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EUROCODES

S P R E A D S H E E T S
S t r u c t u r a l De s i g n
C a r l o S i g m u n d
Bi axi al Bendi ng
I N A C C O R D A N C E W I T H
E u r o p e a n S t a n d a r d s C E N / T C 2 5 0
S t r u c t u r a l E u r o c o d e s ( E N 1 9 9 2 - 1 - 1 )
Es
E b o o k
First Edition
Copyright 2014 http://eurocodespreadsheets.jimdo.com
All rights reserved. Carlo Sigmund
------------------------------------------------
First Edition: April 2014
Author/Publisher: Sigmund, Carlo <1971->
ISBN n.:
ID contenuto:
Ebook: Biaxial Bending EC2
--------------------------------
The sponsoring editor for this document and the production supervisor was
Carlo Sigmund.
Although care has been taken to ensure, to the best of our knowledge, that all
data and information contained herein are accurate to the extent that they relate
to either matters of fact or accepted practice or matters of opinion at the time of
publication, The EUROCODES Spreadsheets Structural Design, the author and
the reviewers assume no responsibility for any errors in or misinterpretations of
such data and/or information or any loss or damage arising from or related to
their use.
________________________________________________________
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This image was selected as picture of the day on Wikimedia Commons for 3
August 2013. Date: 13 July 2011 - Author: Peter23
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Generic license
The reproduction of this artistic, architectural, or applied artwork, is
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________________________________________________________
Contents
BiaxialBending(2)_EC2........................................................................................5
1.1 General: BiaxialBending(2).xls................................................................................................................. 5
1.2 Output - Word document (calculation sheet)............................................................................................ 7
1.3 BiaxialBending(2)_EC2 (short columns) derived formulae.................................................................... 8
1.4 Verification tests....................................................................................................................................... 12
1.5 References............................................................................................................................................... 23
1.6 Further Reading ....................................................................................................................................... 24

(This page intentionally left blank)
Topic: Users Manual/Verification tests - BiaxialBending(2).xls page 5
Section 1 BiaxialBending(2)_EC2
1.1 General: BiaxialBending(2).xls
his sheet allows for the design of a column section and checks the area of
longitudinal steel reinforcement in accordance with EN 1992-1-1:2004
Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures - Part 1-1: General rules and rules for
buildings. The spreadsheet gives two interaction charts for moments and
against axial load for rectangular sections of short columns with
symmetrical or asymmetrical reinforcement arrangements according to Sec.
5.8.9 Biaxial Bending, Exp. (5.39) and estimates the approximate moment
curvature relationship (elastic and post-peak branch) of columns with concrete
strength ranging from f
ck
= 12 MPa to f
ck
= 90 MPa confined with steel (e.g.
overlapping hoopsets) with yield strength ranging from 400 to 600 MPa using the
model proposed by Kent & Park (1971).
In this spreadsheet a simplified stress-strain model is used in order to be easily
adapted for hand analysis to enable rapid design checks to be performed.
The majority of reinforced concrete columns are subjected to primary stresses
caused by flexure, axial force, and shear. Secondary stresses associated with
deformations are usually very small in most columns used in practice. These
columns are referred to as short columns. In this sheet it is assumed that the
design moments and entered have already been adjusted in order to
take into account the 2
nd
order effect in each direction x-x and y-y.
T
M
Edx
M
Edy
N
Ed
Long columns, columns with small cross-sectional
dimensions, and columns with little end restraints may
develop secondary stresses associated with column
deformations, especially if they are not braced laterally.
These columns are referred to as slender columns.
Consequently, slender columns resist lower axial loads than
short columns having the same cross-section. Failure of a
slender column is initiated either by the material failure of a
section, or instability of the column as a member, depending on
the level of slenderness. The latter is known as column
buckling.
NOTE: no check is performed in order to control column
buckling.
M
Edx
M
Edy
EUROCODES SPREADSHEETS STRUCTURAL DESIGN
SECTION 1 BIAXIALBENDING(2)_EC2
page 6 Topic: Users Manual/Verification tests - BiaxialBending(2).xls
Moments are considered to be about the x-x and y-y axis. All applied loads and
moments should be ultimate and positive, as positive moments induce tension in
the bottom reinforcement (and ). With asymmetrical arrangements of
reinforcement the diagrams indicate that negative moments are theoretically
possible. After much consideration, the diagram is considered to be correct but
strictly is valid only for load cases where the moments are positive with at least
minimum eccentricity. This limit is shown on the graph
( )
(1)
. A reciprocal diagram is generated automatically
when top and bottom steels are reversed in the input. With regard the concrete,
the minimum strength used is C12/15. The spreadsheet allows input for grades
of concrete up to C90/105 (see Table 3.1). Input is self explanatory but, in order
to facilitate use of this spreadsheet, some degree of automation has been
introduced. The rectangular stress block shown in EN 1992-1-1, Figure 3.5
Rectangular stress distribution is used.
To ensure proper placing and compaction of concrete around reinforcement, a
maximum steel content is also specified and checked. Thus the maximum area of
tension reinforcement in a column should not exceed 4 per cent of the gross
cross-sectional area of the concrete (Cl. 9.5.2).
No check is performed in order to control cracking of the concrete. Therefore the
minimum area of tension reinforcement is checked (Exp. 9.12N, Cl. 9.5.2(2)).
The coordinates of the points on the failure surface are determined by rotating a
plane of linear strain in two dimensions ( ; ) on the column section. The
linear strain diagram limits the maximum concrete strain, , at the extremity of
the section to 3,5/1000 (EC2 Table 3.1). The formulation is based consistently
upon the general principles of ultimate strength design (EC2 6.1).
The stress in the steel is given by the product of the steel strain and the steel
modulus of elasticity, , and is limited to the yield stress of the steel,
(EC2 3.2.7). The area associated with each reinforcing bar is
assumed to be placed at the actual location of the center of the bar, and the
algorithm does not assume any further simplifications with respect to
distributing the area of steel over the cross-section of the column. Therefore the
spreadsheet can take automatic measures to ensure minimum spacing of
reinforcement is met (Cl. 8.2(3) Spacing of bars).
Note ThissheetsMEdx,MEdx(u),MEdyandMEdy(u)showworkingsand
arenotnecessarilyintendedforprintingoutotherthanforcheckingpurposes.
TheExcelfileislinkedtoastandardreportinWordandsavesallthedataasa
newWordfile(calculationsheet).
(1) See EN 1992-1-1: 2004, Cl. 6.1(4).
A
sx
A
sy
M
mi n
max h 30 20 mm ; | | =
N
Rd
M
Rd
c
c
o
s
c
s
E
s
=
f
yd
constant =
Topic: Users Manual/Verification tests - BiaxialBending(2).xls page 7
EUROCODES SPREADSHEETS STRUCTURAL DESIGN
SECTION 1 BIAXIALBENDING(2)_EC2
1.2 Output - Word document (calculation sheet)
Example calculation sheet (output):
Figure 1.1 Sample print with compressive steel (Word Office must be installed on your system).
EUROCODES SPREADSHEETS STRUCTURAL DESIGN
SECTION 1 BIAXIALBENDING(2)_EC2
page 8 Topic: Users Manual/Verification tests - BiaxialBending(2).xls
1.3 BiaxialBending(2)_EC2 (short columns) derived formulae
According to EN 1992-1-1 Sec. 3.1.6 Design compressive and tensile strengths
the rectangular stress block shown in the Figure 1.2 below is used:
The concrete compressive stress block is assumed to be rectangular, with an
effective strength of (EC2 3.1.7) and effective height of , as shown in
Figure 1.2, where is taken as:
for (Eq.11)
for (Eq.12)
and is taken as:
for (Eq.13)
for . (Eq.14)
The depth of the equivalent rectangular block is referred to as (see figure
above), such that:
. (Eq.15)
where x is the depth of the stress block in compressive.
Figure 1.2 Strain and design forces in a section. A
s
= tensile reinforcement. A
s2
compressive
reinforcement. Column cross-section with height h and width b.
qf
cd
x
q
q 1 0 , = f
ck
50 MPa s
q 1 0 ,
f
ck
50 ( )
200
----------------------- = 50 MPa f
ck
90 MPa s <

