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!ISIOÞÐIÞT.
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KIÞC & SIA!ÐIÞC !!I
ll80 Ionchfroo Sfroof, ÞI
AfInnfn, CA 30309

!OII!T A. VAÞ ÞIST
STIVIÞ A. HI!SCH
CH!ISTA M. AÞÐI!SOÞ
MICHAI! S. KW!Þ
ÐAÞ JACKSOÞ
KIKI! & VAÞ ÞIST !!I
633 Inffory Sfroof
Snn IrnncIsco, CA 94lll
ÐA!Y! !. JOSIIII!
Couneel of IecorJ
ASH!IY C. IA!!ISH
AÐAM M. COÞ!AÐ
ITHAÞ I. ÐAVIS
KIÞC & SIA!ÐIÞC !!I
l?00 IonnsyIvnnIn Avo., ÞW
WnshIngfon, ÐC 20006
(202) ?3?-0500
djosoffor¸ksInw.com
!IÞÞY HWAÞC
COOC!I IÞC.
l600 AmµhIfhonfro Inrkwny
MounfnIn VIow, CA 94043
Couneel for Pe/i/ioner
Ocfobor 6, 20l4

I

?0:2;<#= %>:2:=;:@
Congross sµocIfIod fhnf “original works of
authorship” nro gonornIIy oIIgIbIo for coµyrIghf
µrofocfIon, l? !.S.C. § l02(n), buf “[i]n no cnso doos
coµyrIghf µrofocfIon for nn orIgInnI work of
nufhorshIµ oxfond fo nny Idon, µrocoduro, µrocoss,
sysfom, mofhod of oµornfIon, concoµf, µrIncIµIo, or
dIscovory, rognrdIoss of fho form In whIch If Is
doscrIbod, oxµInInod, IIIusfrnfod, or ombodIod In such
work.” 1J. § l02(b).
In fhIs cnso, fho IodornI CIrcuIf hoId fhnf
SocfIon l02(b) doos no/ oxcIudo sysfoms or mofhods
of oµornfIon from coµyrIghf µrofocfIon nnd fhnf nII
oIomonfs of nn orIgInnI work nro “entIfIod fo
coµyrIghf µrofocfIon ns Iong ns fho nufhor hnd
muIfIµIo wnys fo oxµross fho undorIyIng idea.” Aµµ.
4?.
Tho quosfIon Is:
Whofhor coµyrIghf µrofocfIon oxfonds fo nII
oIomonfs of nn orIgInnI work of comµufor soffwnro,
IncIudIng n sysfom or mofhod of oµornfIon, fhnf nn
nufhor couId hnvo wrIffon In moro fhnn ono wny.

II

%5>;<:2 ;# ;A: %>#.::@<=B
5=@ >0C: DEFG 2;5;:H:=;
IofIfIonor In fhIs Courf, dofondnnf-cross
nµµoIInnf boIow, Is CoogIo Inc. !osµondonf In fhIs
Courf, µInInfIff-nµµoIInnf boIow, Is OrncIo AmorIcn,
Inc.
CoogIo Inc. Is n µubIIcIy frndod comµnny
(ÞASÐAQ: COOC nnd COOC!). Þo µubIIcIy hoId
comµnny owns l0 µorconf or moro of CoogIo Inc.’s
sfock.



III

!"#$% '( )'*!%*!+
Q!ISTIOÞ I!ISIÞTIÐ ........................................... I
IA!TIIS TO THI I!OCIIÐIÞC
AÞÐ !!!I 29.6 STATIMIÞT ........................... II
TAI!I OI A!THO!ITIIS ...................................... vII
IITITIOÞ IO! A W!IT OI CI!TIO!A!I .............. l
OIIÞIOÞS II!OW .................................................... 4
J!!ISÐICTIOÞ .......................................................... 4
STAT!TO!Y I!OVISIOÞ IÞVO!VIÐ .................... 4
STATIMIÞT OI THI CASI .................................... 5
A. Jnvn nnd AndroId .......................................... 5
I. Tho ÐIsfrIcf Courf IrocoodIngs .................... 8
C. Tho Courf of AµµonIs IrocoodIngs .............. l0
!IASOÞS IO! C!AÞTIÞC THI IITITIOÞ ........ l3
I. Tho Courfs Of AµµonIs Aro In ÐIsnrrny
Abouf Tho AµµIIcnfIon Of SocfIon l02(b) To
Soffwnro. ............................................................. l3
II. Tho IodornI CIrcuIf’s ÐocIsIon !uns AfouI Of
Tho Sfnfufo, ThIs Courf’s ConfroIIIng
Irocodonfs, And Tho ÐIsfIncfIon Iofwoon
Infonf And CoµyrIghf. ....................................... 20
A. Tho sfnfufo codIfIos fhIs Courf’s
oxcIusIon of sysfoms nnd mofhods of
oµornfIon from coµyrIghf µrofocfIon. .......... 20
I. Sysfoms nnd mofhods of oµornfIon nro
govornod by µnfonf, nof coµyrIghf, Inw. ..... 23
Iv

C. Tho Jnvn mofhod hondors nro n sysfom
or mofhod of oµornfIon. ............................... 29
III. ThIs Cnso Irosonfs n !ocurrIng QuosfIon of
IxcoµfIonnI Imµorfnnco. .................................... 32
COÞC!!SIOÞ .......................................................... 3?
AIIIÞÐIX
AµµondIx A
OµInIon of fho !nIfod Sfnfos Courf
of AµµonIs for fho IodornI CIrcuIf
(Mny 9, 20l4) .............................................. Aµµ-l
AµµondIx I
Ordor InrfInIIy CrnnfIng nnd
Partially Denying Defendant’s
MofIon for Summnry Judgmonf on
CoµyrIghf CInIm of fho !nIfod Sfnfos
ÐIsfrIcf Courf for fho Þorfhorn
ÐIsfrIcf of CnIIfornIn (Soµf. l5, 20ll) ...... Aµµ-?9
AµµondIx C
Ordor on MofIons for Judgmonf ns n
Mnffor of !nw of fho !nIfod Sfnfos
ÐIsfrIcf Courf for fho Þorfhorn
ÐIsfrIcf of CnIIfornIn (Mny l0, 20l2) ....... Aµµ-99
v

AµµondIx Ð
Ordor !ognrdIng CoµyrIghfnbIIIfy of
CorfnIn !oµIIcnfod IIomonfs of fho
Jnvn AµµIIcnfIon IrogrnmmIng
Inforfnco of fho !nIfod Sfnfos
ÐIsfrIcf Courf for fho Þorfhorn
ÐIsfrIcf of CnIIfornIn (Mny 3l, 20l2) ..... Aµµ-l00
AµµondIx I
IIndIngs of Incf nnd ConcIusIons of
!nw on IquIfnbIo Ðofonsos of fho
!nIfod Sfnfos ÐIsfrIcf Courf for fho
Þorfhorn ÐIsfrIcf of CnIIfornIn (Mny
3l, 20l2) .................................................. Aµµ-l65
AµµondIx I
IInnI Judgmonf of fho !nIfod Sfnfos
ÐIsfrIcf Courf for fho Þorfhorn
ÐIsfrIcf of CnIIfornIn (Juno 20, 20l2) .... Aµµ-l69
AµµondIx C
Ordor ÐonyIng MofIon for Judgmonf
ns n Mnffor of !nw nnd Þow TrInI of
fho !nIfod Sfnfos ÐIsfrIcf Courf for
fho Þorfhorn ÐIsfrIcf of CnIIfornIn
(JuIy l3, 20l2) ........................................ Aµµ-l?2
AµµondIx H
Ordor ÐonyIng MofIon for Judgmonf
ns n Mnffor of !nw nnd Þow TrInI of
fho !nIfod Sfnfos ÐIsfrIcf Courf for
fho Þorfhorn ÐIsfrIcf of CnIIfornIn
(Soµf. 4, 20l2) ......................................... Aµµ-l?3
vI

AµµondIx I
l? !.S.C. § l0l ....................................... Aµµ-l?4
l? !.S.C. § l02 ....................................... Aµµ-l88

vII

;5IC: #8 50;A#><;<:2
.,3&3
Alice Corp. P/,. L/J. t. CLS Bon/ Int’l,
l34 S. Cf. 234? (20l4) ............................ 25, 2?, 28
An. BrooJ. Coe. t. Aereo, 1nc.,
l34 S. Cf. 2498 (20l4) ........................................ 3?
Apple Conpu/er, 1nc. t.
Iron/lin Conpu/er Corp.,
?l4 I.2d l240 (3d CIr. l983) ........................ l?, l8
Ass’n for Moleculor Po/lolog, t.
M,rioJ Gene/ice, 1nc.,
l33 S. Cf. 2l0? (20l3) ........................................ 28
ATC Die/riIu/ion Grp., 1nc. t. Wlo/eter 1/ To/ee
Tronenieeione & Por/e, 1nc.,
402 I.3d ?00 (6fh CIr. 2005) .............................. l6
Bo/er t. SelJen,
l0l (ll Offo) !.S. 99 (l880) ....................... µnssIm
Bile/i t. Koppoe,
l30 S. Cf. 32l8 (20l0) ........................................ 28
Brief 1ngliel S,e., 1nc. t. Ouen,
48 I.2d 555 (2d CIr. l93l) ............................ 29, 30
Conpu/er Aeeoce. Int’l 1nc. t. Al/oi, 1nc.,
982 I.2d 693 (2d CIr. l992) .................... l4, l?, l8
Eng’g D,nonice, 1nc. t. S/ruc/urol Sof/uore, 1nc.,
26 I.3d l335 (5fh CIr. l994) .............................. l?
Eng’g D,nonice, 1nc. t. S/ruc/urol Sof/uore, 1nc.,
46 I.3d 408 (5fh CIr. l995) ................................ l?
Ieie/ Publ’ns, 1nc. t. Iurol Tel. Sert. Co.,
499 !.S. 340 (l99l) ......................... l0, 2l, 22, 26
vIII

Go/ee IuIIer Co. t. BonJo Clen. 1nJue.,
9 I.3d 823 (l0fh CIr. l993) ................................ l?
Kregoe t. Aeeocio/eJ Preee,
93? I.2d ?00 (2d CIr. l99l) ................................ l9
KSI Int’l Co. t. Teleflex 1nc.,
550 !.S. 398 (200?) ............................................ 25
Lexnor/ Int’l, 1nc. t.
S/o/ic Con/rol Conponen/e, 1nc.,
38? I.3d 522 (6fh CIr. 2004) .................. l5, l6, l9
Lo/ue Det. Corp. t. BorlonJ Int’l, 1nc.,
49 I.3d 80? (lsf CIr. l995) ......................... µnssIm
Lo/ue Det. Corp. t. BorlonJ Int’l, 1nc.,
5l6 !.S. 233 (l996) .............................................. l
Lo/ue Det. Corp. t. BorlonJ Int’l, 1nc.,
83l I. Suµµ. 223 (Ð. Mnss. l993) ...................... 29
Mo//leu BenJer & Co. t. Wee/ Publ’g Co.,
l58 I.3d 6?4 (2d CIr. l998) ................................ l9
Mo,o ColloIoro/ite Serte. t.
Prone/leue LoIe., 1nc.,
l32 S. Cf. l289 (20l2) .................................. 25, 28
Milner t. Dep’t of Aot,,
l3l S. Cf. l259 (20ll) ........................................ 22
Mi/el, 1nc. t. 1q/el, 1nc.,
l24 I.3d l366 (l0fh CIr. l99?) .................... l4, l8
Aor/l Cooe/ 1nJue. t. Joeon Moxuell, 1nc.,
9?2 I.2d l03l (9fh CIr. l992) ............................ l9
PuIlico/ione Int’l, L/J. t. MereJi/l Corp.,
88 I.3d 4?3 (?fh CIr. l996 ................................. l9
Ix

Ieeeorcl Corp. Tecle., 1nc. t. Microeof/ Corp.,
62? I.3d 859 (Iod. CIr. 20l0) ............................. 2?
SAS 1ne/i/u/e 1nc. t. WorlJ Progronning L/J.
Cnso C-406/l0,
20l2 I.C.!.I 259, |20l2] 3 C.M.!.!. 4 ............... 36
Wlelon Aeeoce., 1nc. t. Joelou Den/ol LoI., 1nc.,
?9? I.2d l222 (3d CIr. l986) ........................ l4, l6
Yon/ee ConJle Co. t. BriJgeuo/er ConJle Co.,
259 I.3d 25 (lsf CIr. 200l) ................................. l9
2','4'&3
l? !.S.C. § l0l .......................................................... 2?
l? !.S.C. § l02 .................................................. µnssIm
l? !.S.C. § l0? .......................................................... 28
l? !.S.C. § 302 .......................................................... 26
l? !.S.C. § l20l ........................................................ 35
28 !.S.C. § l254 .......................................................... 4
35 !.S.C. § l0l .......................................................... 25
35 !.S.C. § l02 .......................................................... 25
35 !.S.C. § l03 .......................................................... 25
#'/&+ 54'/)+('(&3
Amnzon Wob SorvIcos,
AWS ProJuc/e & Solu/ione (20l4) ..................... 34
Ir. of Anici Curioe !ncksµnco !S, Inc. e/ ol.,
Orocle An., 1nc. t. Google 1nc.,
Ðkf. Þo. ll6, Þos. l3-l02l, e/ ol.
(Iod. CIr. Mny 30, 20l3) ..................................... 34
x

