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Capable of designing any type of truss by verifying this.

Capable of designing any type of truss by verifying this.

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Some of the most common structures we see around us are buildings & bridges. In addition to these,

one can also classify a lot of other objects as "structures."

The space station

Chassis of your car

Your chair, table, bookshelf etc. etc.

For instance:

Almost everything has an internal structure and can be thought of as a "structure".

The objective of this chapter is to figure out the forces being carried by these structures so that as an

engineer, you can decide whether the structure can sustain these forces or not.

Note: this includes "reaction" forces from the supports as well.

External forces: "Loads" acting on your structure.

of the structure together.

Internal forces: Forces that develop within every structure that keep the different parts

Recall:

Trusses

Frames

Machines

In this chapter, we will find the internal forces in the following types of structures :

Monday, October 26, 2009

10:08 AM

CE297-FA09-Ch6 Page 1

6.2-6.3 Trusses

Trusses are used commonly in Steel buildings and bridges.

All straight members

connected together with pin joints

connected only at the ends of the members

and all external forces (loads & reactions) must be applied only at the joints.

Definition: A truss is a structure that consists of

Every member of a truss is a 2 force member.

Trusses are assumed to be of negligible weight (compared to the loads they carry)

Note:

Types of Trusses

Simple Trusses: constructed from a "base"

triangle by adding two members at a time.

simple

simple

NOT

simple

Note: For Simple Trusses (and in general statically determinate trusses)

m: members

r: reactions

n: joints

Monday, October 26, 2009

10:11 AM

CE297-FA09-Ch6 Page 2

6.4 Analysis of Trusses: Method of Joints

(i) Determining the EXTERNAL reactions.

(tension or compression).

(ii) Determining the INTERNAL forces in each of the members

Consider the truss shown. Truss analysis involves:

Read Example 6.1

Wednesday, October 28, 2009

9:01 AM

CE297-FA09-Ch6 Page 3

Exercise 6.13

Similarly, solve joints C, F and B in that order and calculate the rest of the unknowns.

Friday, October 30, 2009

2:50 PM

CE297-FA09-Ch6 Page 4

6.5 Joints under special loading conditions: Zero force members

Many times, in trusses, there may be joints that connect

members that are "aligned" along the same line.

Exercise 6.32

Identify the zero-force members.

Similarly, from joint E: DE=EF and AE=0

Friday, October 30, 2009

7:40 AM

CE297-FA09-Ch6 Page 5

6.6 Space Trusses

Generalizing the structure of planar trusses to 3D results in space trusses.

The most elementary 3D space truss structure is the tetrahedron. The

members are connected with ball-and-socket joints.

Simple space trusses can be obtained by adding 3 elements at a time to 3

existing joints and joining all the new members at a point.

Note: For a 3D determinate truss:

3n = m+r

If the truss is "determinate" then this condition is satisfied.

However, even if this condition is satisfied, the truss may not be determinate.

Thus this is a Necessary condition (not sufficient) for solvability of a truss.

Exercise 6.36

Determine the forces in each member.

n: joints

m: members

r : reactions

Friday, October 30, 2009

7:50 AM

CE297-FA09-Ch6 Page 6

Similarly find the 3 unknowns FBD, FBC and BY at joint B.

CE297-FA09-Ch6 Page 7

6.7 Analysis of Trusses: Method of Sections

The method of joints is good if we have to find the internal forces in all the truss members.

In situations where we need to find the internal forces only in a few specific members of a truss, the method of sections

is more appropriate.

For example, find the force in member EF:

Read Examples 6.2 and 6.3 from the book.

Find forces in the members EH and GI.

Exercise 6.63

Imagine a cut through the members of interest

Try to cut the least number of members (preferably 3).

Draw FBD of the 2 different parts of the truss

Enforce Equilibrium to find the forces in the 3 members that are cut.