0 8 , = f
ck
50 MPa s
0 8 ,
f
ck
50 ( )
400
----------------------- = 50 MPa f
ck
90 MPa s <
d
c
d
c
x =
Topic: Users Manual/Verification tests - BiaxialBending(2).xls page 9
EUROCODES SPREADSHEETS STRUCTURAL DESIGN
SECTION 1 BIAXIALBENDING(2)_EC2
Default values for , , , are provided by the spreadsheet but can be
overwritten by the user. The design is based on the nominal cross-section area of
the reinforcement and the design values derived from the characteristic values
given in Sec. 3.2.2.
The following assumption is made for the design stress-strain diagram for
reinforcing steel: horizontal top branch without the need to check the strain limit
(see case b in Figure 3.8). The behaviour of the steel is identical in tension and
compressive, being linear in the elastic range up to the design yield stress
, where is the characteristic yield stress and is
the partial factor of safety. Within the elastic range, the relationship between the
stress and strain is:
(Eq.16)
so that the design yield strain is at the ultimate limit for
:
.
Note ItshouldbenotedthatEC2permitstheuseofanalternativedesignstressstrain
curve(seecaseainFigure3.8)withaninclinedtopbranchandthemaximum
strainlimitedtoavaluewhichisdependentontheclassofreinforcement.
Howeveronlythemorecommonlyusedcurve(a)showninFigure3.8willbe
usedinthisspreadsheet.
BENDINGPLUSAXIALLOADATTHEULS.The applied axial force may be tensile
(negative) or compressive (positive). In the analysis that follows, a compressive
force is considered. For a tensile force the same basic equations of equilibrium,
compatibility of strains, and stress-strain relationships would apply, but it would
be necessary to change the sign of the applied load ( ). The cross-section is
subjected at least to a moment and an axial force .
Let
be the compressive force developed in the concrete and acting through
the centroid of the stress block
be the compressive force in the reinforcement and acting trough
its centroid
be the tensile (or compressive) force in the reinforcement area and
acting through its centroid.
The applied force must be balanced by the forces developed within the
cross-section, therefore:
(Eq.17)

c

s
o
cc
E
s
f
yd
f
yk

s
0 87f
yk
, = = f
yk

s
1 15 , =
o
s
E
s
c
s
=
c
yd
f
yd
E
s
------
f
yk

s
( )
E
s
------------------- = =
f
yk
500 MPa =
c
yd
f
yk

s
( )
E
s
-------------------
500 1 15 , ( )
2 0
5
10 ,
----------------------------- 0 00217 , = = =
N
Ed
N
Ed
0 <
M
Ed
0 > N
Ed
0 =
F
c
F
s2
A
s2
F
s
A
s
N
Ed
N
Ed
F
c
F
s2
F
s
+ + =
EUROCODES SPREADSHEETS STRUCTURAL DESIGN
SECTION 1 BIAXIALBENDING(2)_EC2
page 10 Topic: Users Manual/Verification tests - BiaxialBending(2).xls
In this equation will be negative whenever the position of the neutral axis is
such that the reinforcement is in tension.
The design moment (about say the x-x axis) must be balanced by the
moment of resistance of the forces developed within the cross-section. Hence,
taking moments about the mid-depth of the gross cross-sectional area of the
column:
(Eq.18)
where is the effective depth perpendicular to x-x axis. In this equation
will be positive whenever the reinforcement is in tension. When
the depth of neutral axis is such that then the whole concrete section is
subject to uniform compressive stress (limited to the value for a
rectangular stress block) and hence the expression above must be rewritten in
the following form:
(Eq.19)
The relative magnitude of the moment and the axial load governs
whether the section will fail in tension or in compression. With large effective
eccentricity ( ) a tensile failure is likely, but with a small eccentricity a
compressive failure is more likely. The magnitude of the eccentricity affects the
position of the neutral axis and hence the strains and stresses in the
reinforcement.
Let
be the compressive strain in reinforcement (top)
be the tensile (or compressive) strain in reinforcement (bottom)
be the tensile yield strain of steel.
For values of less then , from linear strain distribution (see Figure 1.2):
(Eq.110)
and
. (Eq.111)
Balanced failure occurs with yielding of the tension steel and
crusching of the concrete at the same instant:
. (Eq.112)
F
s
A
s
M
Ed
M
Ed
F
c
h
2
---
x
2
------
\ .
| |
F
s2
h
2
--- d
2

\ .
| |
F
s
h
2
--- d
\ .
| |
+ =
d h d
1
=
F
s
0 5h , d ( ) A
s
x h >
c
c3
0 002 , =
M
Ed
F
s2
h
2
--- d
2

\ .
| |
F
s
h
2
--- d
\ .
| |
=
M
Ed
N
Ed
e M
Ed
N
Ed
=
c'
s2
A
s2
c
s
A
s
c
yd
x h
c'
s2
x d
2

