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Vocabulary related to society
Standard of living
A grade or level of subsistence and comfort in everyday life enjoyed by a community, class, or individual
A society is a population of humans characterized by patterns of relationships between individuals that share a
distinctive culture and/or institutions. More broadly, a society is an economic, social and industrial infrastructure, in
which a varied multitude of people are a part of. Members of a society may be from different ethnic groups.
Antisocial (against society) is often used in colloquial speech to mean unfriendly or not sociable (asocial). In
scientific use, antisocial refers more specifically to a person who is harmful or hostile to others, or to society in
Social exclusion
Social exclusion relates to the alienation or disenfranchisement of certain people within a society. It is often
connected to a person's social class, educational status, relationships in childhood and living standards and how
these might affect access to various opportunities. It also applies to some degree to people with a disability, to
minority men and women of all races, to the elderly, and to youth (Youth Exclusion). Anyone who deviates in any
perceived way from the norm of a population may become subject to coarse or subtle forms of social exclusion.
Here are some definitions of Social exclusion :
Social exclusion is about the inability of our society to keep all groups and individuals within reach of what we
expect as a society...[or] to realize their full potential."
"Whatever the content and criteria of social membership, socially excluded groups and individuals lack
capacity or access to social opportunity.

Social class
Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions (or stratification) between individuals or groups in societies or
People may be part of lower, middle or higher classes.
A minority or subordinate group is a sociological group that does not constitute a politically dominant voting
majority of the total population of a given society.
Examples of minority groups include emigrants, blacks, ...
Social solidarity
Social solidarity refers to the integration, and degree and type of integration, shown by a society or group.
A voluntary association or union (also sometimes called a voluntary organization, unincorporated association, or
just an association) is a group of individuals who voluntarily enter into an agreement to form a body (or
organization) to accomplish a purpose for the good of society.
Examples of association include associations for the defense of human rights, minorities, the disabled ...
Multicultural Society
A society in which there is a cultural diversity.
Health care
Health care, or healthcare, is the prevention, treatment, and management of illness and the preservation of health
through services offered by the medical, dental, nursing, and allied health professions.
Voluntary work
Voluntary work is done by volunteers for the benefit of a community or society.
A volunteer is someone who works for a community or for the benefit of environment primarily because they
choose to do so. Volunteers do not normally get paid.
Homelessness is the condition and social category of people who lack housing, because they cannot afford, or
are otherwise unable to maintain, regular, safe, and adequate shelter. People who are part of this social category
are called homeless people.
Poverty is the deprivation of common necessities such as food, clothing, shelter and safe drinking water, all of
which determine our quality of life. It may also include the lack of access to opportunities such as education and
employment which aid the escape from poverty and/or allow one to enjoy the respect of fellow citizens.
Citizenship is membership in a political community (originally a city or town but now usually a country) and carries
with it rights to political participation; a person having such membership is a citizen.
Gender Roles
A gender role is defined as a set of perceived behavioral norms associated particularly with males or females, in
a given social group or system. It can be a form of division of labor by gender.
Domestic violence
Domestic violence (also known as domestic abuse or spousal abuse) occurs when a family member, partner or
ex-partner attempts to physically or psychologically dominate another. Domestic violence often refers to violence
between spouses, or spousal abuse but can also include cohabitants and non-married intimate partners.

2) Personal Values and Ideals

a moral dilemma
code/ creed/ ethics/ rules/ beliefs
compassion for people in need/ charity
betray/lie to/ double cross
loyal/ trustworthy

Personal Values Checklist:

Achievement Friendship Physical challenge
Advancement and promotion Growth Pleasure
Adventure Having a family Power and authority
Affection (love and caring) Helping other people Privacy
Arts Helping society Public service
Challenging problems Honesty Purity
Change and variety Independence Quality of what I take part in
Close relationships Influencing others Quality relationships
Community Inner harmony Recognition (respect from
others, status)
Competence Integrity Religion
Competition Intellectual status Reputation
Cooperation Involvement Responsibility and accountability
Country Job tranquility Security
Creativity Knowledge Self-Respect
Decisiveness Leadership Serenity
Democracy Location Sophistication
Ecological awareness Loyalty Stability
Economic security Market position Status
Effectiveness Meaningful work Supervising others
Efficiency Merit Time freedom
Ethical practice Money Truth
Excellence Nature Wealth
Excitement being around people who
are open and honest
Fame Order (tranquility,
stability, conformity)
Work under pressure
Fast living Personal development Work with others
Financial gain Freedom Working alone

