two strategies outlined for the measurement of the growth and relationship indicators
are incomplete in terms of the goal of measuring Mori community wellbeing. This is because
the measurement strategy only looks at wellbeing in terms of the existence of progress being
made towards the developmental goals. For example, the measurement of growth in whakatupu
mtauranga activities only measures the rate of emergence of new projects and completion of
new ones. It reveals nothing about the quality of these projects and more importantly how they
contributed, or failed to contribute to the expression of other kaupapa tuku iho.
Likewise, the existence of a developmental output like the production of a language
revitalisation plan as listed under the kaupapa Te Reo in Table 3, is used to infer the existence
of relationships that made possible the formation of this output. However, while a yes indicator
tells us that these relationships exist, it discloses little about the quality of the relationships and
how they influence the expression of other kaupapa and tikanga.
Economists face a similar measurement problem as described in their use of the GDP indicator.
However, while GDP effectively measures change in size, it tells us nothing about the quality
of this level of economic growth. Investigation into this problem further would reveal that
increases in crime, marriage breakdown, suicide, unemployment and environmental degradation
all contribute towards making GDP bigger. Thus, while GDP measures growth, it reveals
nothing about the type of growth that occurred. In developing indicators of Mori community
wellbeing, care needs to be taken to not fall into the same trap of producing indicators that
portray environmental degradation and social disintegration as developmental progress. To
calculate indicators that include measurement of genuine progress it is necessary to make
some accounting adjustments to the growth and relationship indicator measurement strategies
outlined above. The method developed for making these accounting adjustments is simple and
effective. However, it should only be considered as another small contribution towards ongoing
whakatupu mtauranga in this area.
21
The design of this model for the measurement of Mori community wellbeing took place before
the case study was planned. This offered the opportunity to also provide a worked example
demonstrating what might be produced using the model. The following case study provides a
means for comparison.
Appendix 3 contains a worked example of how non-financial accounting adjustments to a
growth indicator can be made. The worksheet is reasonably easy to understand. At the top of the
worksheet the growth indicator for a given measurement period like one year is entered. This is
referred to as the growth score. The growth score reveals the size of growth during the last year,
but not the quality of the growth. To calculate the growth quality score it is necessary to gather
growth quality score data for the remainder of the worksheet.
The growth quality data would best be gathered with the assistance of local community
members scoring themselves in terms of how they performed over the last year. Thus, the growth
quality score would represent an affirmation by the community of how it feels it did in terms
of the expression of kaupapa and tikanga associated with this growth score. In this worked
example, the tikanga included in the growth quality calculation have been taken from Table 3.
These performance measures would be chosen by the community concerned.
Scoring the growth quality section of the growth score worksheet can occur by using the
following score strategy.
-1 Growth had an unwanted influence on the expression of this tikanga
0 Growth did not influence the expression of this tikanga
1 Growth had an enhancing influence on the expression of this tikanga
In scoring each of the growth quality tikanga shown in Appendix 3 answers are sought to the
question how did the growth that occurred influence the expression of this particular tikanga?
The answer lies within one of three possible score options. A score of zero indicates that the
growth did not influence this expression of this tikanga. It is also possible to score an enhancing
(i.e. 1) and unwanted (i.e. -1) influence score. This question and answer process needs to be
completed for each of the tikanga listed in the Appendix 2 worksheet.
Total growth score 85
Total growth quality score 2
Genuine progress indicator growth score 87
Potential GPI indicator growth score 113
In Table 5, the total growth score is simply the measurement of growth for the year unadjusted
for growth quality. The total growth quality score of 2 indicates that the growth score of 85
positively influenced the expression of other tikanga with a net quality score of 2. The net
quality score of 2 is arrived at by adding together all of the individual quality scores. This is a net
score because all total negative scores and total positive scores are added together.
22
The genuine progress indicator growth score of 87 is arrived at by adding together 85 + 2. This
score of 87 includes the initial growth score and its quality adjustment. To obtain some idea of
what this score means, it should be compared with the potential GPI indicator growth score of
113 in the last row of Table 5. This score shows how well the study could have scored in terms of
quality if we had been able to score 1 (a positive enhancing influence) to all of the quality score
tikanga shown in the growth worksheet of Appendix 4. Had this happened, the genuine progress
indicator growth score would have been 113 rather than 87. A score of 87 demonstrates that
while growth occurred, the quality of this growth was not as good as it could have been. More
thought is required regarding how growth is achieved, rather than just concentrating on growth
for the sake of achieving a higher growth score.
Similar accounting adjustments need to be made to the relationship score of 1 in Appendix 4
worksheet. The relationship does not measure change in size from one time period to another.
It simply measures the satisfactory completion of a developmental stage which is then used to
infer the existence of appropriate relationships needed to achieve this outcome. Once again, the
relationship score of 1 indicates existence of relationships but says nothing about their quality.
To assess the nature of relationship quality it is necessary to assess how the relationships
(associated with this developmental milestone) contributed towards the expression of other
growth and relationship tikanga. The same scoring strategy outlined above for our growth
quality indicator score (Table 5) is used here. The final results are shown in Table 6 below.
Total relationship score 1
Total relationship quality score 9
Genuine progress indicator relationship score 10
Potential GPI indicator relationship score 29
The results shown in Table 6 may be interpreted like those described for the growth indicator
score in Table 5. This worked example shows it was possible to achieve a potential score of 29;
but in this case a score of 10 was calculated. This result again shows that while key relationships
are in place, they are not yet a positive influence that contributes (100%) to the expression
of other key Mori community wellbeing indicators (i.e. kaupapa and tikanga). More work is
required in the future to improve these scores.
The worked examples shown in Appendix 3 and 4 would need to be repeated for each of the
29 indicators listed in Table 3. All the scores could then be added together to produce a one
dimensional indicator that combines all growth and relationship quality scores into one.
There can be problems in aggregating up quality scores across different scales of measurement.
For example, it would be possible for large scores from one rp Mori to introduce an unequal
weighting. However, problems of this kind can be addressed by adding mathematical weights
based on indicators like area or population size as part of the aggregating process.
23
This tool as a contribution toward the measurement of Mori community wellbeing is not
intended as a complete solution to the need in this area. While it has some strengths in terms of
its ease of use, efficiency and accessibility, it is one of a range tools that currently exists and is
yet to be developed to support our investigations in this area.
For example, a kaitiakitanga survey was recently completed at Te Wnanga o Raukawa to look
at the expression of kaupapa and tikanga in relation to the measurement of direct and indirect
effects on te taiao. This survey involved the collection of detailed datasets over short and long
periods. It also involved complicated mathematical modelling work.
The use of a range of tools is consistent with the inclusive logic that is central to the Mori view
of the world. To this end, we look forward to the other contributions to come from our collective
effort in the area of whakatupu mtauranga.
While this simple tool is an initial contribution to work in this area, it has the potential to deliver
valuable insights into the wellbeing of Mori communities and the quality of progress which is
important to us all - the survival of Mori as a people. It is interesting to consider what a regular
survey of this kind might disclose about the progress made towards our goals of achieving Mori
community wellbeing.
First, it is important to identify exactly where growth in the expression of kaupapa and tikanga
is occurring and where it is not occurring. With this understanding, remedies and mitigation
strategies can be developed and applied as corrective measures. However, understanding the
actual quality of growth and relationship performance would remain quite detailed.
In the genuine progress indicator work, it has been discovered that quality measurements, even
when made in monetary terms, have many hidden problems. Furthermore, at times the size of
these problems has been alarming. While much simpler than a genuine progress indicator in
monetary terms, this tool has the ability to (i) reveal hidden factors and (ii) provide indications
about the scale or magnitude of problems. This makes it possible to shift attention from growth
as a developmental goal (and focus of attention) towards broader quality goals grounded in
kaupapa and tikanga.
The method developed in He Oranga Hapori should be thought of as an initial contribution to
this area of whakatupu mtauranga. Further work remains in this area. However, this simple
mathematical approach has some attractive strengths that are discussed later.
This method is easy to implement. This is an important point because the collection of data
and conducting of surveys costs money and takes time. It is therefore highly desirable that
the preferred method is as efficient as possible by returning the greatest possible insights into
Mori community wellbeing for the least possible investment of resources. This is the case with
the method outlined. Its simplicity is its strength. This method builds on the holistic identity of
a Mori worldview. It provides a big-picture perspective and an approach to measure this in a
manageable way.
Second, an important distinction is made between the measurement of change in size or
relationships and the quality of the change process. This is what the recent interest in genuine
progress indicator work has been about. However, a weakness of the genuine progress indicator
work has been that to date it still strongly focuses of the measurement of quality aspects of
24
growth in monetary terms. There is a sense the He Oranga Hapori method builds on what is
aspects of the genuine progress indicator method that are consistent with the Mori worldview.
Third, not only is the measurement method or process relatively easy to implement, but the
scoring strategy also makes this approach appealing. By employing a subjective scoring strategy
it is possible for the indicator set to reflect the current perceptions of individual members of
the Mori community being measured. In this respect the measurement process recognises the
rangatiratanga of the community, and its perceptions of growth and relationship quality. For
members of the study community who participate in the survey, the scoring strategy is easily
understood and simple to apply.
There are some scale issues associated with the use of the scoring strategy. These have been
touched on already in connection with the process of aggregating up results across differing
spatial scales. However, in addition to this aggregation problem, there is also the problem caused
by the magnitude or relative size of different growth measurements. In the worked example a
score between 0-100 was chosen. However, the score strategy shown in Table 4 would have
been inappropriate in terms of scale if the growth measurement was between 100 and 1000,
10,000, 100,000 or 1,000,000.
37

This measurement process is simple enough to be applied by those studying Mori community
wellbeing. Further elaborations of the method can be made however these become
mathematically more complicated and require the use of specialist mathematical modelling
software. This particular method can be performed with an excel worksheet or alternatively, the
calculations can be run using pencil and paper.
Like all survey methods of this kind, the question of statistical representation should be
considered. The representation question seeks to discover how many people from the
study community need to participate in the survey to be able to say the results are a fair
representation of collective community wellbeing as opposed to representing the views of a
smaller group within the wider community. There are some basic measurement rules that apply
in addressing the problem of sample bias raised by this question. If a survey sample occurs
rather than a comprehensive survey of all community members, a random sample would be
required. Second, the larger the sample size the better.
38

This report outlines key challenges associated with the development and calculation of indicators
of wellbeing for Mori communities. It is apparent that sole dependence on conventional
economic, business and or demographic indicators will not help to assess the wellbeing of a
Mori community against the goal of survival as a people.
To ensure genuine progress is made towards this goal, it is necessary to formulate an approach
to indicator development, calculation and monitoring that emerges from the Mori worldview,
especially those values that unmistakably identify Mori for who we are he kkano i ruia mai i
Rangitea.
37 ART Confederation.
38 submissions to the Kapiti and Horowhenua
District Councils LTCCP - Long term
community council plan.
25
Mori in the Kapiti and Horowhenua area have confidence in the forever statement E kore au e
ngaro; he kkano i ruia mai i Rangitea (I will never be lost, a seed from Rangitea).
These kkano accept that through the ages, their tpuna Mori have had a care for, expanded
upon and bequeathed Te Reo as the repository of all the things that make Mori distinctive as
a people. Current generations are increasingly becoming aware that their contribution to the
survival of Mori as a people is through expanding on their inheritance. They do so by building
the body of mtauranga Mori gifted through the expression of kaupapa tuku iho.
Over 200 kkano, whnau, hap and other groups within this community developed 36
indicators of wellbeing
40
to describe their community wellbeing in the narrative on page 7.
The sense of enrichment that one gains from the expressions of kaupapa occurring in this
narrative are appreciated by Mori, especially those who have mana whenua over the Kapiti and
Horowhenua landscape.
As they read the piece, they reflect on times past when their own whnau were able to harvest
kaimoana easily from the beach; theyre reminded of korero with their own grandparents on
whakapapa; and they dream of the day when the local marae will be abundant in terms of
people, knowledge and skills.
