You are on page 1of 14

11.

1 Es t i ma t i n g t h e M a x i m u m Shi f t i ng of a C o r e
A problem in the mechanical design of molds is the determination of core shifting in
parts which are like cups or sieves or more complex parts containing such configu-
rations.
An eccentric mounting of a core due to inaccuracy during production or an asym-
metric gating causes a lateral loading of the core. The resulting deformation of the center
axis leads to a shift at the tip of the core. Dimensional accuracy of the molding and the
demolding process are adversely affected.
Mounting of cores (on one or two sides) and kind and location of the gate have,
among others, a significant influence on the mold concept. This should make it clear that
knowledge of a core shift may assume great importance already in the development stage
when the mold concept is being determined. The design engineer has options available
to estimate this core shift. This will be discussed in the following.
The computer module "core shift" can be called during the phase of quantitative mold
design to clarify the question of the size of the core mount or the permissible machining
tolerance. Examples of computer programs for this are to be found in [11.1-11.4 and
11.14]. For simple geometries, an analytical approach involving the use of formulas from
the fields of statics and the strengths of materials is also possible [11.3].
The shifting of a core in practice is composed of
- a core shift at the mount,
- a relative deformation of the center axis of the core proper.
It is also assumed that both mold halves are properly aligned. Both deformations can be
superimposed as shown with Figure 11.1.
1 1 S h i f t i n g o f C o r e s
Figure 11.1 Super-
position of deformations
of a core [11.5]
Sagging and
Bending at base
Deformation with rigid base
Part of the shifting of a core generated during mold filling can recover after the filling
process during the cooling stage. The magnitude of this recovery depends on processing
parameters, material characteristics and geometrical conditions. One can only expect a
minor recovery with thin sections, slender cores, low injection speeds (quick freezing)
and materials with a high modulus of elasticity. Therefore the maximum shift of cores
during injection is considered in the following.
For a variety of core configurations (circular and rectangular, with or without cooling
line) and cases of loading (kind and location of gates) computing modules have been
generated [11.5-11.7], which are employed in Software such as CADMOULD. Some of
these cases will be presented.
Theoretically computed data for core shifting or limits for the height-to-diameter ratio
of cores are in good agreement with results from practical experience. Another verifi-
cation of theoretical data could be indirectly made by comparing the description of the
flow pattern and the pressure consumption with actual measurements [11.8, 11.9].
By way of example, core shifting of circular cores with lateral pinpoint gate at the
base (rigid mount) will be calculated below.
1 1 . 2 Shi f t i ng of Ci r c u l a r C o r e s wi t h L a t e r a l Pi n p o i n t
G a t e a t t h e B a s e ( Ri gi d Mo u n t )
The computation is based on a number of assumptions [11.6]:
1. The pressure profile declines linearly along the length H
c
of the core (Figure 11.3).
2. A slightly tapered shape of the core is substituted by a cylindrical one.
3. A core cooling is substituted by a through hole. The stabilizing effect of the section
without hole is neglected.
4. In cores with an inserted cooling line, the insert is not considered load-supporting.
5. The weight of the core is not taken into account.
6. Mounting of the core is assumed rigid for the time being.
7. A building-up effect remains neglected at present. The effect of the core shift on the
filling pattern during injection is not considered. Comments on assumptions 1 and 7
are given in [11.6, 11.7].
The basic procedure for determining the core shift is illustrated with Figure 11.2.
- The core shift f
v 10
at the tip of the core is computed for a reference pressure p* =
10 MPa at the gate and a linear pressure profile along the core.
- To consider the supporting effect on the core by the melt from the base up, the shape
factor K
1
is introduced. This coefficient includes the various height-to-diameter ratios.
- Establishing the pressure factor K
2
considers the real pressure for filling the mold.
- Computing the whole deflection with
f
v
= K
r
K
2
. f
V5l 0
(11.1)
Based on this procedure, computer programs were assembled, which provided the core-
shift data presented in the following pictures [11.6].
Figures 11.3 and 11.4 demonstrate the core shift for polystyrene dependent on the core
diameter and various core lengths. If the diameter remains below certain values, the
shifting increases rather rapidly (refer to design limits in Section 11.4).
Preal
Pressure profile
Pressure factor
fv
10
= Deflection at reference
pressure of p* = 10 MPa
Total deflection of core with
one end built-in
With increasing core length and the same core diameter shifting of the core increases as
well. In any case, the core shift decreases with increasing wall thickness as is shown with
the crosshatched area between the curves for 1 and 2 mm wall thickness.
Comparing Figure 11.3 with Figure 11.4 demonstrates the effect of a hollow core of
cooling line (D
Ci
= 0.6 D*
c
). Similar diagrams for other materials and processing
parameters can be obtained with such a program.
In [11.7] a first theoretical computation of the effect of the build-up phenomenon on
the core shift was carried out. According to the results and in contrast to all expectations,
M
a
x
i
m
u
m