CouncII of MInIsfors ÐIrocfIvo 9l/250/IIC of l4 Mny
l99l on fho !ognI IrofocfIon of Comµufor
Irogrnms, l99l O.J. (! l22) .............................. 35
Iorguson, ChnrIos H. & MorrIs, ChnrIos !.,
Conpu/er Wore. Tle Poe/-1BM WorlJ (l994) .... 33
H.!. !II. ÞO. 94-l4?6 (l9?6) .................................... 22
InfornnfIonnI Ðnfn CorµornfIon,
WorIdwIdo Smnrfµhono OS Mnrkof Shnro
(20l4) .................................................................... ?
Knno, TIm,
IwIng MnrIon Knuffmnn IoundnfIon,
Tle 1npor/once of S/or/upe in JoI Creo/ion
onJ JoI Dee/ruc/ion (20l0) ................................ 36
!Indborg, Vnn,
Tle Cop,rigl/oIili/, Of AP1e 1n Tle
LonJ Of OpenS/oc/ (20l4) ................................. 33
OrncIo Corµ.,
Irequen/l, Ae/eJ Quee/ione, Orocle Linux
(20l4) .................................................................. 33
S. !II. ÞO. 94-4?3 (l9?5) .......................................... 22
Vnughnn-ÞIchoIs, Sfovon J.,
OpenS/oc/ te. ClouJS/oc/. Tle Beginning
of /le Open-Source ClouJ Wore, ZÐÞof
(Aµr. l2, 20l2) .................................................... 34
WIIcox, Joo,
Will OS X’s Inix Ioo/e Help Apple Grou:,
CÞIT.com (Mny 2l, 200l) ................................. 33
WInoHQ,
AIou/ Wine .......................................................... 35
l


%:;<;<#= 8#> 5 -><; #8 .:>;<#>5><
In l995, fhIs Courf grnnfod corfIornrI In Lo/ue
Detelopnen/ Corp. t. BorlonJ 1n/erno/ionol, 1nc., 5l6
!.S. 233 (l996), fo rosoIvo fho quosfIon µrosonfod
horo. Tho IIrsf CIrcuIf hnd held―consistent wIfh fho
µInIn Inngungo of l? !.S.C. § l02(b) buf In confIIcf
wIfh ofhor courfs of appeals―fhnf mofhods of
oµornfIon ombodIod In comµufor µrogrnms nro nof
onfIfIod fo coµyrIghf µrofocfIon. ThIs Courf
dondIockod, nffIrmIng by nn oqunIIy dIvIdod courf.
Two docndos Infor, fhIs off-ncknowIodgod cIrcuIf sµIIf
hns dooµonod nnd fho quosfIon µrosonfod hns grown
ovon moro Imµorfnnf ns soffwnro hns bocomo n
fIxfuro of modorn IIfo.
ThIs cnso dIrocfIy ImµIIcnfos fho unnnsworod
quosfIon In Lo/ue bocnuso fho IodornI CIrcuIf
oxfondod coµyrIghf µrofocfIon fo sysfoms nnd
mofhods of oµornfIon, IncIudIng comµufor Inforfncos.
Thnf hoIdIng wouId obsfrucf nn onormous nmounf of
InnovnfIon In fnsf-movIng, hIgh-fochnoIogy
IndusfrIos, In µnrf bocnuso InnovnfIon doµonds on
soffwnro developers’ nbIIIfy fo buIId on whnf hns
como boforo. If fho IodornI Circuit’s hoIdIng hnd
boon fho Inw nf fho IncoµfIon of fho Infornof ngo,
onrIy comµufor comµnnIos couId hnvo bIockod vnsf
nmounfs of fochnoIogIcnI dovoIoµmonf by cInImIng
95-yonr coµyrIghf monoµoIIos ovor fho bnsIc buIIdIng
bIocks of comµufor dosIgn nnd µrogrnmmIng. Iy fho
fImo CoogIo nnd counfIoss ofhor Innovnfors ovon
cnmo onfo fho scono, ofhors couId hnvo Iockod uµ fho
fIoId for Iongor fhnn mosf µooµIo wIII IIvo.
ConsIdor, for oxnmµIo, fho woII-known koybonrd
dosIgn known ns QWI!TY. Affor !omIngfon
2

dovoIoµod fhnf orgnnIznfIon of Ioffors nnd symboIs
docndos ngo, If bocnmo sfnndnrd for fyµowrIfors nnd,
Infor, for comµufor koybonrds. IooµIo Invosfod fImo
nnd offorf In IonrnIng fho QWI!TY dosIgn, nnd fhon
oxµocfod nII koybonrds fo uso If. !nfor, comµnnIos
IIko IIM nnd AµµIo nddod fhoIr own nddIfIonnI koys
fo fho orIgInnI QWI!TY Inyouf. If !omIngfon hnd
broughf n coµyrIghf InfrIngomonf InwsuIf ngnInsf n
koybonrd mnnufncfuror for coµyIng fho QWI!TY
Inyouf, If wouId hnvo fnIIod. Thnf dosIgn wns
orIgInnI nnd cronfIvo, buf !omIngfon wns nof onfIfIod
fo nµµroµrInfo fho Invosfmonfs mndo by ofhors In
IonrnIng how fo uso If. OfhorwIso, !omIngfon couId
hnvo monoµoIIzod nof onIy fho snIo of Ifs µnfonfod
fyµowrIfors for fho Iongfh of n µnfonf form, buf nIso
fho snIo of nII koybonrds for nonrIy n confury.
ThIs cnso rnIsos fho snmo bnsIc Issuo. IndIvIdunI
comµufor µrogrnmmors nnd fhIrd-µnrfy comµnnIos
dovoIoµ nµµIIcnfIons (fho ubIquIfous “apps”) for
mobIIo dovIcos, such ns smnrfµhonos, fhnf uso fho
AndroId µInfform. Iocnuso mnny comµufor
µrogrnmmors nro fnmIIInr wIfh fho Jnvn
µrogrnmmIng Inngungo, CoogIo nIIowod µrogrnmmors
fo wrIfo µrogrnms for AndroId usIng If, IncIudIng fho
bnsIc shorfhnnd commnnds of fho Jnvn Inngungo. As
roIovnnf horo, n µorson wrIfIng nn AndroId
nµµIIcnfIon In fho Jnvn Inngungo mny uso shorfhnnd
commnnds fo cnuso n comµufor fo µorform corfnIn
funcfIons, such ns choosIng fho Inrgor of fwo
numbors. Irogrnmmors hnvo mndo sIgnIfIcnnf
Invosfmonfs In IonrnIng fhoso commnnds; fhoy nro, In
offocf, fho bnsIc vocnbuInry words of fho Jnvn
Inngungo. Whon µrogrnmmors sIf down fo wrIfo
nµµIIcnfIons, fhoy oxµocf fo bo nbIo fo uso fhom.
3

Tho IodornI CIrcuIf nonofhoIoss hoId fhnf,
nIfhough fho Jnvn Inngungo Is concododIy nof
onfIfIod fo coµyrIghf µrofocfIon, fho oIomonfs of fho
Jnvn µInfform fhnf onnbIo fho uso of fho shorfhnnd
commnnds nro coµyrIghfnbIo. Tho courf bnsod fhnf
concIusIon on Ifs vIow fhnf l? !.S.C. § l02(b) doos
no/ oxcIudo sysfoms nnd mofhods of oµornfIon from
coµyrIghf protection―even fhough fho sfnfufo
unnmbIguousIy doos oxncfIy fhnf:
In no cnso doos coµyrIghf µrofocfIon for nn
orIgInnI work of nufhorshIµ oxfond fo nny
Idon, µrocoduro, µrocoss, sysfom, mofhod of
oµornfIon, concoµf, µrIncIµIo, or dIscovory,
rognrdIoss of fho form In whIch If Is
doscrIbod, oxµInInod, IIIusfrnfod, or
ombodIod In such work.
l? !.S.C. § l02(b).
Iy roµIncIng fhnf sfnfufory dIrocfIvo wIfh n
dIfforonf one―that coµyrIghf µrofocfIon Joee oxfond
fo n sysfom or mofhod of oµornfIon so Iong ns fhoro
wns moro fhnn ono wny fo wrIfo it―the IodornI
CIrcuIf usurµod Congress’s roIo, dooµonod n cIrcuIf
sµIIf fhnf fhIs Courf µrovIousIy grnnfod corfIornrI fo
rosoIvo, nIIowod OrncIo fo uso coµyrIghf Inw fo ovndo
fho IImIfs on µnfonf µrofocfIon, nnd fhoroby bIockod
dovoIoµors from buIIdIng on whnf hns como boforo.
Tho courf dId so, moroovor, In ono of fho mosf
Imµorfnnf cnsos of Ifs kInd, concornIng fho wIdoIy-
usod Jnvn Inngungo nnd AndroId µInfform. ThIs
Court’s rovIow Is noodod now, boforo tomorrow’s
InnovnfIon fnIIs vIcfIm fo fho docIsIon boIow.
4

#%<=<#=2 I:C#-
Tho oµInIon of fho courf of nµµonIs Is roµorfod nf
?50 I.3d l339 nnd roµroducod nf Aµµ. l. Tho dIsfrIcf
court’s oµInIon Is µubIIshod nf 8?2 I. Suµµ. 2d 9?4
nnd roµroducod nf Aµµ. l00.
J0><2@<.;<#=
Tho courf of nµµonIs rondorod Ifs docIsIon on
Mny 8, 20l4. On JuIy l0, 20l4, fho ChIof JusfIco
oxfondod fho fImo for fIIIng n µofIfIon fo nnd
IncIudIng Ocfobor 6, 20l4. ThIs Courf hns
jurIsdIcfIon undor 28 !.S.C. § l254(l).
2;5;0;#>K %>#L<2<#= <=L#CL:@
SocfIon l02 of fho CoµyrIghf Acf µrovIdos:
(n) CoµyrIghf µrofocfIon subsIsfs, In
nccordnnco wIfh fhIs fIfIo, In orIgInnI works
of nufhorshIµ fIxod In nny fnngIbIo modIum
of oxµrossIon, now known or Infor dovoIoµod,
from whIch fhoy cnn bo µorcoIvod,
roµroducod, or ofhorwIso communIcnfod,
oIfhor dIrocfIy or wIfh fho nId of n mnchIno
or dovIco. . . .
. . . .
(b) In no cnso doos coµyrIghf µrofocfIon
for nn orIgInnI work of nufhorshIµ oxfond fo
nny Idon, µrocoduro, µrocoss, sysfom, mofhod
of oµornfIon, concoµf, µrIncIµIo, or dIscovory,
rognrdIoss of fho form In whIch If Is
doscrIbod, oxµInInod, IIIusfrnfod, or
ombodIod In such work.
l? !.S.C. § l02.
5

2;5;:H:=; #8 ;A: .52:
5F J,M, ,$1 5$1+)(1
l. Sun MIcrosysfoms roIonsod fho Jnvn
µrogrnmmIng Inngungo nnd soffwnro µInfform In
l996. Iy mnkIng fho Jnvn Inngungo froo for nII fo
uso, Sun soughf fo “build fho bIggosf fonf nnd InvIfo
ns mnny µooµIo ns possible.” C.A. Aµµ. 22l4l.
As fho dIsfrIcf courf oxµInInod, fho Jnvn
Inngungo Is mndo uµ of “keywords nnd ofhor symbols”
ns woII ns “a sof of µro-wrIffon µrogrnms fo cnrry ouf
vnrIous commands.” Aµµ. l06. In oncourngIng
comµufor µrogrnmmors fo Ionrn nnd uso Jnvn, Sun
foufod fhoso µro-wrIffon µrogrnms. C.A. Aµµ. 22l3?.
Sun succoodod In brIngIng nn onfIro gonornfIon of
µrogrnmmors Info fho Jnvn communIfy. Aµµ. l05.
MIIIIons of µrogrnmmors Invosfod fImo nnd offorf Info
IonrnIng Jnvn, mnkIng If ono of fho world’s mosf
µoµuInr µrogrnmmIng Inngungos. Aµµ. l04.
Irogrnmmors nccoss fho sof of µro-wrIffon
µrogrnms fhrough fho Jnvn nµµIIcnfIon µrogrnmmIng
Inforfnco (“API”)—n hIghIy sfrucfurod sysfom wIfh
Ifs own nomoncInfuro. Tho nµµIIcnfIon µrogrnmmIng
Inforfnco µrovIdos nccoss fo fhousnnds of “methods,”
onch of whIch µorforms n funcfIon such ns choosIng
fho hIghor of fwo numbors. Tho mofhods nro grouµod
Info “classes,” whIch nro furfhor grouµod Info l66
“packages” of µrogrnms—much IIko mombors of fho
nnImnI kIngdom nro grouµod Info sµocIos, gonusos,
nnd fnmIIIos. See Aµµ. l06–0?.
Tho comµufor codo for onch mofhod “consIsfs of
fho mofhod hondor nnd fho mofhod body.” Aµµ lll.
Tho mofhod hondor, nIso known ns n “declaration,”
6

