Inequalities
The term inequality is applied to any statement involving one of the symbols <, >, , .
Example of inequalities are:
i. x 1
ii. x + y + 2z > 16
iii. p
2
+ q
2
1/2
iv. a
2
+ ab > 1
Fundamental Properties of Inequalities
1. If a b and c is any real number, then a + c b + c.
For example, 3 1 implies 3+4 1 + 4.
2. If a b and c is positive, then ac bc.
For example, 2 3 implies 2(4) 3(4).
3. If a b and c is negative, then ac bc.
For example, 3 9 implies 3(2) 9(2).
4. If a b and b c, then a c.
For example, 1/2 2 and 2 8/3 imply 1/2 8/3.
Solution of Inequality
By solution of the one variable inequality 2x + 3 7 we mean any number which
substituted for x yields a true statement.
For example, 1 is a solution of 2x + 3 7 since 2(1) + 3 = 5 and 5 is less than and equal to
7.
By a solution of the two variable inequality x  y 5 we mean any ordered pair of numbers
which when substituted for x and y, respectively, yields a true statement.
For example, (2, 1) is a solution of x  y 5 because 21 = 1 and 1 5.
By a solution of the three variable inequality 2x  y + z 3 we means an ordered triple of
number which when substituted for x, y and z respectively, yields a true statement.
For example, (2, 0, 1) is a solution of 2x  y + z 3.
A solution of an inequality is said to satisfy the inequality. For example, (2, 1) is satisfy x 
y 5.
Two or more inequalities, each with the same variables, considered as a unit, are said to
form a system of inequalities. For example,
x 0
y 0
2x + y 4
Note that the notion of a system of inequalities is analogous to that of a solution of a
system of equations.
Any solution common to all of the inequalities of a system of inequalities is said to be a
solution of that system of inequalities. A system of inequalities, each of whose members is
linear, is said to be a system of linear inequalities.
Geometric Interpretation of Inequalities
An inequality in two variable x and y describes a region in the xy plane (called its graph),
namely, the set of all points whose coordinates satisfy the inequality.
The yaxis divide, the xyplane into two regions, called halfplanes.
Right halfplane
The region of points whose coordinates satisfy inequality x > 0.
Left halfplane
The region of points whose coordinates satisfy inequality x < 0.
Similarly, the xaxis divides the xyplane into two halfplanes.
Upper halfplane
In which inequality y > 0 is true.
Lower halfplane
In which inequality y < 0 is true.
What is xaxis and yaxis? They are simply lines. So, the above arguments can be applied
to any line.
Every line ax + by = c divides the xyplane into two regions called its halfplanes.
On one halfplane ax + by > c is true.
On the other halfplane ax + by < c is true.
Linear Equations
One Unknown
A linear equation in one unknown can always be stated into the standard form
ax = b
where x is an unknown and a and b are constants. If a is not equal to zero, this equation
has a unique solution
x = b/a
Two Unknowns
A linear equation in two unknown, x and y, can be put into the form
ax + by = c
where x and y are two unknowns and a, b, c are real numbers. Also, we assume that a
and b are no zero.
Solution of Linear Equation
A solution of the equation consists of a pair of number, u = (k
1
, k
2
), which satisfies the
equation ax + by = c. Mathematically speaking, a solution consists of u = (k
1
, k
2
)
such that ak
1
+ bk
2
= c. Solution of the equation can be found by assigning arbitrary
values to x and solving for y OR assigning arbitrary values to y and solving for x.
Geometrically, any solution u = (k
1
, k
2
) of the linear equation ax + by = c determine a
point in the cartesian plane. Since a and b are not zero, the solution u correspond precisely
to the points on a straight line.
Two Equations in the Two Unknowns
A system of two linear equations in the two unknowns x and y is
a
1
x + b
1
x = c
1
a
2
x + b
2
x = c
2
Where a
1
, a
2
, b
1
, b
2
are not zero. A pair of numbers which satisfies both equations is called
a simultaneous solution of the given equations or a solution of the system of equations.
Geometrically, there are three cases of a simultaneous solution
1. If the system has exactly one solution, the graph of the linear equations intersect in
one point.
2. If the system has no solutions, the graphs of the linear equations are parallel.
3. If the system has an infinite number of solutions, the graphs of the linear equations
coincide.
The special cases (2) and (3) can only occur when the coefficient of x and y in the two
linear equations are proportional.
OR => a
1
b
2

a
2
b
1
= 0 => = 0
The system has no solution when
The solution to system
a
1
x + b
1
x = c
1
a
2
x + b
2
x = c
2
can be obtained by the elimination process, whereby reduce the system to a single equation
in only one unknown. This is accomplished by the following algorithm
ALGORITHM
Step 1 Multiply the two equation by two numbers which are such that
the resulting coefficients of one of the unknown are negative of
each other.
Step 2 Add the equations obtained in Step 1.
The output of this algorithm is a linear equation in one unknown. This equation may be
solved for that unknown, and the solution may be substituted in one of the original
equations yielding the value of the other unknown.