He kkano that use the expression of kaupapa to contribute to the comfort and security of
whnau are uplifted by the rewards of respect, admiration and esteem.
The narrative describes a world that 112 rangatahi, 70 kaumtua, 50 Mori businesses, five iwi
authorities representing 30 marae, numbers of whnau, and tautangata Mori have told us they
dream of for this community.
From these statements the definition of Mori Wellbeing was developed as a Mori state of
being that is characterised by the abundant expression of kaupapa. The past nine months have
involved developing plans and completing activities that contribute to the wellbeing of our
Mori community by many groups including Te Aho.
Te Ahos circle of interest was the mechanism used to design, plan, implement, monitor and
report on He Oranga Hapori as a study of Mori community engagement.
Te Aho, is a Mori model for regional development operating in the Kapiti and Horowhenua
for the past 15 months. It is a cluster of Iwi groups, their respective hap and other Mori
organisations (such as educational providers, health and social organisations, and business
operators). Te Aho is an example of Mori collaborating with each other, and others to enhance
the wellbeing of a particular Mori community.
39 Huihuinga is a quarterly forum where the
Te Aho quarterly report is approved before
it is presented at the councils Joint
Economic Development Forum.
40 Kaitiakitanga, Rangatiratanga,
Whanaungatanga, Pkengatanga,
Manaakitanga and Kotahitanga.
26
In the combined districts of Kapiti and Horowhenua there are five Iwi including Ngti Tukorehe,
Muapoko, Te Ati Awa ki Whakarongotai, Ngti Toarangatira and Ngti Raukawa. The latter
three make up a Confederation of three Iwi
41
and have formal relationships with groups including
the Kapiti Coast District Council. In addition to the Kapiti Coast District Council, this community
is served by the Horowhenua District Council to the north. The combined Iwi areas cross all
boundaries; their takiw extend from Manawatu in the north to Porirua in the south; and their
activities are influenced by five district councils and two regional councils.
Initially, five indicators of wellbeing were developed under five priority areas or strands; the
tikanga that have been implemented to give expression to these priorities are also listed.
1. Developing Whnau Whnau are the core of Mori society and are crucial change agents
for positive Mori development. An Iwi forum is charged with progressing this strand, two
important tikanga implemented by this group to celebrate whakapapa and whanaungatanga
include:
Developing a Kaumtua Forum with over 70 members to provide guidance to Te Aho. The
group meets quarterly. The Ngti Raukawa kaumtua hosted the senior leadership of the
Mori Party and the National Party including the Prime Minister at Raukawa Marae.
Working together to develop a Whnau programme based on a kaupapa and tikanga
framework.
2. Enhancing Skills Skills are vital to successful Mori economic transformation; increasingly
determining the nations ability to grow economically. Examples of the tikanga developed
by a group of Mori businesses, organisations and institutions with an interest in education
(compulsory and tertiary) include:
Provider packages where the group developed pathways for learning for their students
and staff from Level 1 to Level 7 degrees within the region.
A Mori Literacy and Numeracy programme for students was developed by and piloted by
a member of our provider group.
Our People, Our Future Summit held on the 1st & 2nd September 2009 where 160
attendees contributed.
Our People, Our Future, Our Way Summit - held 16th June 2010 where 70 participants
attended.
3. Strengthening Relationships Meaningful relationships need to be built that accept
diversity; have long term commitment and are nurtured. Responsibility for giving expression
to kotahitanga and rangatiratanga in this strand is shared by all groups involved in Te Aho.
Iwi are collaborating on economic development strategies including Whnau Ora
programmes.
Tertiary education providers are working together.
There is increased participation by Mori with industry groups and local government.
Relationships with both Councils are improved.
Development of processes for Mori submissions to LTCCP.
42

Regular and informal breakfasts with the two mayors.
Council attendances to Huihuinga.
43
41 The Dominion Post, April 19, 2010, p-A7.
42 Appendix 6 - Te Aho Quarterly Report.
43 One or more of the ten that Te Wnanga o
Raukawa has been working with.
27
4. Creating Knowledge Research and development are important factors in promoting
economic growth, and facilitating dynamic Mori participation in the local, national, and
global economy. A small group with links to the Te Wnanga o Raukawa are busy with a
number of tikanga that give expression to pkengatanga.
Completed a survey of Te Rp Pakihi members.
Developed a Te Reo Mori resource for Mori businesses that was released by Te Rp
Pakihi at Matariki.
Completed a study into the Influence of Mori Business Networks on Mori Enterprise;
presented a paper on the findings to a research symposium in Adelaide and to a Koorie
Business Network conference in Melbourne.
Completed and reported on a study into the behaviours of Iwi Investment based on the
TRoR/Levin Meats case study. Presented to a number of audiences nationally by Professor
Winiata.
Developed He Oranga Hapori, a Mori model for measuring community wellbeing using a
kaupapa and tikanga framework.
Worked with Te Rp Pakihi to refine the regional Mori Business Awards to reflect
Mori business wellbeing using a kaupapa and tikanga framework.
5. Involving Community Ensuring our community is aware of, understands, and supports Te
Aho. The project team completes promotional activities that give expression to kaiptanga
and kotahitanga using the following tikanga:
Developed a marketing strategy and communications plan which will be launched this
month
Promotional activities and presentations to a number of MPs, community, Mori
organisations, funding organisations, the Mori economic summit, the Federation of
Mori Authorities, Minister of Mori Affairs Hon Dr Pita Sharples Economic Taskforce,
MEDs Small Business Advisory Group and the National Mori Business Networks Forum.
In September 2009, the Our People, Our Future Summit was held at Te Wnanga o Raukawa
over two days. At least 160 Mori from the Rangitikei to Whitireia attended, contributed their
thoughts and built their dreams for Mori Community Wellbeing.
Six
44
kaupapa based workshops were held with the theme of Building the dream for Mori in the
region. Many of the aspirations led to a blend of education, social, and health initiatives with a
fundamental requirement of being driven by our need to express kaupapa in all that we do. Clear
education initiatives called for the survival and enhancement of Te Reo Mori, focused training
and pathways, the development of knowledge, increased kaupapa Mori education provision,
tikanga and kaupapa training in leadership and business leaders.
Those aspirations, tikanga and initiatives were developed into 36 Indicators of Mori Community
Wellbeing that seek to describe the aspiration concisely with tikanga to bring the state of
wellbeing into fruition.
Te Aho has a responsibility to bring these aspirations into being. Te Aho for a met to consider
the indicators and develop tikanga to make progress towards the state of wellbeing described
in the list. It was accepted that not all groups could make contributions to all of the indicators,
however each group would consider what contribution it could make.
44 Appendix 8 provides a brief profile of the
Mori community in the Manawatu.
28
The results of this activity are illustrated in Table 7 (Appendix 5) and were reported to a second
summit Our People, Our Future, Our Way held in June 2010.
Table 7 uses the activities of five main fora that are active within Te Aho and meeting at least
monthly (education, iwi, business) or quarterly (huihuinga and kaumtua).
Focus groups were established for short explorations or for specific activities. An example of this
is the Te Ao Mori ki Horowhenua group that had its origins as a Te Aho submission to LTCCP.
The Te Aho submission grew to include 10 separate Mori group submissions and ultimately
Te Ao Mori ki Horowhenua was charged with building the relationship with the Horowhenua
District Council on behalf of all Mori in the district. Since then, the groups interests have
expanded. They include exploring how a Mori model of engagement with territorial authorities
can be used effectively with the five district or city councils and three regional councils in the
Wellington to Manawatu region.
The contributions of Te Ao Mori ki Horowhenua are included in the Huihuinga & Others column
along with Te Rp Whakatupuranga and other sub-committees established to investigate Mra
Kai; a loan guarantee programme; a recession response group; marketing team; and a project
team to coordinate and facilitate the strategy.
Of the 36 statements, only two are not being actively progressed:
5. Iwi investments provide employment and enrichment for members - no iwi investments
have occurred since the development of the indicators. A kaupapa based model for Iwi
Investment has been developed and it is anticipated hese investment practices will be
implemented once the activity resumes.
13. All tamariki have access to whnau managed kura kaupapa education - within the region
there are a number of Mori education models operating within the compulsory sector.
They include Whnau Advisory Groups in primary and secondary schools; bilingual
units in primary schools; Mori boarding schools; kura a iwi; and kura kaupapa Mori.
Whnau are engaged in these models and whnau managed kura kaupapa education will
be advanced as the success of the kura kaupapa option becomes more well known. The
2009 NCEA results indicate that Mori boarding schools and kura kaupapa all achieve
above national standards with kura kaupapa in the region consistently scoring 100%
across levels 1, 2 and 3.
45

Activities have been or are currently underway that have given expression to all 10 of the
kaupapa tuku iho shows Te Aho is making progress towards Mori community wellbeing as
described by the community. Further, the activity occurring within 34 of the 36 indicators
supports the conviction of Te Aho that it is making a contribution to the survival of Mori as a
people.
Each quarter, Te Aho reports to Te Huihuinga on the activities completed in the past three
months. The report monitors and presents Te Ahos activity in terms of expressions of kaupapa.
This report is also presented to the Joint Councils Economic Development Forum. The report for
the period to 30 October 2010 is attached.
46
The report identifies below each heading in the left-hand column a group of numbers; these
align to the indicators of wellbeing being contributed to in these activities. Without exception Te
Aho has made progress towards the achievement of every wellbeing indicator in this period. The
45 Appendix 8 - Potential for Manawatu
groups to raise Mori community
wellbeing.
46 Aotearoa Private Training Education &
Employment.
29
exercise identifies those areas we excel at, such as number 23 - where 13 of our projects in the
past quarter made some contribution to Mori engaging productively with the wider community.
The other extreme are those few indicators (seven in total) that contributed to three indicators
or less. Now that these have been identified, activities can be developed to advance progress in
these areas.
A second pilot of the He Oranga Hapori study tested some of the understandings and
learnings gained in the Kapiti and Horowhenua experience. The absence of an organised Mori
collaboration of key sectors, community, iwi/hap and crown agencies in the Manawatu region
meant there was difficulty duplicating the Kapiti/Horowhenua experience fully. It was therefore
decided to the value of the second pilot would be to concentrate on activities to assist in
confirming the theoretical model by:
describing Mori community wellbeing with indicators
identifying tikanga that give expression to kaupapa tuku iho
designing a framework for recording and reporting results.
Mori determination over the past 200 years to raise their prospects of survival is extraordinary
and evident in the maintenance of over 1000 marae and their affiliated rp tuku iho;
organisations such as the Mori Womens Welfare League, Mori education bodies, Mori
broadcasting organisations, sports codes, religious bodies, business networks and similar rp
Mori that give expression to kaupapa tuku iho. One could assert the axiom that Mori will seek
to maximise their survival as a people through the expression of kaupapa tuku iho.
Participants in He Oranga Hapori Te Papaioea pilot affirm this assumption. Over four days, four
surveyors interviewed a random sample of 126 Mori with the following characteristics:
59% affiliated with local iwi
6% did not know their iwi
52% male
Age range 17 to 75 years
Average age 35.7 years
The surveys were conducted in the City Square, at a rugby sports ground, the library, bus
terminals, Massey Universitys Hokowhitu campus, the local Work & Income site and in a
childrens playground. Surveys took place over four days from Friday to Monday including the
weekend.
Each kkano was asked the question what do you look for to know that your Mori community
is doing well? The participant was then asked to identify the kaupapa tuku iho
47
that influenced
their thinking.
Their collective responses reveal their aspirations for a Mori community that gives expression
to kotahitanga, pkengatanga and rangatiratanga. The sample was sensitive to tensions within
their Mori community believed to be causing distress between different Iwi and hap groups.
Calls for increased expressions of whanaungatanga and whakapapa were consistent throughout
47 Appendix 9 - Potential means to monitor
and measure displays of tikanga.