“introduces fho mofhod body” nnd “specif[ies] fho
nnmos, µnrnmofors nnd funcfIonnIIfy of fho mofhods
nnd classes.” Aµµ. ?, 29–30. “The mofhod body Is n
bIock of codo fhnf fhon ImµIomonfs fho method” by
InsfrucfIng n comµufor how fo µorform fho roIovnnf
funcfIon; If Is fhoroforo known ns “implementing
code.” Aµµ. lll.
To uso fho mofhods, µrogrnmmors do nof nood fo
concorn fhomsoIvos wIfh fho mofhods’ ImµIomonfIng
codo. Insfond, µrogrnmmors uso n shorfhnnd
commnnd fhnf cnusos fho ImµIomonfIng codo fo
µorform fho dosIrod funcfIon, such ns choosIng fho
gronfor of fwo numbors. Aµµ. 33. In fhIs wny, n
µrogrnmmor usos fho shorfhnnd commnnds fo
oµornfo fho mofhods, i.e., fho µro-wrIffon µrogrnms.
Iy usIng n method’s shorfhnnd commnnd, n
µrogrnmmor cnn wrIfo comµIox soffwnro offIcIonfIy,
wIfhouf hnvIng fo wrIfo ouf ImµIomonfIng codo for
onch IndIvIdunI roufIno fnsk.
Thoso shorfhnnd commnnds fnko fho sµocIfIc
formnf “java.µnckngo.Class.method(input).” Aµµ.
ll2–l6. Ior oxnmµIo, “java.Inng.Mnfh.max(1,2)”
rofors fo n µnrfIcuInr mofhod (“max”) fhnf rofurns fho
gronfor of fwo numbors (i.e., l nnd 2) nnd Is Iocnfod
In fho “Math” cInss, whIch In furn Is Iocnfod In fho
“java.lang” µnckngo. Aµµ. ll2. Inch shorfhnnd
commnnd Is dorIvod from fho method’s hondor,
whIch, IIko fho commnnd, sµocIfIos fho method’s
nnmo, cInss, µnckngo, nnd Inµufs. Aµµ. ?, 29–30.
2. CoogIo Is fho Iond dovoIoµor of AndroId, ono
of fho mosf µoµuInr mobIIo dovIco µInfforms In fho
worId. In fho socond qunrfor of 20l4, fhIrd-µnrfy
mnnufncfurors such ns Snmsung, HTC, !C, nnd
?

!onovo soId moro fhnn 255 mIIIIon smnrfµhonos fhnf
uso fho AndroId µInfform. See InfornnfIonnI Ðnfn
CorµornfIon, WorIdwIdo Smnrfµhono OS Mnrkof
Shnro (20l4), otoiloIle o/ hffµ://www.Idc.com/
µrodsorv/smnrfµhono-os-mnrkof-shnro.jsµ.
Tho AndroId µInfform IncIudos l68 µnckngos of
mofhods. Aµµ. l09. Ior ovory ono of fhoso mofhods,
CoogIo wrofo or ncquIrod orIgInnI ImµIomonfIng codo.
Aµµ. l0l. As fho dIsfrIcf courf oxµInInod, “[a]ll ngroo
fhnf CoogIo wns nnd romnIns froo fo uso fho Jnvn
Inngungo itself” nnd fhnf fho “method
ImµIomonfnfIons by CoogIo nro froo of coµyrIghf
issues.” Aµµ. l08. Tho parties’ dIsµufo confors on
Google’s uso of fho snmo hondors for fho mofhods
found In 3? of fho AndroId packages―methods fhnf
µorform “functions . . . fhnf |n]ro koy fo mobIIo
devices.” Aµµ. l0?.
Indoµondonf comµufor µrogrnmmors cronfo
nµµIIcnfIons for uso on AndroId dovIcos. Iocnuso
fhoso µrogrnmmors know nnd offon µrofor fo uso fho
Jnvn µrogrnmmIng Inngungo, CoogIo concIudod fhnf
µrogrnmmors “would wnnf fo fInd fho snmo 3? sofs of
funcfIonnIIfIos In fho now AndroId sysfom cnIInbIo by
fho snmo nnmos ns usod In Java.” Aµµ. 9. Ior fhoso
shorfhnnd commnnds fo work on fho AndroId
µInfform, CoogIo hnd fo roµIIcnfo fho mofhod hondors
µrocIsoIy; nny chnngo fo fho hondors wouId hnvo
µrovonfod fho shorfhnnd commnnds from workIng
µroµorIy. Aµµ. l09–l0. As fho dIsfrIcf courf found,
fhoroforo, “Android nnd Jnvn nue/ Ie IdonfIcnI whon
If comos fo fhoso µnrfIcuInr IInos of code.” Aµµ. l09.
Iocnuso CoogIo roµIIcnfod onIy fho mofhod hondors,
nnd fho body of onch mofhod (fho ImµIomonfIng codo)
8

wns wrIffon from scrnfch, “only fhroo µorconf of fho
IInos of codo nro fho same” In fho 3? dIsµufod
µnckngos. Aµµ. l09.
IF ;/& @(3'+(9' .)4+' %+)9&&1($N3
Affor OrncIo ncquIrod Sun In 20l0, OrncIo
broughf fhIs ncfIon for µnfonf nnd coµyrIghf
InfrIngomonf. Tho dIsfrIcf courf onforod judgmonf In
Google’s fnvor on Oracle’s µnfonf cInIms, nnd OrncIo
hns nof nµµonIod fhnf doformInnfIon. Aµµ. l?0.
Oracle’s coµyrIghf cInIms nccusod CoogIo of
coµyIng fho mofhod hondors nnd fho so-cnIIod
“structure, soquonco, nnd organization” of fho Jnvn
nµµIIcnfIon µrogrnmIng Inforfnco. Aµµ. 3. OrncIo
µromIsod Ifs “structure, soquonco, nnd organization”
cInIm on fho fhoory fhnf fho mofhod hondors “embody
fho structure” of fho nµµIIcnfIon µrogrnmmIng
Inforfnco by sµocIfyIng fho nnmo, µnckngo, nnd cInss
of onch mofhod. Aµµ. 2l. AII of Oracle’s cInIms fhus
chnIIongod fho snmo fhIng: Google’s roµIIcnfIon of
fho mofhod hondors. Aµµ. l0l. CoogIo rosµondod, In
µnrf, fhnf Java’s mofhod hondors nro nof onfIfIod fo
coµyrIghf µrofocfIon bocnuso, nmong ofhor fhIngs,
fhoy consfIfufo or ombody n sysfom or mofhod of
operation―specifically, n sysfom or mofhod of
oµornfIng fho µro-wrIffon µrogrnms.
Tho dIsfrIcf courf consIdorod fho coµyrIghfnbIIIfy
of fho mofhod hondors nf fho snmo fImo fho jury
consIdorod whether―if fho dIsfrIcf courf hoId fho
mofhod hondors fo bo copyrightable―Google wouId bo
IInbIo for InfrIngomonf. Thoso fwo doformInnfIons
µrocoodod on µnrnIIoI frncks, wIfh fho dIsfrIcf courf
InsfrucfIng fho jury fo nssumo fhnf OrncIo wns
9

onfIfIod fo coµyrIghf µrofocfIon nnd fo consIdor onIy
InfrIngomonf nnd fnIr uso. Tho jury found In Oracle’s
fnvor on InfrIngomonf buf hung on Google’s fnIr-uso
dofonso. Aµµ. l2.
In nn oxfonsIvo µubIIshod oµInIon, fho dIsfrIcf
courf hoId fhnf fho mofhod hondors nro nof
coµyrIghfnbIo nnd fhnf CoogIo Is fhoroforo onfIfIod fo
judgmonf ns n mnffor of Inw. Aµµ. l00–65. Tho
courf omµhnsIzod fhnf CoogIo wns onfIfIod fo wrIfo
Ifs own codo ImµIomonfIng fho snmo funcfIons or
mofhods fhnf nro found In fho Jnvn nµµIIcnfIon
µrogrnmmIng Inforfnco. “|C]oµyrIghf Inw doos nof
confor ownorshIµ ovor nny nnd nII wnys fo ImµIomonf
n funcfIon or sµocIfIcnfIon, no mnffor how cronfIvo |If]
mny be.” Aµµ. l54.
Tho dIsfrIcf courf fhon hoId fhnf fho mofhod
hondors, IncIudIng fhoIr nnmos nnd orgnnIznfIon, nro
n sysfom or mofhod of oµornfIon oxcIudod from
coµyrIghf µrofocfIon undor SocfIon l02(b) of fho
CoµyrIghf Acf. Aµµ. l59. Iocnuso fho sysfom of
mofhod hondors Is n “command structure” for
oµornfIng fho µro-wrIffon µrogrnms, fho courf
concIudod fhnf If mIghf rocoIvo “patent µrofocfIon
µorhnµs—buf nof coµyrIghf protection.” 1J.
Tho dIsfrIcf courf omµhnsIzod fhnf comµnfIbIIIfy
“sheds furfhor IIghf on fho chnrncfor of fho commnnd
sfrucfuro ns n sysfom or mofhod of operation.” Aµµ.
l59. Iy fho fImo AndroId cnmo Info oxIsfonco,
µrogrnmmors hnd wrIffon “millions of IInos of code”
In Jnvn, whIch “necessarily usod fho jnvn.µnckngo.
CInss.mofhod() commnnd format” nnd “called on nII
or somo of fho sµocIfIc 3? µnckngos nf Issuo nnd
nocossnrIIy usod fho commnnd sfrucfuro of nnmos
l0

|usod by Google].” 1J. “In ordor for nf Ionsf somo of
fhIs codo fo run on AndroId, CoogIo wns roquIrod fo
|uso] fho snmo jnvn.µnckngo.CInss.mofhod()
commnnd sysfom usIng fho snmo nnmos wIfh fho
snmo ‘taxonomy’ nnd wIfh fho snmo funcfIonnI
specifications.” Aµµ. l59–60. As n rosuIf, “Google
roµIIcnfod whnf wns nocossnry fo nchIovo n dogroo of
InforoµornbIIIfy—buf no more.” Aµµ. l60.
Tho dIsfrIcf courf found furfhor suµµorf for Ifs
hoIdIng In ofhor µrIncIµIos of coµyrIghf Inw. IIrsf,
“[u]nder fho morgor docfrIno, whon fhoro Is onIy ono
(or onIy n fow) wnys fo oxµross somofhIng, fhon no
ono cnn cInIm ownorshIµ of such oxµrossIon by
copyright.” Aµµ. l53. Socond, “names nnd shorf
µhrnsos nro nof copyrightable.” 1J. ThIrd, cIfIng fhIs
Court’s docIsIon In Ieie/ PuIlico/ione, 1nc. t. Iurol
Teleplone Sertice Co., 499 !.S. 340, 356 (l99l), fho
courf obsorvod fhnf “we shouId nof yIoId fo fho
fomµfnfIon fo fInd coµyrIghfnbIIIfy moroIy fo rownrd
nn Invosfmonf mndo In n body of InfoIIocfunI
property.” Aµµ. l53.
.F ;/& .)4+' )* 566&,73 %+)9&&1($N3
Tho IodornI CIrcuIf rovorsod, oµInIng fhnf
coµyrIghfnbIIIfy µrosonfs “a Iow bar” fhnf roquIros
onIy fhnf n work bo orIgInnI nnd oxµrossIvo In fho
sonso fhnf “the nufhor hnd muIfIµIo wnys fo oxµross
fho undorIyIng idea.” Aµµ. l?, 4?. Tho courf nofod n
fhroo-wny cIrcuIf sµIIf on whofhor fo dony coµyrIghf
µrofocfIon fo nII sysfoms or mofhods of oµornfIon,
grnnf coµyrIghf µrofocfIon fo ossonfInIIy nII oIomonfs
of nn orIgInnI nnd cronfIvo comµufor µrogrnm
(IncIudIng sysfoms nnd mofhods of oµornfIon), or
ll

nµµIy n fhIrd fosf known ns fho nbsfrncfIon/fIIfrnfIon/
comµnrIson fosf. Aµµ. 23–24.
AµµIyIng ÞInfh CIrcuIf Inw bocnuso fhIs cnso
nroso wIfhIn fhnf cIrcuIf nnd coµyrIghf Inw doos nof
fnII wIfhIn fho IodornI Circuit’s oxcIusIvo
jurIsdIcfIon, fho IodornI CIrcuIf concIudod fhnf fho
ÞInfh CIrcuIf hns ndoµfod fho nbsfrncfIon/fIIfrnfIon/
comµnrIson fosf. Aµµ. 24. Affor IdonfIfyIng n cIrcuIf
sµIIf on how fo nµµIy fhnf fosf, fho courf of nµµonIs
oxµInInod fhnf If wouId: “first bronk down fho
nIIogodIy InfrIngod |comµufor] µrogrnm Info Ifs
consfIfuonf . . . parts”; fhon “sift ouf nII non-
µrofocfnbIo mnforInI, IncIudIng Idons nnd oxµrossIon
fhnf Is nocossnrIIy IncIdonfnI fo fhoso ideas”; nnd
fInnIIy “compare|] fho romnInIng cronfIvo oxµrossIon
wIfh fho nIIogodIy InfrIngIng program.” Aµµ. 25
(InfornnI quofnfIon mnrks nnd cIfnfIon omIffod).
!sIng fhnf frnmowork, fho courf of nµµonIs fIrsf
hoId fhnf fho morgor docfrIno Is InnµµIIcnbIo for fwo
ronsons: morgor Is “irrelevant” fo coµyrIghfnbIIIfy
nnd Sun couId hnvo wrIffon fho mofhod hondors In
moro fhnn ono wny. Aµµ. 30–3l. Tho courf nIso
rojocfod fho dIsfrIcf court’s roIInnco on fho nnmos-
nnd-shorf-µhrnsos docfrIno. Aµµ. 33–35.
Tho IodornI CIrcuIf fhon hoId fhnf SocfIon
l02(b)—whIch µrovIdos fhnf “|I]n no cnso doos
coµyrIghf µrofocfIon for nn orIgInnI work of
nufhorshIµ oxfond fo nny . . . sysfom |or] mofhod of
operation,” l? !.S.C. § l02(b)—“does no/ oxfInguIsh
fho µrofocfIon nccordod n µnrfIcuInr oxµrossIon of nn
Idon moroIy bocnuso fhnf oxµrossIon Is ombodIod In n
mofhod of operation.” Aµµ. 23 (InfornnI quofnfIon
mnrks omIffod; omµhnsIs nddod). In fho IodornI
l2

