You are on page 1of 3


why a boat
made of
steel will
float in
water, but
a block of
steel will

A block of steel will displaced a small volume of
only. So the buoyant force acting on it is smaller than
its weight. Therefore it sinks
A ship floats on the surface of the sea because the
volume of water displaced by the ship is sufficiently
large. The weight of water displaced is large so the
buoyant force acting on the ship is also greater.
of ship equal Buoyant force. Therefore it floats.
Although a ship is constructed of metal, which has
Larger density than water, its shape is hollow so that
the overall density of the ship is smaller than the sea
As a result, the buoyant force acting on the ship is
large enough to support its weight.

The buoyant forces in the sea and in the river are
This is because the buoyant force is equal to the
of the boat which is unchanged.
The density of fresh water is lower than sea water.
The buoyant force of a floating boat is equal to the
weight of water displaced.
The lower the density of the water, the larger the
of water displaced.
A boat must displace more water to obtain
buoyant force to support its weight.

A submarine has a large balast tank, which is used to
control its position and depth from the surface of the
When the ballast tanks are filled with water, the
force is smaller than the weight of the submarine.
submarine sinks.

When the ballast tanks are filled with air (removed
water) , the buoyant force is larger than the weight
of the
submarine. The submarine rises.

When the air is blown harder through
the straw ,
The two ping-pong balls will move
closely to each other.
The air moved at a very high velocity
between the balls.
According to Bernoullis Principle,
the pressure of the moving air
decreases as the speed of the air
The higher atmospheric pressure
caused the ping-pong balls closer to
each other.

When the piston is pushed, air is
forced out through the jet of gas at
a high speed.
According to Bernoullis Principle,
the pressure of the moving air
decreases as the speed of the air
increases .
The higher atmospheric pressure in
the insect poison container will
push the insect poison liquid up
through the narrow metallic tube

The above figure shows the
streamlines round a thin wing at an
angle of attack to the air stream.
It will be seen that the path of air is
longer over the upper surface than
the lower, and therefore the speed
is greater on the upper surface. The
lift is produced by the difference in
pressure between the two surfaces,
which helps the plane to take-off.
In addition to its use in airplanes,
aerofoil is also used in racing cars.
In this case, the downward force
helps to stabilize the car at high

when light travels from one medium to another
medium which has a
different optical density,
1. the incident ray, the refracted ray and the normal
at the point of
incidence all lie in the same plane.
2. the ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence (sin i)
to the sine of
the angle of refraction (sin r) is a constant.

The critical angle, c, is defined as the angle of
incidence in the denser medium when
the angle of refraction in the less dense medium is

If the angle of incidence is increased
further so that it is greater than the
critical angle, the light is not refracted
anymore, but is internally reflected.

7. This phenomenon is called total internal

Mirage is caused by refraction and total internal
Mirage normally occur in the daytime when the
weather is hot.
The air above the road surface consists of many
The layers of air nearest the road are hot and the
layers get cooler and denser towards
the upper layers.
The refractive index of air depends on its density.
The lower or hotter layers have a
lower refractive index than the layers above them.
A ray of light from the sky traveling downwards
gets refracted away from the normal. 89
sses through a layer of air close to the road surface
at an
ray of light bends in an upward
and the clouds on the surface of the road as a

As the ray passes through the lower layers, the
angle of incidence increases while
entering the next layer.
Finally, the ray of light pa
angle of incidence greater then the critical angle.
Total internal reflection occurs at this layer and the
curve towards the eye of the observer.
The observer sees the image of the sky
pool of water.

When sunlight shines on millions of water droplets
in the air after rain, a multicoloured
rom the sun enters the raindrops, it is refracted
and dispersed into its
rop, it undergoes total internal
racted again as it leaves the drop.
he lower part of the spectrum to red

arc can be seen.
When white light f
various colour components inside the raindrops.
When the dispersed light hits the back of the raind
It is then ref
The colours of a rainbow run from violet along t
along the upper part.

When the thermometer is placed in contact with
hot water, heat is transferred from hot water to the
Thermal equilibrium between the thermometer and
hot water is reached when the net rate of heat
transfer is zero.
The thermometer and the water are at the same
temperature. At this point, the thermometer
reading shows the temperature of the water.

1. Thin capillary tube
2. A glass bulb with thinner wall
3. Large bulb

e, water acts a heat reservoir as it can
absorb a great amount of heat before it boils.
Water is used as a cooling agent in a car radiator.

Water has a large specific latent heat of
vaporization. This property enables
steam to be used for cooking by the
method of steaming. When steam
condenses on the food, the latent heat
is released directly onto the food
enables the food to be cooked at a
faster rate.

this is because latent heat of vaporization is
absorbed from the body when the sweat evoparates.
therefore, the body is cooled by the removal of heat

tht experiment...inference: the image distance
depends on object distance
hypothesis: when the object distance decreases, the
image distance will increases

1.A covex lens with focal length,f=10 cm is set up as
shown in the diagram.
2.The distance between the cross wires and the
convex lens,u(object distance) =30.0 cm is measured
by using metre rule.
3.The power supply is switched on.The white screen
is moved back and forth until a sharp image is
formed on the screen.The distance between the
screen and lens, v (image distance, v) is measured
4.The experiment is repeated with u=26.0cm, 22.0
cm, 18.0cm,and 14.0cm