--------------
c
cu3
x
--------- c'
s2

x d
2

x
-------------- 0 0035 , = =
c
s
d x
------------
c
cu3
x
--------- c
s

d x
x
------------ 0 0035 , = =
c
s
c
yd
= A
s
x x
bal
d
1
c
yd
c
cu3
--------- +
------------------
d
1
c
yd
0 0035 ,
------------------ +
--------------------------- = = =
Topic: Users Manual/Verification tests - BiaxialBending(2).xls page 11
EUROCODES SPREADSHEETS STRUCTURAL DESIGN
SECTION 1 BIAXIALBENDING(2)_EC2
For example, substituting the values of for grade 500 steel:
(Eq.113)
with and .
BIAXIALBENDINGBRESLERMETHOD.Separate design in each principal direction,
disregarding biaxial bending, may be made as a first step. Imperfections need to
be taken into account only in the direction where they will have the most
unfavourable effect. In the absence of an accurate cross section design for biaxial
bending, the following simplified criterion may be used:
(Eq.114)
where, for the given ultimate axial load on column:
is the design bending moment about x-x axis (including a 2
nd
order
moment) and is the respective ultimate bending moment
is the design bending moment about y-y axis (including a 2
nd
order
moment) and is the respective ultimate bending moment
a is the exponent. In particularly, for rectangular cross-sections:
where:
(Eq.115)
is the design axial resistance of section. (for rectangular section ) is
the gross area of the concrete section and is the whole area of longitudinal
reinforcement.
For (tensile) the above expression must be rewritten in the following form
(concrete tensile neglected):
(Eq.116)
always with .
Interaction diagrams and can be constructed for any shape of
cross-section which has an axis of symmetry by applying the basic equilibrium
and strain compatibility equations with the stress-strain relations. These
diagrams can be very useful for design purposes.
0,1 0,7 1,0
a 1,0 1,5 2,0
Table 1.1 Coefficient a against ratio N
Ed
/N
Rd
with linear interpolation for intermediate values.
c
yd
0 00217 , =
x
bal
0 617d , =
o'
s2
c'
s2
E
s
f
yd
s = o
s
c
yd
E
s
f
yd
= =
M
Edx
M
Rdx
------------
\ .
| |
a
M
Edy
M
Rdy
------------
\ .
| |
a
+ 1 s
N
Ed
M
Edx
M
Rdx
M
Edy
M
Rdy
N
Ed
N
Rd

N
Rd
A
c
f
cd
A
s tot ,
f
yd
+ =
A
c
A
c
bh =
A
s tot ,
N
Ed
0 <
N
Rd
0 A
s tot ,
f
yd
A
s tot ,
f
yd
= =
N
Ed
N
Rd
0 >
N
Rd
M
Rdx
; N
Rd
M
Rdy
;
EUROCODES SPREADSHEETS STRUCTURAL DESIGN
SECTION 1 BIAXIALBENDING(2)_EC2
page 12 Topic: Users Manual/Verification tests - BiaxialBending(2).xls
1.4 Verification tests
BIAXIALBENDING(2).XLS.4.94 MB. Created: 15 January 2014. Last/Rel.-date: 15
January 2014. Sheets:
Splash
BiaxBd; KenT_Park; M_Curv
MEdx; MEdx (u)
MEdy; MEdy (u)
CREDITS.
EXAMPLE 1-AMNinteractiondiagramsforacolumnwithsymmetricalcrosssectiontest1
Given: Constructtheinteractiondiagramsforthecolumncrosssectionshowninfigurebelow
with and (ClassC). Let us assume > 0
(compressive), and . Maximumsizeofaggregate
.Coefficienttakingaccountoflongtermeffectsonthecompressivestrength
andofunfavourableeffectsresultingfromthewaytheloadisapplied: .
f
ck
30 MPa = f
yk
500 MPa =
Figure 1.3 Symmetrical column cross-section.
M
Edx
M
Edy
N
Ed
700 kN =
M
Edx
370 kNm = M
Edy
70 kNm =
d
g
25 mm =
o
cc
1 00 , =
Topic: Users Manual/Verification tests - BiaxialBending(2).xls page 13
EUROCODES SPREADSHEETS STRUCTURAL DESIGN
SECTION 1 BIAXIALBENDING(2)_EC2
Note:inthisspreadsheetthemomentsarealwaystakenaboutthecentrelineofthe
concretesectionandnotabouttoaxisreferredtoastheplasticcentroidwhen .
Solution: Ultimatedesignstrengthofmaterials:
(concrete)
Stressstraindesigndiagram(concrete):
gradeofconcreteC30/37with , , , .
(longitudinalreinforcement).
Reinforcement(ClassC): with .
Stressstraindesigndiagram(steel):horizontaltopbranchwithouttheneedtocheckthe
strainlimit(designassumption).
DETAILING(CL.8.2(2)).
Minimumcleardistancebetweenverticallinks:
Maximumnumberofhorizontalbars( =H18):N=5(1layer)
MinimumcleardistancebetweenadjacenthorizontalbarsH18:
(satisfactory).
Note Whenthediameterandthenumberofthelongitudinalbarsareentered,the
spreadsheetforeachlayerchecksthat(N1)A
min
+N|
long
<b2(c
nom
+|
link
).In
thisparticularcase:(51)(30mm)+5(18mm)=210mm<320mm(satisfactory).
AREASOFREINFORCEMENTBRESLERMETHOD
Forbendingmomentaboutxxaxis(b=400mm,h=650mm):
Top , ,
Bottom: , with .
(d=601mmeffectivedepthperpendiculartoxxaxis).
Forbendingmomentaboutyyaxis(b=650mm,h=400mm):
Top ,
,
Bottom: , with .
(d=351mmeffectivedepthperpendiculartoyyaxis).
A
s
A
s2
=
f
cd
o
cc
f
ck

c
------
1 0 30 ,
1 50 ,
------------------- 20 00 MPa , = = =
c
cu3
3 5 ,
1000
------------ = c
c3
1 75 ,
1000
------------ = q 1 0 , = 0 80 , =
f
yd
f
yk