As an example, consider the following system
3x + 2y = 8  (1)
2x  5y = 1  (2)
Step 1: Multiply equation (1) by 2 and equation (2) by 3
6x + 4y = 16
6x + 15y = 3
Step 2: Add equations, output of Step 1
19y = 19
Thus, we obtain an equation involving only unknown y. we solve for y to obtain
y = 1
Next, we substitute y =1 in equation (1) to get
x = 2
Therefore, x = 2 and y = 1 is the unique solution to the system.
n Equations in n Unknowns
Now, consider a system of n linear equations in n unknowns
a
11
x
1
+ a
12
x
2
+ . . . + a
1n
x
n
= b
1
a
21
x
1
+ a
22
x
2
+ . . . + a
2n
x
n
= b
2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
a
n1
x
1
+ a
n2
x
2
+ . . . + a
nn
x
n
= b
n
Where the a
ij
, b
i
are real numbers. The number a
ij
is called the coefficient of x
j
in the i
th
equation, and the number b
i
is called the constant of the ith equation. A list of values for
the unknowns,
x
1
= k
1
, x
2
= k
2
, . . . , x
n
= k
n
or equivalently, a list of n numbers
u = (k
1
, k
2
, . . . , k
n
)
is called a solution of the system if, with k
j
substituted for x
j
, the left hand side of each
equation in fact equals the right hand side.
The above system is equivalent to the matrix equation.
or, simply we can write A = B, where A = (a
ij
), = (x
i
), and B = (b
i
).
The matrix is called the coefficient matrix of the system of n linear
equations in the system of n unknown.
The matrix is called the augmented matrix of n linear
equations in n unknown.
Note for algorithmic nerds: we store a system in the computer as its augmented matrix.
Specifically, system is stored in computer as an N (N+1) matrix array A, the augmented
matrix array A, the augmented matrix of the system. Therefore, the constants b
1
, b
2
, . . . ,
b
n
are respectively stored as A
1,N+1
, A
2,N+1
, . . . , A
N,N+1
.
Solution of a Triangular System
If a
ij
= 0 for i > j, then system of n linear equations in n unknown assumes the triangular
form.
a
11
x
1
+ a
12
x
2
+ . . . + a
1,n1
x
n1
+ a
1n
x
n
= b
1
a
22
x
2
+ . . . + a
2,n1
x
n1
+ a
2n
x
n
= b
2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
a
n2,n2
x
n2
+ a
n2,n1
x
n1
+ a
n2,n
xn1 + a
2n
x
n
= b
2
a
n1,n1
x
n1
+ a
n1,n
x
n
= b
n1
a
mn
x
n
= b
n
Where A = a
11
a
22
. . . a
nn
; If none of the diagonal entries a
11
,a
22
, . . ., a
nn
is
zero, the system has a unique solution.
Back Substitution Method
we obtain the solution of a triangular system by the technique of back substitution,
consider the above general triangular system.
1. First, we solve the last equation for the last unknown, x
n
;
x
n
= b
n
/a
nn
2. Second, we substitute the value of x
n
in the nexttolast equation and solve it for the
nexttolast unknown, x
n1
:
.
3. Third, we substitute these values for x
n
and x
n1
in the thirdfromlast equation and solve
it for the thirdfromlast unknown, x
n2
:
.
In general, we determine x
k
by substituting the previously obtained values of x
n
, x
n1
, . . . ,
x
k+1
in the k
th
equation.
.
Gaussian Elimination
Gaussian elimination is a method used for finding the solution of a system of linear
equations. This method consider of two parts.
1. This part consists of stepbystep putting the system into triangular system.
2. This part consists of solving the triangular system by back substitution.
x  3y  2z = 6  (1)
2x  4y + 2z = 18  (2)
3x + 8y + 9z = 9  (3)
First Part
Eliminate first unknown x from the equations 2 and 3.
(a) multiply 2 to equation (1) and add it to equation (2). Equation (2) becomes
2y + 6z = 6
(b) Multiply 3 to equation (1) and add it to equation (3). Equation (3) becomes
y + 3z = 9
And the original system is reduced to the system
x  3y  2z = 6
2y + 6z = 6
y + 3z = 9
Now, we have to remove the second unknown, y, from new equation 3, using only the
new equation 2 and 3 (above).
a, Multiply equation (2) by 1/2 and add it to equation (3). The equation (3) becomes 6z =
12.
Therefore, our given system of three linear equation of 3 unknown is reduced to the
triangular system
x  3y  2z = 6
2y + 6z = 6
6z = 12
Second Part
In the second part, we solve the equation by back substitution and get
x = 1, y = 3, z = 2
In the first stage of the algorithm, the coefficient of x in the first equation is called the
pivot, and in the second stage of the algorithm, the coefficient of y in the second equation
is the point. Clearly, the algorithm cannot work if either pivot is zero. In such a case one
must interchange equation so that a pivot is not zero. In fact, if one would like to code this
algorithm, then the greatest accuracy is attained when the pivot is as large in absolute value
as possible. For example, we would like to interchange equation 1 and equation 2 in the
original system in the above example before eliminating x from the second and third
equation.
That is, first step of the algorithm transfer system as
2x  4y + 2z = 18
x  4y + 2z = 18
3x + 8y + 9z = 9
Determinants and systems of linear equations
Consider a system of n linear equations in n unknowns. That is, for the following system
a
11
x
1
+ a
12
x
2
+ . . . + a
1n
x
n
= b
1
a
21
x
1
+ a
22
x
2
+ . . . + a
2n
x
n
= b
2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
a
n1
x
1
+ a
n2
x
2
+ . . . + a
nn
x
n
= b
n
Let D denote the determinant of the matrix A +(a
ij
) of coefficients; that is, let D =A. Also,
let N
i
denote the determinants of the matrix obtained by replacing the i
th
column of A by
the column of constants.
Theorem. If D 0, the above system of linear equations has the
unique solution .
This theorem is widely known as Cramer's rule. It is important to note that Gaussian
elimination is usually much more efficient for solving systems of linear equations than is
the use of determinants.