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ICPO-INTERPOL JKMUN 2014

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INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL
POLICE ORGANIZATION

BACKGROUND GUIDE

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Letter from the Executive Board3
Committee