s
------
f
yk
1 15 ,
------------ 0 87f
yk
, 0 87 500 , 435 MPa = = = = =
c
uk
75
1000
------------ = c
ud
0 9 c
uk
,
67 5 ,
1000
------------ = =
b 2 c
nom
|
link
+ ( ) 400 2 30 10 + ( ) 320 mm = =
|
l ong
A
b 2 c
nom
|
link
+ ( ) | | N |
long
( )
N 1 ( )
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
320 5 18 ( )
4
--------------------------------- 57 5 mm , = = =
A
min
max |
long
d
g
5 mm + ( ) 20 mm ; ; | | max 18 25 5 mm + ( ) 20 mm ; ; | | 30 mm = = =
A A
mi n
>
A
s2x
5H18 1272 mm
2
= = d
2
c
nom
|
li nk
0 5|
long
, + + 30 10 0 5 18 , + + 49 mm = = =
A
sx
5H18 1272 mm
2
= = d h d
1
650 49 601 mm = = = d
1
d
2
=
A
s2y
3H18 2H18 + 1272 mm
2
= =
d
2
c
nom
|
li nk
0 5|
long
, + + 30 10 0 5 18 , + + 49 mm = = =
A
sx
3H18 2H18 + 1272 mm
2
= = d h d
1
400 49 351 mm = = = d
1
d
2
=
EUROCODES SPREADSHEETS STRUCTURAL DESIGN
SECTION 1 BIAXIALBENDING(2)_EC2
page 14 Topic: Users Manual/Verification tests - BiaxialBending(2).xls
MAINPOINTSONTHEINTERACTIONDIAGRAMWITHVARYINGDEPTHSOFNEUTRALAXISXX.
PointA: ; @x=h=650mm, ,
.
, ,
, with .
(tensile)
(M
Rd
<0whencounterclockwise).
PointB: ; ; (conretetensileneglected):
(tensile)
(puretensile).
PointC: @x=0; with .
.
.
Figure 1.4 Bresler Method (Model): main longitudinal reinforcement areas.
c'
s2
0 01 , = c 0 = x 0 8 650 , 520 mm = =
x
d
---
650
650 49
--------------------- 1 08 , = =
c
s

c'
s2
h d
2

--------------d
1

0 01 ,
650 49
---------------------49 0 00082 , = = =
c
s
c
yd
-------
0 00082 ,
435 200000 ( )
----------------------------------- 0 377 1 o
s
f
yd
< < , = =
o
s
c
s
E
s
0 00082 , 200000 164 MPa = = = o
s2
f
yd
435 MPa = = c
s
c
yd
>
N
Rd
o
s
A
s
f
yd
A
s2
+
164 1272 ( ) 435 1272 ( )
10
3
----------------------------------------------------------------------- 762 kN = = =
M
Rd
o
s
A
s
0 5h d
1
, ( ) f
yd
A
s2
0 5h d
2
, ( ) +
164 1272 ( ) 276 ( ) 435 ( ) 1272 ( ) 276 ( )
10
6
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 95 kNm = = =
c
s
c'
s2
c
ud

67 5 ,
1000
----------------- = = = x A
c
0 =
N
Rd
f
yd
A
s
A
s2
+ ( )
435 ( ) 1272 1272 + ( )
1000
---------------------------------------------------------- 1107 kN = = =
M
Rd
f
yd
A
s
0 5h d
1
, ( ) f
yd
A
s2
0 5h d
2
, ( ) + 0 = =
c
c
0 = c
s
c
ud

67 5 ,
1000
------------ = = c
s
c
yd
> o
s
f
yd
435 MPa = =
c'
s2
d
2
--------
c
ud

d
------------ c'
s2
c
ud

d
2
d
-----
67 5 ,
1000
------------
49
650 49
--------------------- 0 0055 , = = = =
c'
s2
c
yd
-----------
0 0055 ,
435 200000 ( )
----------------------------------- 2 5 1 o
s2
> , f
yd
435 MPa = = = =
Topic: Users Manual/Verification tests - BiaxialBending(2).xls page 15
EUROCODES SPREADSHEETS STRUCTURAL DESIGN
SECTION 1 BIAXIALBENDING(2)_EC2
(tensile).
(puretensile).
PointD: ; .
< . ,
.
With :
<0(tensile).
and (tensile).
<0
(tensile).
(moments>0when
counterclockwise)

(M
Rd
>0whenclockwise).
PointE: ; .
< . ,
.
With :
<0(tensile).
and (tensile).
<0
(tensile).
N
Rd
f
yd
A
s
f
yd
A
s2
+
435 1272 ( ) 435 1272 ( )
10
3
----------------------------------------------------------------------- 1107 kN = = =
M
Rd
o
s
A
s
0 5h d
1
, ( ) o
s2
A
s2
0 5h d
2
, ( ) + f
yd
A
s
A
s2x
( ) 0 5h d
1
, ( ) 0 = = =
c
s
c
ud

67 5 ,
1000
------------ = = c
c
c
c3
1 75 ,
1000
------------ = =
x
c
c3
c
c3
c
ud
+
-----------------------d
1 75 ,
1 75 , 67 5 , +
------------------------------ 601 ( ) 15 mm = = = d
2
49 mm = x 0 8 15 , 12 mm = =
x
d
---
15
601
--------- 0 025 , = =
x d
2
<
c'
s2
x d
2

--------------
c
c3
x
------ c'
s2
c
c3
x d
2

x
--------------
1 75 ,
1000
------------
15 49
15
------------------ 0 0040 , = = = =
c'
s2
c
yd
-----------
0 0040 ,
435 200000 ( )
----------------------------------- 1 8 1 o
s2
> , f
yd
= = = o
s
f
yd
=
N
Rd
qf
cd
bx f
yd
A
s
A
s2
+ ( )
1 0 20 ( ) 400 ( ) 0 8 , ( ) 15 ( ) , 435 ( )2 1272 ( )
1000
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1011 kN = = =
M
Rd
qf
cd
bx 0 5h 0 5x , , ( ) o
s2
A
s2
0 5h d
2
, ( ) o
s
A
s
0 5h d
1
, ( ) + =
M
Rd
qf
cd
bx 0 5h 0 5x , , ( ) f
yd
A
s2
A
s
+ ( ) 0 5h d
1
, ( ) =
M
Rd
1 0 20 ( ) 400 ( ) 0 8 , ( ) 15 ( ) , 325 7 5 , ( ) 435 0 +
10
6
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 30 5 kNm , = =
c
s
c
ud

67 5 ,
1000
------------ = = c
c
c
cu3
3 50 ,
1000
------------ = =
x
c
cu3
c
cu3
c
ud
+
-------------------------d
3 50 ,
3 50 , 67 5 , +
------------------------------ 601 ( ) 29 6 mm , = = = d
2
49 mm = x 0 8 29 6 , , 24 mm = =
x
d
---
24
601
--------- 0 040 , = =
x d
2
<
c'
s2
x d
2