c
o
r
e

s
h
i
f
t

/
5
M
a
x
i
m
u
m

c
o
r
e

s
h
i
f
t

f
s
Figure 11.3 Maximum shifting of a core
with full circular cross-section [11.5]
Figure 11.4 Maximum shifting of a
core with full annular cross-section
(D
ci
= 0.6 D*
c
) [11.5]
Ave r a ge c o r e di a m e t e r D
c
*
m m
Ave r a ge c o r e di a m e t e r D c *
m m
m m
m m
Pr e s s u r e pr o f i le
Pr e s s u r e pr o f i le
Figure 11.2
Computation of
core shifting with
rigid base [11.5]
it does not add to the shifting of cores. The core-shifting data are even somewhat smaller
than without regarding this effect. A first explanation is given by two kinds of opposing
effects from the core shift during injection and its consequences on the rheological
conditions. First the melt flows into the nonuniform cavity. From this, a higher load on
one side of the core can be expected, but then the melt can flow more easily into the
enlarged gap. This means less total pressure demand and relief for the core. Both effects
almost cancel one another out. The effect of a build-up cannot be measured by itself
because it is present at all measurements.
The theoretical computation of a core shift with a build-up taken into account for the
case of a laterally gated core was carried out - similar to Section 11.3.1 (Figure 11.6) -
by a step wise computation of the filling process.
For estimating the maximum core shift in design the presented results (without build-
up effect) are sufficient, especially since these results are even somewhat higher.
In [11.5], a calculation of core shifting for further core geometries, mounting and
loading types is presented. These are:
- Core shifting of circular cores with lateral pinpoint gate at the core tip (rigid mount).
- Core shifting of rectangular with lateral pinpoint gate at the base (rigid mount).
- Shifting of cores related to mounting (exemplified by a circular core laterally gated at
the base).
1 1 . 3 Shi f t i ng of Ci r c u l a r C o r e s wi t h Di s k Ga t e s
( Ri gi d Mo u n t )
In [11.7] the shifting of circular cores without cooling line but with build-up effect is
computed for
- cores with disk gate,
- cores with lateral pinpoint gate at the base,
- cores with lateral pinpoint gate at the tip.
Now the case "core with disk gate" will be discussed (Figure 11.5). Compared with
previously treated cases, estimating the core shift calls for a different procedure here.
The reason for this is an eccentric core mount linked to the machining process. This
causes the initial core shift. It is assumed, of course, that temperature, pressure, and
velocity (viscosity) are the same in the whole gate region.
Figure 11.5 Core with disk gate [11.5]
11.3.1 Basi c Exami nat i on of t he Probl em
In all cases previously discussed, the maximum core shift shortly before the end of the
filling process was discussed, at the time when the advancing flow front had reached the
full length of the core. Besides this, the core shift occurring during mold filling will also
be computed. This can be done by dividing the filling process into small steps and
computing the occurring deformation after each step. Thus, the whole problem to be
resolved consists of
- rheological problem (establishing a flow pattern) and
- mechanical problem (computation of deformation).
The way of computing the core shift including the build-up effect is presented with the
flow chart in Figure 11.6. After the data of part and material, the pressure rise Ap/At at
the gate and the pressure intervals Ap are entered. By introducing pressure intervals the
whole filling process is divided into single steps. As a first step the flow pattern is
Figure 11.6 Flow chart of
an algorithm for computing a
core shift (with building-up
effect) [11.5]
Input
Part dimensions
Eccentricity e
Viscosity
Pressure rise Ap/At
Pressure step Ap
Runner and gate (type and position)
Input of initial pressure p = Ap
Computation of flow lengths i ^Ai
Stop
Yes
I
1
>Length of core?
No
Computation of an effective pressure
profile
p = p Ap
Computation of core shift
Output
Deflection curve
Core shift
Flow paths
Pressure demand
computed for the pressure p = Ap by determining two characteristic lengths I
1
and I
2
(Figure 11.7). After this the effective pressure profile (Figures 11.8 and 11.9) and the
core shift are calculated. Subsequently, the pressure is raised by one step and the
computation continued. By now, the increased wall thickness (from the core shift) has to
be taken into account. If the flow front has reached the full length of the core, the
computation is terminated [11.7].
11. 3. 2 Resul ts of t he Cal cul at i ons
Based on the presented procedure for a resolution of the problem, sub-programs have
been developed, which can be employed within the CADMOULD system to compute the
core shift.
The length of the core has a considerable effect on the core shift (Figure 11.10). With
increasing length the shifting is enhanced, first slowly but then, with even longer cores,
more rapidly. The rapid increase in core shift commences at a length-to-diameter ratio of
the core of about
(11.2)
Figure 11.7 Molding with instantaneous flow
pattern (projected onto a plane) [11.5]
Figure 11.8 True pressure (top)
and effective pressure (bottom) in
cross-section [11.5]
Figure 11.9 Effective instantaneous pressure profile [11.5]
This ratio is largely independent from any eccentricity because the latter affects core
shifting linearly. The limit ratio also retains its validity with different wall thicknesses.
Even with adhering to this ratio, the resulting core shift may already be too much.
Similar limits are also published in [11.10].
Thin sections in a part promote an asymmetrical flow into the cavity and produce
larger deformations (Figure 11.11).
If, however, the mentioned length-to-diameter ratio is observed, wall thickness has
little effect.
The influence of eccentricity can be recognized in Figure 11.12. In a normal case this
eccentricity is the deviation of the center axis of the core from the center axis of the
cavity caused by inaccurate machining.
Figure 11.10 Maximum shifting of cores with varying diameters depending on core length
(disk gate) [11.5]
Length of core H
c
mm
M
a
x
i
m
u
m