Circuit’s vIow, SocfIon l02(b) sorvos onIy fo codIfy fho
“idea/expression dichotomy”—fho µrIncIµIo fhnf
“[c]opyright µrofocfIon oxfonds onIy fo fho oxµrossIon
of nn Idon—nof fo fho undorIyIng Idon itself.” Aµµ.
l8. Iocnuso “Google . . . couId hnvo dosIgnod Ifs own
. . . |nµµIIcnfIon µrogrnmmIng Inforfnco] µnckngos If
If wnnfod fo do so,” nnd fho mofhod hondors “could
hnvo boon wrIffon nnd orgnnIzod In nny numbor of
wnys nnd sfIII hnvo nchIovod fho snmo funcfIons,” fho
courf hoId fhnf “Section l02(b) doos nof bnr fho
µnckngos from coµyrIghf protection.” Aµµ. 49. In fho
courf of appeals’ vIow, “Section l02(n) nnd l02(b) nro
fo bo consIdorod coIIocfIvoIy so fhnf corfnIn
oxµrossIons nro subjocf fo gronfor scrufIny.” Aµµ. 23.
Tho courf of nµµonIs nIso rojocfod fho dIsfrIcf
court’s consIdornfIon of comµnfIbIIIfy, cnIIIng If
“|I]rroIovnnf fo |c]opyrightability.” Aµµ. 50.
AccordIng fo fho IodornI CIrcuIf, comµnfIbIIIfy, nnd
fho fncf fhnf Java’s mofhod hondors “had bocomo fho
offocfIvo Indusfry standard,” nro onIy fncfors fo bo
bnInncod wIfh ofhors ns µnrf of n fnIr-uso dofonso.
Aµµ. 45–53, 5?. Tho courf romnndod for n now frInI
on fhnf dofonso. Aµµ. 53–62.
l


l
Tho courf of nµµonIs nddrossod sovornI ofhor Issuos fhnf nro
nof roIovnnf fo fho quosfIon µrosonfod In fhIs µofIfIon. Ior
oxnmµIo, fho courf nffIrmod fho dIsfrIcf court’s doformInnfIon
fhnf CoogIo coµIod “certain smnII snIµµofs of code.” Aµµ. l02.
Iy sfIµuInfIon of fho µnrfIos, fho dIsfrIcf courf nwnrdod no
dnmngos for fhnf coµyIng, whIch If chnrncforIzod ns “minor” nnd
“innocuous.” Aµµ. ll8, l20.
l3

>:52#=2 8#> B>5=;<=B ;A: %:;<;<#=
Tho IodornI Circuit’s docIsIon wnrrnnfs rovIow
for fhroo ronsons. Iire/, If µrosonfs n IongsfnndIng,
wIdoIy-rocognIzod sµIIf In fho courfs of nµµonIs.
SeconJ, fho IodornI Circuit’s hoIdIng Is In confIIcf
wIfh docIsIons of fhIs Courf nnd confrnry fo fho µInIn
Inngungo of fho CoµyrIghf Acf. TlirJ, whofhor
coµyrIghf mny bo usod fo ovndo fho IImIfs on µnfonf
µrofocfIon, In ordor fo socuro 95-yonr (or Iongor)
monoµoIIos, Is nn oxcoµfIonnIIy Imµorfnnf quosfIon.
ThIs Courf nIrondy rocognIzod fho corfworfhInoss of
fhIs quosfIon by grnnfIng rovIow In Lo/ue. SInco
fhon, fho cIrcuIf sµIIf hns onIy dooµonod nnd fho
quosfIon hns grown ovon moro Imµorfnnf ns soffwnro
hns bocomo ubIquIfous In dnIIy IIfo.
<F ;/& .)4+'3 #* 566&,73 5+& <$ @(3,++,O
5P)4' ;/& 5667(9,'()$ #* 2&9'()$ QRDSPT ;)
2)*'U,+&F
Tho CoµyrIghf Acf µrovIdos fhnf coµyrIghf
µrofocfIon subsIsfs In “original works of authorship.”
l? !.S.C. § l02(n). Iuf fhnf µrofocfIon doos nof
oxfond fo nII oIomonfs of nn orIgInnI work. SocfIon
l02(b) sµocIfIos fhnf “in no cnso doos coµyrIghf
µrofocfIon for nn orIgInnI work of nufhorshIµ oxfond
fo nny Idon, µrocoduro, µrocoss, sysfom, mofhod of
oµornfIon, concoµf, µrIncIµIo, or dIscovory, rognrdIoss
of fho form In whIch If Is doscrIbod, oxµInInod,
IIIusfrnfod, or ombodIod In such |orIgInnI] work.” 1J.
§ l02(b).
As fho IodornI CIrcuIf nnd ofhor courfs of
nµµonIs hnvo ncknowIodgod, fho cIrcuIfs nro dooµIy
dIvIdod on how fo consfruo SocfIon l02(b). See, e.g.,
l4

Aµµ. 23–24; Lo/ue Det. Corp. t. BorlonJ Int’l, 1nc., 49
I.3d 80?, 8l5 (lsf CIr. l995); Conpu/er Aeeoce. Int’l
1nc. t. Al/oi, 1nc., 982 I.2d 693, ?05 (2d CIr. l992);
Mi/el, 1nc. t. 1q/el, 1nc., l24 I.3d l366 (l0fh CIr.
l99?). Somo courfs foIIow fho statute’s µInIn
monnIng, hoIdIng fhnf SocfIon l02(b) µrocIudos
coµyrIghf µrofocfIon for nII sysfoms or mofhods of
oµornfIon, IncIudIng fhoso In comµufor µrogrnms.
See, e.g., Lo/ue, 49 I.3d nf 8l5. !Iko fho IodornI
CIrcuIf, howovor, ofhor courfs hnvo rojocfod fho
sfnfufory foxf nnd hoId fhnf SocfIon l02(b) Is moroIy
n romIndor of fho dIchofomy bofwoon Idons (whIch
nro nof coµyrIghfnbIo) nnd oxµrossIons of Idons
(whIch gonornIIy nro). See, e.g., Wlelon Aeeoce., 1nc.
t. Joelou Den/ol LoI., 1nc., ?9? I.2d l222, l234 (3d
CIr. l986). In fhoso courts’ vIow, n “method of
operation” ombodIod In n comµufor µrogrnm Is
coµyrIghfnbIo so Iong ns Ifs cronfor couId hnvo
dosIgnod If In dIfforonf wnys. See iJ. nf l234
(InfornnI quofnfIon mnrks omIffod).
l. Lo/ue oxomµIIfIos fho µInIn monnIng
nµµronch. Thnf cnso concornod n sµrondshoof
program’s monu commnnd hIornrchy, whIch
orgnnIzod commnnds such ns “print,” “copy,” nnd
“quit” Info moro fhnn 50 monus nnd submonus
nccossIbIo by usors. 49 I.3d nf 809. Tho IIrsf CIrcuIf
hoId fhnf fho hIornrchy wns n “method[] of
operation,” nnd wns fhoroforo oxcIudod from
coµyrIghf µrofocfIon undor SocfIon 102(b)―rognrdIoss
of whofhor fho hIornrchy (or fho ovornII µrogrnm)
snfIsfIod fho orIgInnIIfy roquIromonf of SocfIon l02(n)
nnd rognrdIoss of whofhor fhoro woro ofhor wnys fo
wrIfo or sfrucfuro fho hIornrchy. 1J. nf 8l5.
l5

Tho IIrsf CIrcuIf ronsonod fhnf n “‘method of
operation’ . . . rofors fo fho monns by whIch n µorson
opero/ee somofhIng, whofhor If bo n cnr, n food
µrocossor, or n computer.” 1J. (omµhnsIs nddod).
Iocnuso fho “menu commnnd hIornrchy µrovIdos fho
monns by whIch usors confroI nnd operate” fho !ofus
l-2-3 µrogrnm, fho hIornrchy wns n mofhod of
oµornfIon oxcIudod from coµyrIghf µrofocfIon. 1J.
Ior fhnf ronson, If wns “immaterial” fhnf “Lotus
dovoIoµors couId hnvo dosIgnod fho !ofus monu
commnnd hIornrchy differently.” 1J. nf 8l6.
In doformInIng whofhor nn oIomonf of n
comµufor µrogrnm Is n mofhod of oµornfIon, fho IIrsf
CIrcuIf nIso fook Info nccounf comµnfIbIIIfy (whofhor
fho oIomonf onnbIos fho µrogrnm fo Inforncf wIfh
ofhor soffwnro or hnrdwnro) nnd fho Iock-In offocf
(whofhor usors hnvo Invosfod fImo nnd offorf In
IonrnIng how fo uso fho mofhod of oµornfIon). Tho
IIrsf CIrcuIf nofod fhnf fho fncf “[t]hat fho !ofus
monu commnnd hIornrchy Is n ‘method of operation’
bocomos cIonror whon ono consIdors µrogrnm
compatibility.” 1J. nf 8l?. Tho courf rojocfod ns
“absurd” Lotus’s fhoory fhnf, “if n usor usos sovornI
dIfforonf µrogrnms, ho or sho musf Ionrn how fo
µorform fho snmo oµornfIon In n dIfforonf wny for
onch µrogrnm used.” 1J. nf 8l?–l8.
Tho SIxfh CIrcuIf hns sImIInrIy hoId fhnf, “even
If n work Is In somo sonso ‘original’ undor § l02(n), If
sfIII mny nof bo coµyrIghfnbIo bocnuso |of] § 102(b),”
whIch oxcIudos orIgInnI mofhods of oµornfIon from
coµyrIghf µrofocfIon. Lexnor/ Int’l, 1nc. t. S/o/ic
Con/rol Conponen/e, 1nc., 38? I.3d 522, 534 (6fh CIr.
2004). Thnf courf oxµInInod fhnf, nIfhough sysfoms
l6

nnd mofhods of oµornfIon mny bo “[o]riginal nnd
cronfIvo,” SocfIon l02(b) oxcIudos fhom from
coµyrIghf µrofocfIon bocnuso fhoy nro “the Idon itself”
rnfhor fhnn fho “expression of fho Idon.” ATC
Die/riIu/ion Grp., 1nc. t. Wlo/eter 1/ To/ee
Tronenieeione & Por/e, 1nc., 402 I.3d ?00, ?0? (6fh
CIr. 2005) (InfornnI quofnfIon mnrks omIffod).
Tho SIxfh CIrcuIf nIso hoId fhnf fho morgor
docfrIno µrocIudos coµyrIghf µrofocfIon for oIomonfs
of n comµufor µrogrnm fhnf nro nocossnry for
comµnfIbIIIfy. Lexnor/, 38? I.3d nf 536. Tho courf
oxµInInod fhnf, If fhoro Is onIy ono µrncfIcnI wny fo
oxµross nn Idon, fhnf oxµrossIon Is nof onfIfIod fo
coµyrIghf µrofocfIon. 1J. nf 535. “Program codo fhnf
Is sfrIcfIy nocossnry fo nchIovo curronf comµnfIbIIIfy
µrosonfs n morgor µrobIom, nImosf by dofInIfIon, nnd
Is fhus oxcIudod from fho scoµo of nny copyright.” 1J.
nf 536 (InfornnI quofnfIon mnrks omIffod).
2. !Iko fho IodornI CIrcuIf In fhIs cnso, ofhor
courfs of nµµonIs hnvo dIsngrood wIfh fho IIrsf nnd
SIxfh CIrcuIfs In n numbor of rosµocfs. Tho ThIrd
CIrcuIf, for oxnmµIo, InsIsfs fhnf nII oIomonfs of n
comµufor µrogrnm, IncIudIng Ifs sfrucfurnI oIomonfs,
nro coµyrIghfnbIo so Iong ns fho µrogrnm couId hnvo
boon wrIffon dIfforonfIy nnd sfIII sorvod fho snmo
hIgh-IovoI µurµoso, such ns “to nId In fho busInoss
oµornfIons of n donfnI laboratory.” Wlelon, ?9? I.2d
nf l238. In fhnf court’s vIow, SocfIon l02(b) “was nof
Infondod fo onInrgo or confrncf fho scoµo of coµyrIghf
protection,” onIy fo roInforco fho “somewhat
mofnµhysIcal” dIchofomy bofwoon Idon nnd
oxµrossIon, wIfh “idea” roforrIng fo n program’s
gonornI µurµoso. Apple Conpu/er, 1nc. t. Iron/lin
l?