30
the study. The development of tikanga that give expression to these two kaupapa was seen as
the solution to many of the problems identified. The peacemaking qualities of these kaupapa
were being sought in these pleas.
The sample, though not statistically representative of the local Mori community
48
identified
opportunities for increased kotahitanga by those rp tuku iho and rp Mori charged with
the delivery of health, social service, business and education programmes. The faith of these
participants in the ability of kaupapa to potentially restore balance in the community suggests
they find the manifestations of these inherited values positive and elevating. Their preference for
these expressions was clear.
The sample identified the following 40 indicators of wellbeing. With the assistance of the
surveyors and the use of printed resources that detailed Te Wnanga o Raukawa descriptors
for each of the 10 kaupapa; the participants distinguished the kaupapa that influenced their
thinking.
Whakapapa
1. Programmes that help us to understand the values and experiences of our tpuna are
freely available.
2. Families live healthy lifestyles.
3. Families maintain healthy relationships with each other, with hap, and with their
marae.
Whanaungatanga
4. Kaumtua are actively engaged and contributing positively to society.
5. Mori entrepreneurs and business owners are supported.
6. Police and Ministry of Justice personnel work with whnau, hap and iwi.
7. Mori students are supported in their study.
Wairuatanga
8. Mori lead spiritual lives of mutual respect.
9. Whnau are growing, gathering and preparing kai to sustain themselves and members
of their community.
Kaitiakitanga
10. Rangatahi are encouraged to participate productively in their community.
11. Mori are aware and engaged in activities that protect and nurture te taiao.
12. Whnau are maintaining and protecting whakapapa.
Te Reo
13. Te Reo is a compulsory subject in all primary and secondary schools.
14. Palmerston North adopts a policy that promotes bilingual signage.
15. Numbers of Te Reo speakers are being developed.
16. Kohanga reo, kura kaupapa and wnanga are being established.
48 Appendix 10 - Worksheet for the Te
Papaioea study.
31
Kaipotanga
17. Marae are seen as preferred venues for events and functions by whnau.
18. Marae are active and busy serving the needs of their community.
Manaakitanga
19. Kaumtua are supported in contributions to whnau, hap and iwi.
20. Mori businesses employ Mori.
21. Mori are volunteering to encourage and support others in need.
22. Community groups and service providers are well resourced.
Rangatiratanga
23. Good role models are promoted to rangatahi.
24. Effective leadership is demonstrated at whnau, hap and iwi level by kaumtua and
others.
25. Mori are developing strong sense of identity and self-confidence.
26. Mori are active and participating in political affairs.
Kotahitanga
27. Whnau are engaging with other cultures.
28. Iwi are involved and participating positively in the community.
29. Iwi are working with each other.
30. Te Tiriti is promoted in the community and included in primary and secondary
curriculum.
31. Mori are skilled and engaged in the workforce.
32. Business support services contribute to the Mori economy.
33. The community shares collective responsibility for welfare of tamariki.
Pukengatanga
34. Mori culture is celebrated through events, functions and programmes.
35. Kapa haka groups are growing their numbers and standards of performance.
36. Kaumtua and others are ensuring that tikanga and kawa are upheld on marae and
within the whnau and hap.
37. Kaupapa Mori models are developed and used in Mori communities.
38. Preservation of mtauranga Mori through informal and formal wnanga learning.
39. Financial literacy courses are available at all marae.
40. Greater access to Mori educational institutions.
An analyst joined the surveyors over two days to identify and develop tikanga from these
indicators to give expression to the kaupapa.
In this way, the sample demonstrated their ability to actively pursue the expression of kaupapa
through tikanga they selected.
The study group also identified potential statements to measure the display of tikanga and
subsequent expressions of kaupapa tuku iho. A matrix was developed to identify different groups
in the Mori community that might influence how the tikanga is implemented and subsequently
increase the expression of these kaupapa.
49
49 The plan was developed by the peoples
of Ati Awa, Ngti Raukawa and Ngti
Toarangatira. The activities of WRM
included the establishment of Te
Wnanga-o-Raukawa in taki.
32
For this exercise, it was assumed that the groups of interest would be similar to those involved in
the Kapiti and Horowhenua experience:
1. Whnau/Hap/Iwi - the iwi and hap of Rangitne and if encompassing the wider
Manawatu rohe, hap of Ngti Raukawa also. Whnau, hap and iwi feature highly in the
matrix as they have dual opportunity to participate. First, (whnau units and individuals)
as consumers, and secondly, as institutions that can provide support, programmes or
assistance in one form or another;
2. Pakihi Mori - Te Au Pakihi, the Manawatu based Mori business network is not
currently active. However, there are a number of Mori enterprises operating in the area
demonstrating a willingness to re-organise themselves, to represent business and industry;
3. Health and social service providers - this sector is well represented by Mori and is loosely
connected through industry groups and collectives that have formed with the assistance
of the District Health Board (DHBs). A forum for this purpose could be formed with the
assistance of one or two key players in the industry; potential facilitators have been
identified.
4. Education (compulsory, secondary and tertiary providers) - the number of Mori tertiary
organisations has decreased in the region over recent years, however Te Ataarangi, Te
Wnanga o Aotearoa, Te Kokiri Development Consultancy and a number of informal trainers
endure. The secretary of the regional AMPTEE
50
group is currently involved in the Kapiti
experience and is able to identify and engage with Manawatu providers at least in the
interim until they are in a position make their own arrangements.
5. Other (including government agencies and pan-tribal groups such as the Mori Womens
Welfare League, Mori Wardens, Mori District Councils). Te Puni Kkiri would be well
placed to play a role in supporting this community collaboration.
A cursory examination of the matrix reveals a multitude of opportunities for the local Mori
community to affect an increase in the Mori Wellbeing of their community in Te Papaioea.
Some initial coordination will be required to get the groups organised. These groups should be
encouraged to develop their own indicators of wellbeing within a workshop format. This ability
to describe Mori community wellbeing, design their own tikanga, and the means to monitor
their own progress would engender the commitment required to successfully manage their own
tino rangatiratanga.
The study group identified 126 across all rp for opportunities for the development of tikanga:
Iwi/hap and whnau 38
Pakihi Mori 19
Education sector 26
Health & social service providers 11
Others 32
126 (at least)
As there is an unlimited number of tikanga that can be designed give expression to kaupapa,
the only constraint is the imagination. In this manner, the framework is a powerful source of
creativity and innovation.
50 See section titled Dual Economies; p11.
33
Once the tikanga had been identified and worked, statements were prepared to describe how
a community could potentially monitor whether the tikanga had been implemented, and how
effective that implementation had been.
51
The study group endeavoured to ensure that the majority of monitoring statements reflected
a change in size or growth. It is understood that a growth statement is consistently simpler to
measure than a relationship statement.
Just as there is any number of tikanga to give expression to kaupapa, there is more than one way
to monitor or measure any given tikanga. Once the form of monitor and measurement has been
decided upon, a scorecard is possible. A worked example of the He Oranga Hapori scorecard was
prepared for the Te Papaioea study.
52
With an opening balance of 69; the total growth quality score calculated over the 40 tikanga,
provided a closing balance of 70; out of a possible 108.
Total growth score 69
Total growth quality score 1
Genuine progress indicator growth score 70
Potential GPI indicator growth score 108
If the scores were actual rather than theoretic, a community could draw from these scores that
there is work to do in terms of progressing Mori community wellbeing. The scorecard also
identifies the kaupapa given expression to and the manner in which that occurred.
From these examples we can see that in theory there is the potential for this community to:
a) identify how kaupapa tuku iho can assist to describe what community wellbeing is for
Te Papaioea;
b) design a range of tikanga to give expression to a range of kaupapa and to progress
movement toward the described wellbeing;
c) develop a set of statements to monitor and measure that expression; and
d) to tally those expressions from one period to another (i.e. annually), and use those
scorecards to plan ahead.
51 Hui Taumata Taskforce, (2006) Mori
Economic Data and Benchmarking p66.
52 Te Puni Kkiri, (2008) Te Ptake Rawa a
Ng Mori The Mori Asset Base p5.
34
The experience with the two communities demonstrated a desire to behave as Mori through
learning and speaking te reo, the desire for spiritual comfort through karakia, the wish to spend
time with family and with extended relations, to preserve whakapapa and learn waiata. Whether
the participants realised it or not these aspirations are expressions of kaupapa tuku iho.
The Kapiti and Horowhenua study had the advantage of working with a community who were
familiar with Mori models; beginning with Whakatupuranga Rua Mano - Generation 2000
(WRM) a tribal development plan implemented in 1975 with a 25-year horizon
53
and more
recently with the Te Aho project.
Those involved in the Kapiti and Horowhenua study numbered over 200 and included coordinated
groups and fora of rangatahi, kaumtua, whnau, Mori engaged in education, health and social
service provision, business and those with a care for the governance and management of iwi and
hap affairs. These groups engaged with the study in facilitated group situations.
Te Papaioea community in close proximity to Te Wnanga o Raukawa had a number of past
students in the sample and their familiarity with the Wnanga teachings had shaped their
thinking. The influence of Sir Professor Mason Durie and his work with Massey University and
with Whnau Ora was also evident through some of the comments received.
One hundred and twenty six participants were engaged randomly as individuals through a
four day survey. Though a less organised group, the survey participants were able to articulate
the expression of kaupapa as a contribution to the survival of Mori as a people with some
confidence.
The effect of giving expression to kaupapa is an experience that has positive effects on those
who are engaged in the activity. It is satisfying, uplifting and comforting - it is preferred.
Kaupapa tuku iho are inherited values, they are called this because we value them, they are
things we would rather have than not have. The important place of kaupapa in our lives affirms
that tikanga designed to give expression to these values are preferred. The two case studies both
illustrate communities that make efforts or show a continued desire to give expression to these
kaupapa.
In the Kapiti and Horowhenua experience there were repeated examples of attendees describing
the workshops and seminars as both inspirational and aspirational. The merriment at these
events belies the significance of the contributions being made to mtauranga Mori. The
narrative on page 33 developed to describe Mori wellbeing for this community never failed to
elicit an emotional response from Mori who reside in the area, in particular from the iwi and
hap mentioned therein.
These groups were also influenced by a desire to give expression to tino rangatiratanga.
Comments from some of the participants related that having a plan for the expression of
53 These figures do not include any capital
growth recorded by those Iwi who have
received Iwi Treaty settlements.
35
kaupapa provided a sense of comfort and direction. Another comment was that as individuals, as
whnau units some participants were able to make a difference and make a contribution to the
wellbeing of their community. This was seen to be mana enhancing.
The Mori community represented by Te Papaieoas sample showed a community that exhibited
less concern for the enrichment received from expressions of kaupapa. However, this community
demonstrated an understanding and confidence that future expressions of kaupapa could be
problem solving and had potential for peace making and dispute resolution. The positive effects
and the enhanced sense of identity elicited from tikanga designed to give expression to kaupapa
were present in the responses.
The Kapiti and Horowhenua groups were involved in workshops over a period of a year. During
those workshops they were repeatedly asked to design and develop tikanga that gave expression
to kaupapa tuku iho within a wellbeing context.
The original 29 indicators used to develop the He Oranga Hapori theoretical model were
expanded upon and refined by this community. The result was 36 wellbeing indicators or tikanga
being designed and implemented by one or more of the Te Aho groups. The number of tikanga
developed for each of the kaupapa was regulated to ensure balance across the framework.
The Te Papaioea experience was very different. The community response to the design of tikanga
that give expression to kaupapa and tikanga within the context of Mori community wellbeing
occurred over a period of only four days by survey, rather than workshops. The opportunities to
refine and further develop their framework were not available
Despite this, the survey did reveal that Mori were willing participants and quite capable
of designing tikanga to give expression to kaupapa that could potentially be used to create
wellbeing within their Mori community. The researchers were comfortable that the tikanga that
finally evolved from this community were reflective of their wishes.