c
o
r
e

s
h
i
f
t

f
s
Wall thickness s
mm
Figure 11.11 Maximum shifting of cores depending on wall thickness (disk gate) [11.5]
S
mm
1.5
PS-
e
urn
100
143E
Ap/At
kPa/s
100
Ap
kPa
1200
1
2
J
4
5
6
Hc
mm
80
80
UU
100
100
100
e
urn
50
100
IbU
50
100
150
Ap
kPa
1800
1500
12UU
1800
1500
1200
pm
urn
PS-K3E
D
c
= 15 mm
Ap/At =100MPa/s
If the maximal permissible eccentricity is known, the tolerance limit for mounting the -
in an ideal case centric - core is also established.
1 1 . 4 Shi f t i ng of C o r e s wi t h Va r i o u s T y p e s of Ga t i n g
( Ri gi d Mo u n t )
In [11.7] design limitations are presented for cores gated in different ways. If they are
exceeded, the maximum core shift increases disproportionately.
- Core with disk gate H
c
/ D
c
5 (11.4)
- Pinpoint gate lateral at the core tip H
c
/D
c
- 1. 5 (115)
- Pinpoint gate lateral at the core base H
c
/D
c
= 2.5 (116)
As expected, the disk gate is the most favorable solution with respect to core shifting. If
the eccentricity is kept very small, extremely small absolute values of core shifting can
be obtained. Then one can possibly accept greater length-to-diameter ratios of cores. In
[11.11] a ratio of 5 to 15 is mentioned for precision injection molding and of 1 to 5 for
technical moldings of average difficulty.
In Figure 11.13 the deformations are shown for three kinds of gating as they have
been computed [11.7] under otherwise almost identical conditions. The smallest results
are obtained with a disk gate even with an assumed eccentricity of e = 100 urn. The
largest deformation is brought on by a pinpoint gate at the core tip. The result of the
pinpoint gate at the core base can be placed between the other two types of gating and is
frequently the best solution for multi-cavity molds, too. Besides the already mentioned
Eccentricity ot core e
Figure 11.12 Effect of eccentricity on maximum core shift (disk gate) [11.5]
Shifting of the core increases about linearly with increasing eccentricity. Therefore,
known deformation and eccentricity in one case permits the deduction of a deformation
from the eccentricity in another case:
(11.3)
pm
M
a
x
i
m
u
m