--------------
c
cu3
x
--------- c'
s2
c
cu3
x d
2

x
--------------
3 50 ,
1000
------------
29 6 , 49
29 6 ,
------------------------ 0 0023 , = = = =
c'
s2
c
yd
-----------
0 0023 ,
435 200000 ( )
----------------------------------- 1 05 1 o
s2
> , f
yd
= = = o
s
f
yd
=
N
Rd
qf
cd
bx f
yd
A
s
A
s2
+ ( )
1 0 20 ( ) 400 ( ) 0 8 , ( ) 29 6 , ( ) , 435 ( )2 1272 ( )
1000
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 917 kN = = =
EUROCODES SPREADSHEETS STRUCTURAL DESIGN
SECTION 1 BIAXIALBENDING(2)_EC2
page 16 Topic: Users Manual/Verification tests - BiaxialBending(2).xls
(M
Rd
>0whenclockwise).
PointF: ; ; .
; ,
.
>0(compressive).
, ,
with .
>0
(compressive).
(moments>0when
counterclockwise)

(M
Rd
>0whenclockwise).
PointG: ; with (tensile).
;
,
.
>0(compressive).
, with .
>0
(compressive).
M
Rd
1 0 20 ( ) 400 ( ) 0 8 , ( ) 29 6 , ( ) , 325 7 5 , ( ) 435 0 +
10
6
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 60 1 kNm , = =
c
s
0 01 , = c
c
c
c3
1 75 ,
1000
------------ = = o
s
f
yd
=
x
c
c3
------
d
c
c3
c
s
+
-------------------- x
c
c3
c
c3
c
s
+
--------------------d
1 75 ,
1 75 , 10 +
------------------------ 601 ( ) 89 5 mm , = = = = x 0 8 89 5 , , 71 6 mm , = =
x
d
---
89 5 ,
601
------------ 0 149 , = =
c
c3
x
------
c'
s2
x d
2

-------------- c'
s2
c
c3
x d
2

x
--------------
1 75 ,
1000
------------
89 5 , 49
89 5 ,
------------------------ 0 00079 , = = = =
c'
s2
c
yd
-----------
0 00079 ,
435 200000 ( )
----------------------------------- 0 363 1 o
s2
f
yd
< < , = = o
s2
c'
s2
E
s
0 00079 , 200000 158 MPa = = =
o
s
f
yd
435 MPa = = c
s
c
yd
>
N
Rd
qf
cd
bx f
yd
A
s
o
s2
A
s2
+
1 0 20 ( ) 400 ( ) 0 8 , ( ) 89 5 , ( ) , 1272 158 435 ( ) +
10
3
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 220 kN = = =
M
Rd
qf
cd
bx 0 5h 0 5x , , ( ) o
s2
A
s2
0 5h d
2
, ( ) o
s
A
s
0 5h d
1
, ( ) + =
M
Rd
qf
cd
bx 0 5h 0 5x , , ( ) o
s2
A
s2
0 5h d
2
, ( ) f
yd
A
s
0 5h d
1
, ( ) + + =
M
Rd
1 0 20 ( ) 400 ( ) 0 8 , ( ) 89 5 , ( ) , 325 35 8 , ( ) 1272 435 158 + ( ) 276 +
10
6
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 374 kNm = =
c
c
c
cu3
0 0035 , = = c
s
0 01 , = o
s
f
yd
=
x
c
cu3
---------
d
c
cu3
c
s
+
----------------------- x
c
cu3
c
c3u
c
s
+
-----------------------d
3 5 ,
3 5 , 10 +
--------------------- 601 ( ) 155 8 mm , = = = =
x 0 8 155 8 , , 124 6 mm , = =
x
d
---
155 8 ,
601
--------------- 0 259 , = =
c
c3
x
------
c'
s2
x d
2

-------------- c'
s2
c
cu3
x d
2

x
--------------
3 5 ,
1000
------------
155 8 , 49
155 8 ,
--------------------------- 0 00240 , = = = =
c'
s2
c
yd
-----------
0 00240 ,
435 200000 ( )
----------------------------------- 1 1 1 o
s2
> , f
yd
= = = o
s
f
yd
435 MPa = = c
s
c
yd
>
N
Rd
qf
cd
bx f
yd
A
s
f
yd
A
s2
+
0 8 20 ( ) 400 ( ) 1 0 , ( ) 155 8 , ( ) , 1272 0 ( ) +
10
3
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 997 kN = = =
M
Rd
qf
cd
bx 0 5h 0 5x , , ( ) f
yd
A
s2
0 5h d
2
, ( ) f
yd
A
s
0 5h d
1
, ( ) + + =
M
Rd
1 0 20 ( ) 400 ( ) 0 8 , ( ) 155 8 , ( ) , 325 62 3 , ( ) 1272 435 435 + ( ) 276 +
10
6
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 567 kNm = =
Topic: Users Manual/Verification tests - BiaxialBending(2).xls page 17
EUROCODES SPREADSHEETS STRUCTURAL DESIGN
SECTION 1 BIAXIALBENDING(2)_EC2
(M
Rd
>0whenclockwise).
Note:fromstageatpointHtostageatpointMtheequationsarethesameasshownat
pointG.Theprocedureimplementedinthespreadsheetisthesameandallthese
intermediatevaluesof provideamoreaccuratecurve(interationdiagram).
Therefore:
PointH: ; ;
>0(compressive); .
PointI: ; ;
>0(compressive); .
PointJ: ; <0(tensile)
with (tensile).
;
,
.
>0(compressive).
, with .
>0
(compressive).
(M
Rd
>0whenclockwise).
PointK: ; ;
>0(compressive); .
PointL: ; ;
>0(compressive); .
PointM: ; ;
>0(compressive); .
N
Rd
M
Rd
;
c
c
c
cu3
3 5 ,
1000
------------ = = c
s
0 005 , =
N
Rd
1583 kN = M
Rd
663 kNm =
c
c
c
cu3
3 5 ,
1000
------------ = = c
s
0 0025 , =
N
Rd
2243 kN = M
Rd
720 kNm =
c
c
c
cu3
3 5 ,
1000
------------ = = c
s
c
yd

f
yd
E
s
------
435
200000
------------------ 0 00217 , = = = =
o
s
f
yd
=
x
c
cu3
---------
d
c
cu3
c
yd
+
------------------------- x
c
cu3
c
c3u
c
yd
+
-------------------------d
3 5 ,
3 5 , 2 17 , +
--------------------------- 601 ( ) 371 0 mm , = = = =
x 0 8 371 0 , , 296 8 mm , = =
x
d
---
371 0 ,
601
--------------- 0 617 , = =
c
c3
x
------
c'
s2
x d
2