The He Oranga Hapori theoretical model was demonstrated in the two case studies. These
experiences indicated that within He Oranga Hapori there is a process for the systematic
design of tikanga that can be measured and furthermore the process can be duplicated, if the
community in question is willing.
1. Understand the community and build relationships within.
2. Engage the key interest groups including rp tuku iho and community including rangatahi
and kaumtua. Mori sector groups taking account of education, social and health services,
industry and finance.
3. Identify a representative sample (100-200 participants for a community).
4. Invite these groups to collaborate on the design of a kaupapa tuku iho matrix.
5. Work with the sample to develop indicators of Mori community wellbeing through
workshops and presentations.
6. Refine the indicators into tikanga and identify the interest groups with capacity to progress
the tikanga.
7. Develop means of measuring the progress of the tikanga and prepare a scorecard.
8. Establish forums with responsibility for advancing various tikanga.
36
9. Implement the tikanga.
10. Engage with government agencies and potential funding organisations to secure resourcing.
11. Hold regular hui with the community to report and plan ahead.
12. Complete the scorecard annually and report to a major gathering.
The process provides a system of management that gives the community a framework to
manage their own affairs. This is our understanding of economics
54
and this understanding gives
expression to tino rangatiratanga.
Over the past four decades, Mori have clearly signalled their determination to survive as
a people through the creation of institutions that endorse the application of kaupapa and
tikanga. Examples of some of the tikanga that have been acted upon to achieve continuity and
recognition include:
the establishment of hundreds of kohanga reo and te reo in primary and secondary schools;
tertiary education institutions that offer certificate to doctoral studies;
Mori radio and television that continue to flourish; and
regional and national Mori sport and Mori public speaking competitions are common.
54 See section titled Dual Economies; p11
Understand the
Community
Refine indicators
to tikanga
Develop means of
measuring tikanga
Complete scorecard
& report annually
Engage interested
groups
Identify indicators
of wellbeing
Develop forums with
responsibility for
advancing tikanga
Report and plan
ahead
Identify sample
Invite collaboration
to design kaupapa
framework
Implement the
tikanga
Secure resourcing
37
These tikanga too could be measured using the model that has been developed. He Oranga
Hapori model has many possible applications, the analysis of iwi wellbeing, business
sustainability, sector activity and even the state of the nations economy.
The determination of Mori to survive as a people through the expression of kaupapa underpins
the design of the He Oranga Hapori model. This makes the model meaningful for Mori
communities and, hence is the preferred option over the GDP and GPI models of economic
management. The model also allows members of Te Hapori to make significant positive
contributions to the mtauranga continuum and consequently to the survival of Mori as a
people.
1. Einstein, Ideas and Opinions (1954) p271
2. Improvement & Development Agency (I&DEA), Driving Economic Prosperity: Benchmark &
diagnostic tool for Local Authorities (2008)
3. Improvement & Development Agency (I&DEA), No Council of Despair: Positive local
leadership in a recession (2009)
4. Public & Corporate Economic Consultants, From Recession to Recovery (2008)
5. Durie, Launching Mori Futures (2003) p14
6. Royal, Te Ahukaramu, The Woven Universe: Selected Writings of Rev, Mori Marsden (2003)
p177-178
7. Winiata W, Perspectives on Partnerships National Library of New Zealand Treaty of
Waitangi Seminar, Wellington (1999)
8. Auckland Regional Council, A Genuine Progress Indicator for the Auckland region, (2009)
9. Winiata, Cook & Luke, Iwi Entrepreneurship: an Exploration (2009) p5
10. Petrie, Hazel ,Chiefs of the Industry (2003) pp12-13 & p176
11. Merrill, Chiefs of the Industry (2003) pp402 403
38
Background information and data
In January 2009, the Minister of Mori Affairs, Hon. Pita Sharples hosted a Mori Economic
Summit where over 150 people gathered to discuss issues and actions that government and
Mori could take to address the recession amongst other things.
Historically, recessions have had a disproportionately negative impact on Mori compared to
non-Mori largely because of Mori concentrations in the labour market and industry sectors.
In recent years Mori have made significant gains in terms of skills and education. Significant
numbers of Mori are in sectors particularly vulnerable to current international economic
developments, including the construction and manufacturing industries.
These characteristics present risks for Mori incomes and, consequently, Mori housing. Mori
are currently under-represented in home ownership statistics and there is a risk that the
recession will further entrench this difference, reducing the intergenerational benefits of Mori
home ownership.
Increasing Mori unemployment may encourage entry into further education or training.
However, there is also the risk that if incomes decline significantly higher levels of education
and training may be considered too costly. Mori assets are concentrated in the primary and
secondary sectors and thus exposed to global fluctuations. The value of Mori assets is therefore
expected to decline over the short term. Most Mori businesses are concentrated in export
industries such as fishing, forestry, agriculture and tourism sectors which are also exposed to
global economic conditions.
The Summit identified ideas to create jobs and grow the Mori economy. Some other ideas
included a more equitable distribution of funding for Mori providers to deliver services to
support whnau in need; greater collaboration amongst Mori asset holders to achieve better
returns; and a longer term focus on education and training to alleviate poverty.
The Mori Economic Taskforce was established in March 2009 as a result of the Mori Economic
Summit. The Taskforce is a key initiative for the enhancement of Mori economic prosperity and
contributes to the work programme of the Prime Ministers Jobs Summit.
Mori have made significant social and economic gains in recent years. More Mori are
employed in a wider range of jobs and have better qualifications than just a decade ago.
Mori assets have increased in value and there are now more Mori businesses engaged across
sectors.
On 28 January 2009, the Minister of Mori Affairs held an Economic Summit to canvass ideas
and potential initiatives to ensure Mori could mitigate the effects of the economic downturn
and position themselves to reap the benefits of economic recovery. The Mori Economic
Taskforce was the brainchild of this workshop and supports the introduction and implementation
of initiatives to enhance Mori economic prosperity in the short-term and beyond the recession;
as well as promote and utilise kaupapa Mori and Mori structures as drivers of prosperity.
The Taskforce has a budget of $4.5 million per annum to research and implement initiatives.
The Taskforces foundations are based on the following principles:
39
1. Working together:
investing in Mori;
with government and government working with Mori; and
leveraging international networks.
2. Enhancing education, training and skills:
by investing in training and skills for Mori
with a focus on rangatahi.
3. Fostering enterprise by:
supporting research and development;
reducing regulatory costs; and
enhancing Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) by focusing on increasing productivity.
4. Growing existing resources:
using them more effectively; and
diversifying where possible.
These principles guide the work being done to achieve the three main goals the Taskforce is
working towards.
a) Support Mori through the economic recession by promoting skills training and education,
enhancing resilience in communities, and protecting or growing employment opportunities.
b) Strategic economic development opportunities for Mori beyond the immediate economic
climate by identifying areas where Mori can lift their participation in the economy and
unlock their potential to ensure that Mori can take advantage of and be a driver for
economic recovery and future growth.
c) Promote and use kaupapa Mori and Mori structures as drivers of prosperity.
Chaired by the Minister of Mori Affairs, Hon Dr Pita Sharples, the Taskforce is also attended by
the Associate Minister of Mori Affairs, the Hon Georgina Te Heuheu and Te Puni Kkiri Chief
Executive, Mr Leith Comer.
Mori Economic Taskforce members were appointed for their experience in a wide range of
disciplines and each leads progress in one of the following Taskforce workstreams:
June McCabe, Investment Capital and Enterprise
Bentham Ohia. Education, Training & Information Technology
Mark Solomon, Tribal Assets
Ngahiwi Tomoana, Primary Sector
Daphne Luke, Small and Medium Enterprises
Hon. John Tamihere, Social and Community (Resigned February 2010)
Rob McLeod, Economic Growth & Infrastructure (Resigned April 2010)
To understand New Zealands economic future, it is necessary to first understand the countrys
demographic realities:
Rapid growth of the Mori population:
40
In 1951 there were just 134 000 Mori who made up 6.9% of the national population.
In 2006 there were 565 300 or 14.6% - thats one in seven New Zealanders.
Stats NZ is now predicting that in 2026 Mori will make up some 17% of the population at
around 818 000.
In 2006, the median age of Mori men was 21 compared to 35 for other males whilst the median
age for Mori women was 24 compared to 36 for other females.
Mori are younger and having more children. By 2050 there will be more Mori and Pasifika
students in schools than all other ethnic groups combined.
Students
In 2008 there were 165,425 Mori students who made up 22% of the national student
population.
In the same year, there were 71,322 Pasifika students 9.5% of all students.
Combined thats 31.5% of the total student population.
Mori Enterprise is a term that encompasses all commercial activities of Mori. The Mori
Fortune 50 (Net Assets) List,
55
which identifies the 50 largest collectively owned Mori
organisations or organisations operated for the benefit of Mori, shows that the top 10
organisations each has greater than $100m in net assets. The total asset base for Mori
Enterprise was reported by Te Puni Kkiri to be $16.5 billion in 2005/2006, an increase of $7.5
billion or 83% since 2001.
56

In 2005/2006:
52% of Mori commercial assets were estimated to be invested in primary industries
(agriculture, forestry and fishing; and mining).
8% in secondary industries (manufacturing, electricity gas and water; and construction).
40% in the tertiary industries (wholesale and retail trade; accommodation; cafes and
restaurants; transport; storage and communication; finance and insurance; property and
business services; education; health and community services; cultural and recreational
services; and, personal and other services).
57
Statements of Ma
-
ori wellbeing and associated
Kaupapa tuku iho
Kaitiakitanga acting so as to preserve and maintain taonga; ensuring safety in all activities.
1. Our natural resources are healthy and sustainable.
2. Mori hold into Rangatiratanga over taonga tuku iho.
3. All marae have developed and implemented succession plans in governance, management
and operations.
Rangatiratanga exhibiting leadership by example; the ability to bind people together;
following through on commitments.
4. Whnau and hap are knowledgeable and self sufficient.
5. Iwi investments provide employment and enrichment for members.
55 Hui Taumata Taskforce, (2006) Mori
Economic Data and Benchmarking p66
56 Te Puni Kkiri, (2008) Te Ptake Rawa a
Ng Mori The Mori Asset Base p5
57 These figures do not include any capital
growth recorded by those Iwi who have
received Iwi Treaty settlements.
41
6. Kaumtua are involved and engaging in iwi/hap decision making and learning.
7. Governance groups are healthy, skilled, and provide strong kaupapa based guidance.
8. Self determination is expressed within all social, business and professional environments.
Whanaungatanga recognising that our people are our wealth; knowing that you are not alone;
and assuring others that nor are they alone.
9. Mori business networks in the area are well supported.
10. Tautangata Mori are supporting the tino rangatiratanga of the mana whenua.
11. Tautangata Mori are supported in the learning, sharing and expression of their own
individual iwitanga.
12. Tangata whenua from abroad are engaging with Aotearoa Mori.
Pkengatanga teaching, preserving and creating knowledge as part of the Mtauranga
continuum.
13. All tamariki have access to whnau managed kura kaupapa education.
14. Whakatupu Mtauranga is active and returning benefits to the community.
15. Kaumtua contributions are sought after.
16. Enrolment targets for Wnanga and other Mori educational organisations are met.
Manaakitanga behaving in ways that elevate others; showing respect and consideration
toward others; generosity and fulfilling reciprocal obligations.
17. Whnau are shaping and participating in Whnau wellbeing.
18. Hosting events of regional and national significance for Mori.
19. Celebrating and supporting, voluntary activities.
Kotahitanga making decision and taking actions that lead to the unity of purpose and not to
division and disharmony.
20. Relationships and communication between Mori are strong.
21. Consensus decision making is effective.
22. Rangatahi are involved in education and community.
23. Mori are engaging productively with the wider community.
Whakapapa Ranginui, Papatanuku and their children are here; our tpuna are beside us; we
are one with these as we carry out our role in the creation of our future; this is whakapapa.