c
o
r
e

s
h
i
f
t

f
s
pm
PS-U3E
K
2
rr
JL
6
Hc
mm
80
80
80
100
100
100
Oc
mm
15
15
15
15
15
15
S
mm
2
1.8
1.6
2
1.8
1.6
Ap/At
MPa/s
80
80
100
80
80
100
Ap
kPa
1200
1200
1200
1200
1200
1200
methods of gating there are some more actions which can be taken to reduce excessive
core shifting such as
- two-sided instead of one-sided core support,
- deeper core mounting,
- reduction of eccentricity with disk gate,
- modification of injection parameters,
- reduction or sacrifice of cooling line.
The order of the measures roughly matches their efficacy.
1 1 . 5 Shi f t i ng of I n s e r t s
The approach presented in the previous chapters (coupling of rheological and
mechanical mold design) for calculating core shifting can also be used to calculate the
deformations of insert parts due to the pressure distribution that exists in the mold. This
is of major importance, for example, in molds for rubber-metal or rubber-plastic parts.
1 1 .5 .1 Anal yt i cal Cal cul at i on of Def or mat i on of M et al I nser t s
Usi ng a Cyl i ndr i cal Rol l Shel l as an Ex ampl e [1 1 .3]
These parts, which are used as transport rolls, are made by injection molding in which
rubber is molded around a cylindrical insert core. The part geometries in question have
a variable length/diameter ratio and are gated via film gates of various widths
(Figure 11.14) (Gate position shown in Figure 11.15).
Figure 11.13 Maximum core
shift with different gate types
[11.5] Core diameter Dc
mm
M
a
x
i
m
u
m

c
o
r
e

s
h
i
f
t

f
$
\im
Gate type
Disk gate
Pinpoint gate, lateral at core base
Pinpoint gate, lateral at core tip
P5-143E
Hc
80
80
80
mm
e
100
/
Z
urn
Ap/At
100
80
80
MPa/s
Ap
1200
1200
1200
kPa
As already explained in the previous section, a rheological mold design is performed
first, to determine the filling pressure distribution in the cavity. The boundary conditions
of the simulation calculation arise essentially through the given material-specific
coefficients of the material models and the processing parameters of the injection
molding process.
As an example, Figure 11.15 shows the finite element net used for a part geometry
and Figure 11.16 shows the corresponding computed filling pressure distribution from a
simulation. The pressure distribution of a number of part geometries was calculated at
different filling levels.
Then, the deformation calculation was performed analytically for this part with the aid
of the formulae provided by statics and the strengths of materials.
11.5.1.1 Evaluation of the Deflection Line for Different Part Geometries
Figure 11.17 shows the maximum mold insert deflection against filling level for the
sample calculation. It can be seen that the deflection of the mold core rises until the
filling level is roughly 50%. At around 50%, the flow fronts converge in the area
opposite the gate. As the mold continues to fill up, the pressure difference between the
core upper surface or gate side and the core lower surface decreases, as a result of which
the deflection of the mold core decreases towards the end of filling. It can generally be
said that the narrower the film gate, the higher is the deflection on account of the higher
pressure losses.
Figure 11.14 Dimensions
and gating arrangement for
molded parts [11.14]
Figure 11.15
Structured geometry of
molded part Ic with
network refinement in
the gate area [11.3]
s

f
a
b
r
i
c
^
e
l
a
s
t
o
m
e
r
Film gate
Pinpoint gate
Ring gate
I core
d

c
o
r
e
Figure 11.16 Representation of filling pressure requirement at end of filling [11.3]
M
a
x
i
m
u
m

d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n
IO"
2
[mm]
Cavity volume
[%]
Figure 11.17 Maximum deflection of
the mold core as a function of filling
volume [11.3]
In the case of a diameter/length ratio d/1 of approx. 0.2, once the flow fronts have
converged, further filling of the cavity is accompanied by a reduction in the pressure
difference between part upper face or gate side and part lower face, as a result of which
deflection of the mold core decreases again towards the end of filling.
Molded part geometries with a d/1 ratio less than 0.1 pass through a deflection
minimum and then undergo a renewed rise in deflection that may be attributed to other
components of the pressure difference between the sprue side and the mold clamping
half. The temporary maximum deflection on convergence of the flow fronts can be
exceeded at the end of filling.
These studies show the deflection that may be expected for a given pressure distri-
bution and the influence that the part geometry has on the maximum deflection and the
course of deflection.
However, due to multiple integration of the pressure function, this analytical approach
can only be applied to parts whose geometry comprises simple basic bodies (cylinders,
plates) and whose pressure load can be described by simple mathematics.
The use of an FE analysis program is advisable for more complex geometries or
loading.
The qualitative change in deflection of the mold geometries at different diameter/length
ratios is shown in Figure 11.18. From the function curves, it can be seen that the
deflection of the mold cores increases until that filling level is reached which
corresponds with the converging of the flow fronts in the area opposite the gate. After
filling of the cavity just after convergence of the flow fronts is complete (diameter/length
ratio of approx. 0.5), the maximum deflection is attained at the end of filling.
C
o
r
e