3) Employment Vocabulary

Employee - a person who works for another person or for a company for wages or a salary.
Employer - a person or company that has people who do work for wages or a salary : a person or company that
has employees.
Worker - a person who does a particular job to earn money.
Apprentice - a person who learns a job or skill by working for a fixed period of time for someone who is very
good at that job or skill.
Trainee - a person who is being trained for a job.
Intern a student or recent graduate who works for a period of time at a job in order to get experience.
Full-time job - working the full number of hours considered normal or standard. Normally 8.
Part-time job - working or involving fewer hours than is considered normal or standard.
Shifts - the scheduled period of time during which a person works.
Overtime - time spent working at your job that is in addition to your normal working hours.
Flexitime - a system in which employees are required to work a certain number of hours but are allowed to
choose their own times for starting and finishing work.
Occupation - the work that a person does : a persons job or profession.
Profession - a type of job that requires special education, training, or skill.
Earn your living - to get (money, a salary, etc.) for work that you have done.
To get a raise to receive an increase in the amount of your pay.
Promotion - the act of promoting someone or something: such as a : the act of moving someone to a higher or
more important position or rank in an organization.
Maternity leave not going to work for a specific period of time since you have just given birth.
Salary - an amount of money that an employee is paid each year.
Wage very similar to salary: an amount of money that a worker is paid based on the number of hours, days, etc.,
that are worked.

Unemployment Vocabulary

Period of notice - a statement telling someone that an agreement, job, etc., will end soon.
To be unemployed to be without a job.
To be out of work to be without a job.
To be on the dole - money that a government gives to people who do not have jobs or who are very poor.
To fire somebody - to dismiss (someone) from a job.
To sack somebody - to dismiss (someone) from a job.
To hand in ones notice to give your boss a statement telling someone that an agreement, job, etc., will end
To resign - to give up (a job or position) in a formal or official way.
To quit - to leave (a job, school, career, etc.).
Unemployment benefit - money that is paid by a company (such as an insurance company) or by a government
when someone dies, becomes sick, stops working, etc.

Union Vocabulary
Demonstration - an act of showing someone how something is used or done.
Reforms - an action, plan, rule, etc., that is meant to improve something.
Strike a period of time when workers stop work in order to force an employer to agree to their demands.
Boycott - to refuse to buy, use, or participate in (something) as a way of protesting.

4) Unexplained Phenomena and Events Vocab

Skeptic (noun)
Skeptical (adjective)

Common Superstitions

Friday the thirteenth is an unlucky day
A rabbit's foot brings good luck
An apple a day keeps the doctor away
To find a four-leaf clover is to find good luck
If you walk under a ladder, you will have bad luck
If a black cat crosses your path you will have bad luck
To break a mirror will bring you seven years bad luck
To open an umbrella in the house is to bring bad luck
To find a horseshoe brings good luck
Step on a crack, break your mother's back
You can break a bad luck spell by turning seven times in a clockwise circle
Garlic protects from evil spirits and vampires
Our fate is written in the stars
At the end of a rainbow is a pot of gold
Clothes worn inside out will bring good luck
Wearing your birthstone will bring you good luck
If you blow out all of the candles on your birthday cake with the first breath you will get whatever you wish
To have a wish come true using a wishbone, two people make a wish, then take hold of each end of the
bone and pull it until it separates. The person with the longer end gets his or her wish
An itchy palm means money will come your way
A beginner will always have good luck: beginner's luck
A cat has nine lives

Crossing your fingers helps to avoid bad luck and helps a wish come true
It is bad luck to sing at the table
It is bad luck to sleep on a table
A bird that comes in your window brings bad luck
To refuse a kiss under mistletoe causes bad luck

5) National Environmental Concerns

acid rain lluvia cida
carbon dioxide dixido de carbono
chemicals sustancias qumicas
climate change cambio climtico
conservation conservacin
contaminant contaminante
contamination contaminacin
deforestation deforestacin
eco-friendly que no daa el medio ambiente
ecological ecolgico
ecologist ecologista
ecosystem ecosistema
effluent aguas residuales
endangered species especies en peligro de extincin
environment medio ambiente
environmental medioambiental
environmentalist ecologista
environmentally friendly que no daa el medio ambiente
extinction extincin
garbage disposal (US) eliminacin de residuos
garbage separation (US) separacin de residuos
global warming calentamiento global
greenhouse effect efecto invernadero
noise pollution contaminacin acstica
nuclear radiation radiacin nuclear
organic orgnico
ozone ozono
ozone-friendly que no daa la capa de ozono
ozone layer capa de ozono
pollution polucin, contaminacin
radioactive substance sustancia radiactiva
radioactive waste residuos radiactivos
radioactivity radiactividad
recyclable reciclable
recycled reciclado
recycling reciclaje
reforestation repoblacin forestal
sewage aguas residuales
sewage farm (GB) estacin depuradora
sewage plant (US) estacin depuradora
sewage works (GB) estacin depuradora
smog smog
solar energy energa solar
sulphur dioxide (GB) dixido de azufre
sulfur dioxide (US) dixido de azufre
toxic waste residuos txicos
waste separation (GB) separacin de residuos
waste disposal (GB) eliminacin de residuos
wind power energa elica
to become extinct extinguirse
to conserve conservar
to contaminate contaminar
to die out extinguirse
to poison envenenar
to pollute contaminar
to recycle reciclar

7) Public Figures Past and Present


bad guy
famous person
to achieve
to be successful
to contribute
to disgrace
to admire