-------------- c'
s2
c
cu3
x d
2

x
--------------
3 5 ,
1000
------------
371 49
371
--------------------- 0 0030 , = = = =
c'
s2
c
yd
-----------
0 0030 ,
435 200000 ( )
----------------------------------- 1 4 1 o
s2
> , f
yd
= = = o
s
f
yd
435 MPa = = c
s
c
yd
>
N
Rd
qf
cd
bx f
yd
A
s
f
yd
A
s2
+
1 0 20 ( ) 400 ( ) 0 8 , ( ) 371 ( ) , 1272 0 ( ) +
10
3
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2374 kN = = =
M
Rd
qf
cd
bx 0 5h 0 5x , , ( ) f
yd
A
s2
0 5h d
2
, ( ) f
yd
A
s
0 5h d
1
, ( ) + + =
M
Rd
1 0 20 ( ) 400 ( ) 0 8 , ( ) 371 0 , ( ) , 325 148 4 , ( ) 1272 435 435 + ( ) 276 +
10
6
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 725 kNm = =
c
c
c
cu3
3 5 ,
1000
------------ = = c
s
0 0021 , =
N
Rd
2441 kN = M
Rd
719 kNm =
c
c
c
cu3
3 5 ,
1000
------------ = = c
s
0 0012 , =
N
Rd
3112 kN = M
Rd
655 kNm =
c
c
c
cu3
3 5 ,
1000
------------ = = c
s
0 0002 , =
N
Rd
4140 kN = M
Rd
522 kNm =
EUROCODES SPREADSHEETS STRUCTURAL DESIGN
SECTION 1 BIAXIALBENDING(2)_EC2
page 18 Topic: Users Manual/Verification tests - BiaxialBending(2).xls
PointN: ; (compressive)with .
>0(compressive).
>0(compressive).
>0(compressive).
>0(compressive).
>0
(compressive).
(M
Rd
>0whenclockwise).
PointO: >0(compressive).
> with:
>0.
.
.
ULTIMATEBENDINGMOMENTABOUTAXISXXWITHAXIALCOMPRESSIVEFORCE
Compressiveforce(ULS): .
SeestagesF( ; )andG( ; )
with .
Linearinterpolationfor :
.
ULTIMATEBENDINGMOMENTABOUTAXISYYWITHAXIALCOMPRESSIVEFORCE
Usingthesameprocedureimplementedonthespreadsheetforb=560mmandh=400
mm,weobtain:
(linearinterpolation)with (compressive).
c
c
c
cu3
3 5 ,
1000
------------ = = x h =
x
d
---
650
650 49
--------------------- 1 08 , = =
c
cu3
h
---------
c'
s2
h d
1

-------------- c'
s2
c
cu3
h d
1

h
--------------
3 5 ,
1000
------------
650 49
650
--------------------- 0 00324 , = = = =
c'
s2
c
yd
--------
0 00324 ,
435 200000 ( )
----------------------------------- 1 5 1 o
s2
> , f
yd
435 MPa = = = =
c'
s2
h d
1