Method of sections:

Monday, November 02, 2009

8:53 AM

CE297-FA09-Ch6 Page 8

CE297-FA09-Ch6 Page 9

6.8 Compound Trusses; Determinate vs. Indeterminate Trusses.

Trusses made by joining two or more simple trusses rigidly are called Compound Trusses.

Externally: Completely / Partially /Improperly constrained

Internally: Determinate / Indeterminate. (if completely constrained)

Exercise 6.69 Classify the trusses as:

Partially constrained

Overly constrained,

Indeterminate

Determinate

Monday, November 02, 2009

8:53 AM

CE297-FA09-Ch6 Page 10

6.9 - 6.11 Frames

i.e. atleast one member that has 3 or more forces acting on it at different points.

Frames are structures with at least one multi-force member,

(i) External Reactions

Frame analysis involves determining:

(ii) Internal forces at the joints

Follow Newton's 3rd Law

Note:

Frames that are not internally Rigid

When a frame is not internally rigid, it has to be provided with

additional external supports to make it rigid.

The support reactions for such frames cannot be simply

determined by external equilibrium.

One has to draw the FBD of all the component parts to find out

whether the frame is determinate or indeterminate.

Wednesday, November 11, 2009

11:29 AM

CE297-FA09-Ch6 Page 11

Example 6.4

Exercise 6.101

Exercise 6.120

Read examples 6.5 and 6.6

Friday, November 13, 2009

10:57 AM

CE297-FA09-Ch6 Page 12

(a)

(b)

CE297-FA09-Ch6 Page 13

6.12 Machines

Machines are structures designed to transmit and modify forces.

Their main purpose is to transform input forces into output forces.

of the machine as a free-body.

Exercise 6.143

Wednesday, November 11, 2009

11:35 AM

CE297-FA09-Ch6 Page 14

Determinate vs. Indeterminate Structures

When all the unknowns (external reactions and internal forces) can be found

using "Statics" i.e. Drawing FBDs and writing equilibrium equations.

Determinate:

When, not all the unknowns can be found using Statics.

Note: Some/most unknowns can still be found.

Indeterminate:

Structures such as Trusses and Frames can be broadly classified as:

Completely restrained

Partially restrained

Improperly restrained

Structures can also be classified as:

For trusses, we have been using "formulas" such as (2n = m+r) for planar trusses, and (3n = m+r) for space trusses

to judge the type of structure. For frames, this can be much more complicated. We need to write and solve the

equilibrium equations and only if a solution exists, we can conclude that the structure is determinate. Otherwise

the structure may be partially constrained or indeterminate or both.

One of the best ways (and mathematically correct way) to conclude determinacy of any structure is by using

Eigen-values. Eigen-values tell us how many independent equations we have and whether can or cant solve a

system of equations written in the form of Matrices.

IMPORTANT:

[A] x = b

Draw the FBDs of all rigid components of the structure

Write out the all the possible equilibrium equations.

To do this,

Case 1: Number of Equations (E) < Number of Unknowns (U) <=> INDETERMINATE

Case 2: Number of Equations (E) > Number of Unknowns (U) <=> PARTIALLY RESTRAINED

Find the number of non-zero Eigen-values (V

1

) of the square matrix [A].

Find the number of non-zero Eigen-values (V2) of the rectangular matrix [A|b].

Case 3: Number of Equations (E) = Number of Unknowns (U)

Case 3(a): V1 = E = U

DETERMINATE

=> Unique Solution

Case 3(b): V1 < E

Number of INDEPENDENT equations = V

1

< U

=> Improperly constrained

Indeterminate & Partially constrained

(i) V1 = V2 < U => Infinitely many solutions possible

(ii) V1 < V2 => No solution exists

Note: In this procedure, it is better not to reduce the number of unknowns or number of equations by using

properties of 2-force or 3-force members.

Monday, November 16, 2009

6:58 AM

CE297-FA09-Ch6 Page 15

Examples:

CE297-FA09-Ch6 Page 16

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