by PenchalaRaju Yanamala

1. What is the use of ls -l command & what is the information it gives about user? A: - $ ls -l given the sorted file in long listing format. it gives the information such as type(file/directory), permissions. Given to file, links, owner, group user detail, date & time of modification etc. 2. What is an Environment Variable? A: - Environment variables are a set of dynamic named values that can affect the way running processes will behave on a computer. 3. Write a grep command that selects the lines from a file that have exactly three characters? A: - $ grep ^...$ <filename> 4. The rm command removes links to file. What does this mean? How then is a file deleted from the file system? A: - rm never delete the link. Only file get removed from index. So it will not come when you will use ls command 5. how to change a normal file into hidden file A:- my filename .filename. 6. What is "type" command in UNIX? What is the functionality?? A: - type [-aftpP] name [name ...] with no options, indicate how each name would be interpreted if used as a command name. 7. how to find largest file? A:-In the Directry Give....ls -ls|sort -nr|head -1that gives the largest file statistics... 8. How do you find which version and name of UNIX you are using at the command prompt? A:-Your name -a in HP-UX version name -s Operating system name -r release of the

9. What is the command to change a file's creation time? Means one file is created at the time 15:19 then time should br changed to 14:14 A:-use touch command to change the date 10. What will be the output of ls ~/... A:-it will list the contents of home directory 11. Give the command to display space usage on the UNIX file system. A:- df -k . 12. What is use of sed command?

A:- sed is a stream editor for editing files from a script or from the command line 12.how to remotely move a file ??? that mean how to move a file one machine to another machine ??? A:- By ftp 13. What is file system in unix?? A:- ufs file system 14. How to setup Disk space as well as memory in solaris10? A:- 1-BY using format command we can find the status of hard disk format 2-For knowing the memory status #prtconf grep Mem 15. Why we are using UNIX OS when we are doing the testing in our application? A:- Security, Multitasking and backup etc.. 16. What is FIND, GREP and SED ? Could you please give me the difference between all the three? Where we use this commnands? A:- FIND & GREP Basically FIND & GREP are the UNIX commands shared through the FILTERS .Where is SED (STREAM) is one of the main editor. FIND : Find is an exclusive command used to find files/folders are other information.and this is powerfull then windows. ex : # find /raja -name shekar -print output : raja/shekar Grep : This is also one of the important command used toglobally searching the regular expression in the file .GERP is grepping the information character by character.(i.e) from file .ex 1) : #GREP "cat" raja 2) : #GREP -i "cat" raja (for case sensitive) 2) : #GREP -v "cat" raja (v represent negative ) OUTPUT :if we have an file raja with data regarding cat we can clearly explain.Finally SED (STREAM) 17. what is the use of the hidden files? A:- the use of hidden file is my file is not view any another to use only to show myself 18. How many types of file in UNIX? A:- total 7 files are there. 1. Regular file:(-):contains data in either text format orbinary format

2. Directory file:(d):contains entries of files 3. FIFO file:(f):2 communicate betn 2 processes running onsame system 4. Block special file:(b):name given 2 special blocks ofhard disk 5. Sybolic file:(l):its a link or pointer to alreadyexisting file 6. Socket file:(s):2 communicate betn 2 processes running on different system in a network 7. Character special file:(c):handles only characted formatted data eg.stdin, stdout, stderr 19. How will u execute a file in unix? IMP A:- Depending on the type of shell you can execute a file in either of the ways 1) ksh <filename> 2) sh <filename> If the file already possess execute bit set on it, then you can directly execute the file with its name alone 1) <filename> Or if the file doesn't have executable permissions than assign the same as chmod 755 <filename>. after that execute the same by using command ./<filename>. 20. How do you create a file in UNIX? $ cat >fruits.txt Apple,orange, grapes ^d (Press control+d) $ cat fruits.txt Apple,orange,grapes. or

using touch & cat command. 21. Write a command to find all of the files which have been accessed within the last 30 days. A:- find / -type f -atime -30 > November.files & This command will find all the files under root, which is "/", with file type is file. "-atime -30" will give all the files accessed less than 30 days ago. And the output will put into a file call November.files. 22. which command is used to stop a running process in unix? A:- kill -9 pid its forcefully stop kill the curent process

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