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Bio 22 LAB Miss Kim Beltran-Benjamin Mia Allyanna A.

Term 1, AY 2014-2015 College of Public Health, BS Public Health


A. Central Nervous System

Parts and function of the frogs CNE.
Part Remarks
Telencephalon - L: anterior portion of the brain and rostral to the midbrain
- F: Motor function (movement), interpretation of sensory impulses
Diencephalon - L: between optic lobes behind, posterior to the cerebral hemispheres
- F: directs sense impulses throughout the body, equilibrium or balance, eye
movement (vision), respiration
Mesencephalon - Midbrain
- F: reflex activities of the spinal cord, eye movement/pupil dilation, body movement
Cerebellum or
- F: balance, cardiac reflexes, circulation, fine muscle movement
Medulla Oblongata or
- F: breathing, conduction pathway of nerve tracts, digestion
Spinal Cord - F: pathway to the brain of sensory stimuli, seat of reflex action
Olfactory Lobes - F: sense of smell
Optic Lobes - F: certain optic ventricles which communicate with each other and with the 3
ventricles through the small aqueduct of Sylvius.
Optic Chiasma - Part of the brain where the optic nerves (CN II) partially cross.
- L: bottom of the brain immediately below the hypothalamus
- F: Crucial to sight, left and right optic nerves intersect at the chiasm. One-half of
each nerve's axons enter the opposite tract at this location, making it a partial
Infundibulum - the hollow conical process of gray matter
- F: connects the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus
Pituitary Body - F: master gland

B. Peripheral Nervous System

Spinal Nerves of the Frog
o Spinal Nerves
- 10 pairs (left and right); arise from the spinal cord and distributes to the limbs and trunk; emerge between
- Each spinal nerve is attached to the spinal cord by 2 roots: Dorsal sensory root and Ventral sensory root

Cranial Nerves of the Frog
o Cranial Nerves 10 pairs (left and right); extends from the lateral surfaces of the brain to the parts of the body

I Olfactory Sensory nerves - Area of Focus: Nasal
- F: receives impulse from the nasal epithelium
II Optic Sensory nerves - Area of Focus: Retina, eyes
- F: receives impulse from the retina from the ganglion
III Oculo-Motor Motor nerves - Area of Focus:
- F: superiorly uplifting eyelid, superiorly rotating eyeball,
construction of pupil on the exposure to light and
operating several eye muscles
IV Trochlear Motor nerves - Area of Focus:
- F: supplies to the midbrain and performs the function of
handling the eye muscles and turning the eye
V Trigeminal Sensory, Motor - Area of Focus:
- F: a type of largest cranial nerve in all and performs
many sensory functions related to nose, eyes, tongue
and teeth
- a) ophthalmic, b) maxillary and c) mandibular nerve
VI Abducens Motor nerves - Area of Focus:
- F: supplies to the pons and perform function of turning
eye laterally
VII Facial Motor nerves - Area of Focus: face (found over the brain stem)
- F: Responsible for different types of facial expressions.
This also performs some functions of sensory nerve by
supplying information about touch on face and senses of
tongue in mouth.
a) Palatine root of buccal cavity,
b) Hyomandibular tongue, muscles of the lower jaw
VIII Auditory Sensory nerves - Area of Focus: Ear
- F: Receive impulse from the ear
IX Glossopharyngeal Sensory, Motor - Area of Focus:
- F: carries sensory information from pharynx and some
portion of tongue and palate (temperature, pressure and
other related facts). It also covers some portion of taste
buds and salivary glands. Motor functions: helping in
swallowing food.
X Vagus or Pneumogastric Sensory, Motor - Area of Focus: area of pharynx, larynx, esophagus,
trachea, bronchi, some portion of heart and palate
- F: constricting muscles, tasting ability

B.1. Histology of the Spinal Cord

Dura Mater - Tough membrane lining the outermost portion of the cord
Pia Mater - Inner vascular membrane that adheres closely to the spinal cord
Arachnoid - Middle membrane
White Matter - Outer mass; myelinated
- White Commisures oblique crossing of the medullated fibers
Gray Matter - Made up of nerve cell bodies, portion of dendrites and axons, and unmyelinated fibers.
- Gray Commisures connects the gray matter on two sides
a. Dorsal Ventral Horns or cornua two each forming the wings of the Gray matter
b. Central Canal central cavity of the Gray matter
c. Ependymal Cells cells lining the canal
Dorsal Fissure - An extremely narrow vertical wall on the mid-dorsal side of the spinal cord
Ventral Fissure - Deeper and wider than the dorsal fissure
- Separates the right and left columns of the white matter