24. Take opportunities for teaching whakapapa.
25. Hap are regularly engaging to share and celebrate whakapapa connections with each
other, and with other iwi.
26. Hui, including Hui-a-tau are well attended by members of whnau, hap and iwi.
kaiptanga having a sense of importance, of belong and of being a contributor to your land,
to your home, to your trangawaewae.
27. Mori influence community decision making.
28. Marae are well supported.
29. Marae express kaupapa tuku iho abundantly.
30. Marae are the preferred choice for events.
42
Te reo this is the repository of all that we are as Mori; ko Te reo te kaipupuri i te Moritanga.
31. Take opportunities to learn/teach and use Te Reo.
32. Language revitalization plans in the place with whnau, hap and iwi.
33. Bilingual signage on the marae and in the community.
Wairuatanga recognising that our relationship with other and with our environment (maunga,
awa, moana, marae) is more than physical.
34. Develop skills based on inherited knowledge (e.g. values, models of thinking, weaving,
rongoa).
35. Whnau and hap provide spiritual support.
36. Te Ao Mori events are celebrated.
43
Worksheet for the growth and growth quality score
calculation
Enter your growth indicator name here 85
1 Whakapapa Growth quality scores
1. Rangatahi regularly attend the marae. -1 R
2. Family reunions are held regularly. 1 R
3. Monitor hui-a-tau attendances. 1 G
2 Pkengatanga
1. People want to help on the marae, and with hap/iwi activities. 0 R
2. Encourage whnau to access health and social services. 1 G
3 Whanaungatanga
1. Communication streams are open with whnau abroad, or living away. 0 R
2. Hui and noho are held with other indigenous groups. 1 R/G
3. Newsletters and websites are distributed for whnau away from home. -1 R/G
4 kaiptanga
1. Business networks operate in the region. 1 R
2. Monitor number of marae. 0 G
3. Monitor enterprise numbers annually. -1 G
5 Wairuatanga
1. Develop skills in weaving, taiaha, speaking, singing, fishing, kai
gathering, cooking.
0 G
2. Establish 2 minita a iwi per hap. -1 R/G
3. Matariki & other Mori events are celebrated. 1 R/G
6 Rangatiratanga
1. Investment strategies provide employment and spiritual enrichment for
members.
0 R/G
2. Kaumtua are involved in iwi decision making and education. 1 R/G
3. Encourage Mori to occupy positions of community decision making
i.e. Councils, government.
-1 G
7 Kaitiakitanga
1. Retirement strategies and succession planning are completed. 1 R
2. Long term marae planning is held regularly. -1 R/G
3. Protect our natural world. 0 R
8 Kotahitanga
1. A regional Mori Wellbeing strategy in place (by Mori). 1 R
2. Regular interaction and communication occurs between businesses. -1 R
3. Individual Hap have relationships with Council and Crown agencies. 0 R
9 Te Reo
1. Language revitalisation plans are in place. 1 R
2. Bilingual signage is on the marae. -1 R/G
3. Develop numbers of whaikorero, kaikaranga and waiata. 0 G
10 Manaakitanga
1. People want to help on the marae, and with hap/iwi activities. 1 R
2. Encourage whnau to access health and social services. -1 G
44
Total growth score 85
Total growth quality score 2
Genuine progress indicator growth score 87
Potential GPI indicator growth score 113
Worksheet for the relationship and relationship
quality score calculation
Enter your relationship indicator name here 1
1 Whakapapa
Relationship quality score
1. Rangatahi regularly attend the marae. -1 R
2. Family reunions are held regularly. 1 R
3. Monitor hui-a-tau attendances. 1 G
2 Pkengatanga
1. People want to help on the marae, and with hap/iwi activities. 1 R
2. Encourage whnau to access health and social services. 1 G
3 Whanaungatanga
1. Communication streams are open with whnau abroad, or living away. 0 R
2. Hui and noho are held with other indigenous groups. 1 R/G
3. Newsletters and websites are distributed for whnau away from home. -1 R/G
4 kaiptanga
1. Business networks operate in the region. 1 R
2. Monitor number of marae. 0 G
3. Monitor enterprise numbers annually. -1 G
5 Wairuatanga
1. Develop skills in weaving, taiaha, speaking, singing, fishing, kai
gathering, cooking.
1 G
2. Establish 2 minita a iwi per hap. -1 R/G
3. Matariki & other Mori events are celebrated. 1 R/G
6 Rangatiratanga
1. Investment strategies provide employment and spiritual enrichment for
members.
1 R/G
2. Kaumtua are involved in iwi decision making and education. 1 R/G
3. Encourage Mori to occupy positions of community decision making
i.e. Councils, government.
1 G
7 Kaitiakitanga
1. Retirement strategies and succession planning are completed. 1 R
2. Long term marae planning is held regularly. -1 R/G
3. Protect our natural world. 0 R
8 Kotahitanga
1. A regional Mori wellbeing strategy in place (by Mori). 1 R
2. Regular interaction and communication occurs between businesses. -1 R
3. Individual hap have relationships with council and crown agencies. 0 R
45
9 Te Reo
1. Language revitalisation are plans in place. 1 R
2. Bilingual signage is on the marae. -1 R/G
3. Develop numbers of whaikorero, kaikaranga and waiata. 0 G
10 Manaakitanga
1. People want to help on the marae, and with hap/iwi activities. 1 R
2. Encourage whnau to access health and social services. 1 G
Relationship score 1
Total relationship quality score 9
Genuine progress indicator relationship score 10
Potential GPI indicator relationship score 29
Mori Community Wellbeing Indicators Education Iwi &
Social
Business Kaumtua Huihuinga
& Others
Kaitiakitanga acting so as to preserve and maintain taonga; ensuring safety in all activities.
1. Our natural resources are healthy
and sustainable.
2. Mori hold onto rangatiratanga over
taonga tuku iho.
3. All marae have developed and
implemented succession plans
in governance, management and
operations.
Rangatiratanga exhibiting leadership by example; the ability to bind people together; following
through on commitments.
4. Whnau and Hap are
knowledgeable and self sufficient.
5. Iwi investments provide employment
and enrichment for members.
6. Kaumtua are involved and
engaging in iwi/hap decision making
and learning.
7. Governance groups are healthy,
skilled, and provide strong kaupapa
based guidance.
8. Self determination is expressed
within all social, business and
professional environments.
46
Mori Community Wellbeing Indicators Education Iwi &
Social
Business Kaumtua Huihuinga
& Others
Whanaungatanga recognising that our people are our wealth; knowing that you are not alone; and
assuring others that nor are they alone.
9. Mori business networks in the area
are well supported.
10. Tautangata Mori are supporting
the tino rangatiratanga of the mana
whenua.
11. Tautangata Mori are supported in
the learning, sharing and expression of
their own individual iwitanga.
12. Tangata whenua from abroad are
engaging with Aotearoa Mori.
Pkengatanga teaching, preserving and creating knowledge as part of the Mtauranga continuum.
13. All tamariki have access to whnau
managed kura kaupapa education.
14. Whakatupu Mtauranga is
active and returning benefits to the
community.
15. Kaumtua contributions are sought
after.
16. Enrolment targets for Wnanga
and other Mori educational
organisations are met.
Manaakitanga behaving in ways that elevate others; showing respect and consideration toward
others; generosity and fulfilling reciprocal obligations.
17. Whnau are shaping and
participating in Whnau Ora.
18. Hosting events of regional and
national significance for Mori.
19. Celebrating and supporting,
voluntary activities.
Kotahitanga making decision and taking actions that lead to the unity of purpose and not to
division and disharmony.
20. Relationships and communication
between Mori are strong.
21. Consensus decision making is
effective.
22. Rangatahi are involved in
education and community.
23. Mori are engaging productively
with the wider community.
47
Mori Community Wellbeing Indicators Education Iwi &
Social
Business Kaumtua Huihuinga
& Others
Whakapapa Ranginui, Papatanuku and their children are here; our tpuna are beside us; we are
one with these as we carry out our role in the creation of our future; this is whakapapa.
24. Take opportunities for teaching
whakapapa.
25. Hap are regularly engaging
to share and celebrate whakapapa
connections with each other, and with
other iwi.
26. Hui, including Hui-a-tau are well
attended by members of whnau, hap
and iwi.
kaiptanga having a sense of importance, of belong and of being a contributor to your land, to
your home, to your trangawaewae.
27. Mori influence community
decision making.
28. Marae are well supported.
29. Marae express kaupapa tuku iho
abundantly.
30. Marae are the preferred choice for
events.
Te reo this is the repository of all that we are as Mori; ko Te reo te kaipupuri i te Moritanga.
31. Take opportunities to learn/teach
and use Te reo.
32. Language revitalisation plans in
the place with whnau, hap and iwi.
33. Bilingual signage on the marae and
in the community.
Wairuatanga recognising that our relationship with other and with our environment (maunga, awa,
moana, marae) is more than physical.
34. Develop skills based on inherited
knowledge (e.g. weaving, rongoa).
35. Whnau and hap provide spiritual
support.
36. Te Ao Mori events are celebrated.
48
Te Aho Quarterly Report (August to October 2010)
Te Aho continues to develop its reporting processes. The evolution continues with a new format
and inclusion of monitoring practices for Indicators of Wellbeing.
KAUPAPA TIKANGA
Manaakitanga - Behaving in ways that elevate others; showing respect and consideration;
generosity and fulfilling reciprocal obligations.
Te Aho Fit for Funding
Seminar
14, 18, 19, 26
58
Te Aho distributed an invitation to Mori and community
organisations to come together to a half day free event offering
practical advice on how to seek and make the most of funding
opportunities.
The forum began with guest speakers and funding specialists
who spoke about the application processes and also shared their
knowledge and experiences. Many made most of the opportunity
to talk face to face with funding agencies and to network with the
local NGO sector.
Representatives from major funding organisations were available
for advice - including Lotteries, IRD, TG McCarthy Trust, Pub
Charity, JR McKenzie, Charities Commission and the Department of
Internal Affairs, TPK, Ministry of Social Development.
Kotahitanga - Making decisions and taking actions that lead to unity of purpose and not to division
and disharmony.
National Mori Business
Network - Ktuitui
4, 8, 9, 18, 19, 23, 26
Members of the Te Rp Pakihi Committee attended the Ktuitui
annual planning meeting in Wellington. Denis Grennell, Te Rp
Pakihi executive is the Chair of the national association.
Ministerial Delegation to
China Led by Mori Affairs
Minister Dr Pita Sharples
5, 8, 9, 12, 20, 21, 23
Daphne Luke participated in the Minister Sharples Mori business
delegation to China. The group visited Beijing, Guizhou and
Shanghai. The purpose of the trip was to open up pathways
for trade and business to follow. Our interest also extended to
exploring how the inherited values of Mori and of the Chinese, can
be used to derive commercial returns.
The 15 delegates represented the following sectors: fisheries
and aquaculture, farming and forestry, banking and property
development, tourism, culture and the creative industries,
telecommunications, science, education, health and social services.
During the week in China, the opportunity to visit R&D institutions,
meet ethnic communities involved in tourism and farming ventures,
and help bless and open the massive carved waharoa (gateway) at
the Baoshan Folk Arts Museum, which was gifted by New Zealand
to the people of China.
Those involved saw a great potential in developing export markets
that work has continued since our return.
58 The Wellbeing Indicator that this activity
contributes to - see Appendix I
49
Kaitiakitanga - Acting so as to preserve and maintain taonga; ensuring safety in all activities.
Local Government
elections
2, 10, 18, 23, 27
Te Aho held a series of short hui in Waikanae, taki, Levin and
Shannon to encourage Mori onto the roll, and to promote the
importance of voting in the local elections. These hui were
supported by Mori candidates who were standing for either of the
two Councils.
kaipotanga - Having a sense of importance, of belonging and of being a contribution to your
community, your land, your trangawaewae.