--------------
c
s
d
1
----- c
s
c'
s2
d
1
h d
1

-------------- 0 00324 , ( )
49
650 49
--------------------- 0 00026 , = = = =
c
s
c
yd
-------
0 00026 ,
435 200000 ( )
----------------------------------- 0 12 1 o
s
> , c
s
E
s
52 MPa = = = =
N
Rd
qf
cd
bx o
s
A
s
f
yd
A
s2
+ +
1 0 20 ( ) 400 ( )0 8 650 ( ) , , 52 435 + ( ) 1272 ( ) +
10
3
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4779 kN = = =
M
Rd
qf
cd
bx 0 5h 0 5x , , ( ) f
yd
A
s2
0 5h d
2
, ( ) o
s
A
s
0 5h d
1
, ( ) + =
M
Rd
1 0 20 ( ) 400 ( ) 0 8 , ( ) 650 ( ) , 325 260 ( ) 1272 435 52 ( ) 276 +
10
6
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 405 kNm = =
c
c
c
s
c'
s2
c
c3
0 00175 , = = = =
c
yd
0 00217 , = c
c
c
s
c'
s2
c
c3
0 00175 , = = = =
o
s
o
s2
0 00175 , 200000 350 MPa = = =
N
Rd
f
cd
bh f
yd
A
s
f
yd
A
s2
+ +
20 ( ) 400 ( ) 650 ( ) 2 1272 ( ) 350 ( ) +
10
3
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6091 kN = = =
M
Rd
o
s2
A
s2
0 5h d
2
, ( ) o
s
A
s
0 5h d
2
, ( ) 0 = =
N
Ed
700 kN =
N
Rd
220 kN = M
Rd
374 kNm = N
Rd
997 kN = M
Rd
567 kNm =
220 N
Ed
997 s s
M
Rdx
M
Rdx
567 374
997 220
------------------------ 700 220 ( ) 374 + 493 kNm = =
M
Rdy
285 kNm = N
Ed
700 kN =
Topic: Users Manual/Verification tests - BiaxialBending(2).xls page 19
EUROCODES SPREADSHEETS STRUCTURAL DESIGN
SECTION 1 BIAXIALBENDING(2)_EC2
BIAXIALBENDINGBRESLERMETHOD
,
.
Therefore:
example-end
(satisfactory).
EXAMPLE 1-BUniaxialbehaviourofconfinedconcreteundercompressionuptothepostpeakbranch
(momentcurvaturerelationship)test2
Given: Determinethemomentcurvaturerelationforareinforcedconcretecolumn(seeprevious
example)usingthestressstrainrelationbyhandcomputationsusingtheequivalent
rectangularstressblockparameters.Assumptions:
bendingmomentaboutxxaxis
designultimateaxialloadoncolumn (compressive)
concreteC30/37
longitudinalandtransversalreinforcementcharacteristicstrength:
depthinrespectofmajoraxis:
widthinrespectofminoraxis: .
Thelateraldimensions and relativetotheaxesoftherectangularcolumnareshown
inFigure1.3.
centretocentrebetweenties(longitudinalspacingofthesetofties):
diameteroftheperipheralhoop:
diameterinnerlink: .
Dimensionofthereducedsection(spallingoftheconcretecover)measured
centertocenterofperipheralties:
reduceddepthinrespectofmajoraxis:
reducedwidthinrespectofminoraxis: .
Forthepurposeofthisverificationtestonlythedesignofshortbracedcolumnwillbestudied.
Solution: Astressblockapproachisdevelopedtocalculatestrengthanddeformation(seeEN
199211Sec.3.17,Figure3.5).Ananalyticalstressblockbasedmomentcurvature
simplifiedanalysisisperformedontheconcretestructuralelementforconfinedconcrete
(spallingoftheconcretecover):Kent&Parkmodel.
N
Rd
bhf
cd
A
s tot ,
f
yd
+
400 ( ) 650 ( ) 20 ( ) 4072 435 ( ) +
1000
----------------------------------------------------------------------- 6971 kN = = =
N
Ec
N
Rd
---------
700
6971
------------ 0 10 a , 1 00 , = = =
M
Edx
M
Rdx
------------
\ .
| |
a
M
Edy
M
Rdy
------------
\ .
| |
a
+
370
493
---------
\ .
| |
1 00 ,
70
285
---------
\ .
| |
1 00 ,
+ 0 750 0 246 , + , 0 996 1 < , = = =
N
Ed
700 kN 0 > =
f
yk
500 MPa =
h 650 mm =
b 400 mm =
h b
s 100 mm =
|
l ink
10 mm =
|
l ink
10 mm =
h
red
580 mm =
b
red
330 mm =
EUROCODES SPREADSHEETS STRUCTURAL DESIGN
SECTION 1 BIAXIALBENDING(2)_EC2
page 20 Topic: Users Manual/Verification tests - BiaxialBending(2).xls
Theequationsofthemostcommonlyusedexistingstressstrainmodelscannotbeeasilyintegrated
inordertodeterminetheequivalentrectangularstressblockparametersforhandanalysisand
designpurposes.Althoughthestressstrainmodelsproposedbyvariousresearchershavevarying
levelsofsophistication,forthebestmodelsitisdifficulttochecktheiraccuracy.Inthisspreadsheet
asimplifiedstressstrainmodelisusedinordertobeeasilyadaptedforhandanalysistoenable
rapiddesigncheckstobeperformed.
Designstressforce(alongtheydirection)intotheconfinedconcretecoreduetothe
presenceofconfiningreinforcement(1peripheralhoop+1innerlink):
havingconsidered .
Characteristicstrengthconfinedconretecore(forbendingmomentsoboutxxaxis):
Volumetricratioofconfininghoopstovolumeofconcretecoremeasuredtotheoutsideof
theperimeterhoops.Inthiscaseequalto:
.
.
Confinementonlyaffectedtheslopeofthepostpeakbranchandempiricalequations
wereusedtoadjustthis.Straincorrespondingtothestressequalto50%ofthemaximum
concretestrengthforunconfinedconcrete:
with
(forbendingmomentaboutxxaxis).
Thepostpeakbranchwasassumedtobeastraightlinewhoseslopewasdefined
primarilyasafunctionofconcretestrength.Theexpressionforthefallingbranchofthe
stressstrainrelationisgivenby:
.
Compressivecharacteristicstrengthofconfinedconcrete(simplifiedparametersfor
stressblock):
(designassumptionwhenthepostpeak
remainingmomentcapacityofthecolumnreducesto75%ofthemaximummoment
capacity).Therefore,for weobtain (characteristicvalue)
for .
o
tr yy ,
1000
s
------------
\ .
| |
2A
l ink
1A
link
+ ( ) f
yd

b
red
10
3

--------------------------------------------------------------------------
10 3 78 ( ) 500 1 15 , ( )
330
--------------------------------------------------------------- 3 1 MPa , = = =
|
l ink
10 mm =
f
cc
f
ck
4 1 , o
t r yy ,
+ 30 4 1 , 3 1 , + 42 7 MPa , = = =

s
1000
s
------------
\ .
| |
A
li nk
3 b
red
h
red
+ ( )
b
red
h
red
10
3

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
1000
100
------------
\ .
| |
78 3 330 580 + ( )
330 580 10
3

--------------------------------------------------------------------- 0 0111 , = = =
f
cc
psi | |
f
cc
MPa | |
0 00689 MPa psi | | ,
--------------------------------------------------
42 7 ,
0 00689 ,
--------------------- 6197 psi = = =
c
50u ( )
3 0 002f
cc
, +
f
c
1000
------------------------------
3 0 002 , 6197 +
6197 1000
---------------------------------------- 0 00296 , = = =
c
50h ( )
3
4
---
s

b
red
s
--------
3
4
--- 0 0111 , ( )
330
100
--------- 0 0151 , = = =
Z
m
0 5 ,
c
50u ( )
c
50h ( )
0 002 , +
----------------------------------------------------
0 5 ,
0 00296 , 0 0151 , 0 002 , +
------------------------------------------------------------------ 31 13 , = = =
f
c res ,
f
cc
1 Z
m
c
cu
0 002 , ( ) | | f
cc
0 75 , = =
f
cc
42 7 MPa , = f
c res ,
32 MPa =
c
cu
0 01011 , 10 1 , 1000 ~ =
Topic: Users Manual/Verification tests - BiaxialBending(2).xls page 21
EUROCODES SPREADSHEETS STRUCTURAL DESIGN
SECTION 1 BIAXIALBENDING(2)_EC2
Ultimatedesignstrengthofmaterials(stressblocksemplifiedmodel):
(unconfinedconcretewith )
(confinedconcretewith )
(longitudinalandtransverse
reinforcement).
Reinforcement(ClassC): with .
Stressstraindesigndiagram(steel):horizontaltopbranchwithouttheneedtocheckthe
strainlimit(designassumption).
Forbendingmomentaboutxxaxis:
a)Stressstraindesigndiagram(unconfinedconcrete):
gradeofconcreteC30/37with , , , .
b)Stressstraindesigndiagram(confinedconcrete):
gradeofconcreteC30/37with , , ,
(stressblockdesignapproximateassumptions).
Theprocedureusedintheanalysisofthecolumnwhenthepostpeakremainingmoment
capacityofthecolumnreducesto75%(designassumption)ofthemaximummoment
capacityissimilartotheprocedurebeingwidelyusedwithunconfinedconcrete.The
stressblockmodelwillbeusedforthispurposetoo.
DESIGNBENDINGMOMENTABOUTXXAXISATMAXIMUMSTRENGTH( )ANDMAXIMUMCONCRETE
STRAIN( )
Usingthesameprocedureimplementedonthespreadsheet(seepreviousexample)forb
=400mmandh=650mm,weobtain(seedetailsinMEdx(u)sheet):
(linearinterpolation)with (compressive).
isthecurvaturewhentheconcretestrainreaches ,
thestrainatpeakstressinconfinedconcreteand thecorrespondingmoment.
CURVATUREATTHEONSETOFFIRSTYIELDINGOFTHELONGITUDINALBARS
Ultimateaxialloadatbalancedstage( ; )forunconfined
conrete (compressive).
f
cd
o
cc
f
ck