Conpu/er Corp., ?l4 I.2d l240, l252, l253 (3d CIr.
l983).
Tho Socond CIrcuIf hns µIowod n fhIrd µnfh: fho
so-cnIIod “abstraction/filtration/comparison” fosf.
!ndor fhnf fosf, n courf shouId fIrsf “dissect fho
nIIogodIy coµIod program’s sfrucfuro nnd IsoInfo onch
IovoI of nbsfrncfIon confnInod wIfhIn it.” Al/oi, 982
I.2d nf ?0?. Thon, fho courf shouId “filfor|] . . .
µrofocfnbIo oxµrossIon from non-µrofocfnbIo
material.” 1J. Affor IsoInfIng fho “golden nugget” of
“protectable expression,” fho courf shouId InquIro
“whether fho dofondnnf coµIod nny nsµocf of fhIs
µrofocfod expression.” 1J. nf ?l0.
Tho Socond CIrcuIf hns dIsfInguIshod Ifs
nµµronch from fho ThIrd Circuit’s “inadequate . . .
formuInfIon fhnf n program’s ovornII µurµoso oqunfos
wIfh fho program’s idea.” 1J. nf ?05. Tho IIrsf
CIrcuIf, In furn, rojocfod fho Socond CIrcuit’s fosf,
fIndIng If “misleading” bocnuso “abstracting monu
commnnd hIornrchIos down fo fhoIr IndIvIdunI word
nnd monu IovoIs nnd fhon fIIforIng Idon from
oxµrossIon nf fhnf sfngo . . . obscuros fho moro
fundnmonfnI quosfIon of whofhor n monu commnnd
hIornrchy cnn bo coµyrIghfod nf all.” Lo/ue, 49 I.3d
nf 8l5.
!Iko fho Socond CIrcuIf, fho IIffh nnd Tonfh
CIrcuIfs omµIoy fho nbsfrncfIon/fIIfrnfIon/comµnrIson
fosf. See Eng’g D,nonice, 1nc. t. S/ruc/urol
Sof/uore, 1nc., 26 I.3d l335 (5fh CIr. l994); Eng’g
D,nonice, 1nc. t. S/ruc/urol Sof/uore, 1nc., 46 I.3d
408 (5fh CIr. l995) (suµµIomonfnI oµInIon); Go/ee
IuIIer Co. t. BonJo Clen. 1nJue., 9 I.3d 823 (l0fh
CIr. l993). In ndoµfIng fhnf fosf, fho Tonfh CIrcuIf
l8

oxµrossIy dIsngrood wIfh Lo/ue, hoIdIng fhnf
“although nn oIomonf of n work mny bo chnrncforIzod
ns n mofhod of oµornfIon, fhnf oIomonf mny
novorfhoIoss confnIn oxµrossIon fhnf Is oIIgIbIo for
coµyrIghf µrofocfIon.” Mi/el, l24 I.3d nf l3?2. Tho
courf oµInod fhnf SocfIon l02(b), dosµIfo Ifs µInIn
foxf, doos nof wIfhdrnw coµyrIghf µrofocfIon from
mofhods of oµornfIon. Insfond, “sections l02(n) & (b)
Inforncf fo socuro Idons for |fho] µubIIc domnIn nnd fo
sof nµnrf nn author’s µnrfIcuInr oxµrossIon for
furfhor scrutiny.” 1J. Thnf courf fhus “declin[ed] fo
ndoµf fho Lo/ue court’s nµµronch fo socfIon l02(b),
nnd confInuo|d] fo ndhoro fo |Ifs] nbsfrncfIon-
fIIfrnfIon-comµnrIson nµµroach.” 1J.
3. In nddIfIon fo dIsngrooIng nbouf whofhor fo
roµInco SocfIon 102(b)’s µInIn Inngungo wIfh ono of
fho courf-cronfod sfnndnrds dIscussod nbovo, fho
courfs of nµµonIs hnvo dIvIdod on roInfod Issuos,
IncIudIng fho roIovnnco of comµnfIbIIIfy fo
coµyrIghfnbIIIfy. As nofod nbovo, fho IIrsf nnd SIxfh
CIrcuIfs fronf comµnfIbIIIfy nnd Iock-In ns Imµorfnnf
If nof dIsµosIfIvo consIdornfIons. Tho Socond CIrcuIf
ngroos wIfh fhoso cIrcuIfs fhnf “compatibility
roquIromonfs of ofhor µrogrnms wIfh whIch n
µrogrnm Is dosIgnod fo operate” nro roIovnnf fo
coµyrIghfnbIIIfy, ns µnrf of fho “filtration” sfoµ of Ifs
nbsfrncfIon/fIIfrnfIon/comµnrIson fosf. Al/oi, 982
I.2d nf ?09–l0. In confrnsf, fho ThIrd CIrcuIf hoId
fhnf “compnfIbIIIfy wIfh IndoµondonfIy dovoIoµod
nµµIIcnfIon µrogrnms . . . Is n commorcInI nnd
comµofIfIvo objocfIvo whIch doos nof onfor Info fho
somowhnf mofnµhysIcnI Issuo of whofhor µnrfIcuInr
Idons nnd oxµrossIons hnvo merged.” Apple
Conpu/er, ?l4 I.2d nf l253.
l9

Tho courfs of nµµonIs nro sImIInrIy dIvIdod on
fho morgor docfrIno. As nofod nbovo, fho SIxfh
CIrcuIf hns sµIIf from ofhor courfs of nµµonIs by
hoIdIng fhnf fho morgor docfrIno µrocIudos coµyrIghf
µrofocfIon for oIomonfs of n comµufor µrogrnm
nocossnry for InforoµornbIIIfy. See Lexnor/, 38?
I.3d nf 536. Ofhor courfs of nµµonIs do nof ovon
ngroo fhnf fho morgor docfrIno IImIfs coµyrIghfnbIIIfy
(In nny wny), hoIdIng fhnf If Is onIy nn nffIrmnfIvo
dofonso fo InfrIngomonf nffor coµyrIghfnbIIIfy hns
boon osfnbIIshod—gronfIy dImInIshIng Ifs µrncfIcnI
Imµorfnnco. See, e.g., Kregoe t. Aeeocio/eJ Preee, 93?
I.2d ?00, ?05 (2d CIr. l99l); eee oleo µµ. 28–29,
infro.
2

4. Tho docIsIon boIow rocognIzos nnd dooµons
fho cIrcuIf sµIIf. Tho IodornI CIrcuIf hoId fhnf, undor
ÞInfh CIrcuIf µrocodonf: SocfIon l02(b) doos nof
oxcIudo sysfoms or mofhods of oµornfIon from
coµyrIghf µrofocfIon; n judIcInIIy-cronfod nbsfrncfIon/
fIIfrnfIon/comµnrIson fosf govorns Insfond;
“[i]nteroperability |n]rgumonfs nro |I]rroIovnnf fo
[c]opyrightability”; fho morgor docfrIno doos nof
rosfrIcf coµyrIghf µrofocfIon for comµufor codo
nocossnry for InforoµornbIIIfy so Iong ns fho orIgInnI

2
As fho IodornI CIrcuIf rocognIzod, fho cIrcuIf courts’ dIsnrrny
Is so comµIofo fhnf fhoy do nof ovon ngroo on fho corrocf
sfnndnrd of nµµoIInfo rovIow. Aµµ. l6 n.3. Conpore Mo//leu
BenJer & Co. t. Wee/ Publ’g Co., l58 I.3d 6?4, 68l (2d CIr.
l998) onJ Aor/l Cooe/ 1nJue. t. Joeon Moxuell, 1nc., 9?2 I.2d
l03l, l035 (9fh CIr. l992) (cIonr-orror sfnndnrd) ui/l Yon/ee
ConJle Co. t. BriJgeuo/er ConJle Co., 259 I.3d 25, 34 n.5 (lsf
CIr. 200l) onJ PuIlico/ione Int’l, L/J. t. MereJi/l Corp., 88 I.3d
4?3, 4?8 (?fh CIr. l996) (Je noto sfnndnrd).
20

nufhor couId hnvo wrIffon fho codo In moro fhnn ono
wny; nnd morgor µInys no roIo In fho coµyrIghfnbIIIfy
nnnIysIs In nny ovonf. See Aµµ. 23, 24, 50.
If fho IodornI Circuit’s vIow of ÞInfh CIrcuIf
µrocodonf Is corrocf, fhnf cIrcuIf Is In confIIcf wIfh
ofhor cIrcuIfs on nII of fhoso Imµorfnnf µoInfs of Inw.
If fho IodornI Circuit’s undorsfnndIng of ÞInfh
CIrcuIf Inw Is wrong, fho ÞInfh CIrcuIf Is sfIII In
confIIcf wIfh fho courfs on fho ofhor sIdos of fho
cIrcuIf sµIIfs. IIfhor wny, fho IongsfnndIng dIvIsIon
In Iowor courf nufhorIfy µorsIsfs nnd roquIros fhIs
Court’s rosoIufIon.
<<F ;/& 8&1&+,7 .(+94('’3 @&9(3()$ >4$3 5*)47
#* ;/& 2','4'&V ;/(3 .)4+'’3 .)$'+)77($N
%+&9&1&$'3V 5$1 ;/& @(3'($9'()$ I&'U&&$
%,'&$' 5$1 .)6O+(N/'F
As oxµInInod nbovo, fho IodornI CIrcuIf hoId fhnf
fho mofhod hondors nro coµyrIghfnbIo ovon If fhoy
consfIfufo, or ombody, sysfoms or mofhods of
oµornfIon. Aµµ. 23; µµ. ll–l2, eupro. Thnf hoIdIng
Is wrong. If Is confrnry fo fho foxf of fho CoµyrIghf
Acf, nnd If ornsos n fundnmonfnI boundnry bofwoon
µnfonf nnd coµyrIghf Inw.
5F ;/& 3','4'& 9)1(*(&3 '/(3 .)4+'’3
&W9743()$ )* 3O3'&X3 ,$1 X&'/)13 )*
)6&+,'()$ *+)X 9)6O+(N/' 6+)'&9'()$F
!ndor SocfIon l02(n), nn “original work of
authorship” Is gonornIIy coµyrIghfnbIo. SocfIon
l02(b) goos on fo sµocIfy, howovor, fhnf “in no cnso
doos coµyrIghf µrofocfIon for on originol uor/ of
ou/lorelip oxfond fo nny . . . sysfom |or] mofhod of
oµornfIon . . . rognrdIoss of fho form In whIch If Is
2l

doscrIbod, oxµInInod, IIIusfrnfod, or ombodIod In such
work.” l? !.S.C. § l02(b) (omµhnsIs nddod). Thoro
Is nofhIng uncIonr or nmbIguous nbouf fhnf
µrovIsIon. Though nn orIgInnI work of nufhorshIµ Is
gonornIIy onfIfIod fo coµyrIghf µrofocfIon, fho
µrofocfIon nffordod fo fhnf work doos nof oxfond fo
nny sysfoms or mofhods of oµornfIon IncIudod or
ombodIod In fho work. Tho sfnfufory oxcIusIon Is
oxµIIcIf nnd nbsoIufo, govornIng “regardless of fho
form In whIch |n sysfom or mofhod of oµornfIon] Is
doscrIbod, oxµInInod, IIIusfrnfod, or ombodIod In such
work.” 1J.
Tho IodornI CIrcuIf oµInod, howovor, fhnf
“components of n µrogrnm fhnf cnn bo chnrncforIzod
ns n ‘method of operation’ mny novorfhoIoss bo
copyrightable.” Aµµ. 44. To ronch fhnf rosuIf, fho
courf hnd fo rovIso fho sfnfufo, nnd If dId: “Section
l02(n) nnd l02(b) nro fo bo consIdorod coIIocfIvoIy so
fhnf corfnIn oxµrossIons nro subjocf fo gronfor
scrutiny.” Aµµ. 23. Tho courf dId nof oxµInIn whonco
fhIs “greater scrutiny” fosf comos—If corfnInIy doos
nof como from fho sfnfufory foxf. Tho courf dId nof
oxµInIn whnf “greater scrutiny” monns or how fo
nµµIy If. Þor dId fho courf ovon nµµonr fo nµµIy
gronfor scrufIny; If sImµIy hoId fhnf bocnuso Sun
couId hnvo wrIffon fho mofhod hondors In dIfforonf
wnys, fhoy woro coµyrIghfnbIo. See Aµµ. 4?.
Tho IodornI Circuit’s orror Is osµocInIIy sfnrk
bocnuso fhIs Courf doformInod moro fhnn fwonfy
yonrs ngo fhnf SocfIon l02(b) “IdonfIfIos sµocIfIcnIIy
fhoso oIomonfs of n work for whIch coµyrIghf Is nof
available.” Ieie/, 499 !.S. nf 356. Tho Courf snId
nofhIng In Ieie/ nbouf roµIncIng fhnf sµocIfIc,
22