Mauri Manaaki Tangata-
Mori Tourism Strategy
3, 4, 6, 12, 14, 18, 19, 20,
23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 29, 30,
31, 34, 35
Ongoing hui and collaboration with marae, hap, iwi and whnau
representative is providing the encouragement to work together
and assist each other for the RWC activities.
Over the past three months we have been involved in providing
support assistance and guidance in Marae project proposals, DIA
funding applications, identify tourism activities, preparing draft
marae tour itineraries and events, marae training opportunities,
identify and collaborating with local tour operators and marketing
opportunities.
Marae participation has been confirmed and at a special Marae hui
held in September representatives from DIA, TPK and MSD were on
hand to liaise and network with the cluster group.
Fibre Optic Broadband
Loop
3, 4, 5, 12, 20, 23
Te Wnanga o Raukawa has almost completed Stage 1 of a fibre
optic network in taki connecting the library, schools, business,
homes, iwi radio, marae, the Wnanga and farms. With 60% of the
Wnangas students being taught through Marae Based Studies,
this service will enhance their capability to deliver online learning.
Te Arahanga was the first business in taki to connect to the ultra
fast broadband service for telephones and internet provision.
Te Wnanga has gone on to lead a national bid for the governments
rural broadband initiative. This activity involves industry, a Chinese
debt funder and a consortium of Mori investors.
Te reo - Te reo is the repository of all that we are as Mori; support, encourage and be respectful of
the use of Te reo Mori.
Reo FM & Te Aho
5, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 16, 15,
19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26,
31, 32, 36
ReoFM, the Raukawa radio station re-launched earlier this month
with a new programme, new talent line up and a new frequency -
now 88.7. Technical problems prevented the launch going live but
it highlighted to those present (include government agencies) the
challenges that we face as one of the five unfunded Iwi stations in
the country.
The new line-up includes a live breakfast show hosted by Kimo
Winiata with interviews and talkback, a hapori slot provides
community services with an opportunity to promote their services
and activities and a one hour slot called Raukawa reo provides for
100% reo content.
Te Aho has an hour on Thursday mornings and will use this time
for a reo Mori course, interviews with forum members and others
(perhaps the Mayors or Council members) organising activities that
contribute to the objectives of the strategy. Kara Kearney is the
producer of the show ensuring that Te Aho leverages off the radio
station as a key component of the communications strategy.
50
Whakapapa - Our tpuna are beside us; we are one with them as we carry out our role in the
creation of our future.
Te Whakahoutanga
2, 3, 6, 7, 15, 17, 21, 25, 26,
29, 34, 35, 36
A group of kaumtua led by Matua Whatarangi Winiata, Justice
Eddie Durie, Gabrielle Rikihana and others have formed to provide
Te Runanga o Raukawa with strong governance and leadership
based on Mori models of behaviour.
Whnau Ora - Whnau
Interaction, Innovation,
Engagement Fund
3, 4, 11, 13, 15, 16, 17, 20,
22, 23,24, 25, 28, 29, 30,
31,32, 34, 35
Te Aho will be promoting a new Whnau Ora fund being
administered by Te Puni Kkiri to support whnau to develop and
implement Whnau development plans.
These plans include training programmes or services to meet the
objectives of the whnau or developing and providing information
and resources for whnau. The regional spend will be open to
Whnau Ora providers as well as non-government organisations
including iwi, hap, rnanga, whnau trusts and marae committees.
Wairuatanga - Recognising that our relationships with each other and with our environment is more
than physical.
He Parakuihi Rangatira
1, 2,8, 10, 23, 26, 27, 28, 33
The Te Aho Chairman and different members of the Te Aho
forums or working parties meet quarterly for breakfast with the
two Mayors. These frank and honest discussions promote good
relations and increase our respective understandings of each other.
We would like to take this opportunity to affirm our continued
support of both Jenny and Brendan as they both take on another
term.
Whanaungatanga - Recognising that our people are our wealth; foster our relationships and
connections to one another.
Te Ao Mori mai i
Rangitikei ki Whitireia
1,2, 8, 10, 20, 21, 23, 27
Te Ao Mori Working party completed its development of a tikanga
Mori model for engagement between local government and
iwi. At Whakarongotai Marae, the group presented their findings
and reported to members of the five Iwi located between Porirua
and Manawatu. A new working party was formed to continue
discussions with the local authorities around implementation of the
model. Te Aho representatives met with Liz Kelly, now Porirua City
Council Deputy Mayor to discuss the model. She was supportive
of the concept and Te Aho provided assistance with her campaign
in terms of helping to develop strategy and build a team to support
her election.
Te Rp Pakihi - Pool
Night
8, 9, 11,16, 18, 19, 20,22,
23,24, 26, 27, 30, 31, 33, 34,
35, 36
The network held its annual pool competition at the Levin
Cosmopolitan Club in July. This function always brings together a
good number of members and this year was no different. The sense
of camaraderie and friendly competition promotes the networking
of businesses and builds our understanding of each others
activities.
51
Pkengatanga - Teaching, preserving and creating knowledge as part of mtauranga Mori and
other ways of knowing.
Whnau Ora -
Collaborative Whnau Ora
EOI
2, 4 6, 8, 11, 13, 15, 16,
17, 20, 22, 23, 25, 29, 30,
34, 35
Te ti Awa ki Whakarongotai, Ngti Raukawa, and Muapoko,
co-developed a kaupapa based model for the design and delivery of
Whnau Ora services based on the principle of Mori Management
of Matters Mori. The decision for the joint proposal for has been
deferred until next year however the Iwi groups have decided to
go ahead with developing their structural arrangements, train
their staff and re-engineer the delivery of their existing contracted
services in line with the principles of their Whnau Centred
Services proposal. The Iwi group has decided to combine resources
to employ a coordinator to further develop the proposal for
government consideration in the new year.
The contributions of Te
Aho to the wellbeing
of the Kapiti and
Horowhenua communities
2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12,14,
15, 17, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23,
25, 26, 27, 29, 30, 35, 36
As we round up our third year of operation, it has become
increasingly evident that we need to develop a means to measure
the contributions of Te Aho to the wellbeing of the Kapiti and
Horowhenua communities.
Linda Pene has begun planning a kaupapa based evaluation of the
strategy using the He Oranga Hapori model for Mori wellbeing.
This activity will produce the following outputs:
a) Completion a case study on Te Aho; and the implementation
arrangements of the strategy itself.
b) Integrate the model for developing He Oranga Hapori (Mori
community wellbeing) as a means of measuring Te Ahos annual
contribution to the survival of Mori as a people.
c) Provide an analysis of that contribution with any
recommendations for future implementation.
This evaluation project will be completed in the next three months
and reported upon in the first quarter of 2011.
Rangatiratanga - Exhibiting the attributes of a rangatira, humility, generosity, setting of good
examples, and diplomacy in binding people together to good and just causes.
Emeritus Professor
Whatarangi Winiata
stands down as President
of the Mori Party
2, 4, 6, 8, 17, 20, 21, 22,
23,24, 26,27, 30, 31, 34,
35, 36
Members of Te Rp Pakihi and Te Aho supported the farewell
speech of founding president, Professor Whatarangi Winiata at
Omahu Marae recently.
A unifying force, Matua Whatarangi made his farewells after seven
years in the job, his parting gift to the party was not only his
presidents report but a special paper he had written titled Mori
Management of Tino Rangatiratanga.
A unifying force, Matua Whatarangi made his farewells after seven
years in the job, his parting gift to the party was not only his
presidents report but a special paper he had written titled Mori
Management of Tino Rangatiratanga.
Co leader Tariana Turia made the following comment I mihi to the
incredible leadership, the breadth of vision, the enduring wisdom of
Matua.
For us locally, it means that our rangatira is back amongst
us providing his guidance and support to our efforts for
rangatiratanga locally. His love and attention continues to
influence our endeavours to maximise our own contributions for
the survival of people.
52
Statements of Ma
-
ori Wellbeing and associated
kaupapa tuku iho with the [number] of activities that
progresses each indicator that Te Aho has been
involved in (in the last quarter)
Kaitiakitanga acting so as to preserve and maintain taonga; ensuring safety in all activities.
1. Our natural resources are healthy and sustainable [2].
2. Mori hold into rangatiratanga over taonga tuku iho [8].
3. All marae have developed and implemented succession plans in governance, management
and operations [4].
Rangatiratanga exhibiting leadership by example; the ability to bind people together;
following through on commitments.
4. Whnau and hap are knowledgeable and self sufficient [7].
5. Iwi investments provide employment and enrichment for members [3].
6. Kaumtua are involved and engaging in iwi/hap decision making and learning [5].
7. Governance groups are healthy, skilled, and provide strong kaupapa based guidance [1].
8. Self-determination is expressed within all social, business and professional environments [9].
Whanaungatanga recognising that our people are our wealth; knowing that you are not alone;
and assuring others that nor are they alone.
9. Mori business networks in the area are well supported [5].
10. Tautangata Mori are supporting the tino rangatiratanga of the mana whenua [5].
11. Tautangata Mori are supported in the learning, sharing and expression of their own
individual iwitanga [5].
12. Tangata whenua from abroad are engaging with Aotearoa Mori [4].
Pkengatanga teaching, preserving and creating knowledge as part of the Mtauranga
continuum.
13. All tamariki have access to whnau managed kura kaupapa education [2].
14. Whakatupu Mtauranga is active and returning benefits to the community [4].
15. Kaumtua contributions are sought after [5].
16. Enrolment targets for Wnanga and other Mori educational organisations are met [4].
Manaakitanga behaving in ways that elevate others; showing respect and consideration
toward others; generosity and fulfilling reciprocal obligations.
17. Whnau are shaping and participating in whnau wellbeing [4].
18. Hosting events of regional and national significance for Mori [5].
19. Celebrating and supporting, voluntary activities [6].
Kotahitanga making decision and taking actions that lead to the unity of purpose and not to
division and disharmony.
20. Relationships and communication between Mori are strong [10].
21. Consensus decision making is effective [5].
22. Rangatahi are involved in education and community [5].
53
23. Mori are engaging productively with the wider community [13].
Whakapapa Ranginui, Papatanuku and their children are here; our tpuna are beside us; we
are one with these as we carry out our role in the creation of our future; this is whakapapa.
24. Take opportunities for teaching whakapapa [5].
25. Hap are regularly engaging to share and celebrate whakapapa connections with each
other, and with other iwi [6].
26. Hui, including Hui-a-tau are well attended by members of whnau, hap and iwi [9].
kaiptanga having a sense of importance, of belong and of being a contributor to your land,
to your home, to your trangawaewae.
27. Mori influence community decision making [6].
28. Marae are well supported [3].
29. Marae express kaupapa tuku iho abundantly [5].
30. Marae are the preferred choice for events [6].
Te reo this is the repository of all that we are as Mori; ko te reo te kaipupuri I te Moritanga.
31. Take opportunities to learn/teach and use Te Reo [5].
32. Language revitalization plans in the place with whnau, hap and iwi [2].
33. Bilingual signage on the marae and in the community [2].
Wairuatanga recognising that our relationship with other and with our environment (maunga,
awa, moana, marae) is more than physical.
34. Develop skills based on inherited knowledge (values, models of thinking, weaving, rongoa
etc) [6].
35. Whnau and hap provide spiritual support [7].
36. Te Ao Mori events are celebrated [5].
Presented by
Kara Kearney
Joint Economic Forum
Horowhenua District Council Chambers
17 November 2010
Te Aho community and arrangements
The Kapiti Coast District Council and Horowhenua District Council have established a joint
economic forum that is chaired by Mayor Brendan Duffy. This forum developed its Community
Priorities and from these the Kapiti and Horowhenua Economic Development strategy that
identified four key priorities including Apparel & Textile Manufacturing; Food Production &
Processing; Tourism & Events and finally, Mori Enterprise. Under the Mori Enterprise priority
the Ng Pakihi Mori o Kapiti Horowhenua Report on Mori enterprise in the region was
prepared. One of the recommendations of that report was that a regional Mori economic
development strategy be prepared by Mori in the area with the support of the joint forum. The
forum agreed and resourced Mori contractors to bring together key Mori groups engaged in
Mori economic development activities to develop a strategy.