c
------
1 0 30 ,
1 50 ,
------------------- 20 00 MPa , = = = c
c max ,
c
cu3
=
f
cd res ,
o
cc
f
c res ,

c
-----------
1 0 32 ,
1 50 ,
------------------- 21 33 MPa , = = = c
c max ,
c
cu3
>
f
yd
f
yk

s
------
f
yk
1 15 ,
------------ 0 87f
yk
, 0 87 500 , 435 MPa = = = = =
c
uk
75
1000
------------ = c
ud
0 9 c
uk
,
67 5 ,
1000
------------ = =
c
cu3
3 5 ,
1000
------------ = c
c3
1 75 ,
1000
------------ = q 1 0 , = 0 80 , =
c
cu3
10 1 ,
1000
------------ = c
c3
1 75 ,
1000
------------ = q 1 0 , = 0 80 , =
f
c red ,
c
cu3
10 1 , 10
3
=
M
Rdx red ,
442 kNm = N
Ed
700 kN =
u
red
6 254 ,
2
10 m
1
= c
cu3
10 1 , 10
3
=
M
Rdx red ,
c
c
c
cu3
3 5 , 10
3
= = c
s
c
yd
=
N
Rd
2373 kN N
Ed
> 700 kN = =
EUROCODES SPREADSHEETS STRUCTURAL DESIGN
SECTION 1 BIAXIALBENDING(2)_EC2
page 22 Topic: Users Manual/Verification tests - BiaxialBending(2).xls
Therefore,for (depthtoneutralaxisforbendingmomentaboutxxaxis)
withtheassumption:
with (tensile)
theaxialequilibriumissatisfiedfor:
with
with (compressive).
Inthiscase,thebendingmomentandcurvatureattheonsetoffirstyieldingofthe
longitudinalbars(bottom)arerespectively:
or =3,29( crosssectiondepthinrespectof
majoraxis).
Themomentcurvatureresponseisdeterminedforeachcriticalpointssuchasyieldingof
longitudinalreinforcement( ; ),tilltheonsetofcoverspalling( ; )
(seefigurebelow).Fromnumericaldataofthepreviousexample: with
x 171 mm =
c
s
c
yd

f
yd
E
s
------
500 1 15 , ( )
200000
----------------------------- 0 002174 , = = = = o
s
f
yd
435 MPa = =
c
c max ,
0 87 ,
1000
------------ c
cu3
<
3 5 ,
1000
------------ = = qf
cd
qo
cc
f
ck

c
------ 1 00 1 00
30
1 50 ,
------------ , , 20 MPa = = =
c'
s2
0 62 ,
1000
------------ c
yd
<
2 174 ,
1000
--------------- = = o
s2
123 7 MPa , =
M
x yel ,
477 kNm =
u
yel
0 00506 m
1
, = u
yel
h h 650 mm =
Figure 1.5 Excel output.
u
yel
M
x yel ,
u
red
M
Rdx red ,
M
Rdx
493 kNm =
Topic: Users Manual/Verification tests - BiaxialBending(2).xls page 23
EUROCODES SPREADSHEETS STRUCTURAL DESIGN
SECTION 1 BIAXIALBENDING(2)_EC2
(linearinterpolation)theunconfinedconcretecolumnductilityis
.
Theultimateductilitydefinedas:
where =curvaturewhenthepostpeakremainingmomentcapacityofthecolumn
reducesto75%ofthemaximummomentcapacity(whenthelongitudinalreinforcement
steelstrainreachestheultimatestrainorwhenthestraininconcretereachesthe
example-end
maximumconfinedstrain ascalculatedabove).
1.5 References
BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION. The structural use of concrete Part 1:
Code of practice for design and construction, BS 81101:1997
EN 1992-1-1:2004. Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures - Part 1-1: General
rules and rules for buildings. Brussels: CEN/TC 250 - Structural
Eurocodes, December 2004 (DAV)
EN 1992-1-1:2004/AC:2010. Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures - Part
1-1: General rules and rules for buildings. Brussels: CEN/TC 250 -
Structural Eurocodes, December 2010
JRC Scientific and Technical Reports. Bridge Design to Eurocodes Worked
examples. Worked examples presented at the Workshop Bridge
Design to Eurocodes, Vienna, 4-6 October 2010. Support to the
implementation, harmonization and further development of the
Eurocodes. Editors A. Athanasopoulou, M. Poljansek, A. Pinto G.,
Tsionis, S. Denton
Kent, D.C., and Park, R. (1971). Flexural members with confined concrete.
Journal of the Structural Division, Proc. of the American Society of
Civil Engineers, 97(ST7), 1969-1990.
MPA The Concrete Centre. Worked Examples to Eurocode 2: Volume 1. Practical
Design to Eurocode 2. 2013
R. Park, T. Paulay, Reinforced Concrete Structures, Wiley & Sons, London, 1976.
Reinforced Concrete Design to Eurocode, Bill Mosley, John Bungey and Ray
Hulse, Palgrave Macmillan. 7th Edition.
u
u
0 02135 , =
u
u
u
yel
0 02135 , ( ) 0 00506 , ( ) 4 2 , = = =

red
u
red
u
yel
---------
0 06254 ,
0 00506 ,
--------------------- 12 4 , = = =
u
red
c
cu3
10 1 , 10
3
=
EUROCODES SPREADSHEETS STRUCTURAL DESIGN
SECTION 1 BIAXIALBENDING(2)_EC2
page 24 Topic: Users Manual/Verification tests - BiaxialBending(2).xls
1.6 Further Reading
A Thesis by Madhu Karthik Murugesan Reddiar. Submitted to the Office of
Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of
the requirements for the degree of Master of Science. Stress-strain
model of unconfined and confined concrete and stress-block
parameters. December 2009.
Confinement Reinforcement Design for Reinforced Concrete Columns. P. Paultre,
M.ASCE
1
; and F. Lgeron, M.ASCE
2
. Journal of Structural
Engineering ASCE/May 2008.