sfnfufory IdonfIfIcnfIon wIfh n vnguo “greater
scrutiny” fosf.
IgnorIng fhIs Court’s InforµrofnfIon of SocfIon
l02(b), fho courf of nµµonIs Iookod Insfond fo fho
IogIsInfIvo hIsfory. Aµµ. 23. !ogIsInfIvo hIsfory cnn
novor dIsµInco cIonr sfnfufory foxf. See Milner t.
Dep’t of Aot,, l3l S. Cf. l259, l26? (20ll). And
horo, fho IogIsInfIvo hIsfory sµocIfIcnIIy confIrms fhnf
SocfIon l02(b) monns whnf If snys: “processes or
mofhods ombodIod In |n comµufor] µrogrnm nro nof
wIfhIn fho scoµo of fho coµyrIghf law.” H.!. !II. ÞO.
94-l4?6, nf 5? (l9?6).
Tho IodornI Courf µoInfod fo n dIfforonf µnssngo
In fho IogIsInfIvo hIsfory fhnf IndIcnfos, ns fhIs Courf
hns oxµInInod, fhnf SocfIon l02(b) dId nof chnngo
µrooxIsfIng Inw, “but moroIy cInrIfIod If.” Ieie/, 499
!.S. nf 356; eee oleo H.!. !II. ÞO. 94-l4?6, nf 5?; S.
!II. ÞO. 94-4?3, nf 54 (l9?5). Thnf obsorvnfIon Is
fuIIy consIsfonf wIfh fho cIonr sfnfufory foxf nnd fho
on-µoInf IogIsInfIvo hIsfory quofod nbovo. ThIs Courf
hnd hoId, mnny docndos boforo fho l9?6 CoµyrIghf
Acf, fhnf sysfoms nnd mofhods of oµornfIon (nIong
wIfh sµocIfIc oIomonfs of oxµrossIon fhnf nro
“necessary incidents” fo fhom) nro nof coµyrIghfnbIo.
Bo/er t. SelJen, l0l (ll Offo) !.S. 99, l03 (l880).
In Bo/er, SoIdon dovoIoµod nn nccounfIng sysfom
nnd wrofo n book oxµInInIng If. 1J. nf l00. Ho
IncIudod In fho book “certain forms or bInnks,
consIsfIng of ruIod IInos, nnd hondIngs, IIIusfrnfIng
fho sysfom nnd showIng how If Is fo bo usod nnd
cnrrIod ouf In practice.” 1J. SoIdon confondod fhnf
“the ruIod IInos nnd hondIngs, gIvon fo IIIusfrnfo fho
23

sysfom, nro n µnrf of fho book, nnd, ns such, nro
socurod by fho copyright.” 1J. nf l0l.
ThIs Courf rojocfod Selden’s nrgumonf; fho forms
woro nof coµyrIghfnbIo. Tho Courf oxµInInod fhnf
“there Is n cIonr dIsfIncfIon bofwoon fho book, ns
such, nnd fho nrf whIch If Is Infondod fo illustrate.”
1J. nf l02. “The coµyrIghf of n work,” In ofhor words,
“cannot gIvo fo fho nufhor nn oxcIusIvo rIghf fo fho
ne/loJe of opero/ion whIch ho µroµounds, or fo fho
dIngrnms whIch ho omµIoys fo oxµInIn them.” 1J. nf
l03 (omµhnsIs nddod).
In IIghf of fhnf hoIdIng, fho IodornI Circuit’s
docIsIon runs hondIong Info nof ono, buf fwo
confroIIIng docIsIons of fhIs Courf—Ieie/ nnd Bo/er.
Tho IodornI CIrcuIf nffomµfod fo dIsfInguIsh Bo/er
on fho ground fhnf If moroIy sfnnds for n dIchofomy
bofwoon unµrofocfnbIo Idons nnd µrofocfnbIo
oxµrossIon. Aµµ. l9. Iuf nofhIng In Bo/er suµµorfs
fhnf InforµrofnfIon. Tho cnso novor ovon dIscussos
fhnf dIchofomy. In nny ovonf, SocfIon l02(b) codIfIod
Bo/er by unnmbIguousIy oxcIudIng sysfoms nnd
mofhods of oµornfIon from coµyrIghf µrofocfIon, nof
by ndoµfIng n vnguo “greater scrutiny” fosf.
IF 2O3'&X3 ,$1 X&'/)13 )* )6&+,'()$ ,+&
N)M&+$&1 PO 6,'&$'V $)' 9)6O+(N/'V 7,UF
Tho IodornI Circuit’s orror Is confIrmod by fho
oxfonf fo whIch If wouId oIImInnfo n fundnmonfnI
dIsfIncfIon bofwoon µnfonf nnd coµyrIghf Inw—nnd
fhus nIIow coµyrIghf fo bo usod ns nn ond-run nround
fho IImIfs on µnfonf µrofocfIon, IncIudIng fhIs Court’s
roconf docIsIons on µnfonf-oIIgIbIIIfy.
24

l. Tho Bo/er Courf doformInod fhnf fho Infonf
Acf, rnfhor fhnn fho CoµyrIghf Acf, govorns fho
µrofocfnbIIIfy of mofhods nnd sysfoms. “The
doscrIµfIon of fho nrf In n book, fhough onfIfIod fo fho
bonofIf of coµyrIghf, Inys no foundnfIon for nn
oxcIusIvo cInIm fo fho nrf itself.” Bo/er, l0l !.S. nf
l05. “The objocf of fho ono Is oxµInnnfIon; fho objocf
of fho ofhor Is uso. Tho formor mny bo socurod by
coµyrIghf. Tho Inffor cnn onIy bo socurod, If If cnn bo
socurod nf nII, by Ioffors-patent.” 1J.
Thus, undor Bo/er nnd SocfIon l02(b), coµyrIghf
cnnnof bo usod fo socuro n monoµoIy on n sysfom or
mofhod of oµornfIng somofhIng. “[T]he ruIos nnd
mofhods of usofuI nrf hnvo fhoIr fInnI ond In
nµµIIcnfIon nnd uso; nnd fhIs nµµIIcnfIon nnd uso nro
whnf fho µubIIc dorIvo from fho µubIIcnfIon of n book
whIch fonchos them.” 1J. nf l04. In fho nbsonco of n
µnfonf, “any µorson mny µrncfIso nnd uso fho nrf
itself.” 1J.
Ior fhIs ronson ns woII, fho IodornI Circuit’s
focus on whofhor fhoro Is moro fhnn ono wny fo
sfrucfuro n sysfom of mofhod hondors mIssos fho
µoInf. Thoro nro, for oxnmµIo, mnny µossIbIo wnys fo
dosIgn n koybonrd, shorfhnnd sysfom, or nccounfIng
sysfom. Iuf undor SocfIon l02(b), no sysfom or
mofhod of oµornfIon Is µrofocfod by coµyrIghf.
2. ÐIsmnnfIIng fhnf boundnry bofwoon µnfonf
nnd coµyrIghf µrofocfIon wouId wronk hnvoc In fho
fIoId of InfoIIocfunI µroµorfy by grnnfIng
unwnrrnnfod, 95-yonr (or Iongor) monoµoIIos on fho
bnsIc buIIdIng bIocks of InnovnfIon. !nIIko n cInIm fo
n coµyrIghf, “[f]ho cInIm fo nn InvonfIon or dIscovory
of nn nrf or mnnufncfuro musf bo subjocfod fo fho
25

oxnmInnfIon of fho Infonf OffIco boforo nn oxcIusIvo
rIghf fhoroIn cnn bo obfnInod; nnd If cnn onIy bo
socurod by n µnfonf from fho government.” 1J. nf
l02. Tho Infonf Acf Imµosos sfrIcf IImIfs on
µnfonfnbIIIfy fo onsuro fhnf n govornmonf-grnnfod
monoµoIy on uee of nn InvonfIon wIII sorvo Ifs
µurµoso of oncourngIng InvonfIons nnd dIscovorIos.
See, e.g., 35 !.S.C. §§ l0l, l02, l03; KSI Int’l Co. t.
Teleflex 1nc., 550 !.S. 398, 42? (200?).
Jusf Insf Torm, fhIs Courf confIrmod fhnf, whIIo
somo soffwnro-roInfod µnfonf cInIms mny bo oIIgIbIo
for µnfonf µrofocfIon undor 35 !.S.C. § l0l, mnny
nro nof. Alice Corp. P/,. L/J. t. CLS Bon/ Int’l, l34
S. Cf. 234?, 2358–59 (20l4). !Iko SocfIon l02(b) of
fho CoµyrIghf Acf, SocfIon l0l of fho Infonf Acf
µrofocfs fufuro InnovnfIon by µrovonfIng nnyono from
“‘InhIbIf|Ing] furfhor dIscovory by ImµroµorIy fyIng
uµ fho fufuro uso of’ fho|] buIIdIng bIocks of humnn
ingenuity.” 1J. nf 2354 (quofIng Mo,o ColloIoro/ite
Serte. t. Prone/leue LoIe., 1nc., l32 S. Cf. l289,
l30l (20l2)).
IxfondIng coµyrIghf µrofocfIon fo mofhods nnd
sysfoms of oµornfIon wouId undormIno fho IImIfs on
µnfonf µrofocfIon. WhIIo fho roquIromonfs for
µnfonfnbIIIfy nro sfrIcf, SocfIon l02(b) Is fho onIy
roquIromonf for coµyrIghfnbIIIfy fhnf doos nof
µrosonf n vory “low bnr.” Aµµ. l?. !ndor SocfIon
l02(n), coµyrIghf µrofocfIon Is gonornIIy nvnIInbIo for
orIgInnI works. Tho “originality roquIromonf Is nof
µnrfIcuInrIy stringent,” roquIrIng “only fhnf fho work
wns IndoµondonfIy cronfod by fho nufhor (ns oµµosod
fo coµIod from ofhor works), nnd fhnf If µossossos nf
26

Ionsf somo mInImnI dogroo of creativity.” Ieie/, 499
!.S. nf 345, 358.
Tho fhroshoId oIIgIbIIIfy bnr of SocfIon l02(n) Is
so Iow ns fo bo ossonfInIIy non-oxIsfonf for comµufor
soffwnro, ns confIrmod by fho IodornI Circuit’s focus
on whofhor Sun couId hnvo wrIffon fho mofhod
hondors In dIfforonf wnys. If ono dIsrognrds fho nood
fo bo comµnfIbIo wIfh ofhor sysfoms or µrogrnms, ns
fho IodornI CIrcuIf dId, fhoro wIII nonrIy oluo,e bo
moro fhnn ono wny fo wrIfo soffwnro codo fo
nccomµIIsh n µnrfIcuInr funcfIon (such ns choosIng
fho gronfor of fwo numbors), jusf ns fhIs sonfonco
couId hnvo boon wrIffon n dozon dIfforonf wnys
wIfhouf chnngIng Ifs Imµorf. Thus, vIrfunIIy ovory
oIomonf of ovory comµufor µrogrnmmIng sysfom or
Inngungo wouId qunIIfy for coµyrIghf µrofocfIon
undor fho courf of appeals’ nµµronch.
As Bo/er concIudod, “[t]o gIvo fo fho nufhor of
fho |work] nn oxcIusIvo µroµorfy In fho nrf doscrIbod
fhoroIn, whon no oxnmInnfIon of Ifs novoIfy hns ovor
boon offIcInIIy mndo, wouId bo n surµrIso nnd n frnud
uµon fho public.” l0l !.S. nf l02. And n Iong-InsfIng
frnud nf fhnf. Comµnrod fo fho 20-yonr µnfonf form,
n coµyrIghf confors monoµoIy rIghfs fhnf cnn Insf for
woII ovor n confury—for fho romnInIng IIfo of fho
nufhor µIus ?0 yonrs, for 95 yonrs nffor fIrsf
µubIIcnfIon, or for l20 yonrs nffor cronfIon. l? !.S.C.
§ 302. IormIffIng such nn ond-run nround fho
cnrofuIIy crnffod IImIfs on µnfonf µrofocfIon wouId
sfIfIo comµofIfIon nnd InnovnfIon In fho soffwnro
Indusfry—fho vory comµofIfIon nnd InnovnfIon fhIs
Courf hns soughf fo µrofocf by onforcIng fho
2?