d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n
C
o
r
e

d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n
C
o
r
e

d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n
Cavity volume
Cavity volume
Cavity volume
d/1 = 0.5
d/1 = 0.2
d/1 = 0.1
[%]
[%]
[%]
Figure 11.18 Change in deflection for
different geometries [11.3]
1 1 . 6 De s i g n E x a mp l e s f or C o r e Mo u n t i n g
a n d A l i g n me n t of D e e p Ca v i t i e s
The significance of proper core mounting is evident from the previous sections. It is
obvious that the best conditions for a core to be positively secured against the cavity is
achieved by making the core and retainer plate in one piece. This can only be done by
machining an appropriately large piece of stock, and material losses are accordingly
high. For large molds it cannot be done in any other way. For smaller molds, cores and
retainer plates are usually made separately. Then the core has to be carefully and
immovably mounted to the retainer plate. Simple circular cores are machined with a
collar, which provides alignment. A flange over this collar secures the core in the retainer
plate (Figure 11.19). Figure 11.20 depicts a mold with a divided core to form ribs and
facilitate machining. This core is attached to the retainer plate by wedges. Among all
possible options for mounting cores, this method approaches best the desired unity of
core and retainer plate.
Figure 11.19 Core mounting with compressed flange in retainer plate
Figure 11.20 Multisectional
core mounted with wedges
[11.12]
Even with the best possible core mounting, long and slender cores still require support
at both ends (Figure 11.21).
R e f e r e n c e s
[11.1] Guth, W.; Schenk, R.; Schroiff, V.: Deformation von Einlegeteilen beim Umspritzen
simulieren. Kunststoffe, 84 (1994), 3, pp. 244-248.
[11.2] Knaup, J.: Werkzeugverformung beim Fullvorgang vorausberechnen. CAD - CAM -
CIM (1994), 5, pp. 64-68.
[11.3] Michaeli, W.; Ehrig, E.: Berechnung der Verformung von Metalleinlegeteilen in Spritz-
gieBwerkzeugen aufgrund der in der Kavitat vorliegenden Fulldruckverteilung
Innovative Technologien. In: Elastomerverarbeitung, VDI-Z, Integrierte Produktion,
VDI-Verlag, Diisseldorf, 1996.
[11.4] Pesavento, M.: Analyse des Herstellungsprozesses eines Thermoplast/Elastomer-
Verbundbauteils zur Verbesserung der Formteilqualitat. Unpublished report, IKV,
Aachen, 1995.
[11.5] Bangert, H.: Systematische Konstruktion von Spritzgiefiwerkzeugen und Rechnereinsatz.
Dissertation, RWTH, Aachen, 1981.
[11.6] Schreuder, S.: Rechnerunterstiitzte Konstruktion von SpritzgieBwerkzeugen (Kern-
versatz). Unpublished report, IKV, Aachen, 1987.
[11.7] Behrenbeck, U. P.: Erstellung eines Rechenprogramms zur Ermittlung des Kernversatzes
wahrend des Einspritzvorganges unter Beriicksichtigung des Aufschaukeleffektes.
Unpublished report, IKV, Aachen, 1980.
[11.8] Schmidt, L.: Auslegung von SpritzgieBwerkzeugen unter flieBtechnischen Gesichts-
punkten. Dissertation, RWTH, Aachen, 1981.
[11.9] Menges, G.; Lichius, U.; Bangert, H.: Eine einfache Methode zur Vorausbestimmung des
FlieBfrontverlaufes beim SpritzgieBen von Thermoplasten. Plastverarbeiter, 31 (1980),
11, pp. 671-676.
[11.10] Menges, G.; Mohren, P.: Anleitung zum Bau von SpritzgieBwerkzeugen. Carl Hanser
Verlag, Munich, 1974.
[11.11] Schluter, H.: Verfahren zur Abschatzung der Werkzeugkosten bei der Konstruktion von
SpritzgieBwerkzeugen. Dissertation, RWTH, Aachen, 1981.
[11.12] Lindner, E.: SpritzgieBwerkzeuge fiir groBe Teile. Mitteilung aus dem Anwendungs-
technischen Laboratorium fur Kunststoffe der BASF, Ludwigshafen/Rh.
[11.13] KegelanguB, SchirmanguB, RinganguB, BandanguB. Technische Information, 4.2.1,
BASF, Ludwigshafen/Rh.
[11.14] Wust, A.; von Diest, K.; Voit, T. H.: Und er bewegt sich doch. Kuststoffe, 87 (1997), 12,
pp. 1762-1764.
Figure 11.21 Ring gate permits
support of core at both ends [11.13]