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TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.

MSR
FOCUS of TOEFL GRAMMAR
By: Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR.
P A T T E R N
Patterns are the parts of a sentene. In so!e "oo#s, patterns are
alle$ structures. In patterns, the %or$s ha&e the sa!e or$er !ost of the
ti!e.
So!e of the !ost i!portant patterns are su!!ari'e$ in this re&ie%
setion. Re!e!"er, the (enerali'ations in the harts an$ e)planations for
eah pattern refer to the struture in the e)a!ples. There !ay "e si!ilar
strutures for %hih these (enerali'ations are not appropriate.
Problems with Main
A verb is a %or$ or phrase that e)presses e)istene, ation, or an
e)periene.
There are t%o #in$s of &er"s in En(lish. They are the main verb an$ the
auxiliary verb. In so!e (ra!!ar "oo#s, the auxiliary verb is alle$ a helping
verb "eause it is use$ %ith a main verb.
E&ery &er" in En(lish an "e $esri"e$ "y the follo%in( for!ula :
VERB = tense + (modal) + (have + participle) + (be+in!) + verb
word
Problems with Verbs
Problem " # Missin! Main Verb
Re!e!"er that e&ery En(lish sentene !ust ha&e a su"*et an$ a !ain
&er".
$ V M
The so%nd o& the
dr'er
brother
s
m'
concentration
A&oi$ usin( an -ing for!, an in+niti&e, an au)iliary &er", or another part of
speeh instea$ of !an &er".
E(AMP)E$ #
I,-ORRE-T : The prettiest (irl in our lass %ith lon( "ro%n hair an$
"ro%n eyes.
-ORRE-T : The prettiest (irl in our lass has lon( "ro%n hair an$
"ro%n eyes.
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TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
I,-ORRE-T : In !y opinion, too soon to !a#e a $eision.
-ORRE-T : In !y opinion, it is too soon to !a#e a $eision.
I,-ORRE-T : .o you #no% %hether the !o&ie that starts at se&en/
-ORRE-T : .o you #no% %hether the !o&ie that starts at se&en is
(oo$/
or
.o you #no% %hether the !o&ie starts at se&en/
I,-ORRE-T : Sa! al!ost al%ays a lot of fun.
-ORRE-T : Sa! is al!ost al%ays a lot of fun.
I,-ORRE-T : The "oo# that I lent you ha&in( a (oo$ "i"lio(raphy.
-ORRE-T : The "oo# that I lent you has a (oo$ "i"lio(raphy.
E(ER*+$E$
Part A # -hoose the orret ans%er.
Ari'ona 0000000000 a &ery $ry li!ate.
a. has ( , )
". "ein(
. ha&in(
$. %ith
Part B# -hoose the inorret %or$ or phrase an$ orret it.
1eno!ous sna#es with !o$i+e$ teeth onnete$ to poison lan!s
2 A 3 2 B 3
in whi"h the &eno! is s#"r#t#! an$ store$.
2 - 3 2 . 3
Answer #
1eno!ous sna#es has !o$i+e$ teeth onnete$ to poison lan!s
( A ) 2 B 3
in whi"h the &eno! is s#"r#t#! an$ store$.
2 - 3 2 . 3
-lar berbisa den!an !i!i dimodi./asi terh%b%n! /e rac%n dimana /elen0ar bisa di/el%ar/an dan
disimpan.
Problem 1# Verbs that Re2%ire an +n.nitive in the
*omplement
Re!e!"er that the follo%in( &er"s re4uire an in+niti&e for a &er" in the
o!ple!ent.
A!ree *onsent &ail
Appea
r
decide &or!et
Arran!
e
demand hesitate
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TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
As/ 3eserve4la'a
/
hope
*laim e5pect +ntend4berma/s%d
learn plan seem
mana!
e
prepare tend
mean pretend Threaten4men!anca
m
need promise wait
o6er re&%se want

$ V
*
( in.nitive )
M
7e
had
planned
to leave
da' be&ore
'esterda'
A&oi$ usin( an 5in( for! after the &er"s liste$. A&oi$ usin( a &er" %or$ after
%ant.
E(AMP)E$#
I,-ORRE-T : 6e %ante$ spea# %ith Mr. Bro%n.
-ORRE-T : 6e %ante$ to sp#a$ %ith Mr. Bro%n
I,-ORRE-T : 7e $e!an$ #no%in( our status.
-ORRE-T : 7e $e!an$ to $now our status
I,-ORRE-T : I inten$ the infor! you that %e annot appro&e your
appliation.
-ORRE-T : I inten$ to infor% you that %e annot appro&e your
appliation.
I,-ORRE-T : They $i$nt plan "uyin( a ar
-ORRE-T : They $i$nt plan to &uy a ar
I,-ORRE-T : The %eather ten$s i!pro&in( in May
-ORRE-T : The %eather ten$s to i%pro'# in May
E(ER*+$E$
Part A # -hoose the orret ans%er.
One of the least e8eti&e %ays of storin( infor!ation is learnin( 0000000000 it.
a. ho% repeat
". repeatin(
c. to repeat ( , )
$. repeat
Part B # -hoose the inorret %or$ or phrase an$ orret it.
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TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
Representati&e $e!oray see!e$ #'ol'# si%ultan#ously !urin the
2 A 3 2 B 3 2 - 3
ei(hteenth an$ nineteenth enturies in Britain, Europe an$ Th# Unit#!
Stat#s.
2 . 3
Answer#
Representati&e $e!oray see!e$ to #'ol'# simultaneously during the
( A ) 2 B 3 2 - 3
ei(hteenth an$ nineteenth enturies in Britain, Europe an$ The United
States.
2 . 3
Problem 8# Verbs that re2%ire an in! 9orm in the
*omplement
Re!e!"er that the follo%in( &er"s re4uire an 5in( for! for a &er" in the
o!ple!ent:
Admit4men!a/
%i
3ela' :eep
Appreciate 3en' Mention
Avoid 3isc%ss Miss
*omplete En0o' Postpone
*onsider 9inish Practice
;%it Recommend Ris/
Recall Re!ret $top
$%!!est
Tolerate4mema<l%
mi
-nderstand
$ V * ( in! ) M
=e en0o's travelin! b' plane
A&oi$ usin( an in+niti&e after the &er"s liste$.
For"i$ !ay "e use$ %ith either an in+niti&e or an 5in( o!ple!ent, "ut
for"i$ fro! is not i$io!ati.
E(AMP)E$#
I,-ORRE-T : She is onsi$erin( not to (o
-ORRE-T : She is "onsi!#rin not (oin(
I,-ORRE-T :.7e en*oye$ tal# %ith your frien$
-ORRE-T : 7e #n*oy#! tal$in %ith your frien$
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TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
I,-ORRE-T :.6an# o!plete$ the %ritin( his thesis this su!!er9!usi!
panas
-ORRE-T : 6an# "o%pl#t#! writin his thesis this su!!er
I,-ORRE-T : I !iss to %ath the ne%s %hen I! tra&elin(
-ORRE-T : I !iss wat"hin the ne%s %hen I! tra&elin(
I,-ORRE-T : She !entions stop at El :aso in her letter.
-ORRE-T : She !entions stoppin at El :aso in her letter.
E(ER*+$E$
Part A# -hoose the orret ans%er.
Strauss +nishe$ 00000000000 t%o of his pu"lishe$ o!positions "efore his
tenth "irth$ay.
a. %ritten
". %rite
. to %rite
$. %ritin( ( , )
Part B# -hoose the inorret %or$ or phrase an$ orret it.
Many people ha&e stoppe$ to s%o$# &#"aus# they are afrai$ that it %ay
&#
2 A 3 2 B 3 2 - 3 2 . 3
6ar!ful2"er"ahaya3 to their health.
Answer #
Many people ha&e stoppe$ s%o$in &#"aus# they are afrai$ that it %ay
&#
2 A 3 ( B ) 2 - 3 2 . 3
har!ful to their health.
Problem >
Verb Phrases that Re2%ire an in! 9orm in the
*omplement
Re!e!"er that the follo%in( &er" phrases re4uire an 5in( for! for a &er" in
the o!ple!ent :
approve o&4ber/enan insist on4bersi/%/%h
be better o6 /eep on
can<t help loo/ &orward to
do not mind ob0ect to
&or!et abo%t thin/ abo%t
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TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
!et thro%!h4mendapat/an thin/ o&
$ V * (in!) M
$he
9or!ot
o%t
cancelin
!
her
appointment
A&oi$ usin( an in+niti&e after the &er" phrases liste$. A&oi$ usin( a &er"
%or$ after loo# for%ar$ to an$ o"*et to. 2Refer to pa(e ;< for !ore on &er"
%or$s3
Re!e!"er that the &er" phrase BE li#ely $oes not re4uire an 5in( for! "ut
re4uires an in+niti&e in the o!ple!ent.
E(AMP)E
I,-ORRE-T : She is li#ely #no%in(
-ORRE-T : She is li$#ly to $now
I,-ORRE-T : Lets (o to the !o&ie %hen you (et throu(h to stu$y
-ORRE-T : Lets (o to the !o&ie %hen you #t throuh stu!yin
I,-ORRE-T : 7e ant help to %on$er %hy she left.
-ORRE-T : 7e "an+t h#lp won!#rin %hy she left.
I,-ORRE-T : I ha&e "een loo#in( for%ar$ to !eet you
-ORRE-T : I ha&e "een loo#in( forwar! to %##tin you
I,-ORRE-T : 7e %oul$nt !in$ to %ait.
-ORRE-T : 7e woul!n+t %in! waitin
E(ER*+$E$
Part A# -hoose the orret ans%er.
Many !o$ern arhitets insist on 00000000000 !aterials nati&e to the re(ion
that %ill "len$2!ena!pur3 into the surroun$in( lan$sape.
a. use
". to use
. the use
$. usin( ( , )
Part B# hoose the inorret %or$ or phrase an$ orret it.
.urin( =a#sons a$!inistration, those who $i$ not appro&e of p#r%it
o!!on
2 A 3 2 B 3
people in the 7hite 6ouse w#r# sho"$#! "y the presi$ents
insistene2$esa#an3 that
2-3
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TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
they &# in'it#! into the !ansion 2ru!ah "esar3
2 . 3
Answer #
.urin( =a#sons a$!inistration, those who $i$ not appro&e of p#r%itin
o!!on
2 A 3 ( B )
people in the 7hite 6ouse w#r# sho"$#! "y the presi$ents insistene that
they
2 - 3
&# in'it#! into the !ansion
2 . 3
Problem ? +rre!%lar Past 9orm
Re!e!"er that past for!s of the follo%in( irre(ular &er"s are not the sa!e
as the partiiples:
Verb 7ord Past 9orm Participle Base Meanin!
Be %as9%ere "een
Beat "eat "eaten Me!u#ul
Beo!e "ea!e "eo!e
Be(in "e(an "e(un
Bite "it "itten Men((i(it
Blo% "le% "lo%n !eniup
Brea# "ro#e "ro#en
-hoose hose hosen
-o!e a!e o!e
.o $i$ $one
.ra% $re% $ra%n
.rin# $ran# $run#
.ri&e $ro&e $ri&en
Eat ate eaten
Fall fell fallen
Fly >e% >o%n
For(et for(ot for(otten
For(i&e for(a&e for(i&en
Free'e fro'e fro'en !e!"e#u
Get (ot (otten or (ot
Gi&e (a&e (i&en
Go %ent (one
Gro% (re% (ro%n
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TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
6i$e hi$ hi$$en
?no% #ne% #no%n
Ri$e ro$e ri$$en
Run ran run
See sa% seen
Sha#e shoo# sha#en !en((unan(
Sho% sho%e$ sho%n
Shrin# shran# shrun# !enyusut
Sin( san( sun(
Spea# spo#e spo#en
Steal stole stolen
S%ear s%ore s%orn
S%i! s%a! s%u!
Ta#e too# ta#en
Tear tore torn !ero"e#
Thro% thre% thro%n
7ear %ore %orn
7ea&e %o&e %o&en !enenun9!intal
7ith$ra% %ith$re% %ith$ra%n
7rite %rote %ritten
$ V(past) M
The onert "e(an at ei(ht olo#
A&oi$ usin( a partiiple instea$ of a past for si!ple past state!ents.
E(AMP)E
I,-ORRE-T: They $one it &ery %ell after they ha$ pratie$.
-ORRE-T: They $i$ it &ery %ell after they ha$ pratie$.
I,-ORRE-T: Before she run the o!puter pro(ra!, she ha$ he#e$ it out
%ith her super&isor.
-ORRE-T: Before she ran the o!puter pro(ra!, she ha$ he#e$ it out
%ith her super&isor.
I,-ORRE-T: 7e eat $inner in Al"u4uer4ue on our &aation last year.
-ORRE-T: 7e ate $inner in Al"u4uer4ue on our &aation last year.
I,-ORRE-T: My nephe% "e(un %or#in( for !e a"out ten years a(o.
-ORRE-T: My nephe% "e(an %or#in( for !e a"out ten years a(o.
I,-ORRE-T: I #no% that you "een forty on your last "irth$ay.
-ORRE-T: I #no% that you %ere forty on your last "irth$ay.
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TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
E(ER*+$E$
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
Before the An(les an$ the Sa)ons to En(lan$, the I"erians
ha$ li&e$ there.
2A3 o!in(
2B3 o!e
2-3 a!e
2.3 $i$ o!e
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
7hen -olu!"us seen the ,e% 7orl$, he thou(ht that he ha$ reahe$
2A3 2B3 2-3
the East In$ies "y %ay of a 7estern route.
2.3

PRAB)EM 7+T= MA3A)$ AN3 MA3A) B RE)ATE3
PART+*+P)E$
Modals are au)iliary &er"s. They are use$ %ith !ain &er"s to (i&e
a$$itional !eanin( to !ain &er"s.
The !ost o!!on !o$als are liste$ "elo%, alon( %ith so!e of the
a$$itional !eanin(s that they a$$ to !ain &er"s.
-an possi"ility, a"ility, an$ per!ission
-oul$ possi"ility, a"ility in the past
May pro"a"ility, per!ission
Mi(ht pro"a"ility
Must neessity9 #eharusan, lo(ial onlusion
Shall future %ith e!phasis
Shoul$ a$&ie, o"li(ation, pre$ition
7ill future
7oul$ on$ition
Problem C Modal + Verb 7ords
Re!e!"er that a modal is use$ %ith a verb word. A &er" %or$ is the
$itionary for! of the &er". In so!e (ra!!ar "oo#s, the verb word is alle$
the "are in+niti&e "eause it appears %ithout the %or$ to. 1er" %or$s are
&ery i!portant in !any patterns, "ut they are use$ !ost often %ith !o$als.
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TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
$ modal verb word
They !i(ht &isit us

A&oi$ usin( in+niti&e or an ing for! instea$ of a &er" %or$ after a !o$al.
E@AM:LE
I,-ORRE-T: After you sho% !e the %ay, I an to (o "y !yself.
-ORRE-T: After you sho% !e the %ay, I an (o "y !yself.
I,-ORRE-T: Our frien$s !i(ht stoppin( to see us on their %ay to -alifornia.
-ORRE-T: Our frien$s !i(ht stop to see us on their %ay to -alifornia.
I,-ORRE-T: I %oul$, if there is ti!e, li#in( to !a#e a phone all.
-ORRE-T: I %oul$, if there is ti!e, li#e to !a#e a phone all.
I,-ORRE-T: Beth !ay, %ith e8ort, to pass this ourse.
-ORRE-T: Beth !ay, %ith e8ort, pass this ourse.
I,-ORRE-T: The >i(ht shoul$ to "e on ti!e.
-ORRE-T: The >i(ht shoul$ "e on ti!e.
E(ER*+$E$
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
By the ti!e a "a"y has reahe$ his +rst "irth$ay, he shoul$, %ithout
the help of an a$ult, sit up or e&en stan$ up.
2A3 to "e a"le to
2B3 a"le to
2-3 to "e a"le
2.3 "e a"le to
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
Many "ir$s %ill, in the nor!al ourse of their !i(rations, >yin(
2A3 2B3
!ore than three thousan$ !iles to reah their %inter2!usi! $in(in3 ho!es.
2-3 2.3

Problem DE loi"al Con"lusions , E'#nts in th# -ast@
Re!e!"er that must is a !o$al. Must follo%e$ "y the &er" %or$ have
a partiiple e)presses lo(ial onlusion "ase$ on e&i$ene9"u#ti9#e*a$ian.
The onlusion is a"out an e&ent that happene$ in the past.
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TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
Re!e!"er that an o"ser&ation in the present !ay ser&e as the "asis
for a onlusion a"out so!e thin( that happene$ in the past. For e)a!ple,
Ahere is a !essa(e on !y $es#B. It !ay "e onlu$e$ the A!y frien$ !ust
ha&e alle$ last ni(htB.
$ m%st have participle past tense
My frien$ !ust ha&e alle$ last ni(ht

A&oi$ usin( should or an instea$ of must. A&oi$ usin( a &er" %or$ instea$ of
have an$ a partiiple %hen referrin( to e&ents in the past.
E(AMP)E
I,-ORRE-T: The streets are %etC it shoul$ ha&e raine$ last ni(ht.
-ORRE-T: The streets are %etC it !ust ha&e raine$ last ni(ht.
I,-ORRE-T: This pen %ont %riteC it an ha&e run out of in# 2in the past3.
-ORRE-T: This pen %ont %riteC it !ust ha&e run out of in# 2in the past3.
I,-ORRE-T: The rin( that I %as loo#in( at is (oneC so!eone else !ust "uy
it.
-ORRE-T: The rin( that I %as loo#in( at is (oneC so!eone else !ust ha&e
"ou(ht it.
I,-ORRE-T: 6e $oesnt ha&e this #eyC he !ust lo#e$ the! in his ar.
-ORRE-T: 6e $oesnt ha&e this #eyC he !ust ha&e lo#e$ the! in his ar.
I,-ORRE-T: I $ont see Martha any%hereC she !ust "e left early.
-ORRE-T: I $ont see Martha any%hereC she !ust ha&e left early.
E(ER*+$E$
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
The theory of -ontinental .rift assu!es that there
lon(5 ter! li!ati han(es in !any areas $urin( the past.
2A3 !ust ha&e "een
2B3 !ust "e
2-3 !ust ha&e
2.3 !ust
ontinental !ri"t #continental agung
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
7hen the %eather "eo!es ol$er %e #no% that the air !ass
2A3 2B3
!ust ori(inate$ in the Arti rather than o&er the Gulf of Me)io.
2-3 2.3
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TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
Air mass #$umpulan udara
%riginated #dimulai
Arctic #$utup utara
&ul" # telu$
Problem F )o!ical *oncl%sions B Events in the
Present@
Re!e!"er that must is a !o$al. Must follo%e$ "y be an$ an ing for! or an
a$*eti&e e)presses a lo(ial onlusion "ase$ on e&i$ene. The onlusion is
a"out an e&ent that is happenin( no%.
$ m%st be
My frien$ !ust "e allin( no%
$ m%st be
6e !ust "e upset no%
A&oi$ usin( a &er" %or$ Instea$ of an ing for! after must be.
E(AMP)E
I,-ORRE-T: The line is "usyC so!eone shoul$ "e usin( the telephone no%.
-ORRE-T: The line is "usyC so!eone !ust "e usin( the telephone no%.
I,-ORRE-T: Bo" is a"sentC he !ust ha&e "een si# a(ain 2no%3.
-ORRE-T: Bo" is a"sentC he !ust "e si# a(ain 2no%3.
I,-ORRE-T: 6e is ta#in( a %al#C he !ust ha&e felt "etter no%.
-ORRE-T: 6e is ta#in( a %al#C he !ust "e feelin( "etter no%.
I,-ORRE-T: She !ust "e stu$y at the li"rary no% "eause all of her "oo#s
are
(one.
-ORRE-T: She !ust "e stu$yin( at the li"rary no% "eause all of her
"oo#s are
(one.
I,-ORRE-T: Sarah !ust (et a $i&ore 2no%3 "eause her hus"an$ is li&in( in
an apart!ent.
-ORRE-T: Sarah !ust "e (ettin( a $i&ore 2no%3 "eause her hus"an$ is
li&in( in an apart!ent.
E(ER*+$E$
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
The (eneral pu"li a lar(e nu!"er of o!puters
no%, "eause pries are "e(innin( $erease.
2A3 !ust "uy
2B3 !ust ha&e "ou(ht
2-3 !ust "e "uyin(
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TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
2.3 !ust "uyin(
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
The A!erian "u8alo !ust "e repro$ue it self a(ain "eause it
has "een
2A3 2B3 2-3 2.3
re!o&e$ fro! the en$an(ere$ speies list.
PATTERN$ G
$
Be -sed to
=e 7as -sed to )ivin! +n the co%ntr'
A&oi$ usin( a for! of "e after use$ to. A&oi$ usin( a &er" %or$ instea$
of an ing for!. A&oi$ usin( the inorret for! use to.
E(AMP)E
I,-ORRE-T: I use$ to %as stu$yin( at the Dni&ersity of Southern -alifornia
"efore I transferre$ here.
-ORRE-T: I use$ to stu$y at the Dni&ersity of Southern -alifornia "efore I
transferre$ here.
or
I %as use$ to stu$yin( at the Dni&ersity of Southern -alifornia
"efore I transferre$ here.
I,-ORRE-T: 7e use to (o to the !o&ies 4uite fre4uently.
-ORRE-T: 7e use$ to (o to the !o&ies 4uite fre4uently.
or
7e %ere use$ to (oin( to the !o&ies 4uite fre4uently.
I,-ORRE-T: She %as use$ to (et up early.
-ORRE-T: She use$ to (et up early.
or
She %as use$ to (ettin( up early.
I,-ORRE-T: 6e %as use$ to $rin# too !uh.
-ORRE-T: 6e use$ to $rin# too !uh.
or
6e %as use$ to $rin#in( too !uh.
I,-ORRE-T: She use$ to spea#in( in pu"li.
-ORRE-T: She use$ to spea# in pu"li.
or
She %as use$ to spea#in( in pu"li.
E(ER*+$E
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TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
6ar&ar$ a shool for !en, "ut no% it is oe$uational, ser&in( as
!any %o!en as !en.
(A) 7as use$ to
(B) Dse$ to "e
(*) 7as use$ to
(3) 7as use$ to "e
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
As tele&ision i!a(es of the astronauts sho%e$, e&en for traine$ professionals
%ho are
2A3 2B3
use$ to !o&e a"out in a lessene$ (ra&itational +el$, there are still pro"le!s.
2- 3 2.3
a lessened gravitational 'eld # medan gravitasi yang di$urangi
Problem "H Advisabilit' B =ad Better
Re!e!"er that ha$ "etter is si!ilar to a !o$al. Althou(h ha$ appears
to "e a past, ha$ "etter e)presses a$&ie for the future.
$ =ad better Verb word
Io% =ad better ta/e *hemistr' CHH this semester
$ =ad better not Verb word
Io% =ad better not ta/e *hemistr' CHH
this semester
A&oi$ usin( an in+niti&e or a past fro! of a &er" instea$ of a &er" %or$.
A&oi$ usin( don(t instea$ of not.
E(AMP)E
I,-ORRE-T: Eou ha$ "etter to hurry if you $ont %ant to !iss the "us.
-ORRE-T: Eou ha$ "etter hurry if you $ont %ant to !iss the "us.
I,-ORRE-T: 7e ha$ "etter !a$e reser&ations so that %e %ill "e sure of
(ettin( a (oo$ ta"le.
-ORRE-T: 7e ha$ "etter !a#e reser&ations so that %e %ill "e sure of
(ettin( a (oo$ ta"le.
I,-ORRE-T: 7e ha$ "etter to he# the she$ule.
-ORRE-T: 7e ha$ "etter he# the she$ule.
I,-ORRE-T: Eou ha$ "etter $ont 4uit your *o" until you +n$ another
one.
14
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
-ORRE-T: Eou ha$ "etter not 4uit your *o" until you +n$ another one.
I,-ORRE-T: Eou ha$ "etter $ont (o alone.
-ORRE-T: Eou ha$ "etter not (o alone.
E(ER*+$E
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
To he# for ai$ity, one ha$ "etter lit!us paper.
2A3Dse
2B3Dsin(
2-3To use
2.3 Dseful
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and corret it@
In to$ays o!petiti&e !ar#ets, e&en s!all "usinesses ha$ "etter to
a$&ertise on T1
2A 3 2B3
an$ ra$io in or$er to (ain a share of the !ar#et.
2-3 2.3

Problem "" -r#f#r#n"# . pilihan , /oul! Rath#r
Re!e!"er that the phrase would rather is si!ilar to a !o$al. Althou(h
would rather appears to "e a past, it e)presses preferene in present future
ti!e.
$ wo%ld rather verb word
I %oul$ rather $ri&e
$ wo%ld rather Not verb word
I %oul$ rather ,ot $ri&e
A&oi$ usin( an in+niti&e or an ing form instea$ of a &er" %or$.
E(AMP)E
I,-ORRE-T: She tol$ !e that she$ rather not to ser&e on the
o!!ittee9panitia.
-ORRE-T: She tol$ !e that she$ rather not ser&e on the o!!ittee.
I,-ORRE-T: If you $ont !in$, I$ rather not (oin(.
-ORRE-T: If you $ont !in$, I$ rather not (o.
I,-ORRE-T: 6e sai$ that he$ rather %ent to a s!all olle(e instea$ of to a
lar(e uni&ersity.
15
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
-ORRE-T: 6e sai$ that he$ rather (o to a s!all olle(e instea$ of to a
lar(e uni&ersity.
+a ber/ata bahwa ia lebih memilih per!i /e per!%r%an tin!!i /ecil sa0a dari pada %niversitas
besar@
I,-ORRE-T: I$ rather %ritin( this than print it "eause I $ont print %ell.
-ORRE-T: I$ rather %rite this than print it "eause I $ont print %ell.
I,-ORRE-T: Gre( %oul$ rather has a :epsi than a "eer.
-ORRE-T: Gre( %oul$ rather ha&e a :epsi than a "eer.
E(ER*+$E$
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
Rho$o$en$rons 2se*enis tu!"uhFan3 %oul$ rather in sha$y plaes,
an$ so %oul$ a'aleas2"un(a a'alea3.
2A3 to (ro%
2B3 (ro%in(
2-3 (ro%n
2.3 (ro%
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
The A!ish people, $esen$e$ fro! the Ger!ans an$ S%iss, %oul$ rather
usin( horses than !ahines for transportation an$ far! %or# "eause they
2A3 2B3 2-3
"elie&e that a si!ple life #eeps the! loser to Go$.
2.3
Problem "1 -r#f#r#n"# for Anoth#r , /oul! Rath#r That
Re!e!"er that %hen the preferenes is for another person or thin(, %oul$
rather that intro$ues a lause. The other person or thin( is the su"*et of
the lause. Althou(h the &er" is past tense, the preferene is for present or
future ti!e.
$
wo%ld
rather
that $ V (past)
+
wo%ld
rather
that 'o% drove
A&oi$ usin( a present &er" or a &er" %or$ instea$ of a past &er". A&oi$ usin(
should an$ a &er" %or$ instea$ of past &er".
$ wo%ld rather that $ didn<t
verb
word
+ wo%ld rather that 'o% didn<t drive
A&oi$ usin( don(t or doesn(t instea$ of $i$nt.
16
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
E(AMP)E
I,-ORRE-T: I$ rather that you $ont $o that.
-ORRE-T: I$ rather that you $i$nt $o that.
I,-ORRE-T: .iane %oul$ rather that her hus"an$ $oesnt %or#in( so har$.
-ORRE-T: .iane %oul$ rather that her hus"an$ $i$nt %or# so har$.
I,-ORRE-T: The $ean %oul$ rather that stu$ents !a#e appoint!ents
instea$ of $roppin( "y.
-ORRE-T: The $ean %oul$ rather that stu$ents !a$e appoint!ents
instea$ of $roppin( "y.
I,-ORRE-T: My roo!!ate %oul$ rather that I $ont #eep the li(ht on after
ten olo#.
-ORRE-T: My roo!!ate %oul$ rather that I $i$nt #eep the li(ht on after
ten olo#.
I,-ORRE-T: 7e$ rather that you shoul$ o!e to!orro%.
-ORRE-T: 7e$ rather that you a!e to!orro%.
E(ER*+$E$
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
A (oo$ ounselor9penasihat %oul$ rather that the patient his or her
o%n $eisions after "ein( helpe$ to arri&e at a (eneral un$erstan$in( of the
alternati&es.
2A3 !a#es
2B3 !a#in(
2-3 %ill !a#e
2.3 !a$e
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
It is sai$ that the A!erian >a( has +&e5pointe$ stars "eause Betsy Ross
tol$ General
2A3 2B3
7ashin(ton she %oul$ rather that he han(in( the si)5pointe$ ones.
2-3 2.3
Problem "8 Ne!ative +mperatives
Re!e!"er that an i!perati&e is e)presse$ "y a &er" %or$.
Please don<t verb word
:lease $ont tell anyone
A&oi$ usin( an in+niti&e instea$ of a &er" %or$.
7o%ld 'o% please
not
verb word
7oul$ you please not tell anyone
17
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
A&oi$ usin( an in+niti&e instea$ of a &er" %or$. A&oi$ usin( don(t after would
you please.
E(AMP)E
I,-ORRE-T: 7oul$ you please $ont s!o#e.
-ORRE-T: :lease $ont s!o#e.
or
7oul$ you please not s!o#e/
I,-ORRE-T: :lease $ont to par# here.
-ORRE-T: :lease $ont par# here.
or
7oul$ you please not par# here/
I,-ORRE-T: 7oul$ you please not to "e late/
-ORRE-T: :lease $ont "e late.
or
7oul$ you please not "e late/
I,-ORRE-T: :lease $ont to (o yet.
-ORRE-T: :lease $ont (o yet.
or
7oul$ you please not (o yet/
I,-ORRE-T: 7oul$ you please $ont %orry.
-ORRE-T: :lease $ont %orry.
or
7oul$ you please not %orry.
E(ER*+$E$
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
:lease photoopies of opyri(hte$ !aterial %ithout the
per!ission of the pu"lisher.
2A3 no !a#e
2B3 $ont !a#e
2-3 not !a#e
2.3 not to !a#e
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
:lease $ont par#in( in those spaes that ha&e si(ns reser&in(2!e!esan3
the! for
2A3 2B3
2-3
the han$iappe$2oran( aat3.
18
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
2.3
E1ALDATIO, 9 :ost test
7rite the ans%er on the "lan# paper, an$ (i&e the reasonG
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
H. After her fa!ous hus"an$s $eath, Eleanor Roose&elt ontinue$ for
peae.
2A3 %or#in(
2B3 %or#
2-3 the %or#in(
2.3 to %or#in(
F. The :alo 1er$e tree in sprin(.
2A3 has "eautiful yello% "losso!s 2"un(a3
2B3 "eautiful yello% "losso!s
2-3 ha&in( "eautiful yello% "losso!s
2.3 %ith "eautiful yello% "losso!s
I. The (reat apes, a (enerally peaeful speies, in
(roups.
2A3 %oul$ rather li&in(
2B3 %oul$ rather li&e
2-3 %oul$ rather they li&e
2.3 %oul$ rather li&e$
&reat apes # $era ta$ bere$or
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
J. Insurane rates are not the sa!e for $i8erent people "eause they are
not
2A3 2B3
li#ely ha&e the sa!e ris#.
2-3 2.3
K. Many people %ith spinal or$ in*uries an, %ith the help of o!puter
i!plants,
2A3 2B3
reo&erin( so!e of their !o"ility.
2-3 2.3
L. Althou(h thousan$s of (ri''ly "ears use$ to roa!in( the 7estern :lains
of the
19
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
2A3 2B3
Dnite$ States, to$ay only a fe% thousan$ e)ist.
2-3 2.3
;. Althou(h fraternal t%ins are "orn at the sa!e ti!e, they $o not ten$
2A3
rese!"lin( eah other any !ore than $o other si"lin(s.
2B3 2-3 2.3
M. So!e astrono!ers onten$ that in anient ti!es, the Bi( 6orn Me$iine
7heel,
2A3
an arran(e!ent of stones in 7yo!in(, !ust ha&e ser&e as si(htin(
points for
2B3 2-3 2.3
o"ser&ations of the sun.
<. Beause $otors are treatin( !ore people for s#in aner, it is %i$ely
"elie&e$
2A3 2B3
that han(es in the proteti&e layers of the earths at!osphere !ust "e
2-3 2.3
pro$ue har!ful e8ets no%.
HN. Seretariat run the ?entu#y .er"y in H.K< !inutes, settin( a reor$
that has
2A3 2B3 2-3
re!aine$ un"ro#en sine H<;I.
2.3
20
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
PRAB)EM ">E *A-$AT+VE$
ausatives are !ain &er"s that ause people or !ahines to $o thin(s or
ause thin(s to han(e. They are liste$ "elo% in or$er of the !ost foreful
2palin( #uat3 to the least foreful 2palin( le!ah3:
Ma$#
G#t
0a'#
L#t
0#lp
*a%sative MA:E
Re!e!"er that MA?E an "e use$ as a ausati&e. In a ausati&e, a person
$oes not perfor! an$ ation $iretly. The person auses it to happen "y
forin( another person to $o it.
21
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
MA:E someone
6is Mother !a$e hi! ta#e his !e$iine
MA:E somethin!
I !a$e the !ahine %or#
A&oi$ usin( an in+niti&e or an in( for! instea$ of a &er" %or$ after a
person or thin( in a ausati&e %ith MA?E.
E(AMP)E
I,-ORRE-T: She !a$e the "a"y to ta#e a nap 2"o"o se"entar3.
-ORRE-T: She !a$e the "a"y ta#e a nap.
I,-ORRE-T: :rofessor Ro(ers $i$nt !a#e us type$ up our la" report.
-ORRE-T: :rofessor Ro(ers $i$nt !a#e us type up our la" report.
I,-ORRE-T: Are you (oin( to !a#e your $au(hter to %or# part ti!e in the
store this su!!er/
-ORRE-T: Are you (oin( to !a#e your $au(hter %or# part ti!e in the
store this su!!er/
I,-ORRE-T: I ant see! to !a#e this $ish%asher runnin(.
-ORRE-T: I ant see! to !a#e this $ish%asher run.
I,-ORRE-T: :atsy !a#es e&eryone $oin( his share aroun$ the house.
-ORRE-T: :atsy !a#es e&eryone $o his share aroun$ the house.
E(ER*+$E$
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
:syholo(ists "elie&e that inenti&es to inrease our pro$uti&ity.
2A3 !a#e us %ant
2B3 !a#e us to %ant
2-3 !a#in( us %ant
2.3 !a#e us %antin(
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
E(ER*+$E$
Part A # *hoose the correct answer@
Li#e hu!ans, 'oo ani!al ha&e a $entist their teeth.
2A3 +ll
2B3 +lle$
2-3 +llin(
2.3to "e +lle$
22
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
Part B # *hoose the incorrect or phrase and correct it@
Most presi$ential an$i$ates ha&e their na!es print on the "allot in the
2A3
,e% 6a!pshire pri!ary eletion "eause it is usto!arily the +rst one in the
2B3 2-3 2.3
nation, an$ %innin( it an (i&e the! a (oo$ hane to "e no!inate$ "y their
parties.
*a%sative )et
Re!e!"er that Let an "e use$ as a ausati&e. In a ausati&e, a person $oes
not perfor! an ation $iretly. 7ith Let, a person (i&es per!ission for
another person to $o it.
$ )ET someone Verb word
6is !other let hi! (o to shool
$ )ET somethin! Verb word
I a! lettin( this !ahine ool
A&oi$ usin( an in+niti&e or an O ing for! instea$ of a &er" %or$ after a
person or thin( in a ausati&e %ith LET.
E@AM:LES
I,-ORRE-T: :rofessor Ba#er let us to %rite a paper instea$ of ta#in( a +nal
e)a!.
-ORRE-T: :rofessor Ba#er let us %rite a paper instea$ of ta#in( a +nal
e)a!.
I,-ORRE-T: 7hen I %as learnin( to $ri&e, !y .a$ let !e usin( his ar.
-ORRE-T: 7hen I %as learnin( to $ri&e, !y .a$ let !e use his ar.
I,-ORRE-T: 7oul$ you let us the "orro% your notes/
-ORRE-T: 7oul$ you let "orro% your notes/
I,-ORRE-T: Larry is so (oo$5hearte$, he lets people too# a$&anta(e of hi!.
-ORRE-T: Larry is so (oo$5hearte$. 6e lets people ta#e a$&anta(e of hi!.
I,-ORRE-T: .ont let that "rothers you.
-ORRE-T: .ont let that "rother you.
E(ER*+$E$
Part A # *hoose the correct answer@
23
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
The I!!i(ration an$ ,aturali'ation Ser&ie often their &isas if they
+ll out the appropriate papers.
2A3 lets stu$ent e)ten$
2B3 lets stu$ent for e)ten$
2-3 lettin( stu$ent to e)ten$
2.3 let stu$ent e)ten$in(
:elayanan I!i(rasi $an ,aturalisasi serin( !e!inta sis%a !e!perpan*an( &isanya *i#a !ere#a !en(isi $o#u!en
yan( sesuai.
Part B # *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
The ,ational Bas#et"all Assoiation %ill not let any athlete to ontinue
2A3
playin( in the lea(ue unless he su"!its &oluntary to treat!ent for $ru(
2B3 2-3 2.3
a$$ition.

*A-$AT+VE =elp
Re!e!"er that 6EL: an "e use$ as a ausati&e. In a ausati&e, a person
$oes not perfor! an ation $iretly. 7ith 6EL:, a person assists another
person to $o it.
$ =E)P someone verb word
in.nitive
=e
=e
is helpin!
+s helpin!
me
me
t'pe
To t'pe
m' paper
m' paper
A&oi$ usin( an O ing for! instea$ of a &er" %or$ or an in+niti&e after a
person in a ausati&e %ith 6EL:.
E(AMP)E
I,-ORRE-T: 6er hus"an$ al%ays helps her that she $oes the laun$ry.
-ORRE-T: 6er hus"an$ al%ays helps her $o the laun$ry.
or
6er hus"an$ al%ays helps her to $o the laun$ry.
I,-ORRE-T: .ont you help eah other the stu$y for tests/
-ORRE-T: .ont you help eah other stu$y for tests/
or
.ont you help eah other to stu$y for tests/
I,-ORRE-T: My teaher helpe$ !e (ettin( this *o".
-ORRE-T: My teaher helpe$ !e (et this *o".
or
My teaher helpe$ !e to (et this *o".
24
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
I,-ORRE-T: Bo" sai$ that he %oul$ help our +n$in( the plae.
-ORRE-T: Bo" sai$ that he %oul$ us +n$ the plae.
or
Bo" sai$ that he %oul$ help us to +n$ the plae.
I,-ORRE-T: This "oo# shoul$ help you un$erstan$in( the leture.
-ORRE-T: This "oo# shoul$ help you un$erstan$ the leture.
or
This "oo# shoul$ help you to un$erstan$ the leture.
E (ER*+$E$
Part A # *hoose the correct answer@
In partnership %ith =ohn .. Ro#efeller, 6enry Fla(er PPPPPPthe
Stan$ar$ Oil -o!pany.
2A3 helpe$ for!in(
2B3 helpe$ for!
2-3 he helpe$ for!
2.3 helpin( to for!
Part B # *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
.otors a(ree that the >ui$ aroun$ the spinal or$ helps the nourish the
2A3 2B3 2-3 2.3
"rain.
:ara $o#tor setu*u "ah%a airan $i se#itar tali yan( !en(enai tulan( "ela#an( !e!"antu !e!elihara
ota#.
:ROBLEM HK , -O,.ITIO,,ALS
-on$itionals are state!ents %ith i" or unless. They are opinions a"out the
on$itions 2iru!stanes9#ea$aan3 that in>uene results, an$ opinions
a"out the results.
There are t%o #in$s of on$itionals. In !ost (ra!!ar "oo#s, they are alle$
real or "actual on$itionals an$ unreal or contrary-to-"act on$itionals.
)actual conditionals e)press a"solute, sienti+ fats, pro"a"le results, or
possi"le results.
9act%al *onditionals B Absol%teE $cienti.c Res%lt
Re!e!"er that a"solute on$itionals e)press sienti+ fats. 7ill an$ a &er"
%or$ e)press the opinion that result is a"solutely ertain.
*AN3+T+AN RE$-)T
25
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
If $ V
(present)
E $ V present
If a
atalyst
is use$ , the
reation
ours !ore rapi$ly
or
A&oi$ usin( will an$ a &er" %or$ instea$ of the present &er" in the lause
"e(innin( %ith i". A&oi$ usin( the au)iliary &er"s ha&e, has, $o, an$ $oes
%ith !ain &er"s in the lause of result.
E(AMP)E$
I,-ORRE-T: If %ater free'es, it has "eo!e a soli$.
-ORRE-T: If %ater free'es, it "eo!es a soli$.
or
If %ater free'es, it %ill "eo!e a soli$.
I,-ORRE-T: If hil$ren "e healthy, they learn to %al# at a"out ei(hteen
!onths ol$.
-ORRE-T: If hil$ren are healthy, they learn to %al# at a"out ei(hteen
!onths ol$.
or
If hil$ren are healthy, they %ill learn to %al# at a"out ei(hteen
!onths ol$.
I,-ORRE-T: If oran(e "losso!s are e)pose$ to &ery ol$ te!peratures, they
%ithere$ an$ $ie$.
-ORRE-T : If oran(e "losso!s are e)pose$ to &ery ol$ te!peratures, they
%ither an$ $ie$.
or
If oran(e "losso!s are e)pose$ to &ery ol$ te!peratures, they
%ill %ither an$ $ie.
I,-ORRE-T : If the tra*etory of a satellite %ill "e sli(htly o8 at launh, it %ill
(et %orse as the >i(ht pro(resses.
-ORRE-T : If the tra*etory 2lintasan3of a satellite is sli(htly o8 at launh, it
(ets %orse as the >i(ht pro(resses.
or
If the tra*etory of a satellite is sli(htly o8 at launh, it %ill (et
%orse as the >i(ht pro(resses.
I,-ORRE-T: If li(ht stri#es a rou(h surfae, it $i8use$.
26
*AN3+T+AN RE$-)T
+& $ V
(present)
E $ 7ill Verb
word
If a
atalyst
is use$ , the
reation
%ill our !ore rapi$ly
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
-ORRE-T: If li(ht stri#es a rou(h surfae, it $i8uses.
or
If li(ht stri#es a rou(h surfae, it %ill $i8use.
E(ER*+$E$
Part A # *hoose correct answer@
If %ater is heate$ to FHF $e(rees F. as stea!.
2A3 it %ill "oil an$ esape
2B3 it is "oilin( an$ esapin(
2-3 it "oil an$ esape
2.3 it %oul$ "oil an$ esape
Part B # *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
If a li&e spon(e is "ro#en into piees, eah piee %oul$ turn into a ne%
2A3 2B3
spon(e li#e the ori(inal one.
2-3 2.3
9act%al *onditionals B Probable Res%lts &or the 9%t%re@
Re!e!"er that %ill an$ a %or$ e)presses the opinion that the results are
a"solutely ertain. In or$er of !ore to less pro"a"le, use the follo%in(
!o$als : %ill, an, !ay.
+& $ V (present) E $
7ill
*an
ma'
Verb
word
If %e +n$ 6er
a$$ress
, %
e
%ill %rite her

27
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
$
7il
l
*an
ma
'
Verb word +& $ V
(present)
%
e
%ill %rite her if %
e
+n$ 6er
a$$ress
A&oi$ usin( the present tense &er" instea$ of a !o$al an$ a &er" %or$ in
the lause of result.

E(AMP)E$
I,-ORRE-T# If you put too !uh %ater in rie %hen you oo# it, it (ot sti#y.
-ORRE-T: If you put too !uh %ater in rie %hen you oo# it, it %ill (et
sti#y.
or
If %ill (et sti#y if you put too !uh %ater in rie %hen you oo# it.
I,-ORRE-T: If they ha&e a (oo$ sale, I %oul$ ha&e stoppe$ "y on !y %ay
ho!e.
-ORRE-T: If they ha&e a (oo$ sale, I %ill stop "y on !y %ay ho!e.
or
I %ill stop "y on !y %ay ho!e if they ha&e a (oo$ sale.
I,-ORRE-T: 7e %ill %ait if you %ante$ to (o.
-ORRE-T: 7e %ill %ait if you %ant to (o.
or
If you %ant to (o, %e %ill %ait.
I,-ORRE-T: If you listen to the 4uestions arefully, you ans%er the! easily.
-ORRE-T: If you listen to the 4uestions arefully, you %ill ans%er the!
easily. or
If you listen to the 4uestions arefully, you %ill ans%er the!
easily.
I,-ORRE-T: If %e +nishe$ our %or# a little early to$ay, %ell atten$ the
leture at the art !useu!.
-ORRE-T: If %e +nish our %or# a little early to$ay, %ell atten$ the
leture at the art !useu!.
or
7ell atten$ the leture at the art !useu! if %e +nish our %or#
a little early to$ay.
28
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
E(ER*+$E$
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
If ser&ie are inrease$, ta)esPPPPPP
2A3%ill pro"a"ly (o up
2B3pro"a"ly (o up
2-3pro"a"ly up
2.3 (oin( up pro"a"ly
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word o& phrase and correct it@
If you $ont re(ister "efore the last $ay of re(ular re(istration, you
2A3 2B3
payin( a late fee.
2-3 2.3
9act%al *onditionals B Possible Res%lts
Re!e!"er that althou(h a past &er" is use$, the opinion is for future ti!e. In
or$er of !ost possi"le to least possi"le, use the follo%in( !o$als : %oul$,
oul$, !i(ht.
+& $ V
(past)
E $
7o%ld
*o%ld
mi!ht
Verb
word
If %e foun$ her a$$ress, %e %oul$ %rite her
29
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
If %e foun$ her a$$ress, %e oul$ %rite her
If %e foun$ her a$$ress, %e !i(ht %rite her
or
$
wo%ld
co%ld
mi!ht
Verb
word
i& $ V (past)
%
e
%oul$ %rite her if %e foun$ her
a$$ress
%
e
oul$ %rite her if %e foun$ her
a$$ress
%
e
!i(ht %rite her if %e foun$ her
a$$ress
A&oi$ usin( would an$ a &er" %or$ instea$ of a past tense &er" in an AifB
lause.
E(AMP)E$
I,-ORRE-T: If =i!s fa!ily !eet ?aren, I a! sure that they %oul$ li#e her.
-ORRE-T: If =i!s fa!ily !et ?aren, I a! sure that they %oul$ li#e her.
or
I a! sure that they %oul$ li#e her if =i!s fa!ily !et ?aren.
I,-ORRE-T: If you !a$e your "e$ in the !ornin(, your roo! loo#s "etter
%hen you (ot "a# in the afternoon.
-ORRE-T: If you !a$e your "e$ in the !ornin(, your roo! %oul$ loo#
"etter %hen you (ot "a# in the afternoon.
or
Eour roo! %oul$ loo# "etter %hen you (ot "a# in the afternoon
if you !a$e your "e$ in the !ornin(.
I,-ORRE-T: If =u$y $i$nt $rin# so !uh o8ee, she %oul$nt ha&e "een so
ner&ous.
-ORRE-T: If =u$y $i$nt $rin# so !uh o8ee, she %oul$nt "e so ner&ous.
or
=u$y %oul$nt "e so ner&ous if she $i$nt $rin# so !uh o8ee.
30
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
I,-ORRE-T: If you %oul$ (o to "e$ earlier, you %oul$nt "e so sleepy in the
!ornin(.
-ORRE-T: If you %ent to "e$ earlier, you %oul$nt "e so sleepy in the
!ornin(.
or
Eou %oul$nt "e so sleepy in the !ornin( if you %ent to "e$
earlier.
I,-ORRE-T: If she %oul$ eat fe%er s%eets, she %oul$ lose %ei(ht.
or
She %oul$ lose %ei(ht if she ate fe%er s%eets.
H. If A!erians are fe%er foo$s %ith su(ar an$ salt, their (eneral
healthPPPP"etter.
2A3"e
2B3%ill "e
2-3is
2.3 %oul$ "e
F. If $ri&ers o"eye$ the spee$ li!it, fe%er ai$ents our.
2A3 2B3 2-3 2.3
9act%al *onditionals B Probable *han!es in Part Res%lts@
Re!e!"er that the spea#er or %rite is e)pressin( an opinion a"out the
results of the past un$er $i8erent on$itions or iru!stanes. In or$er of
the !ost least pro"a"le, use the follo%in( !o$als: would* could* might.
+& $ ha
d
participl
e
E $
wo%ld
have
co%ld
have
mi!ht
have
participl
e
If %e ha$ foun$ her
a$$ress
%
e
%oul$ ha&e %ritten her
If %e ha$ foun$ her
a$$ress
%
e
oul$ ha&e %ritten her
If %e ha$ foun$ her
a$$ress
%
e
!i(ht ha&e %ritten her
A&oi$ usin( %oul$ ha&e an$ a partiiple instea$ of had an$ a partiiple in the lause
"e(innin( %ith i". A&oi$ usin( ha&e an a partiiple.
E(AMP)E$
31
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
I,-ORRE-T: If %e ha$ the !oney, %e %oul$ ha&e "ou(ht a ne% stereo
syste!.
-ORRE-T: If %e ha$ ha$ the !oney, %e %oul$ ha&e "ou(ht a ne% stereo
syste!.
or
7e %oul$ ha&e "ou(ht a ne% stereo syste! if %e ha$ ha$ the
!oney.
I,-ORRE-T: If the nei(h"ors ha$nt 4uiete$ $o%n, I %oul$ ha&e ha&e to all
the polie
-ORRE-T: If the nei(h"ors ha$nt 4uiete$ $o%n, I %oul$ ha&e ha$ to all
the polie.
or
I %oul$ ha&e ha$ to all the polie if the nei(h"ors ha$nt
4uiete$ $o%n.
I,-ORRE-T: If her !other let her, Anne %oul$ ha&e staye$ lon(er.
-ORRE-T: Anne %oul$ ha&e staye$ lon(er if her !other ha$ let her.
or
If her !other ha$ let her, Anne %oul$ ha&e staye$ lon(er.
I,-ORRE-T: If %e %oul$ ha&e #no%n that she ha$ planne$ to arri&e to$ay,%e
oul$ ha&e !et her at the "us station.
-ORRE-T: If %e ha$ #no%n that she ha$ planne$ to arri&e to$ay, %e oul$
ha&e !et her at the "us station.
or
7e oul$ ha&e !et her at the "us station if %e ha$ #no%n that
she ha$ planne$ to arri&e to$ay.
I,-ORRE-T: If I ha$ !ore ti!e, I %oul$ ha&e he#e$ !y paper a(ain.
-ORRE-T: If I ha$ ha$ !ore ti!e, I %oul$ ha&e he#e$ !y paper a(ain.
or
I %oul$ ha&e he#e$ !y paper a(ain if I ha$ ha$ !ore ti!e.
E(ER*+$E$
Aor$in( to so!e historians if ,apoleon ha$ not in&a$e$ Russia, he
the rest of Europe.
2A3ha$ on4uere$
2B3%oul$ on4uer
2-3%oul$ ha&e on4uere$
2.3 on4uere$
32
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
*hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
If $inosaurs %oul$ ha&e ontinue$ roa!in( the earth, !an %oul$ ha&e
2A3 2B3 2-3
e&ol&e$ 4uite $i8erently.
2.3
*ontrar'to9act *onditionals+mpossible Res%lt 7ere
Re!e!"er that the &er" +, is al%ays %ere in ontrary5to5fat on$itionals.
+& $ were
If the party %ere on Fri$ay, %e oul$ (o
A&oi$ han(in( %ere to a(ree %ith the su"*et in ontrary5to5fat
state!ents.
E(AMP)E$
I,-ORRE-T: If Bar"ara %as really !y frien$, she %oul$ all !e one in a
%hile.
-ORRE-T: If Bar"ara %ere really !y frien$, she %oul$ all !e one in a
%hile. 2Bar"ara is not !y frien$3
or
She %oul$ all !e one in a %hile if Bar"ara %ere really !y
frien$. 2Bar"ara is not !y frien$3
I,-ORRE-T: If Mr. 6arris is sin(le, I oul$ intro$ue hi! to !y sister.
-ORRE-T: If Mr. 6arris %ere sin(le, I oul$ intro$ue hi! to !y sister.
2 Mr. 6arris is not sin(le.3
or
I oul$ intro$ue hi! to !y sister if Mr. 6arris %ere sin(le.
2 Mr. 6arris is not sin(le.3
I,-ORRE-T: If the !eat %as a little !ore $one, this %oul$ "e an e)ellent
!eal.
-ORRE-T: If the !eat %ere a little !ore $one, this %oul$ "e an e)ellent
!eal.
2 The !eat is not $one.3
or
This %oul$ "e an e)ellent !eal If the !eat %ere a little !ore
$one. 2 The !eat is not $one.3
33
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
I,-ORRE-T: If !y $au(hter is here, I %oul$ "e &ery happy.
-ORRE-T: If !y $au(hter %ere here, I %oul$ "e &ery happy.
2 My $au(hter is not here.3
or
I %oul$ "e &ery happy if !y $au(hter %ere here.
2 My $au(hter is not here.3
I,-ORRE-T: This apart!ent "e perfet if it %ere a little lar(er.
-ORRE-T: This apart!ent %oul$ "e perfet if it %ere a little lar(er.
2The apart!ent is not here.3
or
If it %ere a little lar(er, this apart!ent %oul$ "e perfet.
2 The apart!ent is not here.3
Part A # *hoose the correct answer@
If hu!ans %ere totally $epri&e$ of sleep, they halluinations,
an)iety, o!a, an$ e&entually, $eath.
2A3%oul$ e)periene
2B3e)periene
2-3%oul$ ha&e e)periene$
2.3 ha$ e)periene$
=i#a !anusia seara total ta# $apat ti$ur, !ere#a a#an !en(ala!i halusinasi, #etertari#an, pin(san, $an
seepatnya, #e!atian
*hoose the incorrect word o& phrase and correct it@
If %e %ere to onsi$er all of the $i8erent #in$s of !otion in $isussin( the
2A3
!o&e!ent of an o"*et, it is &ery onfusin(, "eause e&en an o"*et at rest
is
2B3 2-3
!o&in( as the earth turns.
2.3
34
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
PRAB)EM "?E -ontraryto9act *onditional B *han!e +n
*onditional Unl#ss
Re!e!"er that there is a su"*et an$ &er" that $eter!ines the han(e
in on$itions after the onnetor unless.
S 1
Luisa %ont
return
unless she (ets a
sholarship
A&oi$ $eletin( unless fro! the senteneC a&oi$ $eletin( either the su"*et or
the &er" fro! the lause after unless.
E5amples#
Inorret: I ant (o I $ont (et !y +nishe$.
-orret: I ant (o unless I (et !y %or# +nishe$.
Inorret: They are (oin( to (et a $i&ore unless he stoppin( $ru(s.
-orret: They are (oin( to (et a $i&ore unless he stops ta#in( $ru(s.
Inorret: Eou %ont to (et %ell unless you are ta#in( your !e$iine.
-orret: Eou %ont to (et %ell unless you ta#e your !e$iine.
Inorret: .ean ne&er alls his father unless nee$s !oney.
-orret: .ean ne&er alls his father unless he nee$s !oney.
Inorret: 7e ant pay the rent unless the sholarship he#s.
-orret: 7e ant pay the rent unless the sholarship he# o!es.
-OST TEST (writ# th# answ#r on th# &lan$ pap#r1)
35
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
Foot"all tea!s $ont play in the Super Bo%l ha!pionship PPPPP
either the ,ational or the A!erian -onferene.
2A3Dnless they %in
2B3But they %in
2-3Dnless they %ill %in
2.3 But to ha&e %on
Part B # *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and the correct it@
Dsually "oys annot "eo!e Boy Souts unless o!plete$ the +fth
(ra$e.
2A3 2B3 2-3 2.3
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
H. If the ,or!ans ha$ in&a$e$ En(lan$ in the tenth entury, the En(lish
lan(ua(ePPP.. in a &ery $i8erent %ay.
2A3.e&elop
2B3.e&elope$
2-37oul$ $e&elop
2.3 7oul$ ha&e $e&elope$
F. In the -i.ard o" %., the %i'ar$ oul$ not help .orothyPPPP.
2A3That she return to ?ansas
2B3Return to ?ansas
2-3Returnin( to ?ansas
2.3 Returne$ ?ansas
I. If teahin( PPPP. More, fe%er teahers %oul$ lea&e the profession.
2A3:ays
2B3Is payin(
2-3:ai$
2.3 6a$ pai$
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
J. The Foo$ an$ .ru( A$!inistration, #no%n as the F.A, !a#es (roers
an$
2A3 2B3
restaurant o%ners pasteuri'e$ all !il# "efore sellin( it.
2-3 2.3
K. Besi$es his ontri"utions to the +el$ of siene, Fran#lin helpe$ the
people of
2A3 2B3
:hila$elphia foun$e$ an insurane o!pany, a hospital, a pu"li
li"rary, an$ the
2-3
ni(ht %ath, as %ell as ity !ilitia.
2.3
L. If "a"y (eese are hathe$ in the a"sene of their !other, they
follo%in( the +rst
36
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
2A3 2B3
!o&in( o"*et they see.
2-3 2.3
;. The Rural Free .eli&ery At %as passe$ so that people on far!s oul$
ha&e their
2A3 2B3 2-3
!ail $eli&er heaper an$ faster.
2.3
M. A te!porary $ri&ers per!it lets the learner $ri&es %ith another
liense$ $ri&er in
2A3 2B3 2-3 2.3
the ar.
<. Dnless o!pliations fro! the anestheti, operations to re!o&e the
appen$i)
2A3 2B3
are not onsi$ere$ serious.
2-3 2.3
HN. If the ere"ellu! of a pi(eon %as $estroye$, the "ir$ %oul$ not
"e a"le to >y.
2A3 2B3 2-3 2.3
Problem "C $-BJ-N*T+VE$
So!e &er"s, nouns, an$ e)pressions re4uire a su"*unti&e. A
su"*unti&e is a han(e in the usual fro! of the &er". A su"*unti&e is often a
&er" %or$ in En(lish.
+mportance$%b0%nctive Verbs
Re!e!"er that the follo%in( &er"s are use$ "efore that &er" %or$
lause to e)press i!portane.
As$ propose
!emand recommend
37
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
!esire re/uest
0nsist re/uire
Pre"er suggest
Urge
S 1 That S 1er" %or$
Mr.
=ohnson
:refers that she Spea# 7ith hi!
personally
A&oi$ usin( a present or past tense &er" instea$ of a &er" %or$. A&oi$ usin(
a !o$al "efore the &er" %or$.
,ote: The &er" insist !ay "e use$ in non5su"*unti&e patterns in the past
tense.
For e)a!ple: 1e insiste$ that 0 was wrong.
E5amples#
Inorret: The $otor su((este$ that she %ill not s!o#e.
-orret: The $otor su((este$ that she not s!o#e.
Inorret: I propose that the &ote is seret "allot 2#ota# suara3.
-orret: I propose that the &ote "e seret "allot.
Inorret: The forei(n stu$ent a$&isor reo!!en$e$ that she stu$ie$ !ore
En(lish
"efore enrollin( at the uni&ersity.
-orret: The forei(n stu$ent a$&isor reo!!en$e$ that she stu$y !ore
En(lish
"efore enrollin( at the uni&ersity.
Inorret: The la% re4uires that e&eryone has his ar he#e$ at least one a
year.
-orret: The la% re4uires that e&eryone ha&e his ar he#e$ at least one
a year.
Inorret: She insiste$ that they %oul$ (i&e her a reeipt.
-orret: She insiste$ that they (i&e her a reeipt.
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
Less !o$erate !e!"ers of -on(ress are insistin( that han(es in the
Soial
Seurity Syste! PPPP !a$e.
2A37ill
2B3Are
2-3Bein(
38
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
2.3 Be
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word ot phrase and correct it@
Many arhitets prefer that a $o!e is use$ to roof "uil$in(s that nee$
2A3 2B3
to onser&e >oor spae.
2-3 2.3
PRAB)EM "D
+mportanceNo%ns 3erived &rom $%b0%nctive Verbs
Re!e!"er that the follo%in( nouns are use$ in this pattern:
!emand recommendation
0nsistence2desa$an re/uest
Pre"erence re/uirement
39
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
Proposal suggestion
,oun That S 1er" %or$
The
reo!!en$ation
that 7e Be E&aluate$ %as
appro&e$
A&oi$ usin( a present or past tense &er" %or$. A&oi$ usin( a !o$al "efore
the &er" %or$.
E5amples
Inorret: 6e o!plie$ %ith the e4uip!ent that all (ra$uate$ stu$ents in
e$uation shoul$ %rite a thesis.
-orret: 6e o!plie$ %ith the e4uip!ent that all (ra$uate$ stu$ents in
e$uation %rite a thesis.
Inorret: The o!!ittee refuse$ the re4uest that the prere4uisite
2persyaratan3 shall "e %ai&e$.
-orret: The o!!ittee refuse$ the re4uest that the prere4uisite "e %ai&e$
2$ia"ai#an3.
Inorret: She i(nore$ the su((estion that she (ets !ore e)erise.
-orret: She i(nore$ the su((estion that she (et !ore e)erise.
Inorret: The terrorists $e!an$ that the airline pro&i$es a plane %ill not "e
!et "y the $ea$line.
-orret: The terrorists $e!an$ that the airline pro&i$e a plane %ill not "e
!et "y the $ea$line.
Inorret: 6e re(rette$ not ha&in( follo%e$ his a$&isors reo!!en$ation
that he $roppin( the lass.
-orret: 6e re(rette$ not ha&in( follo%e$ his a$&isors reo!!en$ation that
he $rop the lass.
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
It is the reo!!en$ation of !any psyholo(istsPPPP.. to assoiate %or$s
an$ re!e!"er na!es.
a) that a learner uses !ental i!a(es
"3 A learner to use !ental i!a(es
3 Mental i!a(es are use$
$3 That a learner use !ental i!a(es
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
.espite 2$isa!pin(3 their insistene that he %ill appear %hen there is an
i!portant
2A3 2B3 2-3
e&ent, the presi$ent she$ules press onferenes %ith the ne%s !e$ia at
this $isretion.
2.3
40
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
2.isretion Q perti!"an(an3
PRAB)EM "F
+mportance+mpersonal E5pressions
Re!e!"er that the follo%in( a$*eti&es are use$ in i!personal
e)pressions.
,ssential
0mperative 2mendesa$
0mportant
3ecessary
It is i!portant to &erify the $ata
%r
It is i!portant that the
$ata
"e &eri+e$
A&oi$ usin( a present tense &er" instea$ of a &er" %or$. A&oi$ usin( a !o$al "efore the
&er" %or$.
E5amples
Inorret: It is not neessary that you !ust ta#e an entrane e)a!ination to
"e a$!itte$ to an A!erian uni&ersity.
-orret: It is not neessary to ta#e an entrane e)a!ination to "e a$!itte$
to an A!erian Dni&ersity.
%r
It is not neessary that you ta#e an entrane e)a!ination to "e
a$!itte$ to an A!erian uni&ersity.
Inorret: It is i!perati&e that you are on ti!e.
-orret: It is i!perati&e to "e on ti!e.
%r
It is i!perati&e that you "e on ti!e.
Inorret: It is i!portant that I %ill spea# %ith Mr. 7illia!s i!!e$iately.
-orret: It is i!portant to spea# %ith Mr. 7illia!s i!!e$iately.
%r
It is i!portant that I spea# %ith Mr. 7illia!s i!!e$iately.
Inorret: It is i!perati&e that your si(nature appears on your i$enti+ation
ar$.
-orret: It is i!perati&e to si(n your i$enti+ation ar$.
%r
41
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
It is i!perati&e that your si(nature appear on your i$enti+ation
ar$.
Inorret: It is essential that all appliations an$ transripts are +le$ no later
than =uly H
-orret: It is essential to +le all appliations an$ transripts no later than
=uly H.
It is essential that all appliations an$ transripts "e +le$ no later
than =uly H.
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
It is neessaryPPPP.the approahes to a "ri$(e, the roa$ $esi(n, an$ the
ali(n!ent in suh a %ay as to "est ao!!o$ate the e)pete$ traR >o%
o&er an$ un$er it.
2A3:lan
2B3To plan
2-3:lannin(
2.3 The plan
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
It is essential that &ita!ins are supplie$ either "y foo$s or "y
supple!entary
2A3 2B3 2-3
ta"lets for nor!al (ro%th to our.
2.3
PRAB)EM "GE +N9+N+T+VE$
An in.nitive is to + the verb word@
P%rpose+n.nitives
Re!e!"er that an in+niti&e an e)press purpose. It is a short fro! of in
order to.
$ V * +n.nitive
(p%rpose)
Laura
She
*o(s
ta#es

&ita!ins
to stay
to feel
+t
"etter
A&oi$ e)pressin( purpose %ithout the %or$ in to the in+niti&e. A&oi$ usin(
"or instea$ of to.
E(AMP)E$
Inorret: 7ear se&eral layers of lothin( for #eep %ar!.
-orret: 7ear se&eral layers of lothin( to #eep %ar!.
42
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
Inorret: .a&i$ has stu$ie$ har$ the suee$.
-orret: .a&i$ has stu$ie$ har$ to suee$.
Inorret: .ont !o&e your feet %hen you s%in( for play (olf %ell.
-orret: .ont !o&e your feet %hen you s%in( to play (olf %ell.
Inorret: 1ir(inia al%ays "oils the %ater t%ie !a#e tea.
-orret: 1ir(inia al%ays "oils the %ater t%ie to !a#e tea.
Inorret: 7ait until =une plant those "ul"s.
-orret: 7ait until =une to plant those "ul"s.
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
In the Morrill At, -on(ress (rante$ fe$eral lan$s to the
statesPPPP.a(riultural an$ !ehanial arts olle(es.
2A3For asta"lish
2B3To esta"lish
2-3Esta"lish
2.3 Esta"lish!ent
Part B# *hose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
:apyrus %as use$ for to !a#e not only paper "ut also sails, "as#ets,
an$
2A3 2B3 2-3 2.3
lothin(.
PRAB)EM 1HE PA$$+VE VA+*E
A passi&e han(es the e!phasis of a sentene. Dsually in a passi&e,
the e&ent or result is !ore i!portant than the person %ho auses it to
happen.
For e)a!ple, born* $nown as, an$ le"t are partiiples. They are
o!!only use$ %ith BE in passi&e sentenes. 7hy/ Beause the person
"orn, the person #no%n, an$ the person or thin( left are the i!portant parts
of the sentenes.
Passives7ord Arder
Re!e!"er that in a passi&e sentene the ator is un#no%n or not
i!portant. The su"*et is not the ator.
:assi&e sentenes are also o!!on in ertain styles of sienti+
%ritin(.
$ BE participle
43
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
State
Dni&ersity
is loate$ at the orner of -olle(e an$
thir$
A&oi$ usin( a partiiple %ithout a for! of the &er" BE.
E(AMP)E$
Inorret: My %e$$in( rin( !a$e of yello% an$ %hite (ol$.
-orret: My %e$$in( rin( is !a$e of yello% an$ %hite (ol$.
2It is the ring, not the person %ho !a$e the rin( that is i!portant.3
Inorret: If your "rother in&ite$, he %oul$ o!e.
-orret: If your "rother %ere in&ite$, he %oul$ o!e.
2It is your brother, not the person %ho in&ite$ hi!, that is i!portant.3
Inorret: Mr. 7ilson #no%n as 7illie to his frien$s.
-orret: Mr. 7ilson is #no%n as 7illie to his frien$s.
2It is Mr. -illson, not his frien$s, that is i!portant.3
Inorret: Referenes not use$ in the e)a!ination roo!.
-orret: Referenes are not use$ in the e)a!ination roo!.
2It is re"erences, not the persons usin( the!, that are i!portant.3
Inorret: Laura "orn in Io%a.
-orret: Laura %as "orn in Io%a.
2It is 4aura* not her !other %ho "are her, that is i!portant.3
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
In the strin(e$ instru!ents, the tonesPPPP.."y playin( a "o% aross a set
of strin(s that !ay "e !a$e of %ire or (ut.
2A3They pro$ue
2B3:ro$uin(
2-3 Are pro$ue$, 2.3 That are pro$uin(
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
7or# is often !easure in units alle$ foot poun$s.
2A3 2B3 2-3 2.3
PassivesA!ent
Re!e!"er that in a passi&e sentene, the ator is un#no%n or not
i!portant. The su"*et is not the ator.
The ator in a passi&e sentene is alle$ the a(ent.
This report was
written
+t was printed
b'
b'
Phil
comp%ter
A&oi$ usin( "or or "rom instea$ of "y.
E(AMP)E$
44
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
Inorret: The $eisions on ases li#e this are !a$e fro! .ean 7hite.
-orret: The $eisions on ases li#e this are !a$e "y .ean 7hite.
Inorret: Most of us are sponsore$ fro! our parents.
-orret: Most of us are sponsore$ "y our parents.
Inorret: The ar %as inspete$ for -usto!s.
-orret: The ar %as inspete$ "y -usto!s.
Inorret: The "ill has alrea$y "een pai$ Mr. A$a!s.
-orret: The "ill has alrea$y "een pai$ "y Mr. A$a!s.
Inorret: State Dni&ersity is (o&erne$ fro! the Boar$ of Re(ents.
-orret: State Dni&ersity is (o&erne$ "y the Boar$ of Re(ents.
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
The fa!ous arhitet, Fran# Lloy$ 7ri(ht, %as (reatlyPPPPP. , %ho
%ante$ hi! to stu$y arhiteture.
2A3In>uene$ "y his !other
2B3Fro! his !others in>uene
2-36is !other in>uene$ hi!
2.3 In>uenin( for his !other
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
In the ionosphere, (ases ha&e "een partly ioni'e$ for hi(h fre4ueny
ra$iation
2A3 2B3 2-3
fro! the sun an$ other soures.
2.3
Passives+n.nitives
Re!e!"er that a passi&e in+niti&e an "e use$ %ith a present fro! of
the BE &er" to e)press a future intention, an$ %ith the past fro! of the BE
&er" to e)press an intention that %as not reali'e$ in the past.
$ BE (pres) to be
participle
&%t%re
time
The pro*et is to "e o!plete$ "y FNNK

$ BE (past) to be
participle
past time
The pro*et %as to "e o!plete$ "y H<<K
A&oi$ usin( a partiiple %ithout to or be to e)press intention. A&oi$ usin( a
&er" %or$ instea$ of a partiiple %ith to be.
E(AMP)E$
45
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
Inorret: The play %as to "e anel, "ut it %as only postpone$.
-orret: The play %as to "e anele$, "ut it %as only postpone$.
Inorret: The +nalists are to na!e$ at the ne)t !eetin(.
-orret: The +nalists are to "e na!e$ at the ne)t !eetin(.
Inorret: The result of the e)a! are "e announe$ to!orro%.
-orret: The result of the e)a! are to "e announe$ to!orro%.
Inorret: 7e %ere to "e notify if there %as a pro"le!.
-orret: 7e %ere to "e noti+e$ if there %as a pro"le!.
Inorret: The (a!e is to reshe$ule$.
-orret: The (a!e is to "e reshe$ule$.
Part A# *hoose the correct answer.
The TOEFL e)a!inationPPPPP"y the year FNNF.
2A3-o!pletely re&ise$
2B3Is re&ise$ o!pletely
2-3Is to "e o!pletely
2.3 -o!pletely is to re&ise
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
Fro! no% on, ne% "uil$in(s in le&el one earth4ua#e 'ones in the
Dnite$ States
2A3
are to onstrute$ to %ithstan$ a tre!or %ithout su8erin( strutural
$a!a(e.
2B3 2-3 2.3
46
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
PRAB)EM 1"E Necessit' &or Repair or +mprovement
NEE3
Re!e!"er that ,EE. !ay e)press neessity for repair or i!pro&e!ent.
$ NEE3 in! &orm
This para(raph nee$s re&isin(
A&oi$ usin( an in+niti&e or a partiiple instea$ of an ing for!.
This para(raph nee$s to "e re&ise$
A&oi$ usin( an ing for! instea$ of a partiiple.
E(AMP)E$
Inorret: 6is ar nee$s to +).
-orret: 6is ar nee$s to +)in(.
Or
6is ar nee$s to "e +)e$.
Inorret: The ru( nee$s leane$ "efore %e !o&e in.
-orret: The ru( nee$s leanin( "efore %e !o&e in.
or
The ru( nee$s to "e leane$ "efore %e !o&e in.
Inorret: The house nee$s to paint, "ut %e plan to %ait ne)t su!!er to $o
it.
-orret: The house nee$s to paintin(, "ut %e plan to %ait ne)t su!!er to
$o it.
or
The house nee$s to "e painte$, "ut %e plan to %ait ne)t su!!er to
$o it.
Inorret: 6er %ath nee$e$ repaire$.
-orret: 6er %ath nee$e$ repairin(.
or
6er %ath nee$e$ to "e repaire$.
Inorret: The he! of this $ress nee$s !en$e$ "efore I %ear it a(ain.
-orret: The he! of this $ress nee$s !en$in( "efore I %ear it a(ain.
or
The he! of this $ress nee$s to "e !en$e$ "efore I %ear it a(ain.
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
If !ore than +&e thousan$ $ollars in !onetary instru!ents is
transporte$ into
the Dnite$ States, a report nee$sPPPP.%ith the -usto!s ORe.
2A3File
47
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
2B3Filin(
2-3To +le
2.3 To "e +le$
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
Beause the interstate hi(h%ay syste! lin#in( roa$s aross the
ountry %as "uilt
2A3 2B3
a"out forty5+&e years a(o, !ost of the roa$s in the syste! no% nee$
repaire$.
2-3 2.3
I,-ORRE-T: My "rother use$ to help !e a lot, "ut no% he (i&es !e fe% a$&ie.
-ORRE-T: My "rother use$ to help !e a lot, "ut no% he (i&es !e little a$&ie.
I,-ORRE-T: 6e ha$ to "alane his aount &ery arefully "eause he ha$ fe% !oney.
-ORRE-T: 6e ha$ to "alane his aount &ery arefully "eause he ha$ little
!oney.
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
Althou(h southern -alifornia is $ensely populate$, li&e in the northern
part of the state.
2A3 a little people
2B3 a fe% the people
2-3 fe% people
2.3 little of people
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
Dnless one su"sri"es to a lar(e !etropolitan ne%spaper suh as the -all Street
2A3 2B3
5ournal, or the -ashington post, one %ill +n$ &ery fe% ne%s fro! a"roa$.
(*) 233
48
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
PRAB)EM 11E Mu"h and Many
Re!e!"er that many an$ much ha&e the sa!e !eanin(, "ut many is use$ "efore
plural ount nouns an$ much is use$ "efore non ount nouns.
man' No%n (co%ntpl%ral)
There are !any Tele&ision pro(ra!s For hil$ren on Satur$ay
A&oi$ usin( a non ount noun instea$ of a plural ount noun a&ter %any.
M%ch
7e $ont ha&e !uh Infor!ation
A&oi$ usin( a ount noun instea$ of a non ont noun a&ter %u"h.
E(AMP)E$
I,-ORRE-T: The letter %as short "eause there %asnt !any ne%s.
-ORRE-T: The letter %as short "eause there %asnt !uh ne%s.
I,-ORRE-T: :eter an$ -arol $ont ha&e !uh hil$ren.
-ORRE-T: :eter an$ -arol $ont ha&e !any hil$ren.

REV+E7 A9 $E*T+AN 1# $TR-*T-RE
I,-ORRE-T: 6o% !uh years ha&e you "een li&in( in Te)as/
-ORRE-T: 6o% !any years ha&e you "een li&in( in Te)as/
I,-ORRE-T: 6e al%ays has !uh pro"le!s %ith his teeth.
-ORRE-T: 6e al%ays has !any pro"le!s %ith his teeth.
I,-ORRE-T: I thin# that there is too !any &iolene to T1.
-ORRE-T: I thin# that there is too !uh &iolene to T1.
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
Althou(h the O*i"%a In$ians fou(ht fre4uently %ith the Siou), they $i$nt ha&e
%ith early %hite settlers.
2A3 !uh ontat
2B3 lots ontat
2-3 !any ontat
2.3 lar(e ontat
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
Many hea&y %or# that %as one $one "y han$ an no% "e $one !ore easily %ith
2A3 2B3 2*3 233
49
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
the help of o!presse$ air.
PRAB)EM 18E A )ittle and )ittle
A 9ew and 9ew
Re!e!"er this story in En(lish :
There %ere t%o !en. Eah !an ha$ half a up of happiness. One !an sai$, A6o%
sa$G I ha&e little happiness.B The other !an sai$, A6o% %on$erfulBG I ha&e a little
happiness.B The $i8erene "et%een little an$ a little is the point of &ie%. 4ittle or "ew
!eans not a lot. A 4ittle or a "ew !eans so!e.
A little
little
No%n ( nonco%nt )
7e ha&e
7e ha&e
A little
little
Ti!e
ti!e
A &ew
&ew
No%n (co%ntpl%ral)
7e !a$e
7e !a$e
A fe%
fe%
Mista#es
Mista#es
E(AMP)E$
I,-ORRE-T: Gi&e !e little "utter, please.
-ORRE-T: Gi&e !e a little "utter, please.
2so!e3
I,-ORRE-T: 7e ha&e a little ne%s a"out the plane rash.
-ORRE-T: 7e ha&e little ne%s a"out the plane rash.
2not !uh3
I,-ORRE-T: There are fe% ti#ets left for the onert.
-ORRE-T: There are a fe% ti#ets left for the onert.
2so!e3
I,-ORRE-T: A fe% people in !y apart!ent "uil$in( are frien$ly.
-ORRE-T: Fe% people in !y apart!ent "uil$in( are frien$ly.
2not !any3
I,-ORRE-T: She spea#s a little Frenh.
-ORRE-T: She spea#s little Frenh.
2not !uh3
,ote: all of the sentenes in this pro"le! are (ra!!atially orret, "ut only the
sentenes !ar#e$ orret e)press the !eanin(s in parentheses.
50
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
E(ER*+$E$
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
is urrently a&aila"le to researhers an$ physiians %ho stu$y an$
treat aro!e(aly, a (lan$ular $isor$er harateri'e$ "y enlar(e!ent an$ o"esity.
2A3 The little infor!ation
2B3 Fe% infor!ation
2-3 Little infor!ation
2.3 A fe% infor!ation
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
7hen there is a fe% !oney re!ainin( after all e)penses ha&e "een pai$, %e say
2A3 2B3 2-3
that a s!all eono!i surplus or pro+t has "een reate$.
2.3
PRAB)EM 1>E Only a F#w and Only a Littl#
Re!e!"er that only a "ew an$ only a little ha&e the sa!e !eanin(, "ut only a "ew
is use$ "efore a plural ount noun an$ only a little is use$ "efore a non ount noun.
Anl' a &ew
Only a fe% $ollars 6a&e "een "u$(ete$ for supplies
A&oi$ usin( "ew instea$ of a "ew after only
A&oi$ usin( little instea$ of a little after only
I,-ORRE-T : Only a little stu$ents are la'y.
-ORRE-T : Only a fe% stu$ents are la'y.
I,-ORRE-T : To! too# only fe% pitures.
-ORRE-T : To! too# only a fe% pitures.
I,-ORRE-T : 7e %ill nee$ only a fe% foo$ for the pini.
-ORRE-T : 7e %ill nee$ only a little foo$ for the pini.
I,-ORRE-T : Only fe% people %ere at the reeption.
-ORRE-T : Only a fe% people %ere at the reeption.
I,-ORRE-T : The a$&isor !a#es only fe% e)eptions to the rules re(ar$in(
:rere4uisites.
-ORRE-T : The a$&isor !a#es only a fe% e)eptions to the rules re(ar$in(
prere4uisites.
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
51
onl' a little no%n (non co%nt)
7e ha&e only a little ho!e%or# For Mon$ay
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
an "e (ro%n on ari$ lan$.
2A3 Only a fe% rops
2B3 Only fe% rop
2-3 Only a little rops
2.3 Only little rop
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
Only a little early sientists, a!on( the! Baon, -opernius, an$ Bruno,
2A3 2B3 2-3
Belie&e$ that the priniples un$erlyin( the physial %orl$ oul$ "e
$iso&ere$
2.3
an$ un$erstoo$ throu(h areful o"ser&ation an$ analysis.
PRAB)EM 1?E $-BJE*T PRANA-N
If the %eather is (oo$, Ellen and + 7ill (o To the "eah
Re!e!"er that the follo%in( pronouns are su"*et pronouns:
0 we
6ou you
1e2she they
0t
Avoid %sin! an ob0ect prono%n as a s%b0ect@
E(AMP)E$
I,-ORRE-T: 7hen he o!es "a# fro! &aation, Bo" an$ !e plan to
loo# for another apart!ent.
-ORRE-T: 7hen he o!es "a# fro! &aation, Bo" an$ I plan to loo#
for another apart!ent.
I,-ORRE-T: Betty stu$ie$ "usiness, an$ after she (ra$uate$, her an$
her "est frien$ opene$ a "oo# store.
-ORRE-T: Betty stu$ie$ "usiness, an$ after she (ra$uate$, she an$
her "est frien$ opene$ a "oo# store.
I,-ORRE-T: After stu$y tal#e$ the! into "uyin( "i#es, she an$ the!
ne&er $ro&e to shool.
-ORRE-T: After stu$y tal#e$ the! into "uyin( "i#es, she an$ they
ne&er $ro&e to shool.
I,-ORRE-T: Fran# an$ us are (oin( to *oin the sa!e fraternity
52
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
-ORRE-T: Fran# an$ %e are (oin( to *oin the sa!e fraternity
I,-ORRE-T: %hen they ha&e enou(h !oney, pat an$ her %ill pro"a"ly
(o "a# to shool.
-ORRE-T: %hen they ha&e enou(h !oney, pat an$ she %ill pro"a"ly
(o "a# to shool.
E(ER*+$E
Part A # choose the correct answer@
7hen Fran#lin Roose&elt "ea!e &ery ill, his %ife "e(an to ta#e a !ore
ati&e role in politis, an$ !any people "elie&e$ that 00000000000000 an$ the
presi$ent share$ his responsi"ilities.
2A3 she
2B3 her
2-3 herself
2.3 hers
Part B # choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
7e #no% that in HNNN A... Leif Eri#sson lan$e$ on the ,orth A!erian oast,
an$ that
2A3
he an$ his ,or%e(ian o!panions %ere the +rst %hite !en to see the ,e%
7orl$.
2B3 2-3 2.3
$%b0ect Prono%ns in *omplement Position
Re!e!"er that in o!ple!ent position after the &er" BE, a su"*et pronoun
!ust "e use$.
+t BE
+t +s he 7hom the committee has
named
A&oi$ usin( an o"*et pronoun instea$ of a su"*et pronoun after the &er" +,.
E(AMP)E
$
I,-ORRE-T : It %as her %ho! e&eryone %ante$ to %in
-ORRE-T: It %as she %ho! e&eryone %ante$ to %in
I,-ORRE-T : Is it the! at the $oor a(ain/
-ORRE-T: Is it they at the $oor a(ain/
I,-ORRE-T : This is hi! spea#in(.
-ORRE-T: This is he spea#in(.
I,-ORRE-T : .i$nt you #no% that it %as us %ho playe$ the *o#e/
53
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
-ORRE-T: .i$nt you #no% that it %as %e %ho playe$ the *o#e/
I,-ORRE-T: I ha&e to a$!it that it %as !e %ho %ante$ to (o.
-ORRE-T: I ha&e to a$!it that it %as I %ho %ante$ to (o.
E(ER*+$E
Part A # *hoose the correct answer@
Aor$in( to the -hristian Bi"le, %hen the $isiples sa% =esus after he
ha$ risen fro! the $ea$, they sai$,
2A3 AIt is hi!.B
2B3 AIt is he.B
2-3 AIt is his.B
2.3 AIt is hi!self.B
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it
It %as her, Eli'a"eth I, not her father, ?in( 6enry, %ho le$ En(lan$ into
the A(e
2A3 2B3 2-3 2.3
of E!pire.
PRAB)EM 1CE Ab0ect Prono%ns
Re!e!"er that personal pronouns use$ as the o!ple!ent of sentene of
lause shoul$ "e o"*et ase pronouns.
Ab0ect
Prono%ns
They As#e$ Ds, =an an$ Me, 7hether %e %ere satis+e$
Re!e!"er that the follo%in( pronouns are o"*et pronouns:
Me Us
6ou you
1er them
1im
0t
A&oi$ usin( a su"*et pronoun as an o"*et.
Ab0ect Prono%ns
Let Ds2you an$ !e3 Try To reah an a(ree!ent
A&oi$ usin( a su"*et pronoun after let.
E(AMP)E
$
I,-ORRE-T : 6e al%ays helps !y %ife an$ I %ith our ta) returns.
-ORRE-T: 6e al%ays helps !y %ife an$ !e %ith our ta) returns.
54
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
I,-ORRE-T : .o you really "elie&e that she has "la!e$ us for the
ai$ent, espeially you an$ I /
-ORRE-T: .o you really "elie&e that she has "la!e$ us for the
ai$ent, espeially you an$ !e/
I,-ORRE-T : Let you an$ I pro!ise not to 4uarrel9"erten(#ar a"out suh
uni!portant !atters any!ore.
-ORRE-T: 2you3 Let you an$ !e pro!ise not to 4uarrel a"out suh
uni!portant !atters any!ore.
I,-ORRE-T : The "us lea&es Te$ an$ she at the orner.
-ORRE-T: The "us lea&es Te$ an$ her at the orner.
I,-ORRE-T : The results of the test surprise$ they "eause e&eryone
!uh "etter than e)pete$.
-ORRE-T: The results of the test surprise$ the! "eause e&eryone
!uh "etter than e)pete$.
E(ER*+$E
Part A # *hoose the correct answer@
Moby !ic$ is !ythial9$on(en(an of e&il an$ re&en(e as sho% "y -aptain
Aha"s pursuit9 pen(e*aran of the %hale9i#an paus that ha$ %oun$e$9lu#a
earlier in life.
2A3 he
2B3 his
2-3 hi!
2.3 to hi!
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it
Aor$in( to le(en$, "eause the ,ati&e A!erian priness :oahontas
sai$ that she
2A3 2B3
lo&e$ he, -aptain =ohn S!ith %as set free.
2-3 2.3
Ab0ect Prono%ns a&ter Prepositions
Re!e!"er that personal pronouns use$ as the o"*et of preposition
shoul$ "e o"*et ase pronouns.
Preposition Prono%n (ob0ect)
I %oul$ "e (la$ to ta#e a
!essa(e
For her
Re!e!"er that the follo%in( prepositions are o!!only use$ %ith o"*et
pronounsC
Among o"
+etween to
55
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
)or with
)rom
A&oi$ usin( a su"*et pronoun instea$ of an o"*et pronoun after a proposition.
E(AMP)E
$
I,-ORRE-T : The e)peri!ent pro&e$ to !y la" partner an$ I that
pre*u$ies a"out the results of an in&esti(ation are often
unfoun$e$.
-ORRE-T: The e)peri!ent pro&e$ to !y la" partner an$ !e that
pre*u$ies a"out the results of an in&esti(ation are often
unfoun$e$.
I,-ORRE-T : OF those %ho (ra$uate$ %ith Betty an$ he, Ellen is the
only one %ho has foun$ a (oo$ *o".
-ORRE-T: OF those %ho (ra$uate$ %ith Betty an$ hi!, Ellen is the
only one %ho has foun$ a (oo$ *o".
I,-ORRE-T : A!on( %e !en, it %as he %ho al%ays ate$ as the
interpreter.
-ORRE-T: A!on( as !en, it %as he %ho al%ays ate$ as the
interpreter.
I,-ORRE-T : The a#e is fro! =an, an$ the >o%ers are fro! Larry an$
%e.
-ORRE-T: The a#e is fro! =an, an$ the >o%ers are fro! Larry an$ us.
I,-ORRE-T : =ust "et%een you an$ I, this isnt a &ery (oo$ prie.
-ORRE-T: =ust "et%een you an$ !e, this isnt a &ery (oo$ prie.
E(ER*+$E
Part A # *hoose the correct answer@
Sine the Earths rust is !uh thi#er un$er the ontinents, e4uip!ent
%oul$ ha&e to "e apa"le of $rillin( throu(h HNN,NNN feet ro# to
in&esti(ate the !antle
.
2A3 "eneath the!
2B3 "eneath their
2-3 "eneath its
2.3 "eneath they
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it
Aor$in( to A!a'on le(en$s, !en %ere fore$ to $o all the househol$
tas# for the
2A3 2B3
%o!en %arrior %ho (o&erne$ an$ protete$ the ities for they.
56
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
2-3 2.3
PRAB)EM 1CE Possessive Prono%ns Be&ore , in
9orm
Re!e!"er that possessi&e pronouns are use$ "efore ing nouns.
The follo%in( are possessi&e pronouns:
My* our* 6our* 1er* Their* 1is* and 0ts.
$ Verb Prono%n
(possessive)
in! &orm (no%n)
7e
6e
-an ount on
Re(rette$
6er
their
6elpin(
!isun$erstan$in(
Ds
hi!
A&oi$ usin( su"*et or o"*et pronouns "et%een the &er" an$ the Oin( for!.
E(AMP)E
$
I,-ORRE-T: 7e $ont un$erstan$ %hy you o"*et to hi! o!in( %ith
us.
-ORRE-T: 7e $ont un$erstan$ %hy you o"*et to his o!in( %ith us.
I,-ORRE-T: I %oul$ appreiate you lettin( !e #no% as soon as
possi"le.
-ORRE-T: I %oul$ appreiate your lettin( !e #no% as soon as
possi"le.
I,-ORRE-T: The $otor insiste$ on she ta#in( a lea&e of a"sene.
-ORRE-T: The $otor insiste$ on her ta#in( a lea&e of a"sene.
I,-ORRE-T: 6e is surprise$ "y you ha&in( to pay for the ai$ent.
-ORRE-T: 6e is surprise$ "y your ha&in( to pay for the ai$ent.
I,-ORRE-T: My father appro&es of !e stu$yin( in the Dnite$
States.
-ORRE-T: My father appro&es of !y stu$yin( in the Dnite$ States.
E(ER*+$E
Part A # *hoose the correct answer@
57
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
One property of ra$ioisotopes9ra$io5isotop is that $eayin(
ours in half5li&es o&er a lon( perio$ of ti!e.
2A3 they
2B3 the!
2-3 they Sre
2.3 their
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it
Althou(h Barney -lar# li&e$ only a fe% !onth %ith the arti+ial heart,
$otors
2A3
%ere a"le to learn a (reat $eal fro! hi! ha&in( use$ it.
2B3 2-3 2.3
Possessive Prono%ns be&ore Parts o& the Bod'
Re!e!"er that possessi&e pronouns are use$ "efore nouns that i$entify a
part of the "o$y.
Prono%n
(possessive)
No%n (part o&
bod')
6e 6urt 6is Ar!
A&oi$ usin( the instea$ of a possessi&e pronoun.
E(AMP)E
$
I,-ORRE-T: 6o% $i$ you t%ist the an#le/
-ORRE-T: 6o% $i$ you t%ist your an#le/
I,-ORRE-T: ?e&in *a!!e$ the +n(er %hile he %as +)in( his ar.
-ORRE-T: ?e&in *a!!e$ his +n(er %hile he %as +)in( his ar.
I,-ORRE-T: .oes Alie olor the hair/
-ORRE-T: .oes Alie olor her hair/
I,-ORRE-T: The ar!s are so lon( that ne ant +n$ shirts to +t hi!.
-ORRE-T: 6is ar!s are so lon( that ne ant +n$ shirts to +t hi!.
I,-ORRE-T: She "ro#e the %rist in the ai$ent.
-ORRE-T: She "ro#e her %rist in the ai$ent.
E(ER*+$E
Part A # *hoose the correct answer@
58
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
Sports !e$iine e)perts a(ree that ie shoul$ "e applie$ i!!e$iately
%hen an athlete su8ers an in*ury to le(.
2A3 its
2B3 an
2-3 the
2.3 his
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it
Aor$in( to the theory of natural seletion, the !an %ho %as a"le to use
the han$s
2A3
an$ feet !ost freely to %al# an$ (rasp %as the one %ho sur&i&e$ an$
e&ol&e$9$itin(#at#an.
2B3 2-3 2.3
PRAB)EM 1DE Relative Prono%ns that re&er to
Persons and Thin!s
Re!e!"er that who is use$ to refer to persons, an$ which is use$ to refer to
thin(s.
$omeone 7ho
She is The seretary 7ho 7or#s in the international oRe
A&oi$ usin( which instea$ of %ho in referene to a person.
$omethin! 7hich
This is The ne% type%riter 7hih Eou or$ere$
A&oi$ usin( who instea$ of which in referene to a thin(.
I,-ORRE-T: The people %hih heate$ on the e)a!ination ha$ to lea&e
the roo!.
-ORRE-T: The people %ho heate$ on the e)a!ination ha$ to lea&e
the roo!.
I,-ORRE-T: There is so!eone on line t%o %hih %oul$ li#e to spea#
%ith you.
-ORRE-T: There is so!eone on line t%o %ho li#es to spea# %ith you.
I,-ORRE-T: 7ho is the !an %hih as#e$ the 4uestion/
-ORRE-T: 7ho is the !an %ho as#e$ the 4uestion/
I,-ORRE-T: The person %hih reo!!en$e$ for the position $i$ not
ful+ll the !ini!u! re4uire!ent.
59
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
-ORRE-T: The person %ho reo!!en$e$ for the position $i$ not
ful+ll the !ini!u! re4uire!ent.
I,-ORRE-T: The stu$ent %hih reei&es the hi(hest sore %ill "e
a%ar$e$ a sholarship.
-ORRE-T: The stu$ent %ho reei&es the hi(hest sore %ill "e
a%ar$e$ a sholarship.
Part A # *hoose the correct answer@
-harlie -haplin %as a o!e$ian %as "est #no%n for his
%or# in silent !o&ies.
2A3 %ho
2B3 %hih
2-3 %hose
2.3 %hat
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it
A"solute 'ero, the te!perature at %ho! all su"stane9 unsur ha&e 'ero
ther!al ener(y 2A3 2B3
an$ thus9"e(itu, the lo%est possi"le te!peratures, is unattaina"le 9ta# $pt
$iapai in pratie.
2-3 2.3
Relative Prono%ns that Re&er to Persons
Re!e!"er that "oth who an$ whom are use$ to refer to persons. -ho is use$ as
the su"*et of a sentene or a lause. -hom is use$ as the o!ple!ent of a
sentene or a lause. -hom is often use$ after a preposition as the o"*et of the
preposition.
7ho V
e&eryone %ho Too# The tour %as i!presse$ "y the
paintin(s
A&oi$ usin( whom as the su"*et of a &er".
7hom $ V
6e %as the only
A!erian
7ho! I Sa% At the onferene
A&oi$ usin( who instea$ of whom "efore a su"*et an$ a &er".
E(AMP)E
$
I,-ORRE-T: I as#e$ hi! %ho he %as allin(.
-ORRE-T: I as#e$ hi! %ho! he %as allin(.
I,-ORRE-T: .i$ you !eet the (irl %ho! %as hosen 6o!eo!in(9reuni
Tueen/
-ORRE-T: .i$ you !eet the (irl %ho %as hosen 6o!eo!in(
Tueen/
60
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
I,-ORRE-T: 6e $i$nt #no% %ho he %oul$ ta#e to the party.
-ORRE-T: 6e $i$nt #no% %ho! he %oul$ ta#e to the party.
I,-ORRE-T: I #no% the an$i$ate %ho! %as elete$
-ORRE-T: I #no% the an$i$ate %ho %as elete$
I,-ORRE-T: There is often $isa(ree!ent as to %ho! is the "etter
stu$ent, Bo" or Ellen
-ORRE-T: There is often $isa(ree!ent as to %ho is the "etter
stu$ent, Bo" or Ellen
E(ER*+$E$
:art A : -hoose the orret ans%er.
In parlia!entary syste!, it is not the !onarh "ut the pri!e !inister
.
2A3 7ho! the real po%er
2B3 7ho has the real po%er
2-3 7ho! has the real po%er
2.37ho the real po%er
:art B : -hoose the inorret %or$ or phrase an$ orret it
The :il(ri!s %ere HNF En(lish e!i(rants %ho!, after arri&in( on the
May>o%er,
2A3 2B3
"ea!e the +rst European settlers9penetap in ,e% En(lan$
2-3 2.3
PRAB)EM 1FE ReKe5ive Prono%ns
Re!e!"er that re>e)i&e pronouns !ay "e use$ %hen "oth the su"*et an$
the o!ple!ent refer to the sa!e person or thin(. Re>e)i&e pronouns are
use$ as the o!ple!ent of a sentene or a lause or as the o"*et of the
preposition. The follo%in( are re>e)i&e pronouns:
M'sel& o%rselves
Io%rsel& o%rselves
=imsel& themselves
=ersel& +tsel&
$ V Prono%n (reKe5ive)
So!e lan(ua(e
learners
-an orret the!sel&es
61
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
A&oi$ usin( o"*et pronouns or possessi&e pronouns instea$ of re>e)i&e pronouns.
E(AMP)E$
I,-ORRE-T: Be areful or you %ill hurt to you.
-ORRE-T: Be areful or you %ill hurt yourself.
I,-ORRE-T: A hil$ an usually fee$ self "y the a(e of si) !onths
-ORRE-T: A hil$ an usually fee$ hi!self "y the a(e of si) !onths
I,-ORRE-T: I ha$ to teah !e to s%i!
-ORRE-T: I ha$ to teah !yself to s%i!
I,-ORRE-T: 6elp you to %hate&er you li#e
-ORRE-T: 6elp yourself to %hate&er you li#e
I,-ORRE-T: An o&en that leans its is &ery han$y
-ORRE-T: An o&en that leans itself is &ery han$y
E(ER*+$E$
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
The *a% struture of a sna#e per!its it to eat an$ $i(est ani!als !uh lar(er
than .
2A3 it
2B3 itself
2-3 its
2.3 it has
Part B # *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it
Aor$in( to the Fifth A!en$!ent to the D.S. -onstitution, no person
shoul$ "e
2A3 2B3 2-3
-o!pelle$9$ipa#sa to "e a %itness a(ainst hi! o%n.
2.3
PRAB)EM 1GE Reciprocal Prono%ns
Re!e!"er that the reiproal pronoun phrase each other !ay
"e use$ %hen the plural su"*et an$ o!ple!ent refer to the sa!e
persons or thin(s, an$ they are perfor!in( a reiproal 2!utual3 at.
$ V Prono%n
(reciprocal)
My sister an$ I &isit Eah other A"out one a
%ee#
Re!e!"er that each other is use$ to e)press !utual ats for all
persons. %ne another is also orret.
E(AMP)E$
I,-ORRE-T: Fa!ily !e!"ers lo&e to eah other
-ORRE-T: Fa!ily !e!"ers lo&e eah other
62
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
I,-ORRE-T: Lets !eet eah to the other after lass
-ORRE-T: Lets !eet eah other after lass
I,-ORRE-T: It is onsi$ere$ heatin( %hen stu$ents help eah the other one on
tests or 4ui''es.
-ORRE-T: It is onsi$ere$ heatin( %hen stu$ents help eah other on tests or
4ui''es.
I,-ORRE-T: =a# an$ San$ra arenUt $atin( one to the other any !ore.
-ORRE-T: =a# an$ San$ra arenUt $atin( eah other any !ore.
I,-ORRE-T: They %ill ne&er +n$ eah another at this ro%$e$ airport.
-ORRE-T: They %ill ne&er +n$ eah other at this ro%$e$ airport.
E(*ER*+$E$
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
Business partners an usually sell their !utually o%ne$ property %ithout
onsultin(0000000 unless they ha&e a(ree$ to a separate ontrat.
(A) other
(B) other one
(C) one the other
(D) eah other
Part B# *hose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
The t%in#lin( li(hts of the +re>y are si(nals so that the !ale an$ fe!ale of
the speies
2A3 2B3
-an +n$ eah to the other.
2B3 2.3
PRAB)EM 1GE NA-N$
Eou ha&e pro"a"ly learne$ that Aa noun is the na!e of a person, plae,
or thin(.B ,ouns perfor! se&eral funtions in En(lish, "ut Ana!in(B is learly
the !ost i!portant.
There are t%o "asi lassi+ations of nouns in En(lish. In so!e
(ra!!ar "oo#s, they are alle$ ount nouns an$ !ass nouns. In still other
(ra!!ar "oo#s, they alle$ ounta"le an$ unounta"le nouns.
All of these na!es are &ery onfusin( "eause, of ourse, e&erythin(
an "e ounte$. The pro"le! is ho% to ount it. An$, in that respet, the t%o
lassi+ations of nouns are &ery $i8erent.
-ount or ounta"le nouns ha&e "oth sin(ular an$ plural for!s. They
are use$ in a(ree!ent %ith sin(ular or plural &er"s. In ontrast, !ass or non5
63
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
ount, unounta"le nouns ha&e only one for!. They are use$ in a(ree!ent
%ith sin(ular &er"s.
Often ount or ounta"le nouns are in$i&i$ual persons, plaes or thins
that an "e seen an$ ounte$ in$i&i$ually. Often !ass, non5ount, or
unounta"le nouns are su"stanes an$ i$eas that are shapeless "y nature
an$ annot "e seen an$ ounte$ in$i&i$ually.
But it is not al%ays lo(i that $eter!ines %hether a noun is ount or
non5ount. So!eti!es it is si!ply a (ra!!atial on&ention5that is, a
ate(ory that people a(ree to use in their lan(ua(e. Both "eans an$ rie
ha&e s!all parts that %oul$ "e $iRult "ut not i!possi"le to ount. But "ean
is onsi$ere$ a ount noun an$ rie is onsi$ere$ a non5ount noun. 7hy/
"eause it is a (ra!!atial on&ention.
*o%nt No%ns
Re!e!"er that count nouns ha&e "oth sin(ular an$ plural for!s.
:lural nu!"ers an pree$e count noun "ut not non-count nouns.
There are se&eral ate(ories of count nouns that an help you or(ani'e
your stu$y. So!e of the! are liste$ here.
H. ,a!es of persons, their relationships, an$ their oupations:
one boy two boys
one "riend two "riends
one student two students
F. ,a!es of ani!als, plants, insets:
one dog two dogs
one 7ower two 7owers
one bee two bees
I. ,a!es of thin(s %ith a $e+nite, in$i&i$ual shape:
one car two cars
one house two houses
one room two rooms
J. Dnits of !easure!ent:
one inch two inches
one pound two pounds
one degree two degrees
K. Dnits of lassi+ation in soiety:
one "amily two "amilies
one country two "amilies
one language two languages
6. -ontainers of non5ount soli$s, li4ui$s, pastes, an$ (ases:
one bottle two bottles
64
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
one 8ar two 8ars
one tube two tubes
;. A li!ite$ nu!"er of a"strat onepts:
one idea two ideas
one invention two inventions
one plan two plans
N%mber (pl%ral) No%n (co%ntpl%ral)
si)ty years
A&oi$ usin( a sin(ular count noun %ith a plural nu!"er.
E (AMP)E$
I,-ORRE-T: 7e ha&e t%enty $ollar left.
-ORRE-T : 7e ha&e t%enty $ollars left.
I,-ORRE-T: I hope that I an lose a"out +&e poun$ "efore su!!er.
-ORRE-T : I hope that I an lose a"out +&e poun$s "efore su!!er.
I,-ORRE-T: Se&eral of the people in this lass spea# three or four lan(ua(e.
-ORRE-T : Se&eral of the people in this lass spea# three or four
lan(ua(es.
I,-ORRE-T: The te!perature has or$ere$ t%o "oo#, "ut they arent in at the
"oo#store.
-ORRE-T : The te!perature has or$ere$ t%o "oo#s, "ut they arent in at
the "oo#store.
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
A $esert reei&es less than t%enty5+&e 0000000 of rainfall e&ery year.
2A3 enti!eter
2B3 a enti!eter
2-3 enti!eters
2.3 of enti!eters
Part A# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
In H<KN it %as nai&ely9$(n naif pre$ite$ that ei(ht or ten o!puter %oul$ "e
suRient9u#up
2A3 2B3 2-3
to han$le all of the sienti+ an$ "usiness nee$s in the Dnite$ States.
2.3
Nonco%nt No%ns
Re!e!"er that non-count nouns ha&e only one for!. They are
use$ in a(ree!ent %ith sin(ular &er". The %or$ the $oes not pree$e the!.
65
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
There are ate(ories of non-count nouns that an help you or(ani'e your
stu$y. So!e of the! are liste$ here.
H. Foo$ staples that an "e purhase$ in &arious for!s:
bread
meat
butter
F. -onstrution !aterials that an han(e shape, $epen$in( on
%hat is !a$e:
wood
iron
grass
I. Li4ui$s that an han(e shape, $epen$in( on the shape of the
ontainer:
oil
tea
mil$
J. ,atural su"stanes that an han(e shape, $epen$in( on natural
la%s:
steam* water* ice
smo$e* ashes
oxygen
K. Su"stanes %ith !any s!all parts:
rice
sand
sugar
L. Groups of thin(s that ha&e $i8erent si'es an$ shapes:
clothing 9a coat* a shirt* a soc$:
"urniture 9a table* a chair* a bed:
luggage 9a suitcase* a trun$* a box:
;. Lan(ua(es:
Arabic
5apanese
Spanish
M. A"strat onepts, often %ith en$in(s 5ness* -ance* -ence* -ity;
beauty
ignorance
peace
66
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
<. Most ing for!s:
learning
shopping
wor$ing
No%n (nonco%nt ) Verb (sin!%lar)
9riendship is important
Avoid %sin! th# be&ore a non2"ount no%n@ -sin! a pl%ral verb with a nonco%nt
no%n@
E (AMP)E$
I,-ORRE-T: The happiness !eans $i8erent thin(s to $i8erent people.
-ORRE-T : 6appiness !eans $i8erent thin(s to $i8erent people.
I,-ORRE-T: Toshi spea#s the =apanese at ho!e.
-ORRE-T : Toshi spea#s =apanese at ho!e.
I,-ORRE-T: Brea$ are e)pensi&e in the (roery store on the orner.
-ORRE-T : Brea$ is e)pensi&e in the (roery store on the orner.
I,-ORRE-T: I li#e !y tea %ith the !il#.
-ORRE-T : I li#e !y tea %ith !il#.
I,-ORRE-T: If you open the $oor, airs %ill irulate "etter.
-ORRE-T : If you open the $oor, air %ill irulate "etter.
E (AMP)E$
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
LLLLLLL at FHF $e(rees F. an$ free'es at IF $e(rees F.
2A3 7aters "oils
2B3 The %ater "oils
2-3 7ater "oils
2.3 7ater "oil
Part A# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
The reli(ion atte!pts to larify !an#in$s relationship %ith a
superhu!an po%er.
2A3 2B3 2-3 2.3
No%ns with *o%nt and Nonco%nt Meanin!s
Re!e!"er that so!e nouns !ay "e use$ as count or non-count nouns
$epen$in( on their !eanin(s. Materials an$ a"strat onepts are non-count
nouns, "ut they !ay "e use$ as count nouns to e)press spei+ !eanin(s.
67
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
Count noun Specific meaning
Non-count
nouns
General meaning
an agreement an occasion or agreement abstract concept
agreements a document all agreements

a bone a part of a bone construction
bones skeleton material

a business a company business abstract concept
business all business transactions

a cloth a piece of cloth construction
cloths cloth material

a decision an occasion decision abstract concept
decisions all decisions

an education a specific education abstract concept
educations person's all education

a fire an event fire material
fires

a glass a container glass construction
glasses material
A history a historial history a"strat onept
6istories aount all history
An honor an oasion honor a"strat onept
6onors or an a%ar$ all honor
A lan(ua(e a spei+ lan(ua(e a"strat onept
Lan(ua(es &ariety all lan(ua(e
A life a spei+ life a"strat onept
Li&es persons all life
A li(ht a la!p li(ht the
a"sene of
Li(hts $ar#ness
A noise a spei+ noise a"strat onept
,oises soun$ all soun$
A pain a spei+ pain a"strat onept
:ains oasion all pain
A paper a $ou!ent paper onstrution
:apers or sheet !aterial
A pleasure a spei+ pleasure a"strat onept
:leasures oasion all pleasures
A silene a spei+ silene a"strat onept
Silenes oasion all silene
A spae a "lan# spae the uni&erse
Spaes
68
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
A stone a s!all ro# stone onstrution
Stones !aterial
A suess an ahie&e!ent suess a"strat onept
Suesses all suess
A thou(ht an i$ea thou(ht a"strat onept
Thou(hts all thou(hts
A ti!e a historial perio$ ti!e a"strat
onept
Ti!es or !o!ent all ti!e
A %ar a spei+ %ar %ar the (eneral at of %ar
7ars all %ars
A %or# an artisti reation %or# e!ploy!ent
7or#s a"strat onept
all %or#
A $ou!ent
I ha&e a paper $ue Mon$ay
onstrution !aterial
Lets use paper to !a#e the present
A&oi$ usin( count nouns %ith spei+ !eanin(s to e)press the (eneral
!eanin(s of non-count nouns.
E@AM:LES
I,-ORRE-T: .r. Bra$ley %ill reei&e speial honor at the (ra$uation.
-ORRE-T: .r. Bra$ley %ill reei&e a speial honor at the (ra$uation.
2an a%ar$3
I,-ORRE-T: She nee$s to +n$ a %or#.
-ORRE-T: She nee$s to +n$ %or#.
2e!ploy!ent3
I,-ORRE-T: My nei(h"or $isli#es a noise.
-ORRE-T: My nei(h"or $isli#es noise.
2all soun$3
I,-ORRE-T: 7e nee$ (lass for the *uie.
-ORRE-T: 7e nee$ a (lass for the *uie.
or
7e nee$ (lasses for the *uie.
2ontainer3
I,-ORRE-T: A %ar is as ol$ !an#in$.
-ORRE-T: 7ar is as ol$ !an#in$.
2the at of %ar3
69
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
E@ER-ISES
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
It is (enerally "elie&e$ that an M.B.A. $e(ree is (oo$ preparation for a areer
in 00000000 .
2A3A "usiness
2B3Business
2-3Businesses
2.3 One "usiness
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
A spae is the last frontier for !an to on4uer.
2A3 2B3 2-3 2.3
*A-NT AN3 NAN*A-NT NA-N$ 7+T= $+M+)AR MEAN+NM$
Re!e!"er that there are pairs of nouns %ith si!ilar !eanin(s "ut one
is count noun an$ the other is noncount noun.
-ount noun ,on5ount noun
70
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
A li!ate
-li!ates
A lau(h
Lau(hs
A hu!an "ein(
6u!an "ein(s
A *o"
=o"s
A !ahine
Mahines
A !an
Men
A person
:ersons
A sno%>a#e
Sno%>a#es
A sun"ea!
Sun"ea!s
A traR *a!
TraR *a!
7eather
Lau(hter
6u!anity
7or#
Mahinery
Man#in$C !an
:eople
Sno%
Sunli(htC sunshine
TraR
no%n
The shape of a Sno%>a#es9#epin(an sal*u is uni4ue
E@AM:LES
I,-ORRE-T: -alifornia has a (oo$ %eather.
-ORRE-T: -alifornia has (oo$ %eather.
or
71
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
-alifornia has a (oo$ li!ate.
I,-ORRE-T: A lau(hter is the "est !e$iine.
-ORRE-T: Lau(hter is the "est !e$iine.
or
A lau(h is the "est !e$iine.
I,-ORRE-T: 7e are late "eause %e (ot stu# in a traR.
-ORRE-T: 7e are late "eause %e (ot stu# in traR.
or
7e are late "eause %e (ot stu# in a traR *a!.
I,-ORRE-T: A !ahinery in the fatory nee$s to "e +)e$.
-ORRE-T: Mahinery in the fatory nee$s to "e +)e$.
or
A !ahine in the fatory nee$s to "e +)e$.
I,-ORRE-T: 7e are suppose$ to ha&e a sunshine this %ee#en$.
-ORRE-T: 7e are suppose$ to ha&e sunshine this %ee#en$.
E@ER-ISES
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
Dne!ploy!ent o!pensation is !oney to support an une!ploye$ person
%hile he or she is loo#in( for 00000000000 .
2A3*o"
2B3a *o"
2-3%or#s
2.3 a %or#
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
It is "elie&e$ that a people oul$ li&e on Mars %ith little life support "eause
the at!osphere
2A3 2B3 2-3
is si!ilar to that of Earth.
2.3
NAN*A-NT NA-N$ T=AT ARE *A-NT NA-N$ +N AT=ER
)ANM-AME
Re!e!"er, !any nouns that are count nouns in other lan(ua(es !ay "e
non-count nouns in En(lish. So!e of the !ost trou"leso!e ha&e "een liste$
for you on the follo%in( pa(e.
72
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
advice homewor$ money poetry
anger ignorance music poverty
courage in"ormation news progress
damage $nowledge patience
e/uipment leisure permission
"un luc$
V No%n (nonco%nt)
.i$ you $o your ho!e%or#/
A&oi$ usin( a or an "efore non-count nouns.
E@AM:LES
I,-ORRE-T: .o you ha&e an infor!ation a"out it/
-ORRE-T: .o you ha&e infor!ation a"out it/
I,-ORRE-T: -ounselors are a&aila"le to (i&e you an a$&ie "efore you
re(ister for your lasses.
-ORRE-T: -ounselors are a&aila"le to (i&e you a$&ie "efore you re(ister
for your lasses.
I,-ORRE-T: Geor(e ha$ a (oo$ lu# %hen he +rst a!e to State Dni&ersity.
-ORRE-T: Geor(e ha$ (oo$ lu# %hen he +rst a!e to State Dni&ersity.
I,-ORRE-T: A ne%s %as release$ a"out the hosta(es.
-ORRE-T: ,e%s %as release$ a"out the hosta(es.
I,-ORRE-T: .i$ you (et a per!ission to ta#e the plae!ent test/
-ORRE-T: .i$ you (et per!ission to ta#e the plae!ent test/
E@ER-ISES
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
Fire resistant !aterials are use$ to retar$ 00000000000 of !o$ern airraft in
ase of ai$ent.
2A3A $a!a(e to the passen(er a"in
2B3That $a!a(es to the passen(er a"in
2-3.a!a(e to the passen(er a"in
2.3 :assen(er a"ins $a!a(es
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
A pro(ress has "een !a$e to%ar$ +n$in( a ure for AI.S.
73
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
2A3 2B3 2-3 2.3
$+NM-)AR AN3 P)-RA) E(PRE$$+AN A9 NAN*A-NT
NA-N$
Re!e!"er that the follo%in( sin(ular an$ plural e)pressions are i$io!ati:
a piece o" advice two pieces o" advice
a piece o" bread two pieces o" bread
a piece o" e/uipment two pieces o" e/uipment
a piece o" "urniture two pieces o" "urniture
a piece o" in"ormation two pieces o" in"ormation
a piece o" 8ewelry two pieces o" 8ewelry
a piece o" luggage two pieces o" luggage
a piece o" mail two pieces o" mail
a piece o" music two pieces o" music
a piece o" news two pieces o" news
a piece o" toast two pieces o" toast
a loa" o" bread two loaves o" bread
an ear o" corn two ears o" corn
a bar o" soap two bars o" soap
a bolt o" lightning two bolts o" lightning
a clap o" thunder two claps o" thunder
a gust o" wind two gusts o" wind
a sin!%lar o& no%n (nonco%nt)
A fol# son( is a piee of popular !usi
n%mber pl%ral o& no%n (nonco%nt)
I or$ere$ t%el&e "ars of soap
A&oi$ usin( the non5ount noun %ithout the sin(ular or plural i$io! to
e)press a sin(ular or plural.
E@AM:LES
I,-ORRE-T: A !ail tra&els faster %hen the 'ip o$e is in$iate$ on the
en&elope.
74
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
-ORRE-T: A piee of !ail tra&els faster %hen the 'ip o$e is in$iate$ on
the en&elope.
I,-ORRE-T: There is a li!it of t%o arry5on lu((a(es for eah passen(er.
-ORRE-T: There is a li!it of t%o piees of arry5on lu((a(e for eah
passen(er.
I,-ORRE-T: Eah furniture in this $isplay is on sale for half prie.
-ORRE-T: Eah piee of furniture in this $isplay is on sale for half prie.
I,-ORRE-T: I$ li#e a stea#, a sala$, an$ a orns ear %ith "utter.
-ORRE-T: I$ li#e a stea#, a sala$, an$ an ear of orn %ith "utter.
I,-ORRE-T: The En(ineerin( .epart!ent purhase$ a ne% e4uip!ent to
si!ulate in outer spae.
-ORRE-T: The En(ineerin( .epart!ent purhase$ a ne% piee of
e4uip!ent to si!ulate in outer spae.
E@ER-ISES
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
6y"ri$s ha&e one !ore 00000000000000 per plant then the other &arieties.
2A3orns
2B3ear of orn
2-3orn ears
2.3 orns ear
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
A fe% tiles on S$ylab %ere the only e4uip!ent that faile$ to perfor! %ell in
outer spae.
2A3 2B3 2-3 2.3
PRAB)EM 8HE *)A$$+9+*AT+AN3I45 AN3 T6-E
Re!e!"er that $ind an$ type e)press lassi+ation:
/inds
t'pes
o& no%n (pl%ral co%nt)
(nonco%nt)
-a"le T1 has !any $i8erent
.r. :ar#er (i&es se&eral
#in$s
types
of
of
sho%s
ho!e%or#
Ane /ind
t'pe
o& no%n (sin!%lar
co%nt)
(nonco%nt)
One #in$ of sho% is ne%s
75
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
One type of ho!e%or# is a la" report
Avoid %sin! $in! of with a pl%ral co%nt no%n@ Avoid %sin! $in! and typ# witho%t
of@
E@AM:LES
I,-ORRE-T: There are four #in$ of -o#e no%.
-ORRE-T: There are four #in$s of -o#e no%.
I,-ORRE-T: 7e sa% se&eral #in$ of "ir$s at the %il$life preser&e.
-ORRE-T: 7e sa% se&eral #in$s of "ir$s at the %il$life preser&e.
I,-ORRE-T: This e)a! has t%o types pro"le!s.
-ORRE-T: This e)a! has t%o types of pro"le!s.
I,-ORRE-T: Are you loo#in( for a speial #in$s of ar/
-ORRE-T: Are you loo#in( for a speial #in$ of ar/
I,-ORRE-T: I only #no% ho% to run one type a o!puter pro(ra!.
-ORRE-T: I only #no% ho% to run one type of o!puter pro(ra!.
E@ER-ISES
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
Aor$in( to esti!ates "y so!e "otanists, there are 000000000000 of plants.
2A3se&en thousan$ type
2B3se&en thousan$ types
2-3type of se&en thousan$
2.3 types se&en thousan$
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
One #in$s of tool that %as popular $urin( the Stone A(e %as a >a#e, use$ for
uttin( an$ srappin(.

PRAB)EM 8"E +N9+N+T+VE AN3 ,I4G $-BJE*T$
Re!e!"er that either an in+niti&e or an ing for! !ay "e use$ as the
su"*et of a sentenes of lause.
$ (in.nitive) V
To rea$ a forei(n lan(ua(e is e&en !ore $iRult
$ (in.nitive) V
Rea$in( 4ui#ly an$ %ell re4uires pratie
76
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
A&oi$ usin( a &er" %or$ instea$ of an in+niti&e or an ing for! in the
su"*et. A&oi$ usin( to %ith an ing for!.
E@AM:LES
I,-ORRE-T: To %or#in( pro&i$es people %ith personal satisfation as %ell as
!oney.
-ORRE-T: To %or# pro&i$es people %ith personal satisfation as %ell as
!oney.
or
7or#in( pro&i$es people %ith personal satisfation as %ell as
!oney.
I,-ORRE-T: The snee'e sprea$s (er!s.
-ORRE-T: To snee'e sprea$s (er!s.
or
Snee'in( sprea$s (er!s.
I,-ORRE-T: Shoplift is onsi$ere$ a serious ri!e.
-ORRE-T: To shoplift is onsi$ere$ a serious ri!e.
or
Shopliftin( is onsi$ere$ a serious ri!e.
I,-ORRE-T: The rest in the afternoon is a usto! in !any ountries.
-ORRE-T: To rest in the afternoon is a usto! in !any ountries.
or
Restin( in the afternoon is a usto! in !any ountries.
I,-ORRE-T: To e)erisin( !a#es !ost people feel "etter.
-ORRE-T: To e)erise !a#es !ost people feel "etter.
or
E)erisin( !a#es !ost people feel "etter.
E@ER-ISES
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
00000000000 trees is a usto! that !any people en(a(e in to ele"rate Ar"or
.ay.
2A3The plant
2B3:lant
2-3:lantin(
2.3 To plantin(
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
77
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
Spell orretly is easy %ith the ai$ of a nu!"er of %or$ proessin( pro(ra!s
for personal
2A3 2B3 2-3
o!puters.
2.3
PRAB)EM 811;-A)+9I+NM P=RA$E 7+T= ,I4G
NA-N$
Re!e!"er that an ing for! !ay "e use$ as a noun. In so!e (ra!!ar
"oo#s, this ing for! is alle$ a (erun$. Re!e!"er that ing for!s are
usually non5ount nouns an$ that non5ount nouns are not pree$e$ "y the
unless follo%e$ "y a 4ualifyin( phrase.
7e ha&e alrea$y lassi+e$ !ost ing for!s as non5ount nouns, "ut
there is one pattern in %hih the is use$ %ith a non5ount ing noun. 7hen a
prepositional phrase 4uali+es the noun, that is, a$$s spei+ infor!ation, the
!ay "e use$ %ith an ing noun su"*et.
The ,in 2%ali&'in! phrases
o& no%n
The Rea$in( of tehnial !aterial re4uires #no%le$(e of tehnial
ter!s
E@AM:LES
I,-ORRE-T: -orretin( of errors in lan(ua(e lass an "e e!"arrassin(.
-ORRE-T: The orretin( of errors in a lan(ua(e lass an "e
e!"arrassin(.
I,-ORRE-T: 7ritin( of letters is an art.
-ORRE-T: The %ritin( of letters is an art.
I,-ORRE-T: 7innin( of pri'es is not as i!portant as playin( %ell.
-ORRE-T: The %innin( of pri'es is not as i!portant as playin( %ell.
I,-ORRE-T: Sen$in( of eletroni !ail 2e5!ail3 is no% o!!on.
-ORRE-T: The sen$in( of eletroni !ail 2e5!ail3 is no% o!!on.
I,-ORRE-T: Sin(in( of -hrist!as arols is an ol$ tra$ition.
-ORRE-T: The sin(in( of -hrist!as arols is an ol$ tra$ition.
E@ER-ISES
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
00000000000000 is not a ne% i$ea.
78
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
2A3The :lannin( of ities
2B3-ities to plan the!
2-3:lan ities
2.3 To plannin( ities
Part B# *hoose the +ncorrect word or phrases and correct it@
LLLLLLLLLLLL of instrutions for o!puters is alle$ o!puter pro(ra!!in(.
2A3 2B3 2-3 2.3
PRAB)EM 88 NAM+NA) T0AT *)A-$E
Re!e!"er that so!eti!es the su"*et of a &er" is a sin(le noun. Other
ti!es it is a lon( noun phrase or a lon( noun lause.
One e)a!ple of a lon( noun lause is the no!inal that lause. Li#e all
lauses, the no!inal that lause has a su"*et an$ &er". The no!inal that
lause funtions as the !ain su"*et of the !ain &er" %hih follo%s it.
Nominal that cla%se $ V
That &ita!in - pre&ents ol$s is %ell #no%n

E(AMP)E$
I,-ORRE-T : That it is that she has #no%n hi! for a lon( ti!e in>uene$
$eision.
-ORRE-T : That she has #no%n hi! for a lon( ti!e in>uene$ her
$eision.
I,-ORRE-T : It is that %e nee$ to !o&e is sure.
-ORRE-T : That %e nee$ to !o&ies sure.
I,-ORRE-T : Is li#ely that the li"rary is lose$.
-ORRE-T : That the li"rary is li#ely.
I,-ORRE-T : She %ill %in is al!ost ertain.
-ORRE-T : That she %ill %in is al!ost ertain.
I,-ORRE-T : She %ill %in is al!ost ertain
-ORRE-T : That she %ill %in is al!ost ertain
I,-ORRE-T : That is not fair see!s o"&ious
-ORRE-T : That it is not fair see!s o"&ious.
E)erises
Part A # *hoose the correct answer@
Mi(rate lon( $istanes is %ell $ou!ente$.
2A3That it is "ir$s
2B3That "ir$s
2-3Bir$s that
2.3 It is that "ir$s
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it
That it is the !oon in>uenes only one #in$ of ti$e is not (enerally
#no%.
79
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
2A3 2B3 2-3 2.3
PRAB)EM 8> Ad0ective
A$*eti&es an$ a$*eti&e phrases $esri"e nouns. They !ay "e use$ to
$esri"e /uantity 2nu!" or a!ount3C su<ciency 2nu!"er or a!ount
nee$e$3C consecutive order 2or$er in a se4uene3C /uall 2appearane3C
an$ emphasis 2i!portane or fore.3
Most a$*eti&es an$ a$*eti&e phrases ha&e only one for! in En(l
i
sh. They
$o not han(e for!s a(ree %ith the nouns they $esri"e
PRAB)EM 8?? 3eterminers
!eterminers are a speial #in$ of a$*eti&e. Li#e other a$*eti&es,
$eter!iners $esri"e nouns. , unli#e other a$*eti&es, $eter!iners !ust
a(ree %
i
th the nouns they $esri"e. In other %or$s, you !ust #no% %hether
the noun is a sin(ular ount noun, a plural ount noun, or a non5ount
noun "efore you an hoose the orret $eter!iner. The noun determines
%hih a$*eti&e for! you use.
3eterminers B A and An
Re!e!"er that "oth a an$ an !ean one. They are use$ "efore sin(ular
ount nouns. A is use$ "e. Fore %or$s that "e(in %ith a onsonant soun$.
An is use$ "efore %or$s that "e(in %ith a &o%el soun$.
A consonant so%nd
A forei(n stu$ent !ust ha&e an H5FN for!
An vowel so%nd
An international st%dent m%st have an +1H &orm
A&o
i
$ onfusin( &o%el an$ onsonant spellin(s %ith &o%el an$
onsonant soun$s. U is a &o%el spellin(, "ut it has the onsonant soun$ E
in %or$s li#e use* universal* usual* et. 1 is a onsonant spellin( that has a
&o%el soun$ in %or$s li#e hour an$ honor* "ut not
i
n %or$s li#e history an$
horror.
E(AMP)E$
I,-ORRE-T : It is a "i( $eision to hoose an uni&ersity.
-ORRE-T : It is a "i( $eision to hoose a uni&ersity.
I,-ORRE-T : .o you ha&e an use for this e!pty "o)/
-ORRE-T : .o you ha&e a use for this e!pty "o)W
I,-ORRE-T : -he!istry HNN6 is a honors setion.
-ORRE-T : -he!istry HNN6 is an honors setion.
I,-ORRE-T : LetXs *ust %ait an year or t%o "efore %e (et !arrie$.
-ORRE-T : LetXs *ust %ait a year or t%o "efore %e (et !arrie$.
80
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
I,-ORRE-T : IXll all you "a# in a hour.
-ORRE-T : IXll all you "a# in an hour.
E(ER*+$E$
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
Sun sport are #no%n to ause e nor!ous inrease in the intensity of
the suns eletro!a(neti ra$iation
2A3. an
2B3. a
2-3. so!e
2.3. one
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
Althou(h al!ost all insets ha&e si) le(s, a i!!ature inset !ay not ha&e any.
(A) (B) (*) (3)
PRAB)EM 8C? Nonco%nt No%ns with ;%ali&'in! -hras#s7
Th#
Re!e!"er, the is use$ %ith ount nouns. Eou ha&e also learne$ that
the an "e use$ "efore an5in( noun that is follo%e$ "y a 4ualifyin( phrase.
In a$$ition, the an "e use$ "efore a non5ount noun %ith a 4ualifyin( phrase.
The Nonco%nt no%n ;%ali&'in! Phrase
The Art of the !i$$le a(es is on $isplay
E(AMP)E$
I,-ORRE-T : :oetry of -arl San$"ur( is "ein( rea$ at the stu$ent union on
Fri$ay.
-ORRE-T : The poetry of -arl San$"ur( is "ein( rea$ at the stu$ent union
on Fri$ay.
I,-ORRE-T : :o&erty of people in the rural areas is not as &isi"le as that of
people in the ity.
-ORRE-T : The po&erty of people in the rural areas is not as &isi"le as
that of people in the ity.
I,-ORRE-T : Siene of (eneti en(ineerin( is not &ery ol$.
-ORRE-T : The siene of (eneti en(ineerin( is not &ery ol$.
I,-ORRE-T : 6istory of this area is interestin(.
-ORRE-T : The history of this area is interestin(.
I,-ORRE-T : 7or# of !any people !a$e the pro*et a suess.
-ORRE-T : The %or# of !any people !a$e the pro*et a suess.
E(ER*+$E$
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
Of -ountry O 7asters sin(ers !ay "e relate$ to ol$ En(lish
81
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
"alla$s.
2A3. The !usi
2B3. Musi
2-3. their !usi
2.3. Musi
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
The :hilosophy of the anient Gree#s has "een preser&e$ in the sholarly %ritin( of
%estern

(A) (B) (*) (3)
i&ili'ation.
-orret : 1ir(inia $oesnt ha&e the enou(h infor!ation to !a#e a $eision.
-orret : 1ir(inia $oesnt ha&e enou(h infor!ation to !a#e a $eision.
or
1ir(inia $oesnt ha&e infor!ation enou(h to !a#e a $eision.
-orret : I nee$ to "uy a la!p "eause I $ont ha&e enou(h the li(ht in !y
roo!.
I nee$ to "uy a la!p "eause I $ont ha&e enou(h li(ht in !y
roo!.
or
I nee$ to "uy a la!p "eause I $ont ha&e li(ht enou(h the in !y
roo!.
E(ER*+$E$
Part A # *hoose the correct answer@
7hen your "o$y $oes not (et 00000000 , it annot !a#e the (luose it
nee$s.
2A3 enou(h foo$
2B3 foo$ as enou(h
2-3 foo$ enou(hly
2.3 enou(h the foo$
Part B # *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
As soon as the o!pany has as enou(h earnin(s to !a#e up for a "a$ year,
the
2A 3 2B3 2-3
sto#hol$ers of u!ulati&e preferre$ sto# reei&e $i&i$en$s for the "a$ year
as %ell
2.3
as for the (oo$ year.
PRAB)EM 8DD$%Ncienc' B Eno%!h with ad0ectives
82
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
Re!e!"er that enou(h %ith a$*eti&es !eans suRiently.
$ V ad0ective eno%!h in.nitive
It is %ar! enou(h to (o s%i!!in(
$ V not ad0ectiv
e
eno%!h in.nitiv
e
It Is not %ar! enou(h to (o s%i!!in
(
A&oi$ usin( enou(h "efore the a$*eti&e instea$ of after it. A&oi$ usin( as
"et%een enou(h an$ the in+niti&e
E(AMP)E$
Inorret : 6er little ar isnt "i( enou(h as to seat !ore than t%o people
o!forta"ly.
-orret : 6er little ar isnt "i( enou(h to seat !ore than t%o people
o!forta"ly.
Inorret : That e)use isnt enou(h (oo$.
-orret : That e)use isnt (oo$ enou(h.
Inorret : 6e shoul$ "e as stron( enou(h to (et out of "e$ in a fe% $ays.
-orret : 6e shoul$ "e as enou(h stron( to (et out of "e$ in a fe% $ays.
Inorret : Billy isnt enou(h ol$ to enlist in the ar!y.
-orret : Billy isnt ol$ enou(h to enlist in the ar!y.
Inorret : 6is sore on the e)a! %as enou(h (oo$ to 4ualify hi! for a
(ra$uate pro(ra!.
-orret : 6is sore on the e)a! %as (oo$ enou(h to 4ualify hi! for a
(ra$uate pro(ra!.
E(ER$+*E
Part A # *hoose the correct answers@
The $e+nitions for A(ra! aloriesB or AaloriesB are 00000000 for !ost
en(ineerin( %or#.
2A3 aurate as enou(h
2B3 enou(h aurate
2-3 aurate enou(h
2.3 as aurate enou(h
83
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
Part B # *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
Most lar(e orporation pro&i$e pension plans for their e!ployees so that
they %ill "e
2A3
seure enou(h than to li&e o!forta"ly $urin( their retire!ent.
2B3 2-3 2.3
PRAB)EM 8F *onsec%tive Arder B AneE AnotherE the
Ather
Re!e!"er that one, another, an$ the other are use$ "efore or instea$
of sin(ular ount nouns. 7hen they are use$ "efore sin(ular ount nouns,
they are a$*eti&es. 7hen they are use$ instea$ of sin(ular ount nouns,
they are pronouns.
One, another, an$ the other or(ani'e three nouns onseuti&ely. One
an$ the other or(ani'e t%o nouns onseuti&ely. One !eans the +rst one
!entione$. Another !eans one !ore in a$$ition to the +st one !entione$.
The other !eans the one re!ainin(.
"
one
co%nt
no%n
(sin!%lar)
1
another
co%nt
no%n
(sin!%lar)
One Mo&ie Starts at
+&e,
another !o&ie Starts at
se&en, an$
8
Ather co%nt no%n
( sin!%lar )
the other !o&ie Starts at nine
"
An
e
co%nt no%n
(sin!%lar)
1
anothe
r
8
the
other
On
e
Bus Lea&es
at t%o,
another At si),
an$
the
other
at ten
E(AMP)E$
84
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
Inorret: One of !y roo!!ates stu$ies en(ineerin(, another stu$ies
"usiness, an$ the another stu$ies o!puter sienes.
-orret : One of !y roo!!ates stu$ies en(ineerin(, another 2roo!!ate3
stu$ies "usiness, an$ the another 2roo!!ate3 stu$ies o!puter
sienes.
Inorret: One pro"le! is +n$in( an apart!ent, another is furnishin( it, an$
the other is (ettin( the utilities turne$ on.
-orret : One pro"le! is +n$in( an apart!ent, another 2pro"le!3 is
furnishin( it, an$ the other 2pro"le!3 is (ettin( the utilities turne$
on.
Inorret: Of the three "usiest &aation areas in the Dnite$ States, one is
.isney 7orl$, one another is ,e% Eor# -ity, an$ the other is
7ashin(ton, ..-.
-orret : Of the three "usiest &aation areas in the Dnite$ States, one
2area3 is .isney 7orl$, one another 2area3 is ,e% Eor# -ity, an$
the other 2area3 is 7ashin(ton, ..-.
Inorret: There are three !a*or restaurant hains near the a!pus that
speiali'e in fast5foo$ ha!"ur(ers: one is M.onal$s, another is
7en$ys, an$ the another one Bur(er ?in(.
-orret : There are three !a*or restaurant hains near the a!pus that
speiali'e in fast5foo$ ha!"ur(ers: one 2restaurant3 is M.onal$s,
another 2restaurant3 is 7en$ys, an$ the another 2restaurant3 one
Bur(er ?in(.
Inorret: One En(lish pro+ieny test in the TOEFL an$ the other is the
Mihi(an Test of En(lish Lan(ua(e :ro+ieny.
-orret : One En(lish pro+ieny test in the TOEFL an$ the other 2test3 is
the Mihi(an Test of En(lish Lan(ua(e :ro+ieny.
E(ER*+$E
Part A # *hoose the correct answers@
There are three #in$s of solar elipses: one is total, another is annular, an$
000000 .
2A3 the another is partial
2B3 the partial is other
2-3 other is partial
2.3 the other is partial
Part B # *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
One of the !ost popular !a*or +el$s of stu$y for forei(n sholars in the
Dnite$
2A3 2B3
85
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
States is "usiness an$ the another is en(ineerin(.
2-3 2.3
PRAB)EM 8F *onsec%tive Arder B$omeE AtherE the Ather
$omeE AthersE the Athers (the Rest)
Re!e!"er that so!e, other, an$ the other are use$ "efore plural ount
nouns. They are a$*eti&es.
"
$ome
co%nt
no%n
(sin!%lar)
1
other
co%nt
no%n
(pl%ral)
So!e houses Are for rent, other houses Are for sale, an$
8
The other the rest o&
the
co%nt no%n (pl%ral)
the other
the rest of the
houses are e!pty
So%#8 oth#rE and th# oth#rs (the rest) are %sed instead o& pl%ral co%nt no%ns@ The' are
prono%ns@
H
so!e
ount noun
2plural3
F
others
So!e
So!e
shools
shools
are uni&ersities,
are uni&ersities,
others
others
are olle(es, an$
are olle(es, an$
8
the others
the rest
the others
the rest
are *unior olle(es
are *unior olle(es
Avoid %sin! anoth#r instead o& oth#r@ Avoid %sin! r#st of or r#st instead o& the
rest of th# or th# r#st@
E(AMP)E$
Inorret: So!e of these T5shirts are re$, others are "lue, an$ rest are %hite.
-orret : So!e of these T5shirts are re$, others are "lue, an$ the rest are
%hite.
Inorret: So!e of our frien$s are fro! the Mi$$le East, the other are fro!
the Far East, an$ the rest are fro! Latin A!eria.
-orret : So!e of our frien$s are fro! the Mi$$le East, others are fro! the
Far East, an$ the rest are fro! Latin A!eria.
Inorret: So!e people +nish a "ahelors $e(ree in four years an$ other
ta#e +&e years.
86
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
-orret : So!e people +nish a "ahelors $e(ree in four years an$ other
people ta#e +&e years.
I ,-ORRE -T : So!e of t he ho!e o!put er !o$el s on sal e ha&e H. K
GB, ot her !o$el s ha&e F. K GB, an$ t he rest of
!o$el s ha&e JGB har$ $ri &es.
-ORRE-T : So!e of t he ho!e o!put er !o$el s on sal e ha&e H. K
GB, ot her !o$el s ha&e F. K GB, an$ t he rest of t he
!o$el s ha&e JGB har$ $ri &es.
I ,-ORRE -T : So!e appl i ant s %ant st u$ent &i sas, ot her
appl i ant s %ant resi $ent &i sas, an$ t he ot hers
appl i ant s %ant t ouri st &i sas.
-ORRE-T : So!e appl i ant s %ant st u$ent &i sas, ot her
appl i ant s %ant resi $ent &i sas, an$ t he ot her
appl i ant s %ant t ouri st &i sas.
E (ER*+ $E$
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
So!e pl ant s are annual sC are "i enni al sC t he rest are
perenni al s.
2 A3 So!e anot her
2 B3 Anot her
2-3 Ot hers
2 .3 Ot her
Part B# *hoose i n the correct word or phrase and correct
i t@
I n e)peri !ent s %i t h l ar(e nu!"er of ani !al s ro%$e$ i n
s!al l
2 A3
a(es, so!e ha&e not "een a8 et e$, "ut t he rest of ha&e
sho%n
2 B3 2-3
Al l of t he sy!pt o!s assoi at e$ %i t h st ress an$ !ental
i l l ness.
2 .3
87
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
PRAB)EM 8F N%merical Arder
Re!e!"er t hat t he i s use$ %i t h an or$i nal nu!"er "ef ore a
si n(ul ar ount noun t o e)press nu!eri al or$er. A ar$i nal
nu!"er i s use$ aft er a si n(ul ar ount noun t o e)press
nu!eri al or$er.
Re!e!"er t hat t he f ol l o%i n( are or$i nary nu!"er.
)i rst si xt h el event h si xt eent h
Second sevent h t wel " t h sevent eent h
Thi rd ei ght h t hi rt eent h ei ght eent h
)ourt h ni nt h " ourt eent h
ni net eent h
)i " t h t ent h ' " t eent h t went i et h
th
e
Ardi nal
n%mber
*o%nt no%n
(si n!%l ar)
I a!
out l i ni n(
t he si )t h hapt er
I n !y
not e"oo#
A&oi $ usi n( t he "ef ore t he noun i nst ea$ of "ef ore t he or$i nal
nu!"er. A&oi $ usi n( a ar$i nal i n st ea$ of an or$i nal nu!"er.
Re!e!"er t hat t he f ol l o%i n( are ar$i nal nu!"ers:
RE1I E7 OF SE-TI O, F: STRD-TDRE
%ne si x el even si xt een
Two seven t wel ve sevent een
Three ei ght t hi rt een ei ght een
)our ni ne " ourt een ni net een
)i ve t en ' " t een t went y
*o%nt no%n
(si n!%l ar)
*ardi nal
n%mber
I a!
out l i ni n(
hapt er si )
i n !y
not e"oo#
A&oi $ usi n( t he "ef ore t he ar$i nal nu!"er of "ef ore t he
noun. A&oi $ usi n( an or$i nal nu!"er i nst ea$ of a ar$i nal
nu!"er.
88
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
E(AMP)E$
I ,-ORRE -T : Fl i (ht LKL f or Los An(l es i s no% rea$y f or "oar$i n(
at t he onourse se&en.
-ORRE-T : Fl i (ht LKL f or Los An(l es i s no% rea$y f or "oar$i n(
at onourse se&en
I ,-ORRE -T : 7e l eft "ef ore t he "e(i nni n( of at t hi r$.
-ORRE -T : 7e l eft "ef ore t he "e(i nni n( of t he t hi r$ at .
Or
7e l eft "ef ore t he "e(i nni n( of at t hree.
I ,-ORRE -T : Eour t i #et s are f or (at e t he t ent h, set i on B.
-ORRE -T : Eour t i #et s are f or (at e t en, set i on B.
I ,-ORRE -T : Loo# i n &ol u!e seon$ of t he Mo$ern Me$i al
.i t i onar y.
-ORRE -T : Loo# i n t he seon$ &ol u!e of t he Mo$ern Me$i al
.i t i onary.
Or
Loo# i n &ol u!e t he of t he Mo$ern Me$i al
.i t i onary.
I ,-ORRE -T : The ,e% Eor#57ashi n(t on t rai n i s arri &i n( on t ra#
t he f ourt h.
-ORRE -T : The ,e% Eor#57ashi n(t on t rai n i s arri &i n( on t ra#
f ourt h.
E(ER*+ $E$
Part A# choose the correct answer .
pl anet f ro! t he sun, Mars has a year of LM; $ays.
2 A3 The f ourt h
2 B3 The f our
2 -3 Four
2 .3 Fourt h
Part B # *hoose the i ncorrect word or phrase and
correct i t .
La"or .ay i s al %ays el e"rat e$ on + rst Mon$ay i n
Sept e!"er .
2 A3 2 B3 2-3 2 .3
89
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
PRAB)EM 8G NA-N$ T=AT 9-N*+T+AN as
Ad0 ecti ves
Re!e!"er t hat %hen t %o nouns our t o(et her, t he + rst
noun $esri "es t he seon$ nounC t hat i s, t he + rst noun
f unt i ons as an a$* et i &e. A$* et i &es $o not han(e f or!,
si n(ul ar or pl ural .
no%n no%n
Al l of us are
f orei (n
Lan(ua(e t eahers
A&oi $ usi n( a pl ural f ro! f or t he + rst e&en %hen t he
seon$ noun i s pl ural . A&oi $ usi n( a possessi &e f or! f or t he
+ rst noun.
E(AMP)E$
I ,-ORRE -T : May I "orro% so!e not e"oo#s paper/
-ORRE-T : May I "orro% so!e not e"oo#s paper/
I ,-ORRE -T : Al l "usi ness st u$ent !ust t a#e t he Gra$uat e
Mana(e!ent A$!i ssi on Test .
-ORRE-T : Al l "usi ness st u$ent s !ust ta#e t he Gra$uat e
Mana(e!ent A$!i ssi on Test .
I ,-ORRE -T : I f or(ot t hei r t el ephone s nu!"er.
-ORRE-T : I f or(ot t hei r t el ephone nu!"er.
I ,-ORRE -T : There i s a sal e at t he shoes st ore.
-ORRE-T : There i s a sal e at t he shoe st ore.
I ,-ORRE -T : :ut t he !ai l on t he hal l s ta"l e.
-ORRE-T : :ut t he !ai l on t he hal l t a"l e.
E(ER*+ $E$
Part A # choose the correct answer@
I s heaper f or st u$ent %ho !ai nt ai ns a B a&era(e
"eause t hey are a "et t er ri s# t han a&era(e or "el o%5
a&era(e st u$ent s.
90
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
2 A3 Aut o!o"i l e s i nsurane
2 B3 I nsurane of aut o!o"i l es
2-3 Aut o!o"i l e i nsurane
2 .3 I nsurane aut o!o"i l e
Part B # choose the i ncorrect word or phrase and correct
i t@
Se) s e$uat i on i s i nst i t ut e$ t o hel p t he st u$ent
un$erst an$ t he
2 A3 2 B3
proess of !at urat i on, t o el i !i nat e an)i et i es rel at e$ t o
2-3 2 .3
$e&el op!ent , t o l earn &al ues, an$ t o pre&ent $i sease.
PRAB)EM >H ='phenated Ad0ectives
Re!e!"er t hat i t i s o!!on f or a nu!"er t o appear as t he
+ rst i n a seri es of hyphenat e$ a$* et i &es. Eah %or$ i n a
hyphenate$ a$* et i &e i s an a$* et i &e an$ $oes not han(e
f ro!, si n(ul ar or pl ural .
A
ad0 ecti v
e
L
ad0 ecti v
e
no%n
A(ri ul t ur
e JFN i s
A + &e 0 hour -l ass
a
Ad0 ecti v
e
L
ad0 ecti v
e
L
ad0 ecti v
e
noun
a Si )t y 0 year 0 ol $
e!pl oye
e
May
ret i re
A&oi $ usi n( a pl ural f ro! f or any of t he a$* et i &e * oi ne$ "y
hyphens e&en %hen t he noun t hat f ol l o% i s pl ural .
E(AMP)E$
I ,-ORRE -T : A t hree5 !i nut es al l any%here i n t he Dni t e$ St ates
ost l ess t hat a $ol l ar %hen you $i al i t yoursel f.
-ORRE-T : A t hree5 !i nut e al l any%here i n t he Dni t e$ Stat es
ost l ess t hat a $ol l ar %hen you $i al i t yoursel f.
91
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
I ,-ORRE -T : They ha&e a f our5 !ont hs5 ol $ "a"y.
-ORRE-T : They ha&e a f our5 !ont h5 ol $ "a"y .
I ,-ORRE -T : -an you !a#e han(e f or a t %ent y5 $ol l ars "i l l /
-ORRE-T : -an you !a#e han(e f or a t %ent y5 $ol l ar "i l l /
I ,-ORRE -T : A t %o5 $oors ar i s heaper t han a f our5 $oors !o$el .
-ORRE-T : A t %o5 $oor ar i s heaper t han a f our5 $oor !o$el .
I ,-ORRE -T : I ha&e t o %ri t e a one5 t housan$5 %or$s paper t hi s
%ee#en$.
-ORRE-T : I ha&e t o %ri t e a one5 t housan$5 %or$ paper t hi s
%ee#en$.
E(ER*+ $E$
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
The e&ol ut i on of &ert e"rat es su((ests $e&el op!ent f ro! a
&ery si !pl e heart a + sh t o aPPPP. i n !an.
2 A3 f our5 ha!"er heart
2 B3 f our5 ha!"ers heart
2-3 f our5 ha!"er heart s
2 .3 f our5 ha!"er S s heart
Part B# *hoose the i ncorrect word o& phrase and correct
i t@
The M@ i s a f our Osta(es ro#et %hi t e an MNNN5 !i l e ran(e ,
2 A3 2 B3 2-3
l ar(er t han t hat of t he Mi nut e!an.
2 .3
PRAB)EM >" Ad0ective Endin! in Bed and B
in!
Re!e!"er t hat an Oi n( noun t hat f unt i ons as an
a$* et i &e usual l y e)press ause. I t i s $eri &e$ f ro! an at i &e
&er". An Oe$ a$* et i &e usual l y e)presses resul t . I t i s $eri &e$
f ro! a passi &e &er".
ed ad0 ecti ve (b' someone or
92
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
somethi n!)
The au$i ene i s Thri l l e$ 2 "y t he onert 3
i n! ad0 ecti ve (to someone or
somethi n!)
The onert i s t hri l l i n( 2 t o t he au$i ene3
E(AMP)E$
I ,-ORRE -T : 7e %ere surpri si n( "y t he resul t s of t he t est .
-ORRE-T : 7e %ere surpri se$ "y t he resul t s of t he t est .
2 The resul t s %ere surpri si n(. 3
I ,-ORRE -T : Thi s $es# i s $i sor(ani 'i n(.
-ORRE -T : Thi s $es# i s $i sor(ani 'e$ .
I ,-ORRE -T : 7hat an i nt erest e$ i $eaG
-ORRE-T : 7hat an i nt erest i n( i $eaG
2 7e are i nt erest e$. 3
I ,-ORRE -T : .ru( a"use i s i nreasi n( at an al ar!e$ rat e.
-ORRE-T : .ru( a"use i s i nreasi n( at an al ar!i n( rat e.
2 7e are al ar!e$. 3
I ,-ORRE -T : The pet i t i on has "een si (ne$ "y onerni n(
i t i 'ens.
-ORRE-T : The pet i t i on has "een si (ne$ "y onerne$
i t i 'ens.
E(ER*+ $E$
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
The ant erbury Tal es, %ri t t en a"out HIML, i s as al i &e an$
t o$ay as i t %as nearl y LNN years a(o.
2 A3 Appeal e$
2 B3 Appeal
2-3 Appeal i n(
2 .3 The appeal of
Part B# *hoose the i ncorrect word or phrase and correct
i t@
93
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
I t i s not surpri se$ t hat t he Ara"s, %ho possesse$ a
re!ar#a"l e (i ft
2 A3 2 B3 2 -3
f or ast rono!y, !at he!at i s, an$ (eo!et ry, %ere al so
s#i l l f ul l
2 .3
!ap!a#ers.
PRAB)EM >1 *a%seandRes%lt$o
Re!e!"er t hat so i s use$ "ef ore an a$* et i &e or an a$&er"
f ol l o%e$ "y t hat . The so l ause e)press resul t .
*A-$E RE$-)T
S 1 SO
A$&er"
a$* et i &
e
t hat S 1
She
The
Musi
Got
up
7as
SN
so
Lat e
l ou$
That
t hat
She
7e
Mi sse$
-oul $n
t tal #
6er
"us
A&oi $ usi n( as or t oo i nst ea$ of so i n l ause of ause. A&oi $ usi n( as
i nst ea$ of t hat i n l auses of resul t .
E(AMP)E$
I ,-ORRE -T : 6e i s so sl o% as he ne&er (et s t o t he l ass on t i !e.
-ORRE -T : 6e i s so sl o% t hat he ne&er (et s t o t he l ass on
t i !e.
I ,-ORRE -T : Thi s sui t ase i s as hea&y t hat I an har$l y arry i t .
-ORRE-T : Thi s sui t ase i s so hea&y t hat I an har$l y arry i t .
I ,-ORRE -T : 7e arri &e$ so l at e as :rof essor Ba#er ha$ al rea$y
al l e$ t he rol l .
-ORRE -T : 7e arri &e$ so l at e t hat :rof essor Ba#er ha$ al rea$y
al l e$ t he rol l .
I ,-ORRE -T : 6e $ri &es so f ast as no one l i #es t o ri $e %i t h hi !.
-ORRE -T : 6e $ri &es so f ast t hat no one l i #es t o ri $e %i t h hi !.
94
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
I ,-ORRE -T : :repari n( f ro'en f oo$ i s t oo easy t hat anyone an
$o i t .
-ORRE -T : :repari n( f ro'en f oo$ i s so easy t hat anyone an
$o i t .
E(ER*+ $E$
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
Oi l pai nt s are t hey ha&e "eo!e t he !ost popul ar
pai nt er s ol ors.
2 A3 So &ersat i l e an$ $ura"l e t hat
2 B3 So &ersat i l e an$ $ura"l e t han
2-3 Suh &ersat i l e an$ $ura"l e as
2 .3 Suh &ersat i l e an$ $ura"l e
Part B # *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
By the !i$ nineteenth entury, lan$ %as suh e)pensi&e in lar(e ities that
arhitets "e(an to
2A3 2B3
onser&e spae "y $esi(nin( s#y rapes.
2-3 2.3
PRAB)EM >8 *a%seandRes%lt$%ch
Re!e!"er that the suh lause e)presses ause an$ the that lause
e)presses result.
*A-$E RE$-)T
$V $%ch a ad0ectiv
e
*o%nt no%n
(sin!%lar)
tha
t
$ V
i
t
%a
s
suh a hot $ay that %
e
%ent
out
Or
$ V s
o
ad0ectiv
e
a *o%nt no%n
(sin!%lar)
tha
t
$ V
it %a
s
so hot a $ay that %
e
%ent
out
A&oi$ usin( so instea$ of suh "efore a. A&oi$ o!ittin( a fro! the patterns.
*A-$E RE$-)T
95
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
V $%c
h
ad0ectiv
e
*o%nt no%n (pl%ral)
no%n (nonco%nt)
that $ V
ar
e
suh lon( assi(n!ents that I ant
+nish
the
!
This is suh (oo$ ne%s that I 7ill
all
the
!
A&oi$ usin( so instea$ of suh
E(AMP)E$
I,-ORRE-T : It %as so interestin( "oo# that he oul$nt put it $o%n.
-ORRE-T : It %as suh an interestin( "oo# that he oul$nt put it $o%n.
Or
It %as so interestin( a "oo# that he oul$nt put it $o%n.
I,-ORRE-T : She is suh nie (irl that e&eryone li#es her.
-ORRE-T : She is suh a nie (irl that e&eryone li#es her.
Or
She is so nie a (irl that e&eryone li#es her.
I,-ORRE-T : 7e ha$ so a s!all lunh that I a! hun(ry alrea$y.
-ORRE-T : 7e ha$ suh a s!all lunh that I a! hun(ry alrea$y.
Or
7e ha$ so s!all a lunh that I a! hun(ry alrea$y.
I,-ORRE-T : That so !any a$&anes ha&e "een !a$e in so short ti!e is
the !ost &ali$ ar(u!ent for retainin( the researh unit.
-ORRE-T : That so !any a$&anes ha&e "een !a$e in suh a short ti!e
is the !ost &ali$ ar(u!ent for retainin( the researh unit.
or
That so !any a$&anes ha&e "een !a$e in so short a ti!e is
the !ost &ali$ ar(u!ent for retainin( the researh unit.
I,-ORRE-T : It is so nie %eather that I %oul$ li#e to (o to the "eah.
-ORRE-T : It is suh nie %eather that I %oul$ li#e to (o to the "eah.
E(ER*+$E$
Part A # *hoose the correct answer
7ater is 00000000that it (enerally ontains $issol&e$ !aterials in (reater or
lesser a!ounts.
2A3Suh an e)ellent sol&ent
2B3Suh e)ellent a sol&ent
2-3Suh a e)ellent sol&ents
2.3 A suh e)ellent sol&ent
Part B # *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
Al"ert Einstein %as suh "rilliant a sientist that !any of his ollea(ues
ha$ to stu$y for
2A3 2B3 2-3
se&eral years in or$er to for! opinions a"out his theories.
2.3
PRAB)EM >> E5cess BToo
96
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
Re!e!"er that too !eans e)essi&ely. The too lause e)presses ause. The
in+niti&e e)presses result.
*A-$E RE$-)T
too ad0ective in.nitive
This tea is too hot to $rin#
A&oi$ usin( so or suh a instea$ of too "efore an a$*eti&e %hen an in+niti&e
follo%s.
E@EM:LES
I,-ORRE-T : The top shelf in the up"oar$ is so hi(h for !e to reah.
-ORRE-T : The top shelf in the up"oar$ is too hi(h for !e to reah.
I,-ORRE-T : Ralph is suh a youn( to retire.
-ORRE-T : Ralph is too youn( to retire.
I,-ORRE-T : This "ran$ is too e)pensi&e for "uy.
-ORRE-T : This "ran$ is too e)pensi&e to "uy.
I,-ORRE-T : It is too ol$ (o s%i!!in(.
-ORRE-T : It is too ol$ to (o s%i!!in(.
E(ER*+$E$
Part A # *hoose the correct answer@
The tiny pitures on !iro+l! are 000000 s!all to "e rea$ %ith the
na#e$ eye.
2A3So
2B3Too
2-3Muh
2.3 Suh
Part B # *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
Merury is not often &isi"le "eause it is so near the sun to "e seen.
2A3 2B3 2-3 2.3
PRAB)EM >? EmphasisVer'
Re!e!"er that &ery is use$ for e!phasis. 1ery $oes not usually
intro$ue a lause or in+niti&e that e)presses result.
Ver' ad0ectiv
e
O
this tea is &ery hot
A&oi$ usin( too or so instea$ of &ery %hen there is no lause of result.
,ote : In on&ersational En(lish, you %ill often hear so instea$ of &ery, "ut
this is not orret in the #in$ of for!al, %ritten En(lish foun$ on the TOEFL.
E(AMP)E$
I,-ORRE-T : 7e %ent out to eat "eause %e %ere to hun(ry.
-ORRE-T : 7e %ent out eat "eause %e %ere &ery hun(ry
I,-ORRE-T : This $or! has too s!all roo!s.
-ORRE-T : This $or! has &ery s!all roo!s.
97
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
I,-ORRE-T : ,e% Eor# is so "i(, an$ I a! not use$ to it.
-ORRE-T : ,e% Eor# is &ery "i(, an$ I a! not use$ to it.
I,-ORRE-T : Last !onth %e ha$ a too hi(h eletri "ill.
-ORRE-T : Last !onth %e ha$ a &ery hi(h eletri "ill.
I,-ORRE-T : .arlene says that the ourts are so lenient.
-ORRE-T : .arlene says that the ourts are &ery lenient.
E(ER*+$E$
Part A # *hoose the correct answer.
Eoun( ri&ers ha&e no >oo$ plains an$ their &alleys are000000000000
2A31ery narro%
2B3Too narro%
2-3So narro%
2.3 ,arro%ly
Part B # *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
The s!allest of the apes, the (i""on is $istin(uishe$ "y its too lon(
ar!s.
2A3 2B32-3 2.3
PRAB)EM >C Ad0ectives with Verbs o& the
$enses
Re!e!"er that an a$*eti&e, not an a$&er", is use$ after &er"s of the
senses. The follo%in( &er"s are e)a!ples of &er"s of the senses:
)eel sound
4oo$ taste
Smell
$ V (senses) ad0ective
I felt "a$ A"out the
!ista#e
A&oi$ usin( an a$&er" instea$ of an a$*eti&e after &er"s of the senses.
E(AMP)E$
I,-ORRE-T : 7e lo&e to (o to the ountry in the sprin( "eause the %il$
>o%ers s!ell so s%eetly.
-ORRE-T : 7e lo&e to (o to the ountry in the sprin( "eause the %il$
>o%ers s!ell so s%eet.
I,-ORRE-T : Althou(h the !e$iine tastes "a$ly, it see!s to help !y
on$ition.
-ORRE-T : Althou(h the !e$iine tastes "a$, it see!s to help !y
on$ition.
I,-ORRE-T : The !eal taste$ %ell.
I,-ORRE-T : The !eal taste$ (oo$.
I,-ORRE-T : The !usi soun$s s%eetly an$ soothin(.
-ORRE-T : The !usi soun$s s%eet an$ soothin(.
98
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
I,-ORRE-T : 7hen he o!panie$ that the foo$ taste$ "a$ly, the %aiter
too# it "a# to the #ithen an$ "rou(ht hi! so!ethin( else.
-ORRE-T : 7hen he o!panie$ that the foo$ taste$ "a$, the %aiter too#
it "a# to the #ithen an$ "rou(ht hi! so!ethin( else.
E(ER*+$E
Part A # *hoose the correct answer@
If one is su8erin( fro! a psyhoso!ati illness, that is, a $isease
ontri"ute$ to "y !ental an)iety one !ay still feel &ery 0000000
2A3Ba$ly
2B3Ba$
2-37orsely
2.3 7orser
Part B # *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
It has "een pro&en that %hen a su"*et i$enti+es a su"stane as
tastin( %ell, he is often assoiatin( the tastes %ith the s!ell.
PRAB)EM >D E5act $imilarit'the $ame as and the
$ame
Re!e!"er that sa!e as an$ the sa!e ha&e the sa!e !eanin(, "ut the
sa!e as is use$ "et%een the t%o nouns o!pare$, an$ he sa!e is use$
after the t%o nouns or plural noun.
no%n the same
as
no%n
This oat is the sa!e
as
that one
no%n no%n the
same
This
oat
an$ that one are the
sa!e
no%n (pl%ral) the same
These oats are the sa!e
Avoid %sin! to and li/e instead o& as@ Avoid %sin! the same between the no%ns
compared@
99
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
E(AMP)E$
I,-ORRE-T : That ar is al!ost the sa!e li#e !ine.
-ORRE-T : That ar is al!ost the sa!e as li#e !ine.
Or
That ar an$ !ine are al!ost the sa!e.
I,-ORRE-T : My "riefase is e)atly the sa!e that yours.
-ORRE-T : My "riefase is e)atly the sa!e as that yours.
Or
My "riefase an$ yours are e)atly the sa!e.
I,-ORRE-T : Is your "oo# the sa!e to !ine /
I,-ORRE-T : Is your "oo# the sa!e as !ine /
Or
Are your "oo# an$ !ine the sa!e /
I,-ORRE-T : Are this piture an$ the one on your $es# sa!e /
-ORRE-T : Are this piture an$ the one on your $es# the sa!e/
Or
Is this piture the sa!e as the one on your $es#/
I,-ORRE-T : The teaher (a&e Martha a failin( (ra$e on her o!position
"eause it %as the sa!e a o!position he ha$ alrea$y rea$.
-ORRE-T : The teaher (a&e Martha a failin( (ra$e on her o!position
"eause it %as the sa!e as a o!position he ha$ alrea$y
rea$.
Or
The teaher (a&e Martha a failin( (ra$e on her o!position
"eause it an$ a o!position 6e ha$ alrea$y rea$ %ere the
sa!e.
E(ER*+$E$
Part A # *hoose the correct answer@
Althou(h %e often use Aspee$B an$ A&eloityB interhan(ea"ly, in a
tehnial sense, Aspee$B is not al%ays 00000000 A&eloityB.
2A3Ali#e
2B3The sa!e
2-3Si!ilar
2.3 As
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
7hen t%o pro$ut are "asially the sa!e as, a$&ertisin( an in>uene
the pu"lis hoie.
2A3 2B3 2-3 2.3
PRAB)EM >F Meneral $imilarit' $imilar to and
Si%ilar
Re!e!"er that similar to an$ similar ha&e the sa!e !eanin(, "ut si!ilar to
is use$ "et%een the t%o nouns o!pare$ an$ similar is use$ after the t%o
nouns or a plural noun.
no%n similar to no%n
This oat is si!ilar to that one
100
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
no%n no%n similar
This
oat
an$ that
one
are si!ilar
no%n (pl%ral) similar
These oats are si!ilar
A&oi$ usin( as instea$ of to. A&oi$ usin( similar to after the t%o nouns or a
plural noun.
E(AMP)E$
I,-ORRE-T : I %oul$ really li#e to ha&e a stereo that is si!ilar the one on
$isplay.
-ORRE-T : I %oul$ really li#e to ha&e a stereo that is si!ilar to the one
on $isplay.
Or
The stereo that I %oul$ li#e to ha&e an$ the one on $isplay are
si!ilar.
I,-ORRE-T : My roo!!ates &alues an$ !ine are si!ilar to in spite of our
"ein( fro! $i8erent ountries.
-ORRE-T : My roo!!ates &alues are si!ilar to !ine in spite of our
"ein( fro! $i8erent ountries.
Or
My roo!!ates &alues an$ !ine are si!ilar in spite of our
"ein( fro! $i8erent ountries.
I,-ORRE-T: -li8s (lasses are si!ilar li#e yours, "ut his ost a lot less.
-ORRE-T : -li8s (lasses are si!ilar to yours, "ut his ost a lot less.
Or
-li8s (lasses an$ yours are si!ilar, "ut his ost a lot less.
I,-ORRE-T : That *o#e is si!ilar as a *o#e that I hear$.
-ORRE-T : That *o#e is si!ilar to a *o#e that I hear$.
Or
That *o#e an$ a *o#e that I hear$ are si!ilar.
I,-ORRE-T : All of the other $epart!ents are si!ilar this one.
-ORRE-T : All of the other $epart!ents are si!ilar to this one.
Or
All of the other $epart!ents an$ this one are si!ilar.
E)erise
Part A# *hoose the correct answer.
The &e(etation in te!perate 'ones all aroun$ the %orl$ is
2A3 si!ilar
2B3 li#e
2-3 sa!e
2.3 as
101
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
Part B # *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
The !e$ial pro"le! of parent an$ their hil$ren ten$ to "e &ery si!ilar
to "eause of the here$itary nature of !any $iseases.
PRAB)EM >GG Meneral $imilarit' B )i/e and
Ali/e
Re!e!"er that li$e an$ ali$e ha&e the sa!e !eanin(, "ut li$e is use$
"et%een the t%o nouns o!pare$, an$ ali$e is use$ after the t%o nouns or a
plural noun.
No%n li/e no%n
This oat is li#e That one
No%n no%n ali/e
This oat an$ That one are ali#e
no%n ( pl%ral ) ali/e
These oats are ali#e
A&oi$ usin( as instea$ of li#e. A&oi$ usin( li#e after the t%o nouns
o!pare$.
E5amples
I,-ORRE-T : The %eather feels as sprin(.
-ORRE-T : The %eather feels li#e sprin(
I,-ORRE-T : These suits are li#e
-ORRE-T : This suits is li#e that suit.
%r
These suits are ali#e.

I,-ORRE-T : Eour reipe for hi#en is li#e to a reipe that !y !other
has.
-ORRE-T : Eour reipe for hi#en is li#e a reipe that !y !other has.
Or
Eour reipe for hi#en an$ a reipe that !y !other has
are ali#e.
I,-ORRE-T : I %ant to "uy so!e shoes sa!e li#e the ones I ha&e on.
102
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
-ORRE-T : I %ant to "uy so!e shoes li#e the ones I ha&e on.
Or
The shoes I %ant to "uy an$ the shoes I ha&e on are ali#e.
I,-ORRE-T : Anthony an$ this "rother $ont loo# li#e.
-ORRE-T : Anthony $oesnt loo# li#e his "rother.
Or
Anthony an$ his "rother $ont loo# ali#e.
E(ER*+$E$
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
Althou(h they are s!aller, hip!un#s are !ost other
(roun$ s4uirrels.
2A3 li#e to
2B3 li#e as
2-3 li#e
2.3 ali#e
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
The +rst li&in( strutures to appear on Earth thousan$s of years a(o
%ere ali#e &iruses.
2A3 2B3 2-3 2.3
PRAB)EM ?H $peci.c $imilarit' B ;%alit' No%ns
Re!e!"er that a 4uality nouns is use$ in o!parisons of a spei+
harateristi.
The follo%in( are e)a!ples of 4uality nouns :
A(e hei(ht prie style
-olor len(th si'e %ei(ht
noun 1 The sa!e ,oun 24uality3 as ,oun
She is The sa!e a(e as =ohn
A&oi$ usin( to, than, or li$e instea$ of as. A&oi$ usin( a 4uality a$*eti&e
instea$ of 4uality noun after the same.
E(AMP)E$
103
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
I,-ORRE-T : I %ant to "uy a pair of shoes the sa!e style li#e these I!
%earin(.
-ORRE-T : I %ant to "uy a pair of shoes the sa!e style as these I!
%earin(.
I,-ORRE-T : This is not the sa!e "i( as the rest of the apart!ents.
-ORRE-T : This is not the sa!e si'e as the rest of the apart!ents.
I,-ORRE-T : The (ol$ hain that E$ith sa% is sa!e %ei(ht as yours.
-ORRE-T : The (ol$ hain that E$ith sa% is the sa!e %ei(ht as yours.
I,-ORRE-T : :lease ut !y hair the sa!e len(th li#e the style in this
!a(a'ine.
-ORRE-T : :lease ut !y hair the sa!e len(th as the style in this
!a(a'ine.
I,-ORRE-T : Is this threa$ the sa!e olor the loth/
-ORRE-T : Is this trea$ the sa!e olor as the loth/
E(ER*+$E$
Part A# *hoose the correct answer.
So!e retire!ent o!!unities %ill not sell property to ne% resi$ents unless
they are a"out the rest of the resi$ents.
2A3 the sa!e a(e
2B3 the sa!e ol$
2-3 the sa!e a(e as
2.3 the sa!e ol$ as
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
The "o$ies of ol$5"loo$e$ ani!als ha&e the sa!e te!perature their
surroun$in(s, "ut
2A3 2B3 2-3
those of %ar!5"loo$ ani!als $o not.
2.3
PRAB)EM ?" $peci.c $imilarit' ;%alit'
Ad0ectives
Re!e!"er that a 4uality a$*eti&e is use$ in o!parisons of a spei+
harateristi.
The follo%in( are e)a!ples of 4uality a$*eti&e:
104
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
+ig expensive light small
heap hard little tall
lear heavy long young
old hot old
,asy large short
she is as ol$ as =ohn
Avoid %sin! toE thanE or li$# instead o& as@ Avoid %sin! a 2%alit' no%n instead o& a
2%alit' ad0ective a&ter as@
E(AMP)E$
I,-ORRE-T : Marys *o" is as har$ than Bills.
-ORRE-T : Marys *o" is as har$ as Bills.
I,-ORRE-T : Miss =ones En(lish is not as lear than .r. Ba#ers.
-ORRE-T : Miss =ones En(lish is not as lear as .r. Ba#ers.
I,-ORRE-T : 6e is not as tall li#e his "rother.
-ORRE-T : 6e is not as tall as his "rother.
I,-ORRE-T: The !eat at the super!ar#et is not as e)pensi&e that the
!eat at a "uther shop.
-ORRE-T : The !eat at the super!ar#et is not as e)pensi&e as the
!eat at a "uther shop.
I,-ORRE-T : -olle(e Station is not as "i( Austin
-ORRE-T : -olle(e Station is not as "i( as Austin.
E(ER*+$E$
Part A # *hoose the correct answer.
Althou(h the na!e %as not populari'e$ until the Mi$$le A(es, En(ineerin(
-i&ili'ation.
2A3 as ol$ as
2B3 is as ol$ as
2-3 that is ol$ as
2.3 as ol$ as that
Part B # *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
.espite its s!aller si'e, the In$ian Oean is as $eep the Atlanti Oean.
2A3 2B3 2-3 2.3
105
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
PRAB)EM ?1 Meneral 3i6erences3i6erent &rom and
3i6erent
Re!e!"er that di=erent "rom an$ di=erent ha&e the sa!e !eanin(, "ut
di=erent "rom is use$ "et%een the t%o nouns o!pare$, an$ di=erent is
use$ after the t%o nouns or a plural noun.
noun .i8erent fro! ,oun
This oat is .i8erent fro! That one
This oat An$ That one Are .i8erent
These oats are $i8erent
Avoid %sin! to and than instead o& fro%@ Avoid %sin! !i9#r#nt between the
two no%ns compared@
E(AMP)E$
I,-ORRE-T: Althou(h they are "oth %ee#ly ne%s !a(a'ines, Time an$
3ewswee$ are $i8erent fro! in se&eral %ays.
-ORRE-T : Althou(h they are "oth %ee#ly ne%s !a(a'ines, Time is
di=erent "rom 3ewswee$ in se&eral %ays.
Or
Althou(h they are "oth %ee#ly ne% !a(a'ines, Time an$
3ewswee$ are $i8erent in se&eral %ays.
I,-ORRE-T : The %ath in the %in$o% is a little $i8erent this one.
-ORRE-T : The %ath in the %in$o% is a little $i8erent fro! this one.
Or
The %ath in the %in$o% an$ this one are a little $i8erent.
I,-ORRE-T: Lon( $istane telephone rates for $ayti!e hours are $i8erent
than rates for ni(ht ti!e hours.
-ORRE-T: Lon( $istane telephone rates for $ayti!e hours are $i8erent
fro! rates for ni(ht ti!e hours.
Or
Lon( $istane telephone rates for $ayti!e hours an$ rates for
ni(ht ti!e hours are $i8erent.
I,-ORRE-T: A nursery shool is $i8erent a $ay are enter.
-ORRE-T: A nursery shool is $i8erent fro! a $ay are enter.
Or
A nursery shool an$ a $ay are enter are $i8erent.
I,-ORRE-T: The tour pa#a(es that %e o8er are $i8erent than !ost tours.
-ORRE-T: The tour pa#a(es that %e o8er are $i8erent fro! !ost tours.
106
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
Or
The tour pa#a(es that %e o8er an$ !ost tours are $i8erent.
E(ER*+$E$
Part A# *hoose the correct answer.
The %or#s of :iasso %ere 4uite $urin( &arious perio$s of this
artisti life.
2A3 $i8er
2B3 $i8erent
2-3 $i8erent fro!
2.3 $i8erent than
Part B # *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
Althou(h "usiness praties ha&e "een applie$ suessfully to
a(riulture, far!in( is
2A3 2B3 2-3
$i8erent other in$ustries.
2.3
PRAB)EM ?8 Meneral 3i6erentto di6er &rom
Re!e!"er that di=er is a &er" an$ !ust han(e for!s to a(ree %ith
the su"*et.
This one $i8ers fro! The rest
A&oi$ usin( BE with di=er. A&oi$ usin( than, o", or to after di=er.
E(AMP)E$
I,-ORRE-T : Sharon is $i8erent of other %o!en I #no%.
-ORRE-T : Sharon is $i8erent fro! other %o!en I #no%.
%r
107
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
Sharon $i8ers fro! other %o!en I #no%
I,-ORRE-T : .o you ha&e anythin( a little $i8erent to these/
-ORRE-T : .o you ha&e anythin( a little $i8erent fro! these/
%r
.o you ha&e anythin( that $i8ers a little fro! these/
I,-ORRE-T : The a!pus at State Dni&ersity $i8erent fro! that of -ity
-olle(e.
-ORR-T : The a!pus at State Dni&ersity $i8ers fro! that of -ity -olle(e.
%r
The a!pus at State Dni&ersity is $i8erent fro! that of -ity
-olle(e.
I,-ORRE-T : =aynes apart!ent is &ery $i8ers fro! Bills e&en thou(h
they are in the sa!e "uil$in(.
-ORRE-T : =aynes apart!ent is &ery $i8erent fro! Bills e&en thou(h
they are in the sa!e "uil$in(.
%r
=aynes apart!ent $i8ers fro! Bills e&en thou(h they are in
sa!e "uil$in(.
I,-ORRE-T : -usto!s $i8er one re(ion of the ountry to another.
-ORRE-T : -usto!s $i8er fro! one re(ion of the ountry to another
%r
-usto!s are $i8erent fro! one re(ion of the ountry to another.
PRAB)EM ?8 Transitive and intransitive VerbsE )a' and
lie
Re!e!"er that lay is a transiti&e &er"C it ta#es a o!ple!ent. 4ie is an
intransiti&e &er"sC it $oes not ta#e o!ple!ent.
Transitive +ntransitive
1er" %or$ past :artiiple 1er" %or$ past
:artiiple
4ay laid laid lie lay
lain
Re!e!"er that to lie to put, to plae, or to ause lie. To lie !eans to reline
or to oupy plae.
The past for! of the &er" to lie is lay.
$ )AI * M
108
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
The post!an lays the !ail on the ta"le e&ery$ay
The post!an lai$ the !ail on the ta"le yester$ay
$ )ie * M
6e lies
on the sofa to rest e&ery$ay
after %or#
6e lay
on the sofa to rest yester$ay
after %or#
E(AMP)E$

I,-ORRE-T: 6er oat %as layin( on the hair.
-ORRE-T: 6er oat %as lyin( on the hair.
I,-ORRE-T: I ha&e lain your note"oo# on the ta"le "y the $oor so that you
%ont for(et it.
-ORRE-T: I ha&e lai$ your note"oo# on the ta"le "y the $oor so that you
%ont for(et it.
I,-ORRE-T: ?ey 7est lays o8 the oast of Flori$a.
-ORRE-T: ?ey 7est lies o8 the oast of Flori$a.
I,-ORRE-T: 7hy $ont you lay $o%n for a %hile.
-ORRE-T: 7hy $ont you lie $o%n for a %hile/
I,-ORRE-T: Lin$a al%ays for(ets %here she lie her (lasses.
-ORRE-T: Lin$a al%ays for(ets %here she lies her (lasses.
E(ER*+$E
Part A # *hoose the correct answer@
The (eo(raphi position of ,orth A!eria, 00000000000000 in the early $ays of
the European settle!ent@
2A3Layin( "et%een the Atlanti an$ the :ai+ Oeans, isolatin( it
2B3Isolatin( it as it lai$ "et%een the Atlanti an$ The :ai+ Oeans
2-3Lyin( "et%een the Atlanti an$ the :ai+ Oeans, isolate$ it
2.3 Isolatin( it "et%een the Atlanti an$ the :ai+ Oeans as it %as
laye$
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
Melanin, a pi(!ent lays un$er the s#in, is responsi"le for s#in olor,
inlu$in( the
2A3 2B3
&ariations that our a!on( $i8erent raes.
2-3
109
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
:ROBLEM KJ Transitive and intransitive Verbs S#t and
Sit
Re!e!"er that set is a transiti&e &er"C it ta#es a o!ple!ent. Sit is
intransiti&e &er"C it $oes not ta#e a o!ple!ent.
Transitive +ntransitive
1er" %or$ past :artiiple 1er" %or$ past
:artiiple
set set set sit sat
sat
Re!e!"er that to set !eans to put, to plae, or to ause sit. To sit !eans
to oupy a plae on a hair or a >at surfae.
$ $ET * M
The stu$ent Set
the la"
e4uip!ent on the ta"le e&ery$ay
The stu$ent set
the la"
e4uip!ent on the ta"le lass last perio$
$ $+T * M
the e4uip!ent sits on the ta"le e&ery$ay
the e4uip!ent sat on the ta"le lass last perio$
E(AMP)E$

I,-ORRE-T: please sit the telephone on the ta"le "y the "e$.
-ORRE-T: please set the telephone on the ta"le "y the "e$.
I,-ORRE-T: %ont you set $o%n/
-ORRE-T: %ont you sit $o%n/
I,-ORRE-T: their house sets on a hill o&erloo#in( a la#e.
-ORRE-T: their house sets on a hill o&erloo#in( a la#e.
I,-ORRE-T: lets sit your suitase out of the %ay.
-ORRE-T: lets set your suitase out of the %ay.
I,-ORRE-T: Terry has set there %aitin( for us for al!ost an hour.
-ORRE-T: Terry has sat there %aitin( for us for al!ost an hour.
E(ER*+$E
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
7hen Jac2%eline :enned' was .rst lad'E she collected man'
bea%ti&%l anti2%es and
LLLLLLLLLLLLLL them amon! the ori!inal pieces in the 7hite ho%se@
2A3sat
2B3set
2-3sit
110
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
2.3 sits
Part B # *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
6y$e par#, the fa!ily estate of Fran#lin .. Roose&elt. Sets on top of a
"lu8 o&erloo#in( The 6u$son Ri&er.

:ROBLEM KK $imilar Verbs Tell and sa'
Verb word Past Participle Verb word Past Participle
Tell told told sa' said said

Re!e!"er that to tell an$ say ha&e si!ilar !eanin(s, "ut tell is often
use$ "efore o!ple!ent, espeially persons. To say is not use$ "efore
o!ple!ent that is persons. To say is usually follo%e$ "y a lause intro$ue$
"y that.
$ TE)) * M
The teaher tells us 6o% to $o it
The teaher tol$ us 6o% to $o it
$ $AI * M
The teaher says
That %e %ere !a#in(
pro(ress
The teaher sai$
That %e %ere !a#in(
pro(ress
E(AMP)E$

I,-ORRE-T: =ayne sai$ hi! that she %oul$ !eet us here.
-ORRE-T: =ayne tol$ hi! that she %oul$ !eet us here.
I,-ORRE-T: Mar(aret tol$ that she %oul$ all "efore she a!e.
-ORRE-T: Mar(aret sai$ that she %oul$ all "efore she a!e.
I,-ORRE-T: Ran$y says a lot of *o#es an$ funny stories.
-ORRE-T: Ran$y tells a lot of *o#es an$ funny stories.
I,-ORRE-T: I ha&e sai$ the truth.
-ORRE-T: I ha&e tol$ the truth.
I,-ORRE-T: the (irl tol$ that they %ere hun(ry.
-ORRE-T: the (irl tol$ that they %ere hun(ry.
E(ER*+$E
Part A # *hoose the correct answer@
111
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
In inau(ural speeh, =ohn ?enne$y 00000000000000 that %e shoul$ not as#
%hat our ountry oul$ $o for us "ut %hat %e oul$ $o for our ountry.
2A3sai$
2B3tol$
2-3$i$
2.3 (ot
Part B # *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
Before tele&ision "ea!e so popular A!erians use$ to entertain eah
other in the
2A3 2B3 2-3
e&enin( "y playin( (a!es, sayin( stories, an$ sin(in( son(.
2.3
:ROBLEM KLL $imilar Verbs )et and leave
Verb word Past Participle Verb word Past Participle
)et let let leave le&t le&t
Re!e!"er that to let an$ to lea&e ha&e si!ilar soun$s, "ut not si!ilar
!eanin(s. To let !eans to allo% or to per!it. To lea&e !eans to let so!eone
or so!ethin( re!ain. To lea&e also !eans to $epart or to (o.
$ )ET * M
Their !other lets The! Stay up late e&ery ni(ht
Their !other let the! Stay up late last ni(ht
$ )EAVE * M
she lea&es At the oRe e&ery $ay
she left At the oRe yester$ay
E(AMP)E$

I,-ORRE-T: 6er oat %as layin( on the hair.
-ORRE-T: 6er oat %as lyin( on the hair.
I,-ORRE-T: I ha&e lain your note"oo# on the ta"le "y the $oor so that you
%ont for(et it.
-ORRE-T: I ha&e lai$ your note"oo# on the ta"le "y the $oor so that you
%ont for(et it.
I,-ORRE-T: ?ey 7est lays o8 the oast of Flori$a.
-ORRE-T: ?ey 7est lies o8 the oast of Flori$a.
I,-ORRE-T: 7hy $ont you lay $o%n for a %hile.
-ORRE-T: 7hy $ont you lie $o%n for a %hile.
I,-ORRE-T: Lin$a al%ays for(et %here she lie her (lasses.
-ORRE-T: Lin$a al%ays for(et %here she lie her (lasses.
E@ER-ISE
112
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
:art A : -hoose the orret ans%er.
Althou(h "loo$ 00000000000000 a resi$ue in urine an$ stool sa!ples, it
annot al%ays "e $etete$ %ithout the ai$ of a !irosope.
2A3Let
2B3Lea&e
2-3Lea&es
2.3 lets
:art B: -hoose the inorret %or$ or phrase an$ orret it.
To assure an$ the safety of those %or#ers %ho !ust han$le ra$ioati&e
!aterial, the e!ployer shoul$ not to lea&e the! enter onta!inate$ areas
%ithout proteti&e lothin(.
E5amples
Inorret: The la" is !ore far fro! the "us stop than the li"rary.
-orret: The la" is farther fro! the "us stop than the li"rary.
or
The la" is further fro! the "us stop than the li"rary.
Inorret: The "a$est ai$ent in the history of the ity ourre$ last ni(ht
on the ,orth Free%ay.
-orret: The %orst ai$ent in the history of the ity ourre$ last ni(ht
on the ,orth Free%ay.
Inorret: These photo(raphs are &ery (oo$, "ut that one is the "etter of
all.
-orret: These photo(raphs are &ery (oo$, "ut that one is the "est of all.
Inorret: :lease (i&e !e !uh su(ar than you $i$ last.
-orret: :lease (i&e !e !ore su(ar than you $i$ last.
Inorret: The o!position is !ore (oo$ than your last one.
-orret: The o!position is "etter than your last one.
E)erise
:art A: -hoose the orret ans%er.
PPPP..apples are (ro%n in 7ashin(ton State.
2A3Best
2B3The !ost (oo$
2-3The "est
2.3 The "etter
:art B: -hoose the inorret %or$ or phrase an$ orret it.
Beause a felony is !ore "a$ than a !is$e!eanor, the punish!ent is
!ore
2A3 2B3 2-3
se&ere, an$ often inlu$es a *ail sentene as %ell as a +ne
2.3
113
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
PRAB)EM ?DDC 3e!rees o& comparison*omparative
Adverbs
Re!e!"ers that a$&er"s also ha&e a o!parati&e fro!, to compare two verb
acto!" a!# a "$per%atve from to compare three or more verb" acto!".
More adverb (two +
s'llables)
)ess adverb (two +
s'llables)
adverb ,#r E (one +
s'llable)
tha
n
7e +nishe$ the
test
7e +nishe$ the
test
7e +nishe$ the
test
More rapi$ly
Less rapi$ly
Faster
Tha
n
Tha
n
Tha
n
Mar
#
Mar
#
Mar
#
The most adverb (two +
s'llables)
The least adverb (two +
s'llables)
adverb Best@ (one + s'llable)
7e +nishe$ the
test
7e +nishe$ the
test
7e +nishe$ the
test
The !ost rapi$ly
The least rapi$ly
The fastest
Of
all
Of
all
Of
all
Avoid %sin! ,#r with adverbs o& more than one s'llable even when the'
end in ,iy.
E)a!ples
Inorret: :rofessor Tu#er %as please$ "eause our (roup approahe$ the
pro*et !ore sienti+ally the others.
114
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
-orret: :rofessor Tu#er %as please$ "eause our (roup approahe$ the
pro*et !ore sienti+ally than the others.
Inorret: The train al%ays lea&es late than the ti!e on the she$ule.
-orret: The train al%ays lea&es later than the ti!e on the she$ule.
Inorret: The stu$ents in .r. ,eals lass o!plaine$ the !ost "itter a"out
the (ra$in( syste!.
-orret: The stu$ents in .r. ,eals lass o!plaine$ the !ost "itterly
a"out the (ra$in( syste!.
Inorret: I %ish %e oul$ see eah other !ore fre4uenter.
-orret: I %ish %e oul$ see eah other !ore fre4uently.
Inorret: 6e $ri&es !ore fast than she $oes.
-orret: 6e $ri&es faster than she $oes.
E)erises
:art A: -hoose the orret ans%er.
Many he!ials reat in ai$ solutions.
2A3More 4ui#
2B3More 4ui#ly
2-3Tui#lier
2.3 As 4ui#ly !ore
:art B: -hoose the inorret %or$ or phrase an$ orret it.
Tuality ontrol stu$ies sho% that e!ployees %or# the !ost eRient
%hen they
2A3
are in&ol&e$ in the total operation rather than in only one part of it.
2B3 2-3
2.3

PRAB)EM ?D 3o%ble *omparatives
Re!e!"er that %hen t%o o!parati&es are use$ to(ether, the +rst
o!parati&e e)presses auses an$ the seon$ o!parati&e e)presses result.
A o!parati&e is more or less %ith an a$*eti&e or an a$*eti&e %ith er.
*A-$E RE$-)T
Th
e
-o!parati
&e
S 1 -o!parati
&e
Th
e
!ore yo
u
re&ie
%,
th
e
easier the
patterns
%ill
"e
115
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
A&oi$ usin( as instea$ o" the. A&oi$ usin( the inorret fro! lesser
A&oi$ o!ittin( the. A&oi$ o!ittin( Oer fro! the a$*eti&e.
E)a!ples
Inorret: The !ore you stu$y $urin( the se!ester, the lesser you
ha&e to stu$y the %ee# "efore e)a!s.
-orret: The !ore you stu$y $urin( the se!ester, the less you ha&e
to stu$y the %ee# "efore e)a!s.
Inorret: The faster %e +nish, the soon %e an lea&e.
-orret: The faster %e +nish, the sooner %e an lea&e.
Inorret: The less one earns, the lesser one !ust pay in ino!e
ta)es.
-orret: The less one earns, the less one !ust pay in ino!e ta)es.
Inorret: The lou$er he shoute$, less he on&ine$ anyone.
-orret: The lou$er he shoute$, the less he on&ine$ anyone.
Inorret: The !ore you pratie spea#in(, the %ell you %ill $o it.
-orret: The !ore you pratie spea#in(, the "etter you %ill $o it.
E)erise
:art A: -hoose the orret ans%er.
It is (enerally true that the lo%er the sto# !ar#et falls,
2A36i(her the prie of (ol$ rises
2B3the prie of (ol$ rises hi(h
2-3the hi(her prie of (ol$ rises
2.3 rises hi(h the prie of (ol$
:art B: -hoose the inorret %or$ or phrase an$ orret it.
The hi(her the solar ati&ity, the intense the auroras or polar li(ht
$isplays in the
2A3 2B3
s#ies near the Earths (eo!a(neti poles.
2-3 2.3
PRAB)EM ?F +llo!ical comparativesMeneral similarit'
and di6erence
Re!e!"er that o!parisons !ust "e !a$e %ith lo(ially o!para"le nouns.
Eou ant o!pare the climate in the ,orth %ith the South. Eou !ust
o!pare the climate in the ,orth %ith the climate in the South.
Re!e!"er that of an$ those of are use$ instea$ of repeatin( a noun to
e)press a lo(ial o!parati&e. An e)a!ple %ith $i8erent fro! appears
"elo%.
116
No%n
(sin!%lar)
di6ere
nt
9ro
m
tha
t
Foot"all in the
D.S.
i
s
.i8eren
t
Fro! that In other
ountries
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR

A&oi$ o!ittin( that
an$ those. A&oi$ usin( than instea$ of fro! %ith $i8erent.
E)a!ples
Inorret: The foo$ in !y ountry is &ery $i8erent than that in the
Dnite$ States.
-orret: The foo$ in !y ountry is &ery $i8erent fro! that in the
Dnite$ States.
Inorret: The lasses at !y uni&ersity are &ery $i8erent fro! State
Dni&ersity.
-orret: The lasses at !y uni&ersity are &ery $i8erent fro! those
at State Dni&ersity.
Inorret: The En(lish that is spo#en in -ana$a is si!ilar to the
Dnite$ States.
-orret: The En(lish that is spo#en in -ana$a is si!ilar to that of
the Dnite$ States.
Inorret: .ru(stores here are not li#e at ho!e.
-orret: .ru(stores here are not li#e those at ho!e.
Inorret: The ti!e in ,e% Eor# -ity $i8ers three hours fro! Los
An(eles.
-orret: The ti!e in ,e% Eor# -ity $i8ers three hours fro! that Los
An(eles.
E)erises
:art A: -hoose the orret ans%er.
One +n(erprint is
2A3.i8erent fro! those of any other person
2B3.i8erent fro! any other person
2-3.i8erent any other person
2.3 .i8ers fro! another person
:art B: -hoose the inorret %or$ or phrase an$ orret it.
:erhaps the olonist %ere loo#in( for a li!ate li#e En(lan$, %hen they
$ei$e$
2A3 2B3
to settle the ,orth A!erian ontinent instea$ of the South A!erian
ontinent.
2-3 2.3
117
No%n
(sin!%lar)
di6ere
nt
9ro
m
that
The rules ar
e
.i8eren
t
Fro! thos
e
Of
soer
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
PRAB)EM ?G +))AM+*A) *AMPATAT+VE$3EMREE$
Re!e!"er that o!parisons !ust "e !a$e %ith lo(ially o!para"le nouns.
no%n (sin!%lar)
More +
ad0ective
Ad0ectiveer
tha
n
tha
t
The li!ate in the
,orth
The li!ate in the
,orth
i
s
i
s
More se&ere
ol$er
than
than
that
that
of the
South
of the
South

no%n
( pl%ral )
More +
ad0ective
Ad0ectiveer
tha
n
thos
e
The pries
The pries
ar
e
ar
e
!ore e)pensi&e
hi(her
than
than
those
those
at a $isount
store
at a $isount
store
Avoid omittin! 4 !en(hilan(#an that and those
E(AMP)E$
I,-ORRE,T : 6er 4uali+ation is "etter than any other an$i$ate.
-ORRE-T : 6er 4uali+ation is "etter than those of any other an$i$ate.
I,-ORRE,T : :rofessor Ba#ers lass is !ore interestin( than :rofessor
7illia!s.
-ORRE-T : :rofessor Ba#ers lass is !ore interestin( than that :rofessor
7illia!s.
I,-ORRE,T : The au$iene is !uh lar(er than last years onert.
-ORRE-T : The au$iene is !uh lar(er than that last years onert.
I,-ORRE,T : The roo!s in the front are !uh noisier than the "a#
-ORRE-T : The roo!s in the front are !uh noisier than those the "a#
I,-ORRE,T : The interests on sa&in(s aounts at ity Ban# are hi(her
than Ban# :lus.
-ORRE-T : The interests on sa&in(s aounts at ity Ban# are hi(her than
that Ban# :lus.
E(ER*+$E$
118
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
Part A # *hoose the correct answer@
The total pro$ution of orn in the Dnite$ States is all other ereal
rops o!"ine$.
2A3 !ore as
2B3 !ore than that of
2-3 !ore of
2.3 !ore that
Part B # *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
Beause there %ere so fe% %o!en in the early %estern states, the free$o! an$
ri(hts
2A3 2B3
of 7estern %o!en %ere !ore e)tensi&e than Eastern la$ies.
2-3 2.3
Problems with Prepositions
:reposition are %or$ or phrases that larify relationships. :repositions are usually
follo%e$ "y nouns an$ pronouns. So!eti!es the nouns are5in( fro! nouns.
:repositions are also use$ in i$io!s.
PRAB)EM CH PlaceBetween and Amon!
Re!e!"er that "et%een an$ a!on( ha&e the sa!e !eanin(, "ut "et%een is
use$ %ith t%o nouns an$ a!on( is use$ %ith three or a plural noun.
betwee
n
no%n" no%n1
The %or# is $istri"ute$ "et%een the seretary an$ the eeptionist
amon! no%n" no%n1
no%n8
The tent pay!ent are
$i&i$e$
a!on( .on, Bill, an$ Gene
Avoid %sin! with between three or more no%ns or a pl%ral no%n@
E(AMP)E$
I,-ORRE,T : The oie is "et%een a &anilla, hoolate, an$ stra%"erry ie
rea! one.
-ORRE-T : The oie is a!on( a &anilla, hoolate, an$ stra%"erry ie rea!
one.
I,-ORRE,T : Ri# an$ his %ife an usually sol&e their pro"le!s a!on( the!.
-ORRE-T : Ri# an$ his %ife an usually sol&e their pro"le!s "et%een the!.
I,-ORRE,T : :ro+l are $i&i$e$ "et%een the sto#hol$ers of the orporation.
119
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
-ORRE-T : :ro+l are $i&i$e$ a!on( the sto#hol$ers of the orporation.
I,-ORRE,T : The &otes %ere e&enly $i&i$e$ a!on( the .e!orati an$i$ate
an$ the Repu"lian an$i$ate.
-ORRE-T : The &otes %ere e&enly $i&i$e$ "et%een the .e!orati an$i$ate an$
the Repu"lian an$i$ate.
I,-ORRE,T : The property %as $i&i$e$ e4ually a!on( his son an$ $au(hter.
-ORRE-T : The property %as $i&i$e$ e4ually "et%een his son an$ $au(hter.
Part A # *hoose the correct answer@
Althou(h it is $iRult a fro( is !ore li#ely to "e s!ooth an$ %et, an$ a
toa$ rou(h an$ $ry.
2A3 $istin(uishin( a!on( a fro( an$ a toa$
2B3 $istin(uish a fro( an$ a toa$
23 "et%een a fro( an$ a toa$ $istin(uish
2.3 to $istin(uish "et%een a fro( an$ a toa$
Part B # *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
In a fe$eral for! of (o&ern!ent li#e that of the Dnite$ States, po%er is "et%een
the le(islati&e, e)euti&e, an$ *u$iial "ranhes.
PRAB)EM C" Place+nE AnE At
Re!e!"er that in, on an$ at ha&e si!ilar !eanin(s, "ut they are use$ %ith
$i8erent #in$s of plaes. In is use$ "efore lar(e plaesC on is use$ "efore !i$$le5
si'e$ plaesC an$ at is use$ "efore nu!"ers in a$$resses. Finally, in is use$ a(ain
"efore &ery s!all plaes.
In -OD,TRE On STREET at ,DMBER In a orner
STATE STREET -OR,ER 2of a roo!3
:RO1I,-E -OAST a roo!
-OD,TRERI1ER a "uil$in(
-ITE a ship a par#
a train a ar
a plane a "oat
i
n
*A-NTRI i
n
$TATE i
n
*+TI
7e
li&e
in the Dnite$
States
in ,orth
-arolina
in =a#son&il
le
o
n
*AA$T4pant
ai
o
n
R+VER a
t
N-MBER
on the East -oast on ,e%
Ri&er
at FLNN Ri&er
Roa$
A&oi$ usin( in instea$ of on for streets an$ other !i$$le5si'e$ plaes.
E(AMP)E$
120
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
I,-ORRE,T : -li8 an li&e on Eello%stone ,asional :ar# "eause he is a par# ran(er.
-ORRE-T : -li8 an li&e in Eello%stone ,asional :ar# "eause he is a par# ran(er.
I,-ORRE,T : Is .o!inos :i''a in Tenth Street/
-ORRE-T : Is .o!inos :i''a on Tenth Street/
I,-ORRE,T : The apart!ents at the 6u$son Ri&er are !ore e)pensi&e than the
ones aross the street.
-ORRE-T : The apart!ents on the 6u$son Ri&er are !ore e)pensi&e than the
ones aross the street.
I,-ORRE,T : 7e are (oin( to stay o&erni(ht on -hia(o.
-ORRE-T : 7e are (oin( to stay o&erni(ht in -hia(o.
I,-ORRE,T : Lets ta#e our &aation in the oast instea$ of in the !ountains.
-ORRE-T : Lets ta#e our &aation on the oast instea$ of in the !ountains.
E(ER*+$E$
Part A # *hoose the correct answer@
Of the Dnite$ States fro! southern ,e% 6a!pshire in the north to
1ir(inia in the south, a &ast ur"an re(ion has "een $e+ne$ as a !e(alopolis, that is,
a luster of ities.
2A3 On the northeastern sea"oar$
2B3 It is in the nourtheastern sea"oar$
2-3 That the northeastern sea"oar$
2.3 At the northeastern sea"oar$
Part B # *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
Many of the fa!ous a$&ertisin( oRer are loate$ in Ma$ison A&enue.
2A3 2B3 2-3
PRAB)EM C1 TimeE AnE At
Re!e!"er that in, on an$ at ha&e si!ilar !eanin(s, "ut they are use$ %ith
$i8erent ti!es. In (eneral, in is use$ "efore lar(e units of ti!eC on is use$ "efore
!i$$le5si'e$ units of ti!eC an$ at is use$ "efore nu!"ers in lo# ti!e.
I$io!ati phrases suh as in the !ornin(, in the e&enin(, at ni(ht, at noon, !ust
"e learne$ in$i&i$ually li#e &oa"ulary.
in EEAR on .AE at
TIME
MO,T6 .ATE
in IEAR in MANT= on 3AI T+ME
Lily %as "orn in H<H< in .ee!"er on Sun$ay ;:NN
A&oi$ usin( in "efore $ays an$ $ates.
E(AMP)E$
I,-ORRE-T : I %oul$ rather ta#e lasses on the afternoon.
-ORRE-T : I %oul$ rather ta#e lasses in the afternoon.
I,-ORRE-T : Gloria has a part5ti!e *o" in the ni(ht.
-ORRE-T : Gloria has a part5ti!e *o" at ni(ht.
I,-ORRE-T : The rainy season "e(ins on =uly.
-ORRE-T : The rainy season "e(ins in =uly.
I,-ORRE-T : The (ra$uation is in May FN.
121
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
-ORRE-T : The (ra$uation is on May FN.
I,-ORRE-T : 7e a!e to the Dnite$ States on H<<;.
-ORRE-T : 7e a!e to the Dnite$ States in H<<;.
E(ER*+$E
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
Most stores in lar(e A!erian ities lose +&e or si) olo# on %ee#$ays,
"ut the !alls in the su"ur"s stay open !uh later.
2A3 At
2B3 In
2-3 On
2.3Dntil
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
Aountans are al%ays "usiest on April "eause "oth fe$eral an$ state ta)es are
$ue on
2A3 2B3 2-3
the +feteenth.
2.3
PRAB)EM C88 AdditionBesides
Re!e!"er that "esi$es !eans in a$$ition to. Besi$e !eans near.
Besides No%n
ad0ective
Besi$es Our $o(, 7e ha&e t%o ats an$ a
anary
Besi$es 7hite, 7e sto# (ereen an$ "lue
Besid
e
No%n
7e
sat
"esi$e The
teher
Avoid %sin! beside instead o& besides to mean in addition.
E(AMP)E$
I,-ORRE-T : Besi$e Mar(e, three ouples are in&ite$.
-ORRE-T : Besi$es Mar(e, three ouples are in&ite$.
I,-ORRE-T : Besi$e .o!inos, four other pi''a plaes $eli&er.
-ORRE-T : Besi$es .o!inos, four other pi''a plaes $eli&er.
122
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
I,-ORRE-T : To lea$ a %ell5"alane$ life, you nee$ to ha&e other interest
"esi$e stu$yin(.
-ORRE-T : To lea$ a %ell5"alane$ life, you nee$ to ha&e other interest
"esi$es stu$yin(.
I,-ORRE-T : Besi$e ta)i ser&ie, there isnt any pu"li transportation in to%n.
-ORRE-T : Besi$es ta)i ser&ie, there isnt any pu"li transportation in
to%n.
I,-ORRE-T : =anie has lots of frien$s "esi$e her roo!!ate.
-ORRE-T : =anie has lots of frien$s "esi$es her roo!!ate.
E(ER*+$E
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
a !ayor, !any ity (o&ern!ents e!ploy a ity !ana(er.
2A3Besi$e
2B3Besi$es
2-3An$
2.3 Also
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
To reei&e a $e(ree fro! an A!erian Dni&ersity, one !ust ta#e !any
ourses "esi$e
2A3 2B3
those In ones !a*or +el$.
2-3 2.3
PRAB)EM C>8 E5ceptionB%t and E5cept
Re!e!"er that %hen it is use$ as a preposition, "ut !eans e)ept.
But
e)e
pt
,oun
123
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
All of the
stu$ents
All of the
stu$ents
But
e)e
pt
The
seniors
The
seniors
7ill reei&e their
(ra$es
7ill reei&e their
(ra$es
Avoid %sin! e5ceptionE e5cept toE or e5ceptin! instead o& e5cept@
E (AMP)E$
I,-ORRE-T : All of the (roup e)eption Bar"ara %ent to the la#e.
-ORRE-T : All of the (roup "ut Bar"ara %ent to the la#e.
Or
All of the (roup e)ept Bar"ara %ent to the la#e.
I,-ORRE-T : Eou an put e&erythin( "ut for those sil# "louses in the %asher.
-ORRE-T : Eou an put e&erythin( "ut those sil# "louses in the %asher.
Or
Eou an put e&erythin( e)ept those sil# "louses in the %asher.
I,-ORRE-T : E&eryone e)ept to Larry %ants su(ar in the tea.
-ORRE-T : E&eryone "ut Larry %ants su(ar in the tea.
Or
E&eryone e)ept Larry %ants su(ar in the tea.
I,-ORRE-T : ,o one e)eptin( ?athy #no% &ery !uh a"out it.
-ORRE-T : ,o one "ut ?athy #no% &ery !uh a"out it.
Or
,o one e)ept ?athy #no% &ery !uh a"out it.
I,-ORRE-T : The !ail o!es at ten olo# e&ery $ay not Satur$ay.
-ORRE-T : The !ail o!es at ten olo# e&ery $ay "ut Satur$ay.
Or
The !ail o!es at ten olo# e&ery $ay e)ept Satur$ay.
E(ER*+$E$
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
E&eryone al"inos has a ertain a!ount of pi(!ent in the s#in to a$$
olor.
2A3 "ut
2B3 that
2-3 %ithout
2.3 not
Part B # *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
There are no pouhe$9"er#anton( ani!als in the Dnite$ States "ut only the
opossu!.
124
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
2 A 3 2 B 3 2 - 3 2 . 3
PRAB)EM C?8 Replacement+nstead o& and
+nstead@
Re!e!"er that instea$ of an$ instea$ "oth !ean in plae of, "ut instea$ of
is use$ "efore a noun, a$*eti&e, or a$&er" that has alrea$y "een !entione$.
no%n
ad0ective
adverb instead
o&
no%n
ad0ective
adverb
7e %ent to
Eou shoul$ "e
Treat the $o(
-olora$o
+r!
(ently
instea$ of
instea$ of
instea$ of
a"roa$
patient
rou(hly
on our &aation this
year
in this ase
No%n
Ad0ective
Adverb +nstead
7e %ent to
Eou shoul$ "e
Treat the $o(
-olora$o
Fir!
Gently
Instea$
Instea$
Instea$
A&oi$ usin( instea$ "efore a noun.
E (EMP)E$
I,-ORRE-T : Bo"s father %ante$ hi! to "e en(ineer instea$ a (eolo(ist.
-ORRE-T : Bo"s father %ante$ hi! to "e en(ineer instea$ of a (eolo(ist.
Or
Bo"s father %ante$ hi! to "e en(ineer instea$.
I,-ORRE-T : -oul$ I ha&e rie instea$ potatoes, please/
-ORRE-T : -oul$ I ha&e rie instea$ of potatoes, please/
Or
-oul$ I ha&e rie instea$, please/
I,-ORRE-T : :aulas pro"le! is that she li#es to (o to !o&ies instea$ to
lass.
-ORRE-T : :aulas pro"le! is that she li#es to (o to !o&ies instea$ of to
lass.
Or
:aulas pro"le! is that she li#es to (o to !o&ies instea$.
I,-ORRE-T : 7e hose Terry instea$ fro! Gene as our representati&e.
125
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
-ORRE-T : 7e hose Terry instea$ of Gene as our representati&e.
Or
7e hose Terry instea$.
I,-ORRE-T : It is i!portant to eat %ell at lunhti!e in plae "uyin( sna#s
fro! &en$in( !ahines.
-ORRE-T : It is i!portant to eat %ell at lunhti!e instea$ of "uyin( sna#s
fro! &en$in( !ahines.
Or
It is i!portant to eat %ell at lunhti!e instea$.
E(ER*+$E$
Part A # *hoose the correct answer@
=ohn .e%ey a$&oate$ teahin( !etho$s that pro&i$e$ e)perienes for
stu$ent to partiipate !aterial for the! to !e!ori'e.
2A3 instea$ of
2B3 not only
2-3 althou(h
2.3 ontrastin(
Part B # *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
Shar#s $i8er fro! other +sh in that their s#eletons are !a$e of artila(e
instea$ "one.
2 A 3 2 B 3 2 - 3 2 . 3
PRAB)EM CC8 E5ample$%ch as
Re!e!"er that suh as !eans for e)a!ple.
s%ch as no%n (e5ample)
So!e "ir$s suh as Ro"ins an$
ar$inals
spen$ the %inter in the
north
A&oi$ usin( suh or as suh instea$ of suh as.
E (AMP)E$
I,-ORRE-T : By usin( oupons, an (et a $isount on a lot of thin(s, suh
(roeries, toiletries, an$ househol$ ite!s.
-ORRE-T : By usin( oupons, an (et a $isount on a lot of thin(s, suh as
(roeries, toiletries, an$ househol$ ite!s.
126
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
I,-ORRE-T : Ta#in( are of pets as suh $o(s an$ ats an teah hil$ren
lessons in responsi"ility.
-ORRE-T : Ta#in( are of pets suh as $o(s an$ ats an teah hil$ren
lessons in responsi"ility.
I,-ORRE-T : Ma(a'ines suh Ti!e, ,e%s%ee#, an$ D.S. ,e%s an$ 7orl$
Report pro&i$e the rea$er %ith a pitorial report of the %ee#s
e&ents.
-ORRE-T : Ma(a'ines suh as Ti!e, ,e%s%ee#, an$ D.S. ,e%s an$ 7orl$
Report pro&i$e the rea$er %ith a pitorial report of the %ee#s
e&ents.
I,-ORRE-T : =o"s at fast5foo$ restaurants for suh as M.onal$s or Tao Bell
are often +lle$ "y stu$ents.
-ORRE-T : =o"s at fast5foo$ restaurants suh as M.onal$s or Tao Bell are
often +lle$ "y stu$ents.
I,-ORRE-T : A !etal $etetor "u''es not only %hen +rear!s are loate$ "ut
also %hen s!aller !etal o"*et as #eys an$ "elt "u#les are
foun$.
-ORRE-T : A !etal $etetor "u''es not only %hen +rear!s are loate$ "ut
also %hen s!aller !etal o"*et suh as #eys an$ "elt "u#les are
foun$.
E(ER*+$E$
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
So!e for!s of !ollus#s are e)tre!ely useful as foo$, espeially the
"i&al&es oysters, la!s, an$ sallops.
2A3 Suh
2B3 Suh as
2-3 as
2.3 so
127
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
PRAB)EM CD8 Neither and Either
S
Mo$al
6a&e
.o
Be not
1er" %or$
:artiiple
1er" %or$
-ing for!. an$ neither
Mo$al
ha&e
.o
"e S
My
Roo!!ate
My
Roo!!ate
My
Roo!!ate
My
Roo!!ate
7ont
6asnt
.oesnt
Isnt
Go
Gone,
Go,
Goin(,
An$
An$
An$
an$
,eithe
r
,eithe
r
,eithe
r
neither
7ill
6a&e
.o
a!
I
I
I
I
Avoid %sin! #ith#r instead o& n#ith#r@ Avoid %sin! s%b0ect be&ore BeE 3oE
=aveE or the modal in a cla%se with n#ith#r@
S
Mo$al
6a&e
.o
Be not
1er" %or$
:artiiple
1er" %or$
-ing for! an$ S
Mo$al
6a&e
.o
Be not either
My roo!!ate
My roo!!ate
My roo!!ate
My roo!!ate
7ont
6asnt
.oesnt
Isnt
Go,
Gone,
Go,
Goin(,
An$
An$
An$
an$
I
I
I
I
7ont
6a&ent
.ont
a! ,ot
Either
Either
Either
Either
Avoid %sin! n#ith#r instead o& #ith#r@
E(AMP)E$ #
Inorret : She hasnt +nishe$ the assi(n!ent yet, an$ either ha&e I.
-orret : She hasnt +nishe$ the assi(n!ent yet, an$ neither ha&e I.
%r
She hasnt +nishe$ the assi(n!ent yet, an$ I ha&ent either.
Inorret : I $i$nt #no% the ans%er, an$ he $i$nt neither.
-orret : I $i$nt #no% the ans%er, an$ neither $i$ he.
%r
128
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
I $i$nt #no% the ans%er, an$ he $i$nt either.
Inorret : If =ane %ont (o to the party, either %ill he.
-orret : If =ane %ont (o to the party, neither %ill he.
%r
If =ane %ont (o to the party, he %ont either.
Inorret : She is not in a(ree!ent, an$ neither $o I.
-orret : She is not in a(ree!ent, an$ neither a! I.
%r
She is not in a(ree!ent, an$ I! not either.
Inorret : 6e %ont "e here to$ay, an$ either his sister %ill.
-orret : 6e %ont "e here to$ay, an$ neither %ill his sister.
%r
6e %ont "e here to$ay, an$ his sister %ont either.
E(ER*+$E
Part A # *hoose the correct answer@
Althou(h they are "oth (ro%n in the Dnite$ States an$ E)porte$ a"roa$,
orn is not nati&e to A!eria an$ %inter %heat 0000000.
2A3 is neither
2B3 isnt either
2-3 isnt neither
2.3 is either
Part B # *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
Aor$in( to !any e$uators, tele&ision shoul$ not "eo!e a replae!ent
for (oo$
2A3 2B3 2-3
teahers, an$ neither are o!puters.
2.3
PRAB)EM CF8 P)ANNE3 RE$-)T B $o That
Re!e!"er that so that intro$ues a lauses of planne$ result.
$ V $o that $ V
6e Is stu$yin( 6ar$ So that 6e -an
pass
6is
e)a!s
A&oi$ usin( so instea$ of so that as a purpose onnetor in %ritten En(lish.
129
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
,ote : In Spo#en En(lish, so instea$ of so that is often use$. In %ritten
En(lish, so that is preferre$.
E(AMP)E$ #
Inorret : 6e "orro%e$ the !oney so he oul$ +nish his e$uation.
-orret : 6e "orro%e$ the !oney so that he oul$ +nish his e$uation.
Inorret : Larry too# a "us fro! ,e% Eor# to -alifornia so he oul$ see the
ountry.
-orret : Larry too# a "us fro! ,e% Eor# to -alifornia so that he oul$ see
the ountry.
Inorret : Many !en *oin fraternities so they %ill "e assure$ of (roup
support.
-orret : Many !en *oin fraternities so that they %ill "e assure$ of (roup
support.
Inorret : .ont for(et to re(ister this %ee# so you an &ote in the eletion.
-orret : .ont for(et to re(ister this %ee# so that you an &ote in the
eletion.
Inorret : E&ery stu$ent nee$s a soial seurity nu!"er so he an (et a
uni&ersity i$enti+ation ar$ !a$e.
-orret : E&ery stu$ent nee$s a soial seurity nu!"er so that he an (et
a uni&ersity i$enti+ation ar$ !a$e.
E(ER*+$E
Part A # *hoose the correct answer@
A o!!uniations satellite or"its the earth at the sa!e rate that the
earth resol&es 000000 o&er a +)e$ point on the surfae.
2A3 So it an re!ain
2B3 So that it an re!ain
2-3 In an re!ain
2.3 So an re!ain
Part B # *hoose the +ncorrect word or phrase and correct it@
The Funtion of pain is to %arn the in$i&i$ual of $an(er so he an ta#e ation
to a&oi$
2A3 2B3 2-3
!ore serious $a!a(e.
2.3
130
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
PRAB)EM CGG8 9-T-RE RE$-)T B 7hen
Re!e!"er that when intro$ue a lauses of on$ition for future result.
RE$-)T *AN3+T+AN
$ V ( present)
V ( will + verb
word )
7he
n
$ V
( present)
The
temperat%re
The
temperat%re
3rops
7ill drop
7he
n
whe
n
The
s%n
The
s%n
$ets
sets
A&oi$ usin( will instea$ of a present &er" after %hen
E(AMP)E$ #
Inorret : I %ill all you %hen I %ill return fro! !y ountry.
-orret : I %ill all you %hen I return fro! !y ountry.
Inorret : Marilyn plans to %or# in her fa!ilys store %hen she %ill (et her
M.B.A.
-orret : Marilyn plans to %or# in her fa!ilys store %hen she (ets her
M.B.A.
Inorret : 6e pro"a"ly "uy so!e !ore o!puter soft%are %hen he %ill (et
pai$.
-orret : 6e pro"a"ly "uy so!e !ore o!puter soft%are %hen he (ets
pai$.
Inorret : She %ill feel a lot "etter %hen she %ill stop s!o#in(.
-orret : She %ill feel a lot "etter %hen she stops s!o#in(.
Inorret : 7hen Gary %ill (o to state Dni&ersity, he %ill "e a teahin(
assistant.
-orret : 7hen Gary (oes to state Dni&ersity, he %ill "e a teahin(
assistant.
131
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
E(ER*+$E #
Part A # *hoose the correct answer@
Baterial proesses (er!inate an$ sprout 00000 fa&ora"le on$itions of
te!perature an$ foo$ supply.
2A3 7hen enounterin( of
2B3 7hen they enounter
2-3 7hen they %ill enounter
2.3 7hen the enounter of
Part B # *hoose in incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
In !ost states insuranes a(ents !ust pass an e)a!ination to "e liense$
%hen they
2A3 2B3 2-3
%ill o!plete their trainin(.
2.3
PRAB)EM DHG8+N3+RE*T ;-E$T+AN$
Re!e!"er that 4uestion %or$s an "e use$ as on*untions. Tuestions
%or$s intro$ue a lause of in$iret 4uestion. Tuestion %or$s inlu$e the
follo%in(:
-ho when how how long
-hat where how many
-hat time why how much
$ V ;%estion
word
$ V
I .ont
re!e!"er
%hat 6er
na!e
i
s
V $ ;%estion
word
$ V
$o Eou Re!e!"er 7hat 6er
na!e
Is/
Avoid %sin! !oE !o#sE or !i! a&ter the 2%estion word@ Avoid %sin! the verb
be&ore the s%b0ect a&ter the 2%estion word@
E(AMP)E$#
Inorret : I $i$nt un$erstoo$ %hat $i$ he say.
-orret : I $i$nt un$erstoo$ %hat he sai$.
Inorret : .o you #no% ho% !uh $o they ost /
-orret : .o you #no% ho% !uh they ost /
,-ORRE-T : I %on$er %hen is her "irth$ay.
-ORRE-T : I %on$er %hen her "irth$ay is.
132
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
,-ORRE-T : oul$ you please tell !e %here is the post oRe/
-ORRE-T : oul$ you please tell !e %here the post oRe is/
,-ORRE-T : an they tell you %hat ti!e $oes the !o&ie start/
-ORRE-T : an they tell you %hat ti!e the !o&ie start/
E(ER*+$E$
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
Reently, there ha&e "een se&eral out"rea#s of $isease li#e le(ionnaires
syn$ro!e, an$ $otors $ont #no%
2A3%hat is the ause
2B3the ause is %hat
2-3is %hat the ause
2.3%hat the ause is
Part B # choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
In Groun$ -ontrol Approah, the air traR ontroller infor!s the pilot ho%
far is the plane fro! the touh$o%n point.
2A3 2B3 2-3
2.3
PRAB)EM D" ;%estion 7ords with Bever
Re!e!"er that Oe&er !eans any. 7hoe&er an$ %ho!e&er !ean anyoneC
%hate&er !eans anythin(C %here&er !eans any %hereC %hene&er !eans
any ti!eC ho%e&er !eans any %ay.
The Oe&er %or$s !ay "e use$ as on*untions to intro$ue lauses.
$ V ever $ V
I A(ree 7ith 7hate&er Eou $ei$e
A&oi$ usin( any instea$ of Oe&er. A&oi$ usin( Oe&er "efore instea$ of after
the 4uestion %or$.
E(AMP)E$
I,-ORRE-T: 7e an lea&e e&er %hen .onna is rea$y.
-ORRE-T : 7e an lea&e %hene&er .onna is rea$y.
I,-ORRE-T: Or$er any %hat you li#e
-ORRE-T : Or$er %hate&er you li#e
I,-ORRE-T: The representati&e %ill &ote for %ho! the !e!"ership
supports.
-ORRE-T : The representati&e %ill &ote for %ho!e&er the !e!"ership
supports.
I,-ORRE-T : Feel free to present your pro*ets e&er ho% you %ish.
-ORRE-T : Feel free to present your pro*ets ho%e&er you %ish.
I,-ORRE-T : I an !eet %ith you e&er you ha&e the ti!e.
-ORRE-T : I an !eet %ith you %hene&er you ha&e the ti!e.
E(E*+$E$
133
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
Blue5(reen al(ae are foun$ there is a!ple !oisture.
2A3%here&er
2B3e&er %here
2-3e&er
2.3there e&er
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
E&er the senate passes a "ill, a !essen(er ta#es it to the 6ouse of
Representati&es, $eli&ers it to the Spea#er of the
2A3 2B3
6ouse, an$ "o%s $eeply fro! the %aist.
2-3 2.3
PRAB)EM D11 A3VERB$ AN3 A3VERBRE)ATE3 $TR-*T-RE$
A$&er"s an$ a$&er" phrases a$$ infor!ation to sentenes. They a$$
infor!ation a"out manner* that is, ho% so!ethin( is $oneC )re/uency or
ho% oftenC time an$ date or when C an$ duration of ti!e or ho% lon(.
A.1ERBS OF MA,,ER
Re!e!"er that a$&er"s of !anner $esri"e the !anner in %hih
so!ethin( is $one. They ans%er the 4uestion, how> A$&er"s of !anner
usually en$ in ly.
$ V Adverb(manne
r)
*
The
lass
Listene
$
attenti&ely To the
leture
Avoid %sin! an ad0ective instead o& an adverb o& manner@ Avoid
%sin! an adverb o& manner between the two words o& an in.nitive@
E)a!ples
Inorret: After only si) !onths in Dnite$ States, =a# un$erstoo$ e&eryone
perfet.
-orret: After only si) !onths in Dnite$ States, =a# un$erstoo$ e&eryone
perfetly.
134
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
Inorret: :lease $o e)at as your $otor says.
-orret: :lease $o e)atly as your $otor says.
Inorret: fro! the top of the e!pire state Buil$in(, Tourist are a"le to
learly see ,e% Eor#.
-orret: fro! the top of the e!pire state Buil$in(, Tourist are a"le to see
,e% Eor# learly.
Inorret: Broa$ spea#in(, urriulu! inlu$es all e)perienes %hih the
stu$ent !ay 6a&e
%ithin the en&iron!ent of the shool.
-orret: Broa$ly spea#in(, urriulu! inlu$es all e)perienes %hih the
stu$ent !ay ha&e %ithin the en&iron!ent of the shool.
Inorret: :assen(er tra&el o!forta"le an$ safely in the ne% *u!"o *ets.
-orret: :assen(er tra&el o!forta"ly an$ safely in the ne% *u!"o *ets.
E)erises
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
A sy!"ol of anient o!petition, the Oly!pi >a!e "urns
throu(hout the (a!es.
2A3In a ontinuous %ay
2B3-ontinuous
2-3-ontinuously
2.3 -ontinual
Part B# choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it
Althou(h the ALa#e poetsB %or$s %orth, -oleri$(e an$ Southey %ere
frien$s,
They $i$ not really for! a (roup sine Southeys style $i8ere$ %i$e fro!
that of
2A3 2B3 2-3
the other t%o.
2.3
A3VERB$ A9 MANNERFAST8 LATE AN3 0AR5
135
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
Re!e!"er that althou(h !ost a$&er"s of !anner en$ in Oly, "ast* late
an$ hard $o not ha&e Oly en$in(s.
$ V 9as
t
The
!e$iation
Relie&
es
6ea$ah
es
Fast
$ V )at
e
My
roo!!ate
returne
$
ho!
e
late Last
ni(ht
$ V =ar
d
The
tea!
:laye
$
6ar$
Avoid %sin! incorrect &orms 9astl' and latel' and =ardl'
,ote: Lately an$ har$ly are not a$&er" for!s of late an$ har$. Lately
!eans reently. =ardl' !eans al!ost not at all.
E)a!ples
Inorret: 6elen types fastly an$ eRiently.
-orret: 6elen types fast an$ eRiently.
Inorret: The plane is she$ule$ to arri&e lately "eause the "a$ of %eather.
-orret: The plane is she$ule$ to arri&e late "eause the "a$ of %eather.
Inorret: Althou(h he trie$ as har$ly as he oul$, he $i$ not %in the rae.
-orret: Althou(h he trie$ as har$ as he oul$, he $i$ not %in the rae.
Inorret: 7hen stu$ents re(ister lately for lasses, they !ust pay an a$$itional
fee.
-orret: 7hen stu$ents re(ister late for lasses, they !ust pay an a$$itional
fee.
Inorret: First lass !ail tra&els as fastly as air!ail no%.
-orret: First lass !ail tra&els as fast as air!ail no%.
E5ercises
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
136
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
7hen a %o!an "eo!es pre(nant0000 in life, she enounters a$$itional
ris#s in $eli&erin( a healthy "a"y.
2A3Lately
2B3Lateness
2-3Latest
2.3 Late
Part B# *hoose the in correct word or phrase and correct it@
O&erseas telephone ser&ie has "een e)pan$in( fastly sine it inau(uration
in H<;F
2A3 2B3 2-3
7hen a ra$io iruit %as esta"lishe$ "et%een ,e% Eor# an$ Lon$on.
2.3

PRAB)EM D81 so%#ti%# and So%#ti%#s
Re!e!"er that Sometime !eans at so!e ti!e in the in$e+nite future.
Sometimes !eans oasionally.
Sometime is usually use after &er" . Sometimes is usually use$ at the
"e(innin( or en$ a sentene or a lause.
Sometime ans%ers the 4uestion, -hen> Sometimes ans%er the 4uestion,
1ow o"ten>
My fa!ily 7ill all Me lon(
$istane
so!eti!e
Accasionall'
sometimes
$ V
So!eti!es My fa!ily alls Me lon(
$istane
137
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
Avoid %sin! so%#ti%#s instead o& so%#ti%# to e5press an
inde.nite time in the &%t%re@
E)a!ples
Inorret : Lets ha&e lunh so!eti!es.
-orret : Lets ha&e lunh so!eti!e.2,o spei+ $ate in the future3
Inorret : It is ool no% , "ut so!eti!e it (ets &ery %ar! here.
-orret : It is ool no% , "ut so!eti!es it (ets &ery %ar! here.
2Oasionally3
Inorret : =anet %oul$ li#e to tra&el so!eti!es, "ut ri(ht no% she has
to +nish her $e(ree
-orret: =anet %oul$ li#e to tra&el so!eti!e, "ut ri(ht no% she has to
+nish her $e(ree 2no spei+ $ate in the future3
Inorret : 7hy $ont you all !e so!eti!es/
-orret : 7hy $ont you all !e so!eti!e/ 2no spei+ $ate in the future3
Inorret : So!eti!e ar !anufaturer !ust reall ertain !o$els "eause
of $efets in $esi(n.
-orret : So!eti!es ar !anufaturer !ust reall ertain !o$els "eause
of $efets in $esi(n. 2Oasionally3
E5ercises
Part A # *hoose the correct answer
000000on lear $ays one an see the sno%ap of Mount Rainier fro! Seattle.
2A3So!eti!e
2B3So!e
2-3So!eti!es
2.3 So!eti!e
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it
So!eti!e se&eral nations "eo!e partner in lar(er politial state, as for
e)a!ple. The
2A3 2B3 2-3 2.3
138
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
Four nations *oine$ in the Dnite$ ?in($o! of Great Britain an$ ,orthern
Irelan$.
:ROBLEM ;JF Ne!ative Emphasis
Re!e!"er that ne(ati&e inlu$e phrases li#e not one* not once* not
until* never* never again* only rarely* an$ very seldom. ,e(ati&es ans%er the
4uestion, 1ow o"ten> They are use in the "e(innin( of a state!ent to
e)press e!phasis. Au)iliaries !ust a(ree %ith &er"s an$ su"*ets.
Ne!ative A%5iliar' $ V
,e&er ha&e I seen So !uh no%
A&oi$ usin( a su"*et "efore the au)iliary in this pattern
E5amples
Inorret : ,e&er a(ain they %ill stay in the hotel.
-orret : ,e&er a(ain %ill they stay in the hotel.
Inorret : Only rarely an ai$ent has ourre$.
-orret : Only rarely has an ai$ent ourre$.
Inorret : 1ery sel$o! a !o&ie an hol$ !y attention li#e this one.
-orret : 1ery sel$o! an a !o&ie hol$ !y attention li#e this one.
Inorret : ,ot one paper she has +nishe$ on ti!e.
-orret : ,ot one paper has she +nishe$ on ti!e.
Inorret : ,ot one Ste&e an$ =an ha&e in&ite$ us to their house.
-orret : ,ot one ha&e Ste&e an$ =an in&ite$ us to their house.
E5ercises
Part A # *hoose the correct answer
,ot until the Triassi perio$000000000
2A3The +rst pri!iti&e !a!!als $i$ $e&elop
2B3.i$ the +rst pri!iti&e !a!!als $e&elop
2-3.i$ $e&elop the +rst pri!iti&e !a!!als
2.3 The +rst pri!iti&e !a!!als $e&elop
139
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
Part B # *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it
Only rarely %ins the sa!e !a*or lea(ue "as#et"all tea! the 7orl$
series
2A3 2B3
T%o years in a ro%.
2-3 2.3
:ROBLEM ;KF +ntrod%ctor' Adverbial Modi.ers B
On"#
Re!e!"er that once !eans at one ti!e in the past. %nce ans%ers the
4uestion, -hen> %nce is often use$ as intro$utory a$&er"ial !o$i+er. It
!o$i+es the !ain su"*et that follo%s the lause.
Anc
e
no%n E s V
On
e
A
sales!an
, :et
e
6as "een
pro!ote$
To $istrit
!ana(er
Avoid %sin! that be&ore on"#.
E5amples
Inorret : That one a stu$ent at state uni&ersity, he is no% an en(ineer for
an A!eria o!pany.
-orret : One a stu$ent at state uni&ersity, he is no% an en(ineer for an
A!eria o!pany.
Inorret : One that a ler# in (roery store, 6elen no% is a polie%o!an.
-orret : One a ler# in (roery store, 6elen no% is a polie%o!an.
Inorret : That one a iti'en of Irelan$, he is no% applyin( for per!anent
resi$eny in -ana$a.
-orret : One a iti'en of Irelan$, he is no% applyin( for per!anent
resi$eny in -ana$a.
Inorret : that one an a&i$ soer fan, he is no% "eo!in( !ore
interestin( in A!erian foot"all.
-orret : One an a&i$ soer fan, he is no% "eo!in( !ore interestin( in
A!erian foot"all.
E5ercises
Part A # choose the correct answer@
140
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
00000000 a no&elty in A!erian retailin(, +)e$ pries are no% uni&ersal in
sales.
2A3 It %as one
2B3 One it %as
2-3 That one
2.3 One
Part B # choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
That one a talente$ hil$ atress, Shirley te!ple Bla# has esta"lishe$
herself as a
2A3 2B3
areer $iplo!at, Ser&in( "oth as a representati&e in the unite$ ,ations an$
as an
2-3 2.3
a!"assa$or a"roa$.
:ROBLEM ;LLF +ntrod%ctor' Adverbial Modi.ers ,
whil#
Re!e!"er that while !eans at the sa!e ti!e. -hile ans%ers the
4uestion when> It is often use$ as an intro$utory a$&er"ial !o$i+er. It
!o$i+es the !ain su"*et that follo%s the lause.
-hen an also !ean at the sa!e ti!e, "ut when !ust "e use$ "efore
a su"*et an$ a &er" in the sa!e lause.
7hile no%n E $ V
%hile A
sales!an
, pet tra&ele$ A lot

7hile
when
$ V E $ V
7hile
%hen
6e
6e
7as
7as
a
sales!an
a
sales!an
,
,
:ete
:ete
Tra&ele$
Tra&ele$
A lot
a lot
Avoid %sin! wh#n instead o& whil# witho%t a s%b0ect and verb in the same
cla%se
E5amples
Inorret: 7hen in 7ashin(ton ..-., they sa% the apitol "uil$in( %here
on(ress !eets.
141
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
-orret: 7hile 2tourist3 in 7ashin(ton ..-., they sa% the apitol "uil$in(
%here on(ress !eets.
%r
7hile they %ere 2tourist3 in 7ashin(ton ..-., they sa% the
apitol "uil$in( %here on(ress !eets.
%r
7hen they %ere 2tourist3 in 7ashin(ton ..-., they sa% the
apitol "uil$in( %here on(ress !eets.
Inorret: I %as &ery ho!esi# %hen a stu$ent a"roa$.
-orret: I %as &ery ho!esi# %hile a stu$ent a"roa$.
%r
I %as &ery ho!esi# %hile I %as a stu$ent a"roa$.
%r
I %as &ery ho!esi# %hen I %as a stu$ent a"roa$.
Inorret: 7hen still a teahin( assistant, he %as $oin( i!portant researh.
-orret: 7hile still a teahin( assistant, he %as $oin( i!portant researh.
%r
7hile he %as still a teahin( assistant, he %as $oin( i!portant
researh.
%r
7hen he %as still a teahin( assistant, he %as $oin( i!portant
researh.
Inorret: Aor$in( to the ne%spaper he aepte$ "ri"es %hen a hi(h
oRial of the (o&ern!ent.
-orret: Aor$in( to the ne%spaper he aepte$ "ri"es %hile a hi(h
oRial of the (o&ern!ent.
%r
Aor$in( to the ne%spaper he aepte$ "ri"es %hile he %as a
hi(h oRial of the (o&ern!ent.
%r
Aor$in( to the ne%spaper he aepte$ "ri"es %hen he %as a
hi(h oRial of the (o&ern!ent.
Inorret: 7hile she on &aation, she "ou(ht (ifts for her fa!ily.
-orret: 7hile 2a &isitor3 on &aation, she "ou(ht (ifts for her fa!ily.
%r
142
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
7hile she %as 2a &isitor3 on &aation, she "ou(ht (ifts for her
fa!ily.
%r
7hen she %as 2a &isitor3 on &aation, she "ou(ht (ifts for her
fa!ily.
E5ercises
Part A # *hoose the correct answer@
0000000 a "ri$(e "uil$er, Gusta& Ei8el $esi(ne$ the Ei8el to%er for the :aris
E)position of HMM<.
2A3 7hile
2B3 7hen
2-3 It %as %hen
2.3 It %as %hile
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
7hen a hil$, Bar"ara Man$rel playe$ the (uitar, "an*o, an$ sa)ophone in
her
2A3 2B3
fa!ilys "an$, "ut in H<MH she %as na!e$ Entertainer of the year for her
sin(in(,
2-3 2.3
an$ she has ontinue$ her suessful &oal areer for se&eral $ea$es.
:ROBLEM DDC1 No )on!er
Re!e!"er that no lon(er !eans not any !ore. 3o longer is often use$
"et%een the au)iliary &er" an$ the !ain &er".
3o longer ans%ers the 4uestion, -hen>
$ V
(a%5iliar')
No
lon!er
V
(main)
I an ,o lon(er see 7ithout !y
(lasses
Avoid %sin! not an! non# instead o& no.
E5amples
Inorret: 7e an not lon(er tolerate li&in( %ith Terry.
-orret: 7e an no lon(er tolerate li&in( %ith Terry.
143
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
Inorret: Bra$ none lon(er %or#s here.
-orret: Bra$ no lon(er %or#s here.
Inorret: Sine she tal#e$ %ith her a$&isor, she is not lon(er intereste$ in
!a*orin( in politial siene.
-orret: Sine she tal#e$ %ith her a$&isor, she is no lon(er intereste$ in
!a*orin( in politial siene.
Inorret: The person you are tryin( to reah is no lon( at this telephone
nu!"er.
-orret: The person you are tryin( to reah is no lon(er at this telephone
nu!"er.
Inorret: Althou(h they use$ to %rite eah other e&ery $ay, they are not
lon(er e)han(in( letters.
-orret: Althou(h they use$ to %rite eah other e&ery $ay, they are no
lon(er e)han(in( letters.
E5ercises
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
Aor$in( to o!!uniation theory, after the !essa(e lea&es the sen$er,
he0000000 ontrol it.
2A3 ,ot lon(er
2B3 ,one lon(er
2-3 Lon(er $oesnt
2.3 ,o lon(er
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
Ghost to%n li#e Rhyolite, ,e&a$a, an$ o!!unities that are not lon(er
inha"ite$
2A3 2B3
"eause han(es in eono!i on$itions ha&e ause$ the people to !o&e
else%here.
2-3 2.3
144
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
:ROBLEM DFC 3%ration For and since
Re!e!"er that "or is use$ "efore a 4uantity ti!e. )or e)presses
$uration. )or ans%ers the 4uestion, how long> Since is use$ "efore a spei+
ti!e. Since e)presses $uration too, "ut since ans%er the 4uestion, beginning
when>
Re!e!"er that a 4uantity of ti!e !ay "e se&eral $ays5 a !onth, t%o
years, et. a spei+ ti!e !ay "e 7e$nes$ay, =uly, H<LN, et. Eou %ill notie
that the struture 1A?, an$ a partiiple is often use$ %ith a$&er"s of
$uration.
$ =AVE participle &or ;%antit' o& time
She has "een In the D.S for Si) !onths.
$ =AVE participle since $peci.c time
She has "een In the D.S Sine =une
Avoid %sin! for be&ore speci.c times@ Avoid %sin! for a&ter =AVE and a
participle@
E5amples
Inorret: Mary has "een on a $iet sine three %ee#s.
-orret: Mary has "een on a $iet for three %ee#s.
Inorret: She has "een li&in( here "efore April.
-orret: She has "een li&in( here sine April.
Inorret: 7e ha&ent seen hi! sine al!ost a year.
-orret: 7e ha&ent seen hi! for al!ost a year.
Inorret: 7e ha&e #no%n eah other "efore H<;J.
-orret: 7e ha&e #no%n eah other sine H<;J.
Inorret: 6e has stu$ie$ En(lish sine +&e years.
-orret: 6e has stu$ie$ En(lish for +&e years.
E5ercises
Part A # *hoose the correct answer@
:en(uins, the !ost hi(hly speiali'e$ of all a4uati "ir$s, !ay life
00000t%enty years.
2A3 Before
2B3 Sine
2-3 For
145
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
2.3 Fro!
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
Beause national statistis on ri!e ha&e only "een #ept for H<IN, it is
not
2A3 2B3
possi"le to !a#e *u$(!ents a"out ri!e $urin( the early years of the
nations.
2-3 2.3
:ROBLEM DGC 3ates
Re!e!"er that there is an e)pete$ pattern for $ates of the !onth.
.ates ans%er the 4uestion, -hen>
the Ardinal n%mber o& Month
1alentines $ay is on the fourteenth of Fe"ruary
A&oi$ usin( a ar$inal nu!"er instea$ of an or$inary nu!"er
E@AM:LE
Inorret : I ha&e an appoint!ent on the +&e of =une at three olo#.
-orret : I ha&e an appoint!ent on the +fth of =une at three olo#.
Or
I ha&e an appoint!ent on =une +fth at three olo#.
Inorret : shool starts on si)teen Septe!"er this year
-orret : shool starts on the si)teenth of Septe!"er this year.
Or
shool starts on Septe!"er si)teenth this year.
Inorret : her "irth$ay is seon$ .ee!"er.
-orret : her "irth$ay is the seon$ of .ee!"er.
Or
her "irth$ay is .ee!"er seon$.
Inorret : please han(e !y reser&ation to the ten of ,o&e!"er
-orret : please han(e !y reser&ation to the tenth of ,o&e!"er
Or
:lease han(e !y reser&ation to ,o&e!"er tenth
Inorret : In$epen$ene .ay in unite$ state is the four of =uly
146
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
-orret : In$epen$ene .ay in unite$ state is the fourth of =uly
Or
In$epen$ene $ay in unite$ state is =uly fourth.
E5ercises
Part A# choose the correct answer
Me!orial $ay, a holi$ay set asi$e to re!e!"er those %ho ha&e $ie$, is
usually ele"rate$ on
2A3 thirtieth !ay
2B3 the thirtieth !ay
2-3 !ay thirty
2.3the thirtieth of !ay
Part B# choose the incorrect word o& phrase and correct it@
On the fourth =uly in HMMJ, the statue of li"erty %as presente$ for!ally
2A3 2B3 2-3
"y the people of Frane to the people of the unite$ states
2.3
:ROBLEM MNC Pse%do comparatives
Re!e!"er that althou(h as high as an$ as soon as appear to "e
o!parati&es, they are a$&er"ial i$io!s. As high as intro$ues a li!it of
hei(ht or ost. It ans%ers the 4uestions, how high or how much 2!oney3/ as
soon as intro$ues a li!it of ti!e. It ans%ers the 4uestion, when /
As hi!h as
The prie of a hairut
runs
As hi(h as Fifty $ollars
$ 7il
l
Verb
word
As soon
as
7hen
$ V
(present)
6
e
7ill Go 6o!
e
As soon
as
6
e
Gra$uates
A&oi$ usin( to instea$ of as. A&oi$ usin( will an$ &er" %or$ instea$ of a
present &er" after as soon as
E5amples
147
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
Inorret : I plan to !o&e as soon as I %ill +n$ another apart!ent.
-orret : I plan to !o&e as soon as I +n$ another apart!ent
Inorret : sine ta)i fare fro! the airport !ay run as hi(h to t%enty
$ollars, I su((est that you ta#e a li!ousine
-orret : sine ta)i fare fro! the airport !ay run as hi(h as t%enty
$ollars,
I su((est that you ta#e a li!ousine
Inorret : she %ill all you "a# as soon as she %ill +nish $inner.
-orret : she %ill all you "a# as soon as she +nishes $inner
Inorret : the ost of one $ay in a&era(e hospital an run as hi(h as to
YFNNN
-orret : the ost of one $ay in a&era(e hospital an run as hi(h as
YFNNN
Inorret : your appliation %ill "e onsi$ere$ as soon as your +le %ill "e
o!plete
-orret : your appliation %ill "e onsi$ere$ as soon as your +le is
o!plete
E5ercises
Part A# choose the correct answer@
In @ero) printin(, the in# "eo!es fuse$ to the paper as soon as
2A3 the paper heate$
2B3 the paper is heate$
2-3 heats the paper
2.3heatin( the paper
Part B# choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
Aloholi "e&era(es &ary %i$ely in ontent, ran(in( fro! only F or I
2A3 2B3
perent for so!e li(ht "eers to as hi(h to LN perent for so!e &o$#as an$
2-3 2.3
"ran$ies.
148
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
:ROBLEM MHHC MeneraliPation B As a whole and
wholl'
Re!e!"er that as a whole !eans (enerally. -holly !eans o!pletely.
As a whole is often use$ at the "e(innin( of a sentene or a lause. -holly is
often use$ after the au)iliary or !ain &er".
Menerall'
As a whole
$ V
As a %hole The ne%s Is -orret
$ V *ompletel'
7holl'
The ne%s Is 7holly -orret
A&oi$ usin( wholly instea$ of as a whole at the "e(innin( of a sentene or
lause to !ean (enerally. A&oi$ usin( as whole instea$ of as a whole.
E5amples
Inorret : %holly, %e are in a(ree!ent
-orret : as a %hole, %e are in a(ree!ent
2 (enerally 3
Inorret : the house an$ all of its ontents %as a %hole onsu!e$ "y the
+re.
-orret : the house an$ all of its ontents %as %holly onsu!e$ "y the
+re.
Inorret : the tea!s are not rate$ e4ually, "ut, %holly, they are e&enly
!athe$.
-orret : the tea!s are not rate$ e4ually, "ut, as a %hole, they are
e&enly !athe$
2 (enerally 3
Inorret : %holly, .ans operation pro&e$ to "e suessful
-orret : as a %hole, .ans operation pro&e$ to "e suessful
2 (enerally 3
Inorret : as a %hole, people try to "e helpful to tourist
149
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
-orret : as a %hole, people try to "e helpful to tourist
2 (enerally 3
Part A # choose the correct answer@
The Gulf Strea! is %ar!er than the oean %ater
surroun$in( it.
2A3 %holly
2B3 %hole
2-3 as a %hole
2.3a %hole as
part B # choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it
althou(h there are e)eptions, as %hole, the !ela of the "ir$ speies is
2A3 2B3
!ore "rilliantly olore$
2-3 2.3
:ROBLEM MFH$entences and *la%ses
Re!e!"er that a !ain lause, also alle$ an in$epen$ent
lause, an funtion as a separate$ sentenes. A su"or$inate lause, also
alle$ a $epen$ent lause, !ust "e attahe$ to !ain lause. A $epen$ent
lause is often !as#e$ %ith the lause !ar#er that
$ENTEN*E
Main
cla%se
(sentence)
*la%se mar/erdependent cla%se
7e %ere
(la$
That the "o)
a!e
Avoid %sin! the cla%se mar/er with dependent cla%se as
sentences@ Avoid %sin! the cla%se mar/er that with a sentence
that has no dependent cla%se &ollowin! it
E5ample
Inorret : Dtensils an$ on$i!ents that are foun$ on the ta"le "y the $oor
-orret : Dtensils an$ on$i!ents are foun$ on the ta"le "y the $oor
Inorret : .urin( +nal e)a! %ee#, that the li"rary %hen openin( all ni(ht
-orret : .urin( +nal e)a! %ee#, the li"rary is open all ni(ht
Inorret : The %eather that is &ery rainy this ti!e of years
150
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
-orret : The %eather is &ery rainy this ti!e of years
Inorret : All of the $or!s that are loate$ on east a!pus
-orret : All of the $or!s are loate$ on east a!pus
Inorret : .urin( our &aation, that %e suspen$e$ the ne%spaper $eli&ery
-orret : .urin( our &aation, %e suspen$e$ the ne%spaper $eli&ery
E5ercises
Part A # choose the correct answer@
Of all the ities in Te)as,
2A3 that san Antonio is pro"a"ly the !ost pitures4ue
2B3 san Antonio is pro"a"ly the !ost pitures4ue
2-3 pro"a"ly san Antonio the !ost pitures4ue
2.3the !ost pitures4ue pro"a"ly that san Antonio
part B # choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it
Thun$er that is au$i"le fro! $istanes as far a%ay as ten !iles
2A3 2B3 2-3 2.3
:ROBLEM MIH *la%se B mar/er s%b0ects
Re!e!"er that so!e $epen$ent lauses !ay o!e in the !i$$le
of a !ain lause. In !any of these $epen$ent lauses, the lause !ar#er is
the su"*et of the $epen$ent lause, for e)a!ple, the lause5!ar#er which.
Main cla%se
The
"o)
151
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
3ependent cla%se
7hih -a!e -.O..
A&oi$ usin( a lause5!a#e su"*et %ithout a &er" or %ithout a lause5!ar#er
su"*et in $epen$ent lauses of this type.
E5amples
Inorret : the onert, is she$ule$ for Fri$ay, has "een anele$.
-orret : the onert, %hih is she$ule$ for Fri$ay, has "een anele$.
Inorret : as#in( 4uestions, %hih essential in learnin( a lan(ua(e, an "e
$iRult For "e(inners.
-orret : as#in( 4uestions, %hih is essential in learnin( a lan(ua(e, an
"e $iRult For "e(inners.
Inorret : !y suitases, %hih they are no% at the ity airport, ha&e "een
loate$
-orret : !y suitases, %hih are no% at the ity airport, ha&e "een
loate$
Inorret : the telephone nu!"er, %hih nu!"er I %rote $o%n, is for the
hotel
-orret : the telephone nu!"er, %hih is %ritten $o%n, is for the hotel
Inorret : the >o%ers, %hih %ere *ust $eli&erin(, are fro! Ste&e
-orret : the >o%ers, %hih %ere *ust $eli&ere$, are fro! Ste&e
E5ercises
Part A # choose the correct answer@
The &ood ,arth* , is a no&el set in hina.
2A3 %hih "y pearl "u#
2B3 %hih %as %ritten "y pearl "u#
2-3 %as %ritten "y pearl "u#
2.3pearl "u# "ein( the one %ho %rote it
Part B # choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it
152
7as for
you
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
Tuasars, %hih relati&ely s!all o"*et, e!it an enor!ous a!ount of
2A3 2B3 2-3
ener(y
2.3
:ROBLEM MJ verbs in dependent cla%ses
Re!e!"er that "oth !ain lauses an$ $epen$ent lauses !ust ha&e their
o%n &er"s
Main
cla%se
*la%se mar/er dependent cla%se
S 1 That S 1
It is (oo$ That the "o) arri&e$ on
ti!e
A&oi$ $eletin( the &er" in a $epen$ent lause, or usin( an Oing for! instea$
of a &er" in the $epen$ent lause.
E5amples
Inorret : it is sha!e that you !issin( the !o&ie
-orret : it is sha!e that you !isse$ the !o&ie
Inorret : she #no%s that !ista#e in (ra!!ar oasionally
-orret : she #no%s that she !a#es !ista#e in (ra!!ar oasionally
Inorret : he sai$ that (oin( %as he %ante$
-orret : he sai$ that he %ante$ to (o
Inorret : I notie$ that !arys a"sene to$ay
-orret : I notie$ that !ary %as a"sent to$ay
Inorret : the e)peri!ent pro&e$ that less %ater for the plants
-orret : the e)peri!ent pro&e$ that the plants nee$e$ less %ater
E5ercises
Part A # choose the correct answer@
Most "ee#eepers ha&e o"ser&e$ at the approah of a
thun$erstor!
2A3enra(in( the "ees
2B3that "ees "eo!e enra(e$
2-3that "ees enra(in(
153
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
2.3"eo!e enra(e$ the "ees
Part B # choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it
Most !o$ern o"ser&atories ontain telesopes that sientists
usin(
2A3 2B3 2-3
as a!eras to ta#e photo(raphs of re!ote (ala)ies
2.3
:ROBLEM MKHAd0ective cla%ses
Re!e!"er that in so!e $epen$ent lauses, alle$ a$*eti&e lause, the
lause !ar#er refers to an$ !o$i+es the o"*et of the !ain lause
Main cla%se *la%se ma/er dependent
cla%se
S 1 That S 1
These
"o)es
Ar
e
The
ones
That 7e Or$ere$
Avoid ad0ective cla%se whiteo%t a s%b0ect or witho%t a verb
E5amples
Inorret : this is the %ay that o!in( the last ti!e
-orret : this is the %ay that %e a!e the last ti!e
Inorret : these are the ones that "ou(ht
-orret : these are the ones that i "ou(ht
Inorret : this "oo# is the one that our lass
-orret : this "oo# is the one that our lass use$
Inorret : these are the assi(n!ents that our teaher (i&in( us
-orret : these are the assi(n!ents that our teaher (a&e us
Inorret : these are so!e thin(s that $ont un$erstan$ a"out li&in( in
Dnite$ States
-orret : these are so!e thin(s that i $ont un$erstan$ a"out li&in( in
unite$ states
E5ercises
Part A # choose the correct answer@
-ulture in>uenes the %ay
2A3 &ie%in( the %orl$
2B3 that %e &ie% the %orl$
2-3 the %orl$ &ie%
154
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
2.3is the &ie% of the %orl$
Part B # choose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it
Of all the referene !aterials, the enylope$ia is the one that
!ost people usin(
:ROBLEM ML point o& view
Point o" view !eans !aintainin( the orret se4uene of &er" tenses an$
ti!e phrases in a sentene
point o& viewverbs
In all patterns, !aintain a point of &ie%, either present or past.
A&oi$ han(in( fro! present to past tense, or fro! past to present tense in
the sa!e sentene.
E5amples
Inorret : he %as a!on( the fe% %ho %ant to ontinue %or#in( on the
pro*et
-orret : he is a!on( the fe% %ho %ante$ to ontinue %or#in( on the
pro*et
Or
he %as a!on( the fe% %ho %ante$ to ontinue %or#in( on the
pro*et
Inorret : it is an aepte$ usto! for a !an to open the $oor %hen he
ao!panie$ a %o!en
-orret : it is an aepte$ usto! for a !an to open the $oor %hen he
ao!panies a %o!an
Or
It %as an aepte$ usto! for a !an to open the $oor %hen
he ao!panie$ a %o!an
Inorret : she lose$ the $oor an$ hurries a%ay to lass
-orret : she loses the $oor an$ hurries a%ay to lass
Or
155
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
She lose$ the $oor an$ hurrie$ a%ay to lass
Inorret : %e reei&e se&eral appliations a $ay an$ %ith the! ha$ "een
opies of transripts an$ $e(rees
-orret : %e reei&e se&eral appliations a $ay an$ %ith the! are
opies of transripts an$ $e(rees
Or
%e reei&e$ se&eral appliations a $ay an$ %ith the! %ere
opies of transripts an$ $e(rees.
-ORRE-T : Mr. .a&is tries to +nish his researh, "ut he +n$s only part of the
infora!tion that he nee$s.
or
Mr. .a&is trie$ to +nish his researh, "ut he foun$ only part of
the infor!ation that he nee$e$.
E(ER*+$E$
Part A # *hoose the correct answer@
The +rst transistor %as "asially a s!all hip !a$e of (er!aniu! onto
one surfae of %hih t%o pointe$ %ire ontats si$e "y
si$e.
2A3are !a$e
2B3!a$e
2-3%ere !a$e
2.3 !a#in(
Part B # *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
Beause early "allons %ere at the !ery of shiftin( %in$s, they are not
2A3 2B3 2-3
onsi$ere$ a partial !eans of transportation until the HMKNs.
2.3
:ROBLEM M;;Point o& View B Reported $peech
So!e &er"s are use$ to report past e&ents.
156
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
Re!e!"er that the follo%in( &er"s are use$ as the +rst past &er" in the
pattern "elo% :
as$ed $new said
believed remembered thought
"orgot reported told
S 1 2past3 that S 1 2past3
6e sai$ that he %as sorry
A&oi$ usin( a present &er" after that in the pattern.
,ote : 7hen the repporte$ sentene $eals %ith a (eneral truth, then a
present &er" !ay "e use$ after that in the pattern. For e)a!ple, in the early
@ABBs* some sailors believed that the world is round. If urrent #no%le$(e
superse$es a for!erly aepte$ truth, then the past &er" is retaine$. For
e)a!ple, in the early @ABBs* many sailors believed that the world was 7at.
E(AMP)E$
Inorret : I thou(ht that he is o!in( to$ay.
-orret : I thou(ht that he %as o!in( to$ay.
Inorret : A researh sientist at State Dni&ersity reporte$ that he +n$s a
"loo$ test to $ia(nose aner.
-orret : A researh sientist at State Dni&ersity reporte$ that he foun$ a
"loo$ test to $ia(nose aner.
Inorret : 7hen she tol$ us that e&erythin( is rea$y, %e %ent into the
$inin( roo! an$ seate$ oursel&es.
-orret : 7hen she tol$ us that e&erythin( %as rea$y, %e %ent into the
$inin( roo! an$ seate$ oursel&es.
Inorret : They as#e$ hi! if he %ill help us.
-orret : They as#e$ hi! if he %oul$ help us.
Inorret : :rofessor Ba#er tol$ his lass that there HN.NNN speies of ferns.
-orret : :rofessor Ba#er tol$ his lass that are HN.NNN speies of ferns.
2A (eneral truth "y urrent sienti+ stan$ars.3
E(ER*+$E$
Part A # *hoose the correct answer@
157
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
Anient people "elie&e$ that %ith a sun an$ a !oon
rotatin( aroun$ it.
2A3the earth %as the enter of the uni&erse
2B3the earth is the enter of the uni&erse
2-3the enter of the uni&erse is earth
2.3 the uni&erse has earth at the enter
Part B # *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
7illia! Faul#ner, a fa!ous no&elist fro! Mississippi, sai$ that it is not
posi""le
2A3
to un$erstan$ the South unless you %ere "orn there.
2B3 2-3 2.3
:ROBLEM FF Point o& View B Verbs and
Adverbs
In all patterns, a&oi$ usin( past a$&er"s %ith &er"s in the present tense.
E(AMP)E$
Inorret : Bet%een one thin( an$ another, -harles $oes not +nish typin(
his paper last ni(ht.
-orret : Bet%een one thin( an$ another, -harles $i$ not +nish typin(
his paper last ni(ht.
Inorret : In H<<N, aor$in( to statistis fro! the Bureu of -ensus, the
population of the States is FKN.NNN.NNN.
-orret : In H<<N, aor$in( to statistis fro! the Bureu of -ensus, the
population of the States %as FKN.NNN.NNN.
Inorret : 7e $o not reei&e !ail yester$ay "eause it %as a holi$ay.
-orret : 7e $i$ not reei&e !ail yester$ay "eause it %as a holi$ay.
Inorret : Mary $oes not +nish her ho!e%or# in ti!e to (o %ith us to the
foot"all (a!e yester$ay afternoon.
-orret : Mary $i$ not +nish her ho!e%or# in ti!e to (o %ith us to the
foot"all (a!e yester$ay afternoon.
Inorret : Althou(h there are only t%o hun$re$ forei(n stu$ents stu$yin(
at State Dni&ersity in H<<N, there are !ore than +&e hun$re$
no%.
158
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
-orret : Althou(h there %ere only t%o hun$re$ forei(n stu$ents
stu$yin( at State Dni&ersity in H<<N, there are !ore than +&e
hun$re$ no%.
E(ER*+$E$
Part A # *hoose the correct answer@
Iron for %eapont an$ tools in the Bron'e A(e follo%in( the
Stone A(e.
2A3 is (enerally use$
2B3 (enerally use$
2-3 %as (enerally use$
2.3 use$ (enerally
Part B # *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
The ,ineteenth A!en$!ent to the -onstituation (i&es %o!en the
ri(ht to &ote
2A3 2B3 2-3
in the eletions of H<FN.
2.3
:ROBLEM M<;Point o& View Activities o& the
3ead
In all patterns, a&oi$ usin( present &er"s to refer to ati&ities of the $ea$.
Inoret : =ust "efore he $ie$, !y frien$ %ho %rites poetry pu"lishe$ his
+rst "oo#.
-orret : =ust "efore he $ie$, !y frien$ %ho %rote poetry pu"lishe$ his
+rst "oo#.
Inorret : :rofessor Ayers %as so puntual that until the $ay he $ie$, he
al%ays arri&es in lass *ust as the "ell rin(s.
-orret : :rofessor Ayers %as so puntual that until the $ay he $ie$, he
al%ays arri&e$ in lass *ust as the "ell ran(.
Inorret : Before he $ie$, the !an %ho li&es aross the street use$ to help
!e %ith !y En(lish.
159
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
-orret : Before he $ie$, the !an %ho li&e$ aross the steer use$ to helpl
!e %ith
!y En(lish.
Inorret : A short ti!e "efore he $ie$, the ol$ !an has %ritten a %ill,
lea&in( his entire esate to his "rother.
-orret : A short ti!e "efore he $ie$, the ol$ !an ha$ %ritten a %ill,
lea&in( his entire estate his "rother.
Inorret : Dntil the $ay she $ie$, the la$y %ho li&es ne)t $oor &isite$ !e
e&ery e&enin(.
-orret : Dntil the $ay she $ie$, the la$y %ho li&e$ ne)t $oor &isite$ !e
e&ery e&enin(.
Part A # *hoose the correct answer@
Fro! H<FL until her $eath, Mar(aret Mea$ ,e% Eor#s
A!erian Museu! of ,atural 6istory.
2A3 %as assoiate$ %ith
2B3 assoiates %ith
2-3 is assoiate$ %ith
2.3 assoiate$
Part B # *hoose the incorect word or phrase and correct it@
Before $inosaurs "ea!e e)tint, plant life is &ery $i8erent on Earth.
2A3 2B3 2-3 2.3
:ROBLEM <N; A!reement
Agreement !eans seletin( su"*ets that a(ree in person an$ n!"er %ith
&er"s, an$ seletin( pronouns that a(ree in person an$ nu!"er %ith
referene nouns an$ other pronouns.
:ROBLEM <H;A!reement B Modi.ed $%b0ect and
Verbs
In all patterns, there !ust "e a(ree!ent of su"*et an$ &er". A&oi$ usin( a
&er" that a(ress %ith the !o$i+er a su"*et instea$ of %ith the su"*et itself.
Inorret : 6is #no%le$(e of lan(ua(es an$ international relations ai$ hi!
in his %or#.
-orret : 6is #no%le$(e of lan(ua(es an$ international relations ai$s
hi! in his %or#.
160
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
Inorret : The failities at the ne% researh li"rary, inlu$in( an
e)ellent !iro+l! +le, is a a!on( the "est in the ountry.
-orret : The failities at the ne% researh li"rary, inlu$in( an
e)ellent !iro+l! +le, are a a!on( the "est in the ountry.
Inorret : All tra$e "et%een the t%o ountries %ere suspen$e$ pen$in(
ne(otiation of ne% a(ree!ent.
-orret : All tra$e "et%een the t%o ountries %as suspen$e$ pen$in(
ne(otiation of ne% a(ree!ent.
Inorret : The pro$ution of $i8rent #in$s of arti+ial !aterials are
essential to the onser&ation of our natural resoures.
-orret : The pro$ution of $i8rent #in$s of arti+ial !aterials is essential
to the onser&ation of our natural resoures.
Inorret : Sine the ship!ent of supplies for our e)peri!ents %ere
$elaye$, %e %ill ha&e to reshe$ule our %or#.
-orret : Sine the ship!ent of supplies for our e)peri!ents %as $elaye$,
%e %ill ha&e to reshe$ule our %or#.
Part A # *hoose the correct answer@
Group of tissues, eah %ith its o%n funtion, in the
hu!an"o$y.
2A3 it !a#es up the or(ans
2B3 !a#e up the or(ans, 2-3. they !a#e up the or(ans, 2.3. !a#e up
the or(ans.
Part B # *hoose the incorect word or phrase and correct it@
The Zonin( I!pro&e!ent :lan, "etter #no%n as 'ip o$es, ena"le
postal ler#
2A3 2B3
to spee$ the routin( of an e&er5inreasin( &olu!e of !ail.
2B3 2.3
:ROBLEM <F;A!reement B $%b0ect with
Accompaniment and Verb
Re!e!"er that there !ust "e a((re!ent of su"*et an$ &er". In all patterns,
a&oi$ usin( a &er" that a(rees %ith a phrases of ao!pani!ent instea$ of
%ith the su"*et itself.
Inorret : The (uest of honor, alon( %ith his %ife an$ t%o sons, %ere
seate$ at the +rst ta"le.
161
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
-orret : The (uest of honor, alon( %ith his %ife an$ t%o sons, %as
seate$ at the +rst ta"le.
Inorret : The a!"assa$or, %ith his fa!ily an$ sta8, in&ite you to a
reeption at the e!"assy on Tues$ay afternoon at +&e olo#.
-orret : The a!"assa$or, %ith his fa!ily an$ sta8, in&ites you to a
reeption at the e!"assy on Tues$ay afternoon at +&e olo#.
Inorret : Mary, ao!panie$ "y her "rother on the piano, %ere &ery %ell
re&ei&e$ at the talent sho%.
-orret : Mary, ao!panie$ "y her "rother on the piano, %as &ery %ell
re&ei&e$ at the talent sho%.
Inorret : Senator .a&is, %ith his assistant an$ his press seretary, are
she$ule$ to arri&e in ,e% Eor# to$ay.
-orret : Senator .a&is, %ith his assistant an$ his press seretary, is
she$ule$ to arri&e in ,e% Eor# to$ay.
Inorret : Brue Sprinsteen, ao!panie$ "y the E. Street Ban$, are
appearin( in onert at the Stu$ent -enter on Satur$ay ni(ht.
-orret : Brue Sprinsteen, ao!panie$ "y the E. Street Ban$, is
appearin( in onert at the Stu$ent -enter on Satur$ay ni(ht.
Part A # *hoose the correct answer@
Thor 6eyer$ahl, aou!panie$ "y the re% of the Con Ti$i, PPPPPin
or$er to pro&e his theories of ultural $i8usion.
2A3 6a&e saile$ spei+ally harte$ ourses
2B3 Sailin( spei+ally harte$ ourses
2-3 6as saile$ spei+ally harte$ ourses
2.3 They sail spei+ally harte$ ourses
Part B # *hoose the incorrect word word or phrase and correct it@
The hi(h protein ontent of &arious strains of alfalfa plants, alon( %ith
the harateristially lon( root syste! that ena"les the! to sur&i&e
lon( $rou(hts,
2A3 2B3
!a#e the! partiularly &alua"le in ari$ ountries
2B3 2.3
:ROBLEM <I A!reement B $%b0ect with
Appositive and Verb
162
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
Re!e!"er that there !ust "e a((re!ent of su"*et an$ &er". An apositi&e is
a %or$ or phrase that follo%s a noun an$ $e+nes it. An appositi&e usually has
a o!!a "efore it an$ a o!!a after it.
In all patterns, a&oi$ usin( a &er" that a(rees %ith %or$ in the appositi&es
after a su"*et instea$ of %ith the su"*et itself.
Inorret : The "oo#s, an En(lish $itionary an a he!istry te)t, %as on
shelf yesrter$ay.
-orret : The "oo#s, an En(lish $itionary an a he!istry te)t, %ere on
shelf yesrter$ay.
Inorret : Three s%i!!ers fro! our tea!, :aul,E$, an$ =i! is in o!petion
for !e$als.
-orret : Three s%i!!ers fro! our tea!, :aul,E$, an$ =i! are in
o!petion for !e$als.
Inorret : Se&eral pets, t%o $o(s an$ a at nee$s to "e ta#en are of
%hile %e are (one.
-orret : Se&eral pets, t%o $o(s an$ a at nee$ to "e ta#en are of %hile
%e are (one.
Inorret : State Dni&ersity, the lar(est of the state O supporte$ shools,
ha&e !ore than KN.NNN stu$ents on !ain a!pus.
-orret : State Dni&ersity, the lar(est of the state O supporte$ shools,
has !ore than KN.NNN stu$ents on !ain a!pus.
Inorret : This reipe, an ol$ fa!ily seret, are an espeially i!portant
part of our holi$ay ele"rations.
-orret : This reipe, an ol$ fa!ily seret, is an espeially i!portant part
of our holi$ay ele"rations.
Part A # *hoose the correct answer@
-upi$, one of the anient Ro!an (o$s, .
2A3 %ere a little %in(e$ hil$
2B3 representin( as a little %in(e$ hil$
2-3 %as representin( as a little %in(e$ hil$
2.3 a litle %in(e$ hil$
Part B # *hoose the incorrect word word or phrase and correct it@
-olu!"us, Ohio, the apital of the states, are not only the lar(est ity in Ohio
"ut also a typial !etroplitan area, often use$ in !ar#et researh.
:ROBLEM <J A!reement B Verb$%b0ect Arder
There an$ here intro$ue &er"5su"*et or$er. The &er" a(rees %ith the
su"*et follo%in( it.
There 1 S
163
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
There are the results of the
eletion
6ere 1 S
6ere is the results of the
eletion
A&oi$ usin( a &er" that $oes not a(ree %ith the su"*et.
Inorret : There %as ten people in line alrea$y %hen %e arri&e$.
-orret : There %ere ten people in line alrea$y %hen %e arri&e$.
Inorret : There ha&e "een &ery little rain this su!!er.
-orret : There has "een &ery little rain this su!!er.
Inorret : 6ere are their house.
-orret : 6ere is their house.
Inorret : There has "een se&eral o"*etion to the ne% poliy.
-orret : There ha&e "een se&eral o"*etion to the ne% poliy.
Inorret : I thin# that there %ere a pro"le!.
-orret : I thin# that there %as a pro"le!.
Part A # *hoose the correct answer@
In a suspension "ri$(e that arry one or !ore >e)i"le a"les
+r!ly attahe$ at eah en$.
2A3 there is t%o to%ers on it
2B3 there are teo to%ers
2-3 t%o to%ers there are
2.3 to%ers there are t%o
Part B # *hoose the incorrect word word or phrase and correct it@
There is a"out LNN shools in the Dnite$ States that use the Montessori
!etho$
2A3 2B3 2-3
to enoura(e in$i&i$ual initiati&e.
2.3
:ROBLEM <K A!reement B +nden.nite $%b0ect
and Verb
Re!e!"er that the follo%in( su"*ets re4uire a sin(ular &er" :
an'one either neither what
an'thin! ever'one no one whatever
each ever'thin! nothin! whoever
164
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
The follo%in( su"*ets re4iure either a sin(ular or a plural &er" the pen$in(
on a 4ualifyin( phrase or other onte)t fro! the sentene:
all
any
some
the rest
Avoid using plural verbs with singular sub8ects* and singular verbs with plural
sub8ects.
Inorret : E&eryone %ho !a*ors in arhiteture an$ +ne arts stu$y history
of art JKN.
-orret : E&eryone %ho !a*ors in arhiteture an$ +ne arts stu$ies history
of art JKN.
Inorret : Either of these "uses (o past the uni&ersity.
-orret : Either of these "uses (oes past the uni&ersity.
Inorret : Anyone %ho %ish to partiipate in the state lottary !ay $o so
"y purhasin( a ti#et at a store that $isplays the oRial lottary
seal.
-orret : Anyone %ho %ishes to partiipate in the state lottary !ay $o so
"y purhasin( a ti#et at a store that $isplays the oRial lottary
seal.
Inorret : ,either -ana$a nor Me)io re4uire that iti'ens of the Dnite$
States ha&e passports.
-orret : ,either -ana$a nor Me)io re4uires that iti'ens of the Dnite$
States ha&e passports.
Inorret : The +rst t%o pro"le!s are &ery $iRult, "ut the rest is easy.
-orret : The +rst t%o pro"le!s are &ery $iRult, "ut the rest2of the
pro"le!s3 are easy.
Part A # *hoose the correct answer@
Eah of the ra$ioisotopes pro$ue$ arti+ially its o%n
$istint struture.
2A3 ha&e
2B3 has
2-3 ha&in(
2.3 ha&e ha$
Part B # *hoose the incorrect word word or phrase and correct it@
E&eryone %ho has tra&ele$ aross the Dnite$ state "y ar, train, or "us
2A3 2B3
165
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
are surprise$ to see suh a lar(e e)panse of territory %ith suh
2-3 2.3
&ariation a!on( the lifestyles of the people.
:ROBLEM <L A!reement B *ollective $%b0ect
and Verb
Re!e!"er that the follo%in( olleti&e su"*ets a(ree %ith sin(ular &er" :
audience "aculty police variety
band "amily public D* E* F*...
dollars
chorus group series D* E* F*... miles
class ma8ority sta=
committee orchestra team
Re!e!"er that the follo%in( su"*et a(rees %ith a plural &er" : people.
A&oi$ usin( plural &er"s %ith sin(ular su"*ets an$ sin(ular &er"s %ith plural
su"*ets.
,ote : in ertain ases, to e)press the separate nature of in$i&i$uals in a
(roup, the %riter !ay use a plural &er" %ith the olleti&e su"*ets.
Inorret : T%enty $ollars are the prie.
-orret : T%enty $ollars is the prie.
Inorret : Many people is o!in( to the (ra$uation.
-orret : Many people are o!in( to the (ra$uation.
Inorret : An au$iene usually $o not applau$ in a hruh.
-orret : An au$iene usually $oes not applau$ in a hruh.
Inorret : Four !iles are the $istane to the oRe.
-orret : Four !iles is the $istane to the oRe.
Inorret : The sta8 are !eetin( in the onferene roo!.
-orret : The sta8 is !eetin( in the onferene roo!.
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
A (oo$ tea! P of "oth reruitin( an$ oahin( as %ell as perfor!in(.
2a3 is a result
2"3 it is a result
23 resultin(
2$3 result it
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
Beause entertainin( is suh a o!petiti&e "usiness, a (roup of
sin(ers or
166
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
2a3 2"3
!usiians nee$in( a !ana(er to help !ar#et the !usi.
23 2$3

:ROBLEM <; A!reementno%n and prono%n
In all patterns, there !ust a(ree!ent of noun an$ pronoun.
A&oi$ usin( a pronoun that $oes not a(ree in nu!"er %ith the noun to %hih
it refers.
E5ample#
Inorret : If you %ant to lea&e a !essa(e for Mr. an$ Mrs. -arlson, I %ill
"e (la$ to ta#e the!.
-orret : If you %ant to lea&e a !essa(e for Mr. an$ Mrs. -arlson, I %ill "e
(la$ to ta#e it.
Inorret : Al is intereste$ in !athe!atis an$ their appliations.
-orret : Al is intereste$ in !athe!atis an$ its appliations.
Inorret : it is easier to tal# a"out a pro"le! then to resol&e the!.
-orret : it is easier to tal# a"out a pro"le! then to resol&e it.
Inorret : Althou(h their &isas %ill e)pire in =une, they an ha&e it
e)ten$e$ for three !onths.
-orret : Althou(h their &isas %ill e)pire in =une, they an ha&e the!
e)ten$e$ for three !onths.
Inorret : in spite of its s!all si'e, these a!eras ta#e &ery (oo$ pitures.
-orret : in spite of their s!all si'e, these a!eras ta#e &ery (oo$
pitures.
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
A olle(e "oo#store that sells use$ te)t"oo#s sto# alon( %ith
the ne% ones on the shelf un$er the ourse title.
2a3 its 23 a
2"3 their 2$3 the!
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
Ma(nesiu!, the li(htest of our strutural !etals, has an i!portant
plae
2a3
a!on( o!!on en(ineerin( !aterials "eause of their %ei(ht.
2"3 23 2$3
167
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
:ROBLEM <M A!reementQ $%b0ect and
Possessive Prono%ns@
In all patterns, there !ust "e a(ree!ent of su"*et pronoun an$ possessi&e
pronouns that refer to the su"*et.
$%b0ect prono%ns Possessive prono%ns
0 my
6ou your
1e his
She her
0t its
-e our
6ou your
They their
Re!e!"er that it refers to a s!all "a"y. A&oi$ usin( its instea$ of its as a
possessi&e pronoun. It+s !eans it is.
Inorret : those of us %ho are o&er +fty years ol$ shoul$ (et their "loo$
pressure he#e$ re(ularly.
-orret : those of us %ho are o&er +fty years ol$ shoul$ (et our "loo$
pressure he#e$ re(ularly.
Inorret : our nei(h"ors #no% that %hen they (o on &aation, %e %ill (et
its !ail for the!.
-orret : our nei(h"ors #no% that %hen they (o on &aation, %e %ill (et
their !ail for the!.
Inorret : A !other %ho %or#s outsi$e of the ho!e has to prepare for
e!er(enies %hen she annot "e there to ta#e are of your si#
hil$.
-orret : A !other %ho %or#s outsi$e of the ho!e has to prepare for
e!er(enies %hen she annot "e there to ta#e are of her si#
hil$.
Inorret : 7ine ten$s to lose their >a&or %hen it has not "een properly
seale$.
-orret : 7ine ten$s to lose its >a&or %hen it has not "een properly
seale$.
Inorret : optional e4uip!ent on a ar an a$$ se&eral hun$re$ $ollars to
its resale &alue %hen you tra$e it in.
168
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
-orret : optional e4uip!ent on a ar an a$$ se&eral hun$re$ $ollars to
its resale &alue %hen you tra$e it in.
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
The tele&ision pro(ra! %e allo% to %ath in>uene their learnin(.
2a3 a hil$ren 23 our hil$
2"3 our hil$ren 2$3 their -hil$s
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
Althou(h !aple trees are a!on( the !ost olorful &arieties in the fall, they
lose its lea&es sooner than oa# tress.

:ROBLEM << A!reementimpersonal prono%ns
In all patterns, there !ust "e a(ree!ent of i!personal pronoun in a
sentene.
Re!e!"er that for for!al %ritin(, it is neessary to ontinue usin( the
i!personal pronoun one throu(hout a sentene. For !ore infor!al %ritin(,
he or his !ay "e use$ instea$ of one or one(s to refer to a pre&ious use of
the pronoun one.
Avoid %sin! youE yourE th#yE or th#ir to re&er to the impersonal
prono%n on#.
Inorret : At a lar(e uni&ersity, one %ill al!ost al%ays "e a"le to +n$ a
frien$ %ho spea#s your lan(ua(e.
-orret : At a lar(e uni&ersity, one %ill al!ost al%ays "e a"le to +n$ a
frien$ %ho spea#s ones lan(ua(e.
%r
At a lar(e uni&ersity, one %ill al!ost al%ays "e a"le to +n$ a
frien$ %ho spea#s his lan(ua(e.
Inorret : if one #ne% the fats, you %oul$ not "e so 4ui# to ritii'e.
-orret : if one #ne% the fats, one %oul$ not "e so 4ui# to ritii'e.
or
if one #ne% the fats, he %oul$ not "e so 4ui# to ritii'e.
Inorret : in or$er to (ra$uate$, one !ust present their thesis thirty $ays
prior to the last $ay of lasses.
-orret : in or$er to (ra$uate$, one !ust present ones thesis thirty $ays
prior to the last $ay of lasses.
or
in or$er to (ra$uate$, one !ust present his thesis thirty $ays
prior to the last $ay of lasses.
169
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
Inorret : Re(ar$less of ones personal "eliefs, you ha&e the
responsi"ility to report the fats as i!partially as possi"le.
-orret : Re(ar$less of ones personal "eliefs, one ha&e the
responsi"ility to report the fats as i!partially as possi"le.
%r
Re(ar$less of ones personal "eliefs, he ha&e the
responsi"ility to report the fats as i!partially as possi"le.
Inorret : if one $oes not %or# har$, you annot e)pet to suee$.
-orret : if one $oes not %or# har$, one annot e)pet to suee$.
%r
if one $oes not %or# har$, he annot e)pet to suee$.
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
The !ore he!o(lo"in one has, the !ore o)y(en is arrie$ to ells.
2a3 one
2"3 its
23 their
2$3 ones
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
One an only li&e %ithout %ater for a"out ten $ays "eause al!ost LN[ of
their "o$y is %ater.

:ROBLEM HNN A!reement$%b0ect and
Appositive
In all patterns, there !ust "e a(ree!ent of the su"*et an$ the appositi&e,
an e)planatory phrase that follo%s the su"*et.
Avoid %sin! a no%n or prono%n in the appositive that does not a!ree
in n%mber with the s%b0ect to which it re&ers@
E5amples#
Inorret : The people in !y lass, !ostly international stu$ent, are &ery
frien$ly.
-orret : The people in !y lass, !ostly international stu$ents, are &ery
frien$ly.
Inorret : The +nal e)a!, essay tests, %ill "e (i&en $urin( the last %ee#
of lasses.
-orret : The +nal e)a!, essay test, %ill "e (i&en $urin( the last %ee# of
lasses.
170
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
Inorret : 7e $i$nt sleep "eause of =ans $o(, a little poo$le puppy that
!isse$ their !other.
-orret : 7e $i$nt sleep "eause of =ans $o(, a little poo$le puppy that
!isse$ its !other.
Inorret : I ha&ent seen !y ousins, no% a youn( %o!an, for !any
years.
-orret : I ha&ent seen !y ousins, no% youn( %o!an, for !any years.
Inorret : The notes that I too#, so!e of it %ith e)tensi&e $ra%in(s, are
!issin( fro! !y fol$er.
-orret : The notes that I too#, so!e of the! %ith e)tensi&e $ra%in(s,
are !issin( fro! !y fol$er.
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
-lones, , are (enetially ho!o(eneous.
2a3 plant (ro%in( fro! a sin(le spei!en
2"3 that a plant (ro%n fro! a sin(le spei!en
23 plants (ro%n fro! a sin(le spei!en
2$3 fro! a sin(le spei!en, plants
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
The Gray 7olf, a speies reintro$ue$ into their nati&e ha"itat in
Eello%stone ,ational :ar#, has "e(un to "ree$ naturally there.
:ROBLEM HNH Problems with +ntrod%ctor' Verbal
Modi.ers
0ntroductory verbal modi'ers intro$ue an$ !o$ify the su"*et an$
&er" in the !ain lause of those sentenes. They an "e ing for!s, -ed
for!s, or in+niti&es. They are usually separate$ fro! the !a#e lause "y a
o!!a.
Verbal Modi.ers 2in and ,#! 9orms
2ing for!s an$ ed for!s !ay "e use$ as &er"al. 1er"al is funtion as
!o$i+ers.
An intro$utory &er"al !o$i+er %ith ing or ed shoul$ i!!e$iately pree$e
the noun it !o$i+es Other%ise, the relationship "et%een the noun an$ the
!o$i+er is unlear, an$ the sentene is illo(ial.
Avoid %sin! a no%n immediatel' a&ter an introd%ctor' verbal phrase
which ma' not be lo!icall' modi.ed b' the phrase@
171
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
Inorret : After (ra$uatin( fro! -ity -olle(e, :rofessor Ba#ers stu$ies
%ere ontinue$ at State Dni&ersity, %here he reei&e$ his
:h... in En(lish.
-orret : After (ra$uatin( fro! -ity -olle(e, :rofessor Ba#er stu$ies %ere
ontinue$ at State Dni&ersity, %here he reei&e$ his :h... in
En(lish.
Inorret : Returnin( to her roo!, se&eral piees of *e%elry %ere
!issin(.
-orret : Returnin( to her roo!, she foun$ that se&eral piees of *e%elry
%ere !issin(.
Inorret : 6a&in( "een $elaye$ "y hea&y traR, it %as not possi"le for
her to arri&e on ti!e.
-orret : 6a&in( "een $elaye$ "y hea&y traR, she arri&e$ late.
Inorret : Austo!e$ to (ettin( up early, the ne% she$ule %as not
$iRult for hi! to a$*ust to.
-orret : Austo!e$ to (ettin( up early, he ha$ no $iRulty a$*ustin( to
the ne% she$ule.
Inorret : After +nishin( his speeh, the au$iene %as in&ite$ to as#
4uestions.
-orret : After +nishin( his speeh, he in&ite$ the au$iene to as#
4uestions.
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
Air traR ontrollers (ui$e planes throu(h on$itions of
near 'ero &isi"ility.
2a3 They tal# %ith pilots an$ %ath their approah on ra$ar.
2"3 Tal#in( %ith pilots an$ %athin( their approah on ra$ar.
23 Tal# %ith pilots an$ %ath their approah on ra$ar.
2$3 7hen they tal#e$ %ith pilots an$ %athe$ their approah on ra$ar.
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
6a&e $esi(ne$ his o%n plane, The Spirit o" St. 4ouis, Lin$"er(h >e%
fro!
2A3 2B3
Roose&elt Fiel$ in ,e% Eor# aross the oean to Le Bour(et Fiel$ outsi$e
:aris.
2-3 2.3
172
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
:ROBLEM HNF Verbal Modi.ers +n.nitives o&
P%rpose to +ntrod%ce +nstr%ctions
An in+niti&e that e)presses purpose !ay "e use$ as an intro$utory &er"al
!o$i+er. Re!e!"er that a &er" %or$ follo%s the in+niti&e. The &er" %or$
e)presses a !anner to ao!plish the purpose.
A&oi$ usin( a noun or to %ith an ing for! instea$ of the in+niti&e of
purpose. A&oi$ usin( an ing for! or a passi&e onstrution after an
intro$utory &er"al !o$i+er.
Inorret : To protet yourself fro! $an(erous e)posure to the suns rays,
usin( a sun sreen.
-orret : To protet yourself fro! $an(erous e)posure to the suns rays,
use a sun sreen.
Inorret : :repare for the TOEFL, stu$y thirty !inutes e&ery $ay for the
se&eral !onths.
-orret : To prepare for the TOEFL, stu$y thirty !inutes e&ery $ay for
the se&eral !onths.
Inorret : In or$er to ta#e a$&anta(e of lo% air fares, to "uy your ti#ets
%ell in a$&ane.
-orret : In or$er to ta#e a$&anta(e of lo% air fares, "uy your ti#ets
%ell in a$&ane.
Inorret : To ta#in( ation pitures, al%ays use a hi(h5spee$ +l!.
-orret : To ta#e ation pitures, al%ays use a hi(h5spee$ +l!.
Inorret : The sen$ letters an$ pa#a(es fro! the Dnite$ States
o&erseas, use Glo"al Mail or .6L .eli&ery.
-orret : To sen$ letters an$ pa#a(es fro! the Dnite$ States o&erseas,
use Glo"al Mail or .6L .eli&ery.
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
To relie&e pressure in the s#ull, into the "loo$.
2a3 Eou %ill in*et a stron( solution of pure (luose.
2"3 To in*et a stron( solution of pure (luose.
23 A stron( solution of (luose %ill in*et purely.
2$3 In*et a stron( solution of pure (luose.
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
To esti!ate ho% !uh it %ill ost to "uil$ a ho!e, +n$in( the total s4uare
Foota(e of the house an$ !ultiply "y ost per s4uare foot.
173
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR

:ROBLEM HNIppParallel $tr%ct%re
Parallel structure !eans e)pressin( i$eas of e4ual i!portane %ith the sa!e
(ra!!atial strutures.
Parallel $tr%ct%re+n a $eries
In all patterns, i$eas of e4ual i!portane shoul$ "e e)presse$ "y the sa!e
(ra!!atial struture. A&oi$ e)pressin( i$eas in a series %ith $i8erent
strutures.
Inorret : =ane is youn(, enthusiasti, an$ she has talent.
-orret : =ane is youn(, enthusiasti, an$ she talente$.
Inorret : 7e learne$ to rea$ the passa(es arefully an$ un$erlinin( the
!ain i$eas.
-orret : 7e learne$ to rea$ the passa(es arefully an$ to un$erline the
!ain i$eas.
Inorret : The $uties of the ne% seretary are to ans%er the telephone, to
type letters, an$ "oo# #eepin(.
-orret : The $uties of the ne% seretary are to ans%er the telephone, to
type letters, an$ to $o the "oo# #eepin(.
Inorret : The patients sy!pto!s %ere fe&er, $i''iness, an$ his hea$
hurt.
-orret : The patients sy!pto!s %ere fe&er, $i''iness, an$ his
hea$ahes.
Inorret : :rofessor 7illia!s en*oys teahin( an$ to %rite.
-orret : :rofessor 7illia!s en*oys teahin( an$ to %rite.
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
In a hot, sunny li!ate, !an ali!ati'e$ "y eatin( less, $rin#in( !ore
li4ui$s, %earin( li(hter lothin(, an$ .
2a3 s#in han(es that $ar#en
2"3 his s#in !y $ar#en
23 e)perienin( a $ar#enin( of the s#in
2$3 $ar#ens his s#in
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
The ai!s of the European Eono!i -o!!unity are to eli!inate tari8s
2a3
"et%een ountries $e&elopin( o!!on poliies for a(riulture, la"or,
2"3
%elfare, tra$e, an$ transportationC an$ to a"olish trust an$ artels.
23 2$3
174
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
:ROBLEM HNJ Parallel $tr%ct%reA&ter
*orrelative *on0%nctions
Re!e!"er that i$eas of e4ual are intro$ue$ "y orrelati&e on*untions:
+othGG.andGGGGG
3ot onlyGGGGGbut alsoGGGGGGGGG.
A&oi$ e)pressin( i$eas after orrelati&e on*untions %ith $i8erent
strutures.
Inorret : She is not only fa!ous in the Dnite$ States "ut also a"roa$.
-orret : She is fa!ous not only in the Dnite$ States "ut also a"roa$.
Inorret : The e)a! teste$ "oth listenin( an$ to rea$.
-orret : The e)a! teste$ "oth listenin( an$ rea$in(.
Inorret : 6e is not only intelli(ent "ut also he is reati&e.
-orret : 6e is not only intelli(ent "ut also reati&e.
Inorret : Flyin( is not only faster "ut also it is safer than tra&elin( "y ar.
-orret : Flyin( is not only faster "ut also safer than tra&elin( "y ar.
Inorret : =ohn re(istere$ for "oth Eletrial En(ineerin( KNN an$ to stu$y
Mathe!atis I<N.
-orret : =ohn re(istere$ for "oth Eletrial En(ineerin( KNN an$
Mathe!atis I<N.
Part A# *hoose the correct answer@
Both historially an$ , Ontario is the heartlan$ of -ana$a.
2a3 in its (eo(raphy
2"3 (eo(raphially
23 also its (eo(raphy
2$3 (eo(raphy
Part B# *hoose the incorrect word or phrase and correct it@
The aao "ean %as ulti&ate$ "y the A'tes not only to $rin# "ut also
urreny.

:ROBLEM HNKK Red%ndanc'-nnecessar'
Phrases
175
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
In all patterns, prefer si!ple, $iret sentenes to o!pliate$, in$iret
sentenes. Fin$ the Su"*et 1er"5-o!ple!ent5Mo$i+er, an$ $eter!ine
%hether the %or$s are useful or unneessary.
$ V A M
Lee learne$ En(lish 4ui#ly
Avoid %sin! an ad0ective with s%ch phrases as in character or in nat%re
Avoid %sin! the red%ndant pattern instead o& an adverb s%ch as 2%ic/l'Q
+n a + ad0ective + manner
+n a + 2%ic/ + manner
I,-ORRE-T : The #ey oRials %ho testi+e$ "efore the Senate
o!!ittee respon$e$ in a !anner that e&asi&e
-ORRE-T : The #ey oRials %ho testi+e$ "efore the Senate
o!!ittee respon$e$ that e&asi&e.
I,-ORRE-T: Mr. #no%s a (reat $eal in ter!s of on$ition of the
situation.
-ORRE-T : Mr. #no%s a (reat $eal in a"out the situation.
I,-ORRE-T: It %as a pro"le! %hih %as &ery $iRult in harater an$
&ery $eliate in nature.
-ORRE-T : The pro"le! %as &ery $iRult an$ $eliate.
I,-ORRE-T: Marry ha$ al%ays "eha&e$ in a responsi"le !anner.
-ORRE-T : Marry ha$ al%ays "eha&e$ responsi"le.
-hoose the inorret %or$ or phrase an$ orret it
6u!!in("ir$s !o&e their %in(s so rapi$ a %ay that they appear to "e
han(in( in the air.
:ROBLEM HNLK Red%ndanc'Repetition o& 7ords
with the $ame Meanin!.
In all patterns, a&oi$ usin( the %or$s %ith the sa!e !eanin( onseuti&ely
in sentenes.
I,-ORRE-T: The !oney that I ha&e is suRient enou(h for !y nee$s.
-ORRE-T : The !oney that I ha&e is suRient for !y nee$s.
I,-ORRE-T: Bill as#e$ the spea#er to repeat a(ain "eause he ha$ not
hear$ hi! the +rst ti!e.
-ORRE-T : Bill as#e$ the spea#er to repeat "eause he ha$ not hear$
hi! the +rst ti!e.
I,-ORRE-T: The lass a$&ane$ for%ar$ rapi$ly.
176
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
-ORRE-T : The lass a$&ane$ rapi$ly.
I,-ORRE-T: She returne$ "a# to her ho!eto%n after she ha$ +nishe$
her $e(ree.
-ORRE-T : She returne$ to her ho!eto%n after she ha$ +nishe$ her
$e(ree.
I,-ORRE-T: I a! nearly al!ost +nishe$ %ith this hapter.
-ORRE-T : I a! nearly +nishe$ %ith this hapter.
Or
I a! al!ost +nishe$ %ith this hapter
:art A: -hoose the orret ans%er
7aitresses an$ %aiters %ho ser&e 00000000000 $eser&e at least a
perent tip
2A3 in a ourteous !anner
2B3 ourteously
2-3 %ith ourteously in their !anner
2.3ourteous
:art B : -hoose the inorret %or$ or phrase an$ orret it.
The i$ea of su"!arine is an ol$ anient one, $atin( fro! as early as
+fteenth entury %hen .re""el an$ .a 1ini !a$e preli!inary
$ra%in(s
:ROBLEM HN;K Red%ndanc'Repetition o& No%n
b' Prono%n
In all patterns, a&oi$ usin( a noun an$ the pronoun that refers to it
onseuti&ely in a sentene. A&oi$ usin( a pronoun after the noun it refers
to, an$ that.
I,-ORRE-T: My teaher he sai$ to listen to the ne%s on the ra$io in
or$er to pratie listenin( o!prehension.
-ORRE-T : My teaher sai$ to listen to the ne%s on the ra$io in or$er
to pratie listenin( o!prehension.
I,-ORRE-T: Ste&e he plans to (o into "usiness %ith his father.
-ORRE-T : Ste&e plans to (o into "usiness %ith his father.
I,-ORRE-T: My sister she foun$ a store that i!porte$ fro! our ountry.
-ORRE-T : My sister foun$ a store that i!porte$ fro! our ountry.
I,-ORRE-T: 6ospitali'ation that it o&ers roo!s, !eals, nursin(, an$
a$$itional hospital e)penses suh as la" test, @5rays, an$
!e$iine.
177
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
-ORRE-T : 6ospitali'ation o&ers roo!s, !eals, nursin(, an$
a$$itional hospital e)penses suh as la" test, @5rays, an$
!e$iine.
I,-ORRE-T: Anne she %ants to &isit 7ashin(ton, ..-, "efore she (oes
ho!e.
-ORRE-T : Anne %ants to &isit 7ashin(ton, ..-, "efore she (oes
ho!e.
:art A: -hoose the orret ans%er
A :erennial is 0000000000000 for !ore than t%o years, suh as trees an$
shru"s
2A3 Any plant that it ontinues to (ro%
2B3 Any plant it ontinuin( to (ro%
2-3 Any plant that ontinues to (ro%
2.3 Any plant that ontinuin( to (ro%th
:art B: -hoose the inorret %or$ or phrase an$ orret it.
A$&ertisin( it pro&i$es !ost of the ino!e for !a(a'ine, ne%spapers,
ra$io, an$
2A3 2B3 2-3
Tele&ision in the Dnite$ States to$ay.
2.3
:ROBLEM HNMK Problems with 7ord *hoiceE
7or$ hoie !eans hoosin( "et%een si!ilar %or$s to e)press preise
!eanin(s. Transitive and +ntransitive VerbsRaise and Rise
A transitive verb is a &er" that ta#es a o!ple!ents.
An intransitive verb is a &er" that ta#es not a o!ple!ent.
The follo%in( pairs of &er"s an "e onfusin(. Re!e!"er that raise is a
transiti&e &er"C it ta#es o!ple!ent. Rise is an intransiti&e &er"C it $oes not
ta#e a o!ple!ent.
Transitive +ntransitive
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
1er" 7or$ :ast :artiiple Verb word Past
Participle
178
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
Raise raise$ raise$ rise rose
risen
Re!e!"er that to raise !eans to !o&e a hi(her plae or to ause to rise. To
rise !eans to (o or to inrease.
Raise an$ rise are also use$ as nouns. A rise !eans an inrease in salary. A
rise !eans a rease in prie, %orth, 4uantity, or $e(ree.
$ RA+$
E
* M
6ea&y
rain
Raise
s
The %ater le&el of the
reser&oir
E&ery
sprin(
6ea&y
rain
raise$ The %ater le&el of the
reser&oir
Last %ee#
I,-ORRE-T : The ost of li&in( has raise$ I perent in the past year.
-ORRE-T : The ost of li&in( has risen I perent in the past year.
I,-ORRE-T : The >a( is risen at $a%n "y an honor (uar$.
-ORRE-T : The >a( is raise$ at $a%n "y an honor (uar$.
I,-ORRE-T : ?ey nee$s to rise her (ra$es if she %ants to (et into (ra$uate
shool.
-ORRE-T : ?ey nee$s to raise her (ra$es if she %ants to (et into
(ra$uate shool.
Transitive and +ntransitive Verbs)a' and )ie
Transitive +ntransitive
Verb
"
Pas
t
Participl
e
Verb
"
Pas
t
Participl
e
)a' laid laid )ie la' lain

Lay !eans to put, to plae, to ause an$ to lie.
Lie !eans to reline or to oupy a plae.
179
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
Lay is transiti&e &er", it ta#es a o!ple!ent. Lie is intransiti&e &er"C it $oes
not ta#e a o!ple!ent.
$ )a
'
* M
The post
!an
The post
!an
La
y
lai
$
The
!ail
The
!ail
On the ta"le e&ery $ay
On the sofa yester$ay
$ )ie * M
6e
6e
Lie
s
La
y
On the sofa to rest e&ery$ay after
%or#
On the sofa to rest yester$ay after
%or#s
Transitive and +ntransitive Verbs$et and $it
Transitive +ntransitive
Verb
"
Pas
t
Participl
e
Verb
"
Pas
t
Participl
e
$et $et $et $it $at $at
Set !eans to put, to plae, to ause to sit.
Sit !eans to reline or to oupy a plae on hair or >at surfae.
$ $e
t
* M
They
The stu$ents
Set
set
The la"
e4uip!ent
The la"
e4uip!ent
On the ta"le e&ery lass
On the ta"le lat lass
perio$
$ $it * M
The
e4uip!ent
The
e4uip!ent
Sit
s
Sat
On the ta"le e&ery lass
On the ta"le lat lass
perio$
Transitive and +ntransitive VerbsTell and $a'
Transitive +ntransitive
Verb
"
Pas
t
Participl
e
Verb
"
Pas
t
Participl
e
Tell Tol
d
Told $a' $ai
d
$aid
180
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
Tell is use$ "efore o!ple!ents, espeially persons, to say is not use$
"efore o!ple!ents that are persons, to say is usually follo%e$ "y a lause
intro$ue$ "y that.
$ Tell *ompleme
nt
Modi.er
The
Teaher
The
Teaher
Tell
s
tol$
Ds
us
6o% to $o it
6o% to $o it
$ $a' *ompleme
nt
Modi.er
The
teaher
The
teaher
Say
s
sai
$
That %e are !a#in(
pro(ress
That %e %ere !a#in(
pro(ress
Transitive Verbs)et and )eave
Transitive
Verb
"
Pas
t
Participl
e
Verb
"
Pas
t
Participl
e
let let let leave le&t le&t
Let !eans to allo% 9 per!it, To lea&e !eans to let so!eone or so!ethin(
re!ain. To lea&e also !eans to $epart or to (o.
$ let *ompleme
nt
Modi.er
The
Teaher
The
Teaher
lets
let
the!
us
Stay up late e&ery
ni(ht
Stay up late last
ni(ht
$ leav
e
*ompleme
nt
Modi.er
The
teaher
The
teaher
lea&e
s
left
6is "a(
6is "a(
At the oRe e&ery
$ay
At the oRe
yester$ay
Transitive VerbsBARRA7 and )EN3
Transitive
Verb
"
Past Participl
e
Verb
"
Pas
t
Participl
e
borro borrowe borrowe lend len lent
181
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
w d d t
Borro% !eans to ta#e an$ (i&e it, it is often follo%e$ "y the %or$ fro!, to
len$ !eans to (i&e an$ ta#e it "a#, it is often follo%e$ "y the %or$ too.
$ borrow *ompleme
nt
Modi.er
The
Teaher
The
Teaher
Borrows
Borrowe
d
Money
!oney
Fro! "an# e&ery ter!
Fro! "an# last ter!
$ lend *ompleme
nt
Modi.er
The
teaher
The
teaher
)end
lent
6is "a(
6is "a(
To ?arens "rother e&ery
$ay
To ?arens "rother
yester$ay
Transitive VerbsMA:E and 3A
Transitive
Verb
"
Past Participl
e
Verb
"
Pas
t
Participl
e
Ma/e mad
e
made 3o did done
.o is often use$ "efore o!ple!ents that $esri"e %or# an$ hores. To
!a#e is often use$ "efore o!ple!ents that are $eri&e$ fro! &er"s.
.O an
assi(n!ent
Ma#e an
a(ree!ent
To a(ree
The $ishes
A fa&or
6o!e%or#
The laun$ry
A paper
Researh
%or#
An
announe!ent
An atte!pt
A $eision
A $iso&ery
An o8er
A pro+t
A pro!ise
To
announe
To atte!pt
To $ei$e
To $iso&er
To o8er
To pro+t
To pro!ise
$ 3o *ompleme
nt
Modi.er
7
e
.o
$i$
6o!e%or#
ho!e%or#
Before lass
e&ery$ay
182
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
%
e
Before lass
yester$ay
$ Ma/
e
*ompleme
nt
Modi.er
7
e
%
e
Ma#e
!a$
e
An
a(ree!ent
An
a(ree!ent
7ith hi! e&ery$ay
7ith hi! yester$ay
:ROBLEM HN<
PREPA$+T+ANA) +3+AM$
Pre&er these idioms Avoid these idioms
Accede to
Accordin! to
Approve o&
Ashamed o&
Bored with
*apable o&
*ompete with
*omposed o&
*oncerned with
*onscio%s o&
3epend on
Accede on b'
Accordin!
Approve
Ashamed with
Bored o&
*apable to
*ompete to
*omposed &rom
*oncerned o&
*onscio%s &or
3epend inE to
183
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
E6ects on
E2%al to
E5cept &or
9rom now on
9rom time to time
9rown on
Mlance atE thro%!h
+ncapable o&
+n conKict
+n&erior to
+n the habit o&
+n the near &%t%re
:nowled!e o&
NearE ne5t to o&
The opinion
An top o&
Apposite
Prior to
Re!ard to
Related to
Respect &or
Responsible &or
$imilar to
$ince
-ntil
7ith re!ard to
E6ects in
E2%al as
E5ceptin! &or
a&ter now on
9orE when time to time
&rown
Mlance
+ncapable to
on conKict
+n&erior with
+n the habit to
At the near &%t%re
:nowled!e on
Near
+n opinion
An top
Apposite over
Prior over
Re!ard o&
Related with
Respect
Responsible
$imilar as
Ever $ince
-p -ntil
7ith re!ard
:ROBLEM HNN
Part o& $peech +denti&' the part o& $peech
No%ns derived &rom verbs
verb endin! no%n
Store
Aept
Insist
A(ree
authori'e
5a(e
5ane
5ene
5!ent
5sion9tion
Stora(e
Aeptane
Insistent
A(ree!ent
authori'ation
184
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
No%ns derived &rom Ad0ective
Ad0ective endin! no%n
-on&enient
Re$un$ant
Opposite
Soft
$ura"le
5e
5y
5tion
5ness
5ty
-on&eniene
Re$un$any
Opposition
Softness
$ura"ility
Ad0ective derived &rom no%n
no%n endin! Ad0ective
:ossi"ility
Intention
.istane
=uie
fre4ueny
5a"le
5al
5ant
5y
5ant
:ossi"le
Intentional
.istant
=uiy
fre4uent
Adverb derived &rom Ad0ective
Ad0ective endin! Adverb
ERient 5ly ERiently
The End o& MRAMMAR TAE9)
185
TOEFLS GRAMMER, By :Ir. Aripan Saipulloh.MSR
186