comµnrnbIo IImIfs on µnfonfnbIIIfy. See, e.g., Alice,
l34 S. Cf. nf 2354.
Thnf doos nof, of courso, monn fhnf nII comµufor
soffwnro Is unµrofocfod by coµyrIghf. Thoro Is no
dIsµufo, for oxnmµIo, fhnf fho ImµIomonfIng codo
fhnf Insfrucfs n comµufor how fo µorform n mofhod
mny bo subjocf fo coµyrIghf µrofocfIon. See l? !.S.C.
§ l0l (dofInIng “computer program[s]” fhnf mny
qunIIfy ns µrofocfnbIo works). Iuf whofhor fho
mofhod hondors nro onfIfIod fo µrofocfIon Is
oxcIusIvoIy n quosfIon for µnfonf Inw bocnuso fho
hondors consfIfufo, or ombody, n sysfom or mofhod of
oµornfIng fho µro-wrIffon µrogrnms.
3. Tho IodornI Circuit’s orror Is nII fho moro
gInrIng bocnuso If Is ossonfInIIy fho snmo orror for
whIch fhIs Courf hns roµonfodIy rovorsod fho IodornI
CIrcuIf In µnfonf cnsos. Tho courf of nµµonIs
crIfIcIzod fho dIsfrIcf courf for confusIng “the
fhroshoId quosfIon of whnf Is coµyrIghfnbIo—whIch
µrosonfs n Iow bnr—nnd fho scoµo of conducf fhnf
consfIfufos InfrIngIng activity.” Aµµ. l?. If fhon
frnnsformod SocfIon 102(b)’s IImIfs on coµyrIghf
oIIgIbIIIfy Info jusf ono of sovornI fncfors fo bo
consIdorod ns µnrf of n fnIr-uso dofonso. See Aµµ. 50–
56.
Tho IodornI CIrcuIf hnd sImIInrIy hoId fhnf fho
IImIfs on µnfonf oIIgIbIIIfy nro mInImnI nnd fhnf
ofhor roquIromonfs of fho Infonf Acf do fho ronI
work In IImIfIng monoµoIy µrofocfIons. See, e.g.,
Ieeeorcl Corp. Tecle., 1nc. t. Microeof/ Corp., 62?
I.3d 859, 869 (Iod. CIr. 20l0) (roforrIng fo SocfIon
l0l of fho Infonf Acf ns n “coarse oIIgIbIIIfy filter”).
ThIs Courf hns roµonfodIy corrocfod fhnf
28

mIsµorcoµfIon In roconf yonrs, sfrossIng fho
Imµorfnnco of onforcIng SocfIon 101’s IImIfs on
µnfonfnbIo subjocf mnffor—IncIudIng for soffwnro-
roInfod µnfonfs. See, e.g., Alice, l34 S. Cf. 234?;
Ass’n for Moleculor Po/lolog, t. M,rioJ Gene/ice,
1nc., l33 S. Cf. 2l0? (20l3); Mo,o, l32 S. Cf. l289;
Bile/i t. Koppoe, l30 S. Cf. 32l8 (20l0). Iuf fho
IodornI CIrcuIf wouId now ovIscornfo fho nnnIogous
IImIfnfIon on coµyrIghf oIIgIbIIIfy for somo of fho
snmo fyµos of works.
Tho IodornI Circuit’s orror cnrrIos ovon moro
dIro consoquoncos In fho coµyrIghf confoxf fhnn If dId
In fho µnfonf nronn. Thoro wns nf Ionsf n non-
frIvoIous nrgumonf fhnf fho IImIfs on µnfonf
oIIgIbIIIfy woro nof oxcoµfIonnIIy Imµorfnnf bocnuso
ofhor IImIfs on µnfonfnbIIIfy couId do somo of fho
snmo work. See, e.g., Mo,o, l32 S. Cf. nf l303–04
(rojocfIng fho !nIfod States’ nrgumonf fo fhnf offocf).
Horo, such nn nrgumonf wouId nof ovon bo coIornbIo.
As dIscussod nbovo, SocfIon l02(b) µIncos “nny
Idon, µrocoduro, µrocoss, sysfom, mofhod of
oµornfIon, concoµf, µrIncIµIo, or discovery” In fho
µubIIc domnIn, ns n mnffor of Inw, by oxcIudIng If
from fho scoµo of coµyrIghf µrofocfIon. In confrnsf,
fho fnIr-uso dofonso nµµIIos fo mnforInIs fhnf nro
wIfhIn fho scoµo of coµyrIghf µrofocfIon, buf bIossos
unnufhorIzod usos fhnf snfIsfy n muIfI-fncfor
bnInncIng fosf. See l? !.S.C. § l0?; Aµµ. 58–60. Tho
IodornI CIrcuIf undorscorod fho dIfforonco bofwoon
fho fwo by IndIcnfIng fhnf comµnfIbIIIfy nnd Iock-In
nro, In Ifs vIow, nof ovon fho mosf Imµorfnnf fncfors
for n jury fo consIdor ns µnrf of fho fnIr-uso InquIry.
See Aµµ. 68.
29

In Lo/ue, fho dIsfrIcf courf concIudod, bnsod on
fho fncfs of fhnf cnso, fhnf fho defendant’s uso of fho
monu commnnd hIornrchy wns nof n fnIr uso. Lo/ue
Det. Corp. t. BorlonJ Int’l, 1nc., 83l I. Suµµ. 223,
240–45 (Ð. Mnss. l993), rev’d, 49 I.3d 80? (lsf CIr.
l995). As fho IIrsf CIrcuIf rocognIzod, howovor,
SocfIon 102(b)’s oxcIusIon of fho hIornrchy from
coµyrIghf µrofocfIon confroIIod fho oufcomo, mnkIng
consIdornfIon of fnIr uso unnocossnry. 49 I.3d nf
8l9.
.F ;/& J,M, X&'/)1 /&,1&+3 ,+& , 3O3'&X
)+ X&'/)1 )* )6&+,'()$F
ThIs cnso IIIusfrnfos fho Imµorfnnco of nµµIyIng
SocfIon l02(b) ns wrIffon. Tho Jnvn mofhod hondors,
whIch onnbIo µrogrnmmors fo uso fho fnmIIInr
shorfhnnd commnnds bnsod on fhom, nro corfnInIy n
sysfom or mofhod of oµornfIng fho µro-wrIffon
µrogrnms of fho Jnvn Inngungo nnd µInfform.
“AII ngroo fhnf CoogIo wns nnd romnIns froo fo
uso fho Jnvn Inngungo itself.” Aµµ. l08. Thnf
Inngungo Is mndo uµ of “keywords nnd ofhor symbols”
ns woII ns mofhods, “a sof of µro-wrIffon µrogrnms fo
cnrry ouf vnrIous commands.” Aµµ. l06. As
dIscussod nbovo, µrogrnmmors cnII fho µro-wrIffon
mofhods wIfh shorfhnnd commnnds fhnf work onIy In
soffwnro µInfforms fhnf uso fho Jnvn mofhod
hondors. See µµ. 6–8, eupro.
Tho Socond CIrcuIf (IncIudIng !onrnod Hnnd) Iong
ngo rocognIzod fhnf fhoro Is no “exclusive rIghf fo fho
uso of n µubIIshod sysfom of shorthand.” Brief
1ngliel S,e., 1nc. t. Ouen, 48 I.2d 555, 556 (2d CIr.
l93l). !ndor Bo/er, n “system of condonsIng wrIffon
30

words Info Ioss fhnn fho numbor of Ioffors usunIIy
usod fo sµoII fhom out” couId bo µrofocfod, If nf nII,
onIy “by Ioffors µnfonf nnd nof by copyright.” 1J.
(!ndor fho IodornI Circuit’s nµµronch, µrosumnbIy
fhnf cnso wouId hnvo como ouf dIfforonfIy bocnuso
fhoro Is moro fhnn ono ImngInnbIo sysfom of IngIIsh
shorfhnnd; fhnf nbsurd rosuIf IIIusfrnfos how fnr
from Bo/er fho IodornI CIrcuIf sfrnyod.)
As Oracle’s fhon-CIO !nrry IIIIson fosfIfIod,
moroovor, “|f]ho |Jnvn] API’s nro n commnnd
structure.” C.A. Aµµ. 2045?. If CoogIo hnd nof
roµIIcnfod fho mofhod hondors oxncfIy, codo fhnf usod
fho shorfhnnd commnnds bnsod on fhoso hondors
wouId nof hnvo run on AndroId. See µµ. 9–l0, eupro.
CoogIo fook µnIns fo roµIIcnfo onIy fho oIomonfs
nocossnry fo nIIow µrogrnmmors fo uso fho shorfhnnd
commnnds (i.e., If coµIod onIy fho mofhod hondors)—
nof fho codo fhnf ncfunIIy ImµIomonfs or µorforms
fho mofhods. Aµµ. l09. Comµufor µrogrnmmors’
Invosfmonf of fImo nnd rosourcos In IonrnIng fho
shorfhnnd commnnds confIrms fhnf fho
corrosµondIng mofhod hondors, from whIch fho
shorfhnnd commnnds nro dorIvod, consfIfufo or
ombody fho sysfom or mofhod of oµornfIng fho µro-
wrIffon µrogrnms of fho undorIyIng µInfform.
ComµnfIbIIIfy nnd Iock-In concorns confIrm fho
nµµIIcnbIIIfy of bofh SocfIon l02(b) nnd, In fho
nIfornnfIvo, fho morgor docfrIno. If ono musf uso
sµocIfIc comµufor codo In ordor fo oµornfo comµufor
µrogrnms such ns fho µro-wrIffon µrogrnms nf Issuo
horo, fhnf monns, nImosf by dofInIfIon, fhnf fho
coµIod codo Is µnrf of n sysfom or mofhod of oµornfIng
fho µrogrnms. See, e.g., Lo/ue, 49 I.3d nf 8l?–l8. As
3l

dIscussod nbovo, CoogIo roµIIcnfod fho mofhod
hondors so fhnf comµufor µrogrnmmors couId oµornfo
fho µro-wrIffon µrogrnms usIng fho fnmIIInr
shorfhnnd commnnds dorIvod from fho hondors. If
CoogIo chnngod fho hondors, fho commnnds wouId
nof succossfuIIy oµornfo fho mofhods.
CoµyrIghf cnnnof Iock uµ fhIs sysfom or mofhod
of oµornfIon nny moro fhnn If couId Iock uµ fho
QWI!TY koybonrd. IrossIng n koy on n QWI!TY
koybonrd sonds n commnnd fhnf cnusos n comµufor
fo µorform n sµocIfIc funcfIon, such ns drnwIng n “Q”
on fho scroon. QWI!TY Is fhus bofh n koybonrd
dosIgn nnd n commnnd sfrucfuro for cnusIng
comµufors of nII kInds fo µroduco Ioffors nnd
symboIs—jusf ns fho mofhod hondors nro fho
commnnd sfrucfuro for usIng fho µro-wrIffon
µrogrnms In fho Jnvn nnd AndroId µInfforms.
OrncIo nnd fho IodornI CIrcuIf hnvo omµhnsIzod
fhnf, bocnuso CoogIo roµIIcnfod fho mofhod hondors
from onIy 3? of fho Jnvn µnckngos, µrogrnms wrIffon
In Jnvn for fho Jnvn µInfform wIII nof nocossnrIIy run
ns Infondod on fho AndroId µInfform. Aµµ. 56–5?.
As fho dIsfrIcf courf obsorvod, howovor, “imperfect
InforoµornbIIIfy, nnd Oracle’s nngsf ovor it,” onIy
µrovo fho µoInf by “illustrat[ing] fho chnrncfor of fho
commnnd sfrucfuro ns n funcfIonnI sysfom or mofhod
of operation.” Aµµ. l60.
Thoro Is no dIsµufo fhnf CoogIo roµIIcnfod fho
mofhod hondors fhnf woro mosf Imµorfnnf for mobIIo
dovIcos µrocIsoIy bocnuso of fho Iock-In offocf: IIko
comµufor usors who nro fnmIIInr wIfh fho QWI!TY
koybonrd Inyouf, µrogrnmmors woro nIrondy
nccusfomod fo usIng fho Jnvn shorfhnnd commnnds
32