54
Those groups included iwi and hap representatives, industry sectors including land
incorporations, enterprise, health and social service providers, educationalists, retailers,
manufacturers, business services and others. Over the period of one day, the group worked to
prepare a Mori regional plan with a vision for a Mori community with strong whnau, skilled
individuals and organisations, plentiful and healthy natural resources, supported by the wider
society; living within kaupapa and tikanga.
The Te Aho community has grown to include our whnau, hap, iwi, Mori businesses, and
business associations, service providers, the Councils, government agencies, and a range of
funders.
Its important to understand that Te Aho is not a legal entity there is no bank account and no
constitution. Its a collective, a strategy that moves across the whenua of five Iwi and territories
of two district Councils. As projects are developed by the groups, one or more members will
apply and receive funding for that project. As an example, the Mori business network received
the funds for the coordinators salary from Enterprising Communities; the Mori economic
development agency received the marketing funds from Te Puni Kkiri; a PTE received the
funding for the development of the literacy and numeracy programme from TEC; and marae
generally receive the funding for the kaumtua and rangatahi forums from Pub Charities etc.
This is a strength of Te Aho; everyone makes a contribution, everyone benefits, and everyone is
accountable. In the expanded rohe Te Aho is now accountable to a population of 76,000 Mori,
with five iwi, 36 hap and almost 700 Mori businesses.
Potential for Manawatu groups to raise Ma
-
ori
community wellbeing
KAUPAPA & TIKANGA
RP WITH POTENTIAL TO CONTRIBUTE
IWI/
HAP
PAKIHI HEALTH EDU. OTHER
Whakapapa
1. Programmes that help us to
understand the values and experiences
of our tpuna are available.
2. Families live healthy lifestyles.
3. Families maintain healthy
relationships with each other, with
hap, and with their marae.
Whanaungatanga
4. Kaumtua are actively engaged and
contributing positively to society.
5. Mori entrepreneurs and business
owners are supported.
6. Police and MOJ personnel work
with whnau, hap and iwi.
7. Mori students are supported in
their study.
55
KAUPAPA & TIKANGA
RP WITH POTENTIAL TO CONTRIBUTE
IWI/
HAP
PAKIHI HEALTH EDU. OTHER
Wairuatanga
8. Mori lead spiritual lives of mutual
respect.
9. Whnau are growing, gathering and
preparing kai to sustain themselves
and members of their community.
Kaitiakitanga
10. Rangatahi are encouraged to
participate productively in their
community.
11. Mori are aware and engaged in
activities that protect and nurture te
taiao.
12. Whnau are maintaining and
protecting whakapapa.
Te Reo
13. Te Reo is a compulsory subject in
all primary and secondary schools.
14. Palmerston North adopts a policy
that promotes bilingual signage.
15. Numbers of te reo speakers are
being developed.
16. Kohanga reo, kura kaupapa and
wnanga are being established.
kaipotanga
17. Marae are seen as preferred venues
for events and functions by whnau.
18. Marae are active and busy serving
the needs of their community.
Manaakitanga
19. Kaumtua are supported in
contributions to whnau, hap and iwi.
20. Mori businesses employ Mori.
21. Mori are volunteering to
encourage and support others in need.
22. Community groups and service
providers are well resourced.
56
KAUPAPA & TIKANGA
RP WITH POTENTIAL TO CONTRIBUTE
IWI/
HAP
PAKIHI HEALTH EDU. OTHER
Rangatiratanga
23. Good role models are promoted to
rangatahi.
24. Effective leadership is
demonstrated at whnau, hap and iwi
level by kaumtua etc.
25. Mori are active and participating
in political affairs.
Kotahitanga
26. Whnau are engaging with other
cultures.
27. Iwi are involved and participating
positively in the community.
28. Iwi are working with each other.
29. Te Tiriti is promoted in the
community and included in primary
and secondary curriculum.
30. Mori are skilled and engaged in
the workforce.
31. Business support services
contribute to the Mori economy.
32. The community shares collective
responsibility for welfare of tamariki.
Pkengatanga
33. Mori culture is celebrated
through events, functions and
programmes.
34. Kapa haka groups are growing
their numbers and standards of
performance.
35. Kaumtua and others are ensuring
that tikanga and kawa are upheld on
marae and within the whnau and
hap.
36. Kaupapa Mori models are
developed and used in Mori
communities.
37. Preservation of mtauranga Mori
through informal and formal wnanga.
38. Financial literacy courses are
available at all marae.
39. Greater access to Mori
educational institutions.
40. Governance groups are
competently fulfilling their roles.
57
Potential means to monitor and measure displays
of tikanga
KAUPAPA & TIKANGA MONITOR
Whakapapa
1. Programmes that help us to understand the
values and experiences of our tpuna are freely
available.
Increased programme enrolments.
2. Families live healthy lifestyles. Decreased doctors visits/health care costs.
3. Families maintain healthy relationships with
each other, with hap, and with their marae.
Volunteer numbers/hours increase at marae and
other events.
Whanaungatanga
4. Kaumtua are actively engaged and
contributing positively to society.
Kaumtua Councils and forums are increasing in
number and in engagements.
5. Mori entrepreneurs and business owners are
supported.
Increased numbers of Mori businesses are
engaged by business mentors and management
programmes.
6. Police and Ministry of Justice personnel
work with whnau, hap and iwi.
Mori and whnau liaison officers are
engagements with whnau are increasingly
preventive in nature rather than punitive.
7. Mori students are supported in their study. Increased completion/graduation numbers.
Wairuatanga
8. Mori lead spiritual lives of mutual respect. Mori mental health numbers decrease.
9. Whnau are growing, gathering and
preparing kai to sustain themselves and
members of their community.
Maara kai numbers are increasing.
Kaitiakitanga
10. Rangatahi are encouraged to participate
productively in their community.
Opportunities for rangatahi engagement
increase.
11. Mori are aware and engaged in activities
that protect and nurture te taiao.
Natural habitats, native flora and fauna
increase in numbers and condition.
12. Whnau are maintaining and protecting
whakapapa.
Increased wnanga whakapapa are held by
hap and marae.
Te Reo
13. Te reo is a compulsory subject in all primary
and secondary schools.
Increased number of fluent speakers.
14. Palmerston North adopts a policy that
promotes bilingual signage.
Increased awareness of Mori place names
through increased signage.
15. Numbers of te reo speakers are being
developed.
Increased number of fluent speakers.
16 Kohanga reo, kura kaupapa and wnanga are
being established.
Numbers of Mori programmes.
58
KAUPAPA & TIKANGA MONITOR
kaipotanga
17. Marae are seen as preferred venues for
events and functions by whnau.
Increased marae bookings and revenues.
18. Marae are active and busy serving the needs
of their community.
Volunteer numbers increase.
Manaakitanga
19. Kaumtua are supported in contributions to
whnau, hap and iwi.
Kaumtua are visible in the community.
20. Mori businesses employ Mori. Mori unemployment numbers decrease.
21. Mori are volunteering to encourage and
support others in need.
Volunteer numbers are increasing.
22. Community groups and service providers are
well resourced.
Providers have efficient and effective
personnel, programmes are relevant.
Rangatiratanga
23. Good role models are promoted to
rangatahi.
Youth mentoring programmes are well
supported.
24. Effective leadership is demonstrated at
whnau, hap and iwi level by kaumtua and
others.
Whanau wellbeing is increasing.
25. Mori are developing strong sense of
identity and self-confidence.
Marae attendances are increasing.
26. Mori are active and participating in
political affairs.
Voter registrations and voting numbers increase.
Kotahitanga
27. Whnau are engaging with other cultures. Bicultural events are organised.
28. Iwi are involved and participating positively
in the community.
Iwi are visible and relevant in the community.
29. Iwi are working with each other. Iwi relationships are positive and meaningful.
30. Te Tiriti is promoted in the community and
included in primary and secondary curriculum.
Increased awareness and discussions around
Treaty issues.
31. Mori are skilled and engaged in the
workforce.
Mori incomes rise.
32. Business support services contribute to the
Mori economy.
Increased numbers of business enterprises.
33. The community shares collective
responsibility for welfare of tamariki.
Community programmes and arrangements are
developed.
Pkengatanga
34. Mori culture is celebrated through events,
functions and programmes.
Increased numbers of events that are well
attended.
35. Kapa haka groups are growing their
numbers and standards of performance.
Increased attendances, increased competition.
36. Kaumtua and others are ensuring that
tikanga and kawa are upheld on marae and
within the whnau and hap.
Kaumtua Councils are well attended,
Kaumtua are increasingly visible at marae.
59
KAUPAPA & TIKANGA MONITOR
37. Kaupapa Mori models are developed and
used in Mori communities.
Expressions of kaupapa are increased across the
Mori community.
38. Preservation of mtauranga Mori through
informal and formal wnanga learning.
Numbers of courses, attendances and
completions increase.
39. Financial literacy courses are available at
all marae.
Whanau are increasingly taking control and
responsibility for their own financial affairs.
40 Greater access to Mori educational
institutions.
TEO and TEI enrolment numbers increase.
41. Governance groups are competently
fulfilling their roles.
Kaupapa Mori governance training is
underway.
Worksheet for the Te Papaioea Study
Enter your growth indicator name here 69
1 Whakapapa Growth quality scores
1. Programmes that help us to understand the values and experiences
of our tpuna are available.
0 R/G
2. Families live healthy lifestyles. 1 R
3. Families maintain healthy relationships with each other, with hap,
and with their marae.
1 R
2 Pkengatanga
4. Mori culture is celebrated through events, functions and programmes. 0 G
5. Kapa haka groups are growing their numbers and standards of
performance.
-1 G
6. Kaumtua and others are ensuring that tikanga and kawa are
upheld on marae and within the whnau and hap.
0 R/G
7. Kaupapa Mori models are developed and used in Mori
communities.
1 G
8. Preservation of mtauranga Mori through informal and formal
wnanga.
1 G
9. Financial literacy courses are available at all marae. 0 R/G
10. Greater access to Mori educational institutions. -1 G
11. Governance groups are competently fulfilling their roles. -1 R
3 Whanaungatanga
12. Kaumtua are actively engaged and contributing positively to society. 1 R/G
13. Mori entrepreneurs and business owners are supported. -1 G
14. Police and MOJ personnel work with whnau, hap and iwi. 0 R/G
15. Mori students are supported in their study. 0 R/G
4 kaiptanga
16. Marae are seen as preferred venues for events and functions by
whnau.
1 G
60
17. Marae are active and busy serving the needs of their community. 0 G
5 Wairuatanga
18. Mori lead spiritual lives of mutual respect. 0 R
19. Whnau are growing, gathering and preparing kai to sustain
themselves and members of their community.
1 G
6 Rangatiratanga
20. Good role models are promoted to rangatahi. 0 G
21. Effective leadership is demonstrated at whnau, hap and iwi level
by kaumtua etc.
0 R/G
22. Mori are active and participating in political affairs. 1 G
7 Kaitiakitanga
23. Rangatahi are encouraged to participate productively in their
community.
0 R/G
24. Mori are aware and engaged in activities that protect and
nurture te taiao.
0 R/G
8 Kotahitanga
25. Whnau are engaging with other cultures. 0 R
26. Iwi are involved and participating positively in the community. -1 R
27. Iwi are working with each other. -1 R/G
28. Te Tiriti is promoted in the community and included in primary and
secondary curriculum.
0 R
29. Mori are skilled and engaged in the workforce. 0 R/G
30. Business support services contribute to the Mori economy. -1 G
31. The community shares collective responsibility for welfare of
tamariki.
