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Vectors and Matrices

A vector, u, means a list (or n-tuple) of numbers:


u = (u
1
, u
2
, . . . , u
n
)
where u
i
are called the components of u. If all the u
i
are zero i.e., u
i
= 0, then u is called
the zero vector.
Given vectors u and v are equal i.e., u = v, if they have the same number of components
and if corresponding components are equal.
Addition of Two Vectors
If two vectors, u and v, have the number of components, their sum, u + v, is the vector
obtained by adding corresponding components from u and v.
u + v = (u
1
, u
2
, . . . , u
n
) + (v
1
, v
2
, . . . , v
n
)
= (u
1
+ v
1
+ u
2
+ v
2
, . . . , u
n
+ v
n
)
Multiplication of a vector by a Scalar
The product of a scalar k and a vector u i.e., k
u
, is the vector obtained by multiplying each
component of u by k:
ku = k(u
1
, u
2
, . . . , u
n
)
= ku
1
, ku
2
, . . . , ku
n
Here, we define -u = (-1)u and u-v = u +(-v)
It is not difficult to see k(u + v) = ku + kv where k is a scalar and u and v are vectors
Dot Product and Norm
The dot product or inner product of vectors u = (u
1
, u
2
, . . . , u
n
) and v = (v
1
, v
2
, . .
. , v
n
) is denoted by u.v and defined by
u.v = u
1
v
1
+ u
2
v
2
+ . . . + u
n
v
n
The norm or length of a vector, u, is denoted by ||u|| and defined by

Matrices
Matrix, A, means a rectangular array of numbers
A =
The m horizontal n-tuples are called the rows of A, and the n vertical m-tuples, its
columns. Note that the element a
ij
, called the ij-entry, appear in the i
th
row and the j
th
column.
In algorithmic (study of algorithms), we like to write a matrix A as A(a
ij
).
Column Vector
A matrix with only one column is called a column vector
Zero Matrix
A matrix whose entries are all zero is called a zero matrix and denoted by 0.
Matrix Addition
Let A and B be two matrices of the same size. The sum of A and B is written as A + B
and obtained by adding corresponding elements from A and B.
A+B =
=
Scalar Multiplication
The product of a scalar k and a matrix A, written kA or Ak, is the matrix obtained by
multiplying each element of A by k.
kA = k
=
Here, we define -A = (-1)A and A - B = A + (-B). Note that -A is the negative
of the matrix A.
Properties of Matrix under Addition and Multiplication
Let A, B, and C be matrices of same size and let k and l be scalars. Then
i. (A + B) + A + (B + C)
ii. A + B = B + A
iii. A + 0 = 0 + A = A
iv. A + (-A) = (-A) + A = 0
v. k(A + B) = kA + kB
vi. (k + l)A = kA + lA
vii. (kl)A = k(lA)
viii. lA = A
Matrix Multiplication
Suppose A and B are two matrices such that the number of columns of A is equal to
number of rows of B. Say matrix A is an mp matrix and matrix B is a pn matrix. Then
the product of A and B is the mn matrix whose ij-entry is obtained by multiplying the
elements of the ith row of a by the corresponding elements of the jth column of B and then
adding them.
It is important to note that if the number of columns of A is not equal to the number of
rows of B, then the product AB is not defined.
Properties of Matrix Multiplication
Let A, B, and C be matrices and let k be a scalar. Then
i. (AB)C = A(BC)
ii. A(B+C) = AB + AC
iii. (B+C)A = BA + CA
iv. k(AB) = (kB)B = A(kB)
Transpose
The transpose of a matrix A is obtained by writing the row of A, in order, as columns and
denoted by A
T
. In other words, if A - (A
ij
), then B = (b
ij
) is the transpose of A if b
ij
- a
ji
for all i and j.
It is not hard to see that if A is an mn matrix, then A
T
is an nm matrix.
For example if A = , then A
T
=
Square Matrix
If the number of rows and the number of columns of any matrix are the same, we say
matrix is a square matrix, i.e., a square matrix has same number of rows and columns. A
square matrix with n rows and n columns is said to be order n and is called an n-square
matrix.
The main diagonal, or simply diagonal, of an n-square matrix A = (a
ij
) consists of the
elements a
11
, a
22
, a
33
, . . . , a
mn
.
Unit Matrix
The n-square matrix with 1's along the main diagonal and 0's elsewhere is called the
unit matrix and usually denoted by I.
Why unit matrix?
The unit matrix plays the same role in matrix multiplication as the number 1 does in
the usual multiplication of numbers.
AI = IA = A
for any square matrix A.
So what dude?
We can form powers of a square matrix X by defining
X
2
= XX
X
3
= X
2
X, XXX, . . .
X
0
= I
Big deal!
We can also form polynomial in X. That is, for any polynomial
f(x) = a
0
+ a
1
x + a
2
x
2
+ . . . + a
n
x
n
We define f(x) to be the matrix
f(x) = a
0
I + a
1
x + a
2
x
2
+ . . . + a
n
x
n
Note that in the case that f(A) is the zero matrix, then matrix A said to be a zero of
the polynomial f(x) or a root of the polynomial equation f(x) = 0.
Now you're talking !!!!
Invertible Matrices
A square matrix A is said to be invertible if there exists a matrix B with the property AB =
BA = I (Identity Matrix). Such a matrix B is unique and it is called the matrix of A and is
denoted by A
-1
. Here, the important observation is that B is the inverse of A if and only if
A is the matrix of B. It is known that AB = I if and only if BA = I; hence it is necessary to
test only one product to determine whether two given matrices are inverse.
Determinants
To each n-square matrix A = (a
ij
), we assign a specific number called the determinants of A
and denoted as
|A| = del(A)
=
where an n by n arrays of numbers enclosed by straight lines is called a determinant of
order n.
It is important to note that n by n array of numbers enclosed by straight line (see above) is
NOT a matrix but denotes the number that the determinant function assigns to the enclosed
array of numbers, i.e., the enclosed square matrix.
The determinant of order one is |a
11
| = a
11
The determinant of order two is = a
11
a
22
- a
12
a
21
The determinant of order three is = a
11
a
22
a
32
+ a
12
a
23
a
31
+ a
13
a
21
a
32
-
a
13
a
22
a
31
- a
12
a
21
a
33
- a
11
a
23
a
32
The determinant of order fo... You get the picture !
General Definition of Determinant
The general definition of a determinant of order n is as follows
det(A) =
where the sum is over all possible permutations = (j
1
, j
2
, . . . , j
n
) of (1, 2, . . . , n).
Here sgn( ) equals plus or minus one according as an even or an odd number of
interchanges are required to change so that its numbers are in the usual order.
An important property of the determinant function is
Lemma. For any two n-square matrices A and B, det(AB) = det(A) .
det(B).
In simple words the lemma say that the determinant function is multiplicative.
An important point in the context of invertible matrices and determinant is
Lemma. A square matrix is invertible if and only if it has a nonzero
determinant.
A good news and a bad news: If you're an under graduate, you're done here! now goto
CLR- If you're graduate and interested in theoretical Computer Science its time to go and
find some good on matrix theory. (You'll need this shit for Linear Programming, for
example).