bnsod on fho hondors. Aµµ. 58. Google’s docIsIon no/
fo uso moro fhnn If noodod for n mobIIo-dovIco
µInfform corfnInIy doos nof exponJ fho scoµo of
Oracle’s coµyrIghf µrofocfIon, nny moro fhnn n
docIsIon fo omIf fho numbor koys on n koybonrd
wouId mnko n coµyrIghf cInIm for QWI!TY moro
µInusIbIo.
Indood, fhIs cnso Is n µrImo oxnmµIo of fho
Imµorfnnco of comµnfIbIIIfy nnd Iock-In.
Irogrnmmors hnvo Invosfod sIgnIfIcnnf fImo nnd
offorf In IonrnIng fho Jnvn Inngungo, IncIudIng fho
shorfhnnd commnnds. See µ. 2, eupro. Iuf now, Iong
nffor Sun Iurod comµufor µrogrnmmors Info fho Jnvn
communIfy nnd nffor nny µnfonf µrofocfIon IIkoIy
wouId hnvo oxµIrod, Sun’s succossor OrncIo Is
nffomµfIng fo buIId n wnII nround uso of Java’s
mofhod hondors. Thnf wouId work µrocIsoIy fho
“surprise nnd . . . frnud” on fho µubIIc fhnf Bo/er
soughf fo µrovonf. See l0l !.S. nf l02.
<<<F ;/(3 .,3& %+&3&$'3 , >&94++($N ?4&3'()$ )*
:W9&6'()$,7 <X6)+',$9&F
ThIs cnso Is nn IdonI vohIcIo for consIdorIng fho
quosfIon fhIs Courf frIod fo rosoIvo In Lo/ue. As
dIscussod nbovo, fhIs cnso nIono Is oxcoµfIonnIIy
Imµorfnnf, ns If InvoIvos bofh n ubIquIfous Inforfnco
(fho mofhod hondors of fho Jnvn µrogrnmmIng
Inngungo) nnd n µroducf roIIod on by mnny mIIIIons
of µooµIo dnIIy (fho AndroId µInfform).
Moroovor, fho dIsfrIcf court’s dofnIIod fncfunI
fIndIngs nnd fho IodornI Circuit’s IognI nnnIysIs
cIonnIy µrosonf fho quosfIon µrosonfod. AIfhough fho
IodornI CIrcuIf romnndod for n rofrInI on fnIr uso,
33

fho courf of nµµonIs dofInIfIvoIy rosoIvod fho
fhroshoId IognI quosfIon µrosonfod In fhIs µofIfIon.
Thoro Is no nood fo nwnIf n socond frInI on fnIr uso
boforo consIdorIng fhnf quosfIon—osµocInIIy
consIdorIng fho µrossIng nood for fhIs Court’s
rosoIufIon.
Tho docIsIon boIow Is cnsfIng n µnII ovor
comµufor hnrdwnro nnd soffwnro dovoIoµmonf. See,
e.g., Vnn !Indborg, Tle Cop,rigl/oIili/, Of AP1e 1n
Tle LonJ Of OpenS/oc/ (20l4), otoiloIle o/ hffµ://
www.rncksµnco.com/bIog/fho-coµyrIghfnbIIIfy-of-nµIs-
In-fho-Innd-of-oµonsfnck/. As hIsfory hns shown, fho
nbIIIfy fo buIId on oxIsfIng Inforfncos In cronfIng now
µroducfs nnd sorvIcos Is n crIfIcnI drIvor of InnovnfIon
In fho comµufor nnd soffwnro fIoIds.
Whon IIM cronfod fho µorsonnI comµufor, for
oxnmµIo, If dovoIoµod nn Inforfnco cnIIod fho InsIc
Inµuf/Oufµuf Sysfom. ComµofIfors IIko Comµnq nnd
IhoonIx ro-ImµIomonfod fhnf sysfom fo cronfo fhoIr
own IIM-comµnfIbIo comµufors, IncronsIng fho
numbor of choIcos nvnIInbIo fo consumors. See
ChnrIos H. Iorguson & ChnrIos !. MorrIs, Conpu/er
Wore. Tle Poe/-1BM WorlJ 53–55 (l994). !nfor,
AµµIo usod fho µro-oxIsfIng !ÞIX nµµIIcnfIon
µrogrnmmIng Inforfnco In Ifs computers’ oµornfIng
sysfom, nIIowIng µrogrnmmors fnmIIInr wIfh !ÞIX fo
wrIfo soffwnro fhnf couId run on Apple’s InnovnfIvo
comµufors. See Joo WIIcox, Will OS X’s Inix Ioo/e
Help Apple Grou:, CÞIT.com (Mny 2l, 200l).
OrncIo buIIf uµon fho !Inux oµornfIng sysfom In
much fho snmo wny. See generoll, OrncIo Corµ.,
Irequen/l, Ae/eJ Quee/ione, Orocle Linux (20l4),
otoiloIle o/ hffµ://www.orncIo.com/us/fochnoIogIos/
34

02?6l?.µdf. And In ordor fo comµofo In fho word-
µrocossIng fIoId, MIcrosoff ro-ImµIomonfod
WordPerfect’s Inforfnco so fhnf MIcrosoff Word, n
comµofIng µroducf, couId oµon documonfs cronfod In
WordIorfocf. Ir. of Anici Curioe !ncksµnco !S, Inc.
e/ ol., nf l2–l3, Orocle An., 1nc. t. Google 1nc., Ðkf.
Þo. ll6, Þos. l3-l02l, e/ ol. (Iod. CIr. Mny 30, 20l3).
As fhoso oxnmµIos show, InnovnfIon doµonds on
soffwnro developers’ nbIIIfy fo nchIovo comµnfIbIIIfy
wIfh, nnd buIId on, whnf hns como boforo ns fhoy
cronfo now µroducfs nnd sorvIcos.
Tho nood fo uso oxIsfIng Inforfncos wIfhouf fonr
of coµyrIghf IInbIIIfy Is ovon moro ossonfInI In today’s
Inforconnocfod worId. CIoud comµufIng, for oxnmµIo,
nIIows usors fo nccoss vIrfunI sforngo fncIIIfIos nnd
µrocossIng µowor from nnywhoro In fho worId vIn fho
Infornof. See Amnzon Wob SorvIcos, AWS ProJuc/e
& Solu/ione (20l4), otoiloIle o/ hffµ://nws.nmnzon.
com/. Iocnuso fho mnjor cIoud comµufIng µrovIdors
(Amnzon, IucnIyµfus, nnd CIoudSfnck) uso
comµnfIbIo Inforfncos, consumors nro nbIo fo swIfch
µInfforms nnd sorvIcos sonmIossIy rognrdIoss of
whIch browsor or oµornfIng sysfom fhoy uso. Sfovon
J. Vnughnn-ÞIchoIs, OpenS/oc/ te. ClouJS/oc/. Tle
Beginning of /le Open-Source ClouJ Wore, ZÐÞof
(Aµr. l2, 20l2), otoiloIle o/ hffµ://www.zdnof.
com/bIog/oµon-sourco/oµonsfnck-vs-cIoudsfnck-fho-bo
gInnIng-of-fho-oµon-sourco-cIoud-wnrs/l0?63. Thoso
sorvIcos comµofo wIfh onch ofhor fo µrovIdo fho bosf
ImµIomonfnfIons of fho cIoud-sorvIcos Inforfnco; nono
shouId bo onfIfIod fo nn oxcIusIvo rIghf fo uso fho
mofhod of oµornfIon IfsoIf.
35

To fnko nnofhor oxnmµIo, mIIIIons of µooµIo uso n
comµufor µrogrnm cnIIod WIno fo mnko MIcrosoff
WIndows µrogrnms run on dIfforonf oµornfIng
sysfoms. WIno works by ro-ImµIomonfIng fho
WIndows Inforfnco so fhnf WIndows µrogrnms wIII
run on ofhor oµornfIng sysfoms. WInoHQ, AIou/
Wine, otoiloIle o/ hffµ://www.wInohq.org/nbouf/. If
MIcrosoff couId fhronfon WIno wIfh coµyrIghf
IInbIIIfy, WIno couId bo shuf down, doµrIvIng Ifs
cusfomors of fho nbIIIfy fo run WIndows-bnsod
soffwnro on fhoIr comµufors.
ÐomosfIc nnd InfornnfIonnI Inws nIso rofIocf fho
Imµorfnnco of µrofocfIng fho public’s rIghf fo uso
Inforfncos frooIy, wIfhouf rIskIng coµyrIghf IInbIIIfy.
Congross hns nufhorIzod “reverse engineering” for
fho “purpose of IdonfIfyIng nnd nnnIyzIng fhoso
oIomonfs of fho µrogrnm fhnf nro nocossnry fo
nchIovo InforoµornbIIIfy of nn IndoµondonfIy cronfod
comµufor µrogrnm wIfh ofhor programs.” l? !.S.C.
§ l20l(f). Tho Iuroµonn !nIon’s Soffwnro ÐIrocfIvo
sImIInrIy µrovIdos n brond oxcoµfIon from IInbIIIfy for
“black box rovorso engineering.” CouncII of MInIsfors
ÐIrocfIvo 9l/250/IIC of l4 Mny l99l on fho !ognI
IrofocfIon of Comµufor Irogrnms, Arf. 5(3), l99l
O.J. (! l22).
Thoso Inws mnko sonso bocnuso, nffor IdonfIfyIng
nnd nnnIyzIng fho comµufor codo fhnf Is nocossnry fo
nchIovo InforoµornbIIIfy, dovoIoµors nro froo fo uso If,
ns CoogIo dId horo. Indood, fho Iuroµonn Union’s
hIghosf courf roconfIy hoId fhnf “noIfhor fho
funcfIonnIIfy of n comµufor µrogrnm nor fho
µrogrnmmIng Inngungo nnd fho formnf of dnfn fIIos
usod In n comµufor µrogrnm In ordor fo oxµIoIf
36

corfnIn of Ifs funcfIons consfIfufo n form of oxµrossIon
of fhnf µrogrnm nnd, ns such, nro nof µrofocfod by
coµyrIghf.” SAS 1ne/i/u/e 1nc. t. WorlJ Progronning
L/J. Cnso C-406/l0 ¶ ?l, 20l2 I.C.!.I 259, |20l2] 3
C.M.!.!. 4. A confrnry concIusIon wouId “amount fo
mnkIng If µossIbIo fo monoµoIIso Idons, fo fho
dofrImonf of fochnoIogIcnI µrogross nnd IndusfrInI
development.” 1J. ¶ 40.
As fhoso ronI-worId oxnmµIos nnd Inws rofIocf,
fho dovoIoµor communIfy hns Iong undorsfood fhnf
Inforfncos nro froo for ovoryono fo uso. Thnf
undorsfnndIng hns onnbIod nII of fho InnovnfIon
doscrIbod nbovo, nnd much moro. Tho IodornI
Circuit’s docIsIon furns fhIs undorsfnndIng on Ifs
hond, bnIknnIzIng comµufor Inngungos nnd
Inforfncos, roquIrIng µrogrnmmors fo buIId from fho
ground uµ, µrocIudIng InforoµornbIIIfy, nnd doµrIvIng
consumors of fho bonofIfs of comµnfIbIIIfy. Af n bnro
mInImum, fhnf wouId mnko InnovnfIon much cosfIIor
nnd rnIso sovoro bnrrIors fo onfry.
Tho docIsIon boIow nIso InfIIcfs µnrfIcuInr nnd
ImmodInfo hnrdshIµ on smnIIor comµnnIos nnd sfnrf-
uµs—mnjor sourcos of jobs nnd InnovnfIon. See TIm
Knno, IwIng MnrIon Knuffmnn IoundnfIon, Tle
1npor/once of S/or/upe in JoI Creo/ion onJ JoI
Dee/ruc/ion 3 (20l0). Thoso sfnrf-uµs (fho rnnks of
whIch CoogIo, Sun, nnd OrncIo onco woro mombors)
nro chnrncforIzod by oxfrnordInnry cronfIvIfy. Thoy
nro InnovnfIng nII fho fImo, buIIdIng on oxIsfIng
fochnoIogy fo brIng µroducfs nnd sorvIcos fo mnrkof.
To nffrncf cusfomors, fhoso now mnrkof onfrnnfs
musf buIId on whnf hns como boforo.
3?

ConsIdor how dIffIcuIf If wouId hnvo boon for
TosIn fo buIId nn oIocfrIc cnr If fho fnmIIInr
nrrnngomonf nnd funcfIons of n sfoorIng whooI,
nccoIornfor, nnd brnko µodnI woro µrofocfod. Tho
Jnvn mofhod hondors nnd shorfhnnd commnnds
dorIvod from fhom nro fo today’s soffwnro
µrogrnmmors ns fhoso sfnndnrd confroIs nro fo
today’s drIvors—crucInI mofhods for oµornfIng n
comµIox sysfom.
ÐoIny In rosoIvIng fhIs Issuo wouId mngnIfy fho
hnrm cnusod by fho docIsIon boIow by ImµnIrIng
Imµorfnnf InnovnfIon now In fho fnsf-movIng, hIgh-
fochnoIogy socfor. Jusf Insf Torm, fhIs Courf grnnfod
rovIow of nn Imµorfnnf coµyrIghf cnso ovon fhough
fhoro wns no cIrcuIf sµIIf, nnd bnroIy nny µorcoInfIon
In fho courfs of nµµonIs, bocnuso of fho nood for n
fImoIy ruIIng. See An. BrooJ. Coe. t. Aereo, 1nc., l34
S. Cf. 2498 (20l4). ThIs cnso Is no Ioss Imµorfnnf, ns
confIrmod by fho fIIIng of oIovon onicue brIofs by
dozons of onici (on bofh sIdos) In fho courf of
nµµonIs. IsµocInIIy consIdorIng fho cIonr nnd woII-
rocognIzod cIrcuIf sµIIf on fhIs Issuo, nnd fho fncf
fhnf fhIs Courf hns nIrondy rocognIzod fho issue’s
corfworfhInoss by grnnfIng rovIow In Lo/ue, fho
Courf shouId rosoIvo fhIs Imµorfnnf nnd µrossIng
Issuo now.
.#=.C02<#=
Tho µofIfIon for n wrIf of corfIornrI shouId bo
grnnfod.
38

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