-1 R
9 Te Reo
32. Te reo is a compulsory subject in all primary and secondary schools. 0 G
33. Palmerston North adopts a policy that promotes bilingual signage. 0 G
34. Numbers of Te Reo speakers are being developed. 1 G
35. Kohanga reo, kura kaupapa and wnanga are being established. -1 G
10 Manaakitanga
36. Kaumtua are supported in contributions to whnau, hap and iwi. 1 R/G
37. Mori businesses employ Mori. 1 G
38. Mori are volunteering to encourage and support others in need. 0 R/G
39. Community groups and service providers are well resourced. -1 G
Total growth score 69
Total growth quality score 1
Genuine progress indicator growth score 70
Potential GPI indicator growth score 108
61
QuickStats About Manawatu District
28,254 people usually live in Manawatu District. This is an increase of 744 people, or 2.7
percent, since the 2001 Census.
Its population ranks 41st in size out of the 73 districts in New Zealand.
Manawatu District has 0.7 percent of New Zealands population.
Population of Manawatu District and New Zealand, 2006 Census
Region/City/District New Zealand
Male 14,052 1,965,618
Female 14,202 2,062,326
Total 28,254 4,027,947
3,867 Mori usually live in Manawatu District, an increase of 501 people, or 14.9 percent,
since the 2001 Census.
Its Mori population ranks 42nd in size out of the 73 districts in New Zealand.
0.7 percent of New Zealands Mori population usually live in Manawatu District.
Mori Population of Manawatu District and New Zealand, 2006 Census
Region/City/District New Zealand
Male 1,956 274,860
Female 1,911 290,469
Total 3,867 565,329
Note: The Mori ethnic population is the count for people of the Mori ethnic group. It includes
those people who stated Mori as being either their sole ethnic group or one of several ethnic
groups.
There are 10,515 occupied dwellings and 1,029 unoccupied dwellings in Manawatu District.
For New Zealand as a whole, there are 1,478,709 occupied dwellings and 159,273
unoccupied dwellings.
There are 96 dwellings under construction in Manawatu District, compared with 13,557
under construction throughout New Zealand.
Regional Council - Manawatu Regional Council
Territorial Authorities - Manawatu District
62
QuickStats About Palmerston North City
75,540 people usually live in Palmerston North City. This is an increase of 3,507 people, or
4.9 percent, since the 2001 Census.
Its population ranks 12th in size out of the 73 districts in New Zealand.
Palmerston North City has 1.9 percent of New Zealands population.
Population of Palmerston North City and New Zealand, 2006 Census
Region/City/District New Zealand
Male 36,345 1,965,621
Female 39,192 2,062,326
Total 75,543 4,027,947
11,316 Mori usually live in Palmerston North City, an increase of 1,890 people, or 20.1
percent, since the 2001 Census.
Its Mori population ranks 17th in size out of the 73 districts in New Zealand.
2.0 percent of New Zealands Mori population usually live in Palmerston North City.
Mori Population of Palmerston North City and New Zealand, 2006 Census
Region/City/District New Zealand
Male 5,577 274,860
Female 5,739 290,466
Total 11,316 565,329
Note: The Mori ethnic population is the count for people of the Mori ethnic group. It includes
those people who stated Mori as being either their sole ethnic group or one of several ethnic
groups.
There are 27,849 occupied dwellings and 1,662 unoccupied dwellings in Palmerston North
City.
For New Zealand as a whole, there are 1,478,709 occupied dwellings and 159,276
unoccupied dwellings.
There are 189 dwellings under construction in Palmerston North City, compared with 13,560
under construction throughout New Zealand.
Regional Council - Manawatu Regional Council
Territorial Authorities - Palmerston North City Council
63
QuickStats About Horowhenua District
29,865 people usually live in Horowhenua District. This is an increase of 42 people, or 0.1
percent, since the 2001 Census.
Its population ranks 39th in size out of the 73 districts in New Zealand.
Horowhenua District has 0.7 percent of New Zealands population.
Population of Horowhenua District and New Zealand, 2006 Census
Region/City/District New Zealand
Male 14,301 1,965,621
Female 15,564 2,062,329
Total 29,868 4,027,947
6,078 Mori usually live in Horowhenua District, an increase of 282 people, or 4.9 percent,
since the 2001 Census.
Its Mori population ranks 30th in size out of the 73 districts in New Zealand.
1.1 percent of New Zealands Mori population usually live in Horowhenua District.
Mori Population of Horowhenua District and New Zealand, 2006 Census
Region/City/District New Zealand
Male 2,910 274,860
Female 3,165 290,469
Total 6,075 565,329
Note: The Mori ethnic population is the count for people of the Mori ethnic group. It includes
those people who stated Mori as being either their sole ethnic group or one of several ethnic
groups.
There are 12,027 occupied dwellings and 2,181 unoccupied dwellings in Horowhenua
District.
For New Zealand as a whole, there are 1,478,709 occupied dwellings and 159,273
unoccupied dwellings.
There are 111 dwellings under construction in Horowhenua District, compared with 13,557
under construction throughout New Zealand.
Regional Council - Manawatu Regional Council
Territorial Authorities - Horowhenua District Council
64
QuickStats About Kapiti Coast District
46,200 people usually live in Kapiti Coast District. This is an increase of 3,753 people, or 8.8
percent, since the 2001 Census.
Its population ranks 22nd in size out of the 73 districts in New Zealand.
Kapiti Coast District has 1.1 percent of New Zealands population.
Population of Kapiti Coast District and New Zealand, 2006 Census
Region/City/District New Zealand
Male 21,486 1,965,618
Female 24,711 2,062,329
Total 46,197 4,027,947
5,481 Mori usually live in Kapiti Coast District, an increase of 624 people, or 12.8 percent,
since the 2001 Census.
Its Mori population ranks 31st in size out of the 73 districts in New Zealand.
1.0 percent of New Zealands Mori population usually live in Kapiti Coast District.
Mori Population of Kapiti Coast District and New Zealand, 2006 Census
Region/City/District New Zealand
Male 2,562 274,860
Female 2,916 290,469
Total 5,478 565,326
Note: The Mori ethnic population is the count for people of the Mori ethnic group. It includes
those people who stated Mori as being either their sole ethnic group or one of several ethnic
groups.
There are 19,368 occupied dwellings and 3,048 unoccupied dwellings in Kapiti Coast
District.
For New Zealand as a whole, there are 1,478,709 occupied dwellings and 159,276
unoccupied dwellings.
There are 168 dwellings under construction in Kapiti Coast District, compared with 13,560
under construction throughout New Zealand.
Regional Council - Wellington Regional Council
Territorial Authorities - Kapiti Coast District Council
65
QuickStats About Porirua City
48,546 people usually live in Porirua City. This is an increase of 1,179 people, or 2.5 percent,
since the 2001 Census.
Its population ranks 21st in size out of the 73 districts in New Zealand.
Porirua City has 1.2 percent of New Zealands population.
Population of Porirua City and New Zealand, 2006 Census
Region/City/District New Zealand
Male 23,634 1,965,618
Female 24,912 2,062,329
Total 48,546 4,027,947
9,642 Mori usually live in Porirua City, an increase of 261 people, or 2.8 percent, since the
2001 Census.
Its Mori population ranks 20th in size out of the 73 districts in New Zealand.
1.7 percent of New Zealands Mori population usually live in Porirua City.
Mori Population of Porirua City and New Zealand, 2006 Census
Region/City/District New Zealand
Male 4,539 274,860
Female 5,106 290,469
Total 9,645 565,329
Note: The Mori ethnic population is the count for people of the Mori ethnic group. It includes
those people who stated Mori as being either their sole ethnic group or one of several ethnic
groups.
There are 15,564 occupied dwellings and 804 unoccupied dwellings in Porirua City.
For New Zealand as a whole, there are 1,478,709 occupied dwellings and 159,276
unoccupied dwellings.
There are 108 dwellings under construction in Porirua City, compared with 13,560 under
construction throughout New Zealand.
Regional Council - Wellington Regional Council
Territorial Authorities - Porirua City Council
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Glossary
GDP Gross Domestic Product
GPI Genuine Progress Indicator
Hap a cluster of families
He kkano i ruia mai i Rangitea an individual of Mori descent
He Oranga Hapori community wellbeing
Horowhenua district south of Manawatu
Hui meeting
hui-a-tau annual meeting
Iwi a cluster of hap
Kaikaranga caller
kai moana seafood
Kaitiakitanga Guardianship/Stewardship
Kaitiakitanga Survey Guardianship survey
Kapiti district north of Porirua
Kaupapa value
kaupapa tuku iho inherited value
kwanatanga governorship
Kaumtua elders
Kaunihera Kaumtua Council of Elders
khanga reo language nest
Kotahitanga unity and common purpose
Kura school
kura kaupapa kura kaupapa Mori - Mori medium school
Mra Kai community garden
Mana the regard that others hold based on how one manages oneself
and one's affairs
Manaakitanga generosity and reciprocity
Mana a iwi / mana a rp the regard that others hold based on how an iwi or rp
manages its affairs
mana enhancing behaviours that increase the mana of the recipient and those
performing the activity
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Mori wellbeing a Mori state of being that is characterised by the abundant
expression of kaupapa tuku iho
Mori worldview the beliefs and practices that tpuna Mori developed in the 800-
1000 years leading up to the 1600s and have since maintained
Marae Mori meeting place
Matariki both the name of the Pleiades star cluster and also of the
season of its first rising in late May or early June
Mtauranga Mori continuum accumulated Mori knowledge base
mau rkau Mori martial arts
mteatea chant
Muaupoko an Iwi of the Kurahaupo waka
Ngti Toarangatira an Iwi of the Tainui waka
Ngti Tukorehe an Iwi of the Tainui waka
Ngti Raukawa ki te tonga n Iwi of the Tainui waka
Noho sit or overnight stay
Pakihi Mori Mori business
Pkengatanga Ability and education
Rangitne an Iwi of the Kurahaupo
Rangatiratanga sovereignty and self determination
Ringawera cooks and kitchen hands
Rongoa medicine
rp mtauranga education group
rp tautoko upport group
rp tuku iho inherited group
takiw region
taonga that which we value highly
taonga tuku iho that which our tpuna valued and passed onto us
taiaha spear
taura here a grouping of Mori who have their main affiliation to iwi in
areas other than where they reside
tauiwi non Mori
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tautangata Mori Mori person with their affiliation to iwi in areas other than
where they reside
tangata whenua people of the land
Te Aho a Mori strategy for regional development within the Whitireia
to Rangitikei River boundaries
Te Ao Mori the Mori world
Te Whare Wnanga o Ataarangi
Te Ati Awa ki Whakarongotai An Iwi of the Tokomaru waka
Te Huihuinga the gathering
Te Mana Whakahaere the governing body of Te Wnanga o Raukawa
Te Papaioea Palmerston North
Te Reo the language
Te Tiriti o Waitangi Treaty of Waitangi
Te Wnanga o Aotearoa Mori Tertiary Education Institution with multiple campuses
and courses
Te Wnanga o Raukawa a Mori centre of learning based in taki delivering
14 undergraduate and eight postgraduate programmes
Tikanga customs
tino rangatiratanga absolute sovereignty
Trangawaewae place of standing
tpuna Mori Mori ancestors
kaiptanga where one's contributions are valued and where there is a
sense of belonging
Waiata song
wairuatanga spirituality
wnanga whakapapa genealogy
whaikrero formal speech
whakapapa genealogy
whakatupu mtauranga knowledge developed
whnau family (extended)
whanaungatanga relationships and interconnectedness
whanaunga relation
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Contact the Taskforce
Chair of the Mori Economic Taskforce: The Hon Dr Pita R Sharples, Minister of Mori Affairs
Taskforce Secretariat: Carol Berghan
Postal Address: PO Box 18041, Parliament Building, Wellington 6160
Address: Level 7, Bowen House, Wellington
Contact: Phone : 04 817 9800 | Fax : 04 817 6525 | Email : met@tpk.govt.nz | Web : www.tpk.govt.nz