A Survey of K Means and Ga Km the Hybrid Clustering Algorithm

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A Survey of K Means and Ga Km the Hybrid Clustering Algorithm

A Survey of K Means and Ga Km the Hybrid Clustering Algorithm

© All Rights Reserved

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A Survey Of K-Means And GA-KM The Hybrid

Clustering Algorithm

Yogita chauhan, Vaibhav Chaurasia, Chetan Agarwal

Abstract: In this paper we present application of hybrid clustering algorithm that combines partitioning clustering algorithm and heuristic search

algorithm. Our method uses portioning method with Genetic algorithm . First we cluster the data using K-Means clustering algorithm with the value of K

no. of clusters then we calculate the centroid of K cluster obtain from the previous step. Than we apply Genetic algorithm for centroids for the given

value K clusters (GAKM). After applying the GAKM we compare the result of simple K-Means and GAKM algorithm .our experimental results shows that

the cluster obtained from GAKM are provides more optimal result in comparison of simple K-Means algorithm cluster result.

Index Terms: Evolutionary data mining, clustering, Partitioning methods, K-Means clustering algorithm, Genetic algorithm,, GAKM algorithm,

biomedical data,

1 INTRODUCTION

Clustering is a unsupervised classification technique . we can

classify the data without using class label by using clustering,

and by using the distance measurement we group the cluster

set. The cluster is a collection of homogeneous data types

many clustering methods are there in data mining in this paper

we are using K-Means (partitioning method), where the

number of clusters K are given. In K-Means algorithm we

divide or partition whole data in to number of K clusters. Each

data object belongs to only one cluster. Each cluster must

contain at least one data object , these are the basic condition

for the partitioning clustering method. K-Means is one of the

partitioning method which is applicable for numeric data.

When the no. of cluster K is known a prior clustering may be

formulated as distribution of n objects in N dimensional space

among K groups in such a way that objects in the same cluster

are more similar in some aspects than the others in different

clusters. This involves minimization of some optimization

criterion [1]. Genetic algorithm is purposed by Holland

in1975in the university of Michigan. The principle of natural

genetics is to construct search and optimization

procedures.This is a heuristic search algorithm whose

collective behaviour emerges from a group of social insects

such as ants, bees, and wasps has been known as Swarm

Intelligence. The foraging of ants has led to a novel algorithm

called Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) [3].

The simple Genetic algorithm automatically obtain the

knowledge about the search space which is the space for all

possible and feasible solutions.GAs are inspired by Darwinian

theory of the survival of the fittest. Algorithm is started with a

set of solutions (represented by chromosomes) called

populations. Solutions for population are taken and used to

form a new population. This is motivate by a hope that new

population (offspring) , are selected according to their fitness.

The more suitable they are the more chance they have to

reproduce. This is repeat This is repeat until some

conditions(number of populations) for improvement of best

solution are satisfied [3].for detailed study of GA readers are

referred to [9]. GAKM by Jenn-Long Liu , yu-Tzu Hsu and

Chih-Lung Hung is a hybrid approach which combines the

Genetic algorithm(GA) and K-means(KM) the Genetic

algorithm steps are combined with K-means where the result

of K-means is used for setting the objective function of GA. If

satisfied condition obtain from here then the best solution is

taken out otherwise the GA steps (reproduction, crossover,

mutation) are apply to the parameters to calculate the fitness

value and get a best solution. This algorithm applied to the

biomedical data base (cardiac disease dataset sample) from

UCI machine learning repository.It contains 270 instances

belonging to two classes - normal (150) and heart patient

(120). Each record in the cardiac disease dataset is

characterized by 14 attributes, including 13 condition attributes

and 1 decision attribute which is the presence of cardiac

disease[4]. The next section of this paper contains overview

and explanation about K-means algorithm and GAKM algorithm

in section 2, 3.

2K-MEANS ALGORITHM

Partitioning based method creates K partitions, called clusters

(group of similar data objects ) from the given set of n data

objects. Initially some data objects are assign to some of the

partitions, An alternative relocation technique is used to

improve the partitioning by moving objects from one cluster to

another cluster. The data objects in the one cluster are similar

to each other or we can say them homogeneous data objects,

but these data objects are different from the another cluster

data objects. The each partition is represented by either a

centroid or a medoid, A centroid is the average of the all data

objects in a partition, while a medoid is the most

representative point of a cluster [8].The fundamental

requirements of the partitioning based methods are each

cluster must contained at least one data object, and each data

__________________________

Yogita Chauhan1 is currently pursuing masters degree

program in software engineering in Galgotias University,

Greater Noida ,U.P, India, PH-07838735230.

E-mail: yogitachauhan8@gmail.com

VaibhavChaurasia2 is currently pursuing masters

degree program in software engineering in Galgotias

University Greater Noida U.P, India, PH-09871457822.

E-mail: vaicha.oracle@gmail.com

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH VOLUME 3, ISSUE 6, JUNE 2014 ISSN 2277-8616

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object must belong to exactly one cluster. In this category of

clustering the k-means is the simplest and easy method to

cluster the data. The similarity measurement for this method is

carried out by distance measurement. It is most common to

calculate the dissimilarity between two patterns using a

distance measure define on the feature space. The most

popular metric for distance measurement is Euclidean

distance.

= (

, )

A flow chart for K-means algorithm is given below

yes

No

Fig 1 Flowchart of K-means algorithm

An algorithm for K-means partitioning is given below [2]:

Input: k, the number of cluster to be partitioned;

n, the number of objects.

Output: A set of k, cluster based on given similarity function

Steps:

i) Arbitrarily choose k objects ad the initial clusters;

ii) Repeat ,

a. (Re)assign each object to the cluster to which

the object is the most similar, based on the

given similarity function ;

b. Update the centroid (cluster means), i.e.,

calculate the mean value of the objects for

each cluster ;

iii) Until no change.

The advantage of K-means algorithm is that it is very efficient

and it can be apply for high dimensional data. Some

drawbacks are also there for K-means like it is only used when

data objects are numeric value or we can say that K-means

only applicable for the numeric data. The number of clusters

(the k value) is to be define bye user. One of the most

important drawback is if outlier and noise point are available

start

Select appropriate Cluster numbers ¢res

Calculate the centre of every cluster

Calculate the distance between every data point and each centroid

Each data point is associated with the nearest centroid

Each data point is associated with the nearest centrroid

Have every point moved to

another centroid?

End

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than the mean values are changes, k-means is very sensitive

for noise or outlier point because it is going to effect the mean

point of the cluster.

3 GENETICALGORITHM K-MEANS (GAKM)

Jenn-Long Liu, Yu-Tzu Hsu and Chih-Lung Hung [4] proposed

GAKM a hybrid method that combines a genetic algorithm

(GA) and K-means algorithm. The function of GAKM is to

determine the optimal weights of the attributes and cluster

centres of clusters that are needed to classify the dataset.

Genetic algorithm is a stochastic search algorithm which is

based on the Darwinian principal of natural selection and

natural genetics. The selection is biased toward more highly fit

individuals, so the average fitness of the population to improve

from one generation to the next. In general GA generates an

optimal solution by means of using reproduction, crossover,

and mutation operators [9, 10]. The genetic algorithm initially

start with population generated, population is the collection of

chromosomes, chromosome is the collection of genes, the

fitness for the population is calculated by using a suitable

fitness function accordingly. In GAKM the result of K-means

algorithm is used for setting the objective function of GA. If

fitness value is satisfied, the best solution is obtain. Otherwise

the GA parameters (reproduction, crossover, mutation ) are

apply for obtain a optimal no. of cluster.The flowchart for

GAKM is as follows:

yes

No

Fig 2 Flowchart of GAKM algorithm

The advantage of GAKM algorithm is that it can apply to high

dimensional data. It gives an optimal solution which is the best

solution to the problem. The fitness of best individual is also

expected to improve over time, and the best individual may be

selected as a solution after several generations.

An algorithm for GAKM is give below [11]:

Input:

Mutation probability, Pm;

Population Size, N;

Maximum number if generations, MAX-GEN;

Output:

Solution string, s*;

{ Initialize the population, P;

geno = MAX-GEN;

s* = P1; (Pi is the length in P)

While (geno> 0)

s* = P1; (Pi is the ith string in Pi)

P = Selection (P);

for i = 1 to N, Pi = Mutation (Pi);

for I = 1 to N, K-means (Pi);

S = string in P such that the corresponding weight

matrix Ws has the minimum SE measures;

If (S(Ws)) > S(Ws)), s* = S;

Geno = geno-1;

}

Output s*;

}

The steps involve in GAKM are coding, initialization, selection,

mutation. The coding is string-of group-numbers encoding

[12]. The initial population P(0) is selected randomly. For the

selection the roulette wheel strategy is used for random

The best solution

Initial Population

Decoding parameters calculate

fitness function value

If satisfied stop condition

K-means result for setting the

objective function of GA

Reproduction

Crossover

Mutation

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selection. The use of one step K-Means in GAKM instead of

the crossover operator used in conventional GA. In the GAKM

biased mutation operator is define specific to clustering called

distance based mutation. Thus GAKM combines the simple-

Means and GA. K. Krishna and M. NarasimhaMurty conduct

experiments to analyse the significance of the operators used

inGAKM and the performance of GAKM on different data sets

and varying sizes of search spaces.

4 CONCLUSION

In this paper we study the two clustering algorithms one is

simple K-Means partitioning algorithm and the GAKM an

hybrid algorithm which is the combination of simple K-Means

and Genetic Algorithm. K-means is combine with GA to get the

optimize no. of clusters from the result of simple K-Means

algorithm .Both algorithm are simple to understand and can be

applicable for various type of data like genomic data set,

numerical data set. Its review from study that K-means

applicable only when mean of cluster is defined, it is not

applicable on categorical data. But it is easy to understand

and implement. GAKM is good for complex problems it

retains best features. It is a outcome that the accuracy and

performance of GAKM is better than simple K-means.

REFERENCES

[1] TeherehHassanzadeh and mohamad Reza Meybodi ,A New

Hybrid Approach for Data Clustering using Fairfly Algorithm

and K-means, the 16

th

CSI International Symposium on

Artificial Intelligence and Signal Processing, ASIP,2012

[2] H. Jiawai and K. Micneline, Data Mining: concepts and

techniques, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 2001.

[3] S. Rajasekaran and G.A. VijayalakshmiPai, Neural

Network, Fuzzy Logic, and Genetic Algorithms Synthesis

and Applications, PHI, July 2012.

[4] Jenn-Long Liu, Yu-Tzu Hsu, Chih-Lung Hung ,

Development of Evolutionary Data Mining Algorithms and

their Applications to Cardiac Disease Diagnosis, WCCI

2012 IEEE World Congress on Computational

Intelligence, June 2012.

[5] R. Bhawani, G. SudhaSadasivam, RadhikaKumaran, A

Novel Parallel Hybrid K-means DE-ACO Clustering

Approach for Genomic clustering using MapReduce,

World Congress on Information and Communication

Technologies, 2011.

[6] Guangya LIU, Jingli CHEN, The Application of Genetic

Algorithm based on Mat lab in Function Optimization,

[7] Shalini S singh, N C Chauhan, K- means v/s K-medoids;

A Comparative study, National Conference on Recent

Trends in Engineering & Technology, B. V. M.

Engineering College, V. V Nagar, Gujarat, India,May

2011.

[8] T, Velmurugan and T. Santhanam,A Survey of Partition

Based Clustering Algorithm in Data Mining: An

experimental Approach, An Experimental Approach.

Informational Technology Journal, Vol, 10, No . 3, pp478-

484, 2011

[9] D. Goldberg, Genetic Algorithm in Search , Optimization

and Machine Learning, Addison Wesley, 1989.

[10] Z. Michalewicz, Genetic Algorithms + Data Structures =

Evolution Programs, 3

rd

ed., Springer-Verlag, 1999.

[11] K. Krishna and M NarasimhaMurty,Genetics K-Means

Algorithm, IEEE transactions on system ,man and

cybernetics, Part-B: Cybernetics , Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 433-

439, June 1999.

[12] R. Jones and M.A. Beltramo, Solving partitioning

problems with genetic algorithms,in proc. 4

th

int. conf.

Genetic Algorithms. San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufman,

1991.

Author(s) Profile

YogitaChauhan is pursuing M.Tech. in

Software Engineering from Galgotias

University Greater Noida, Delhi-NCR. She

is completed B.Tech. in Information

Technology from Gold Field Institute of

Technology & Management, Faridabad

affiliated from MaharshiDayanand

University, Rohtak.Area of interest are

Software Testing, Data Mining

VaibhavChaurasia pursuing M.Tech. in

Software Engineering from Galgotias

University. He is completed B.Tech. in

Computer Science from NIMS University

in 2012 and pursuing M.Tech. in Software

Engineering from Galgotias University

currently in 2014 respectively. Area of

interest is Software Testing.

ChetanAgarwal, is an Assistant Professor

at Galgotias University, Greater Noida,

Delhi-NCR. He has been a student of B.E

fromRajsthan University, andM.Tech

fromDhiruBhaiAmbani Institute of

Information Communication Technology,

GandhiNagar (Gujrat),India. He has more

than 10years of experience in Teaching.

He has taught subjects DBMS, DMS, TOC, DAA, DSA. He

has involved in various academic activities. He has wide

research interests that include Natural Language Processing,

Speech Synthesis & Reorganization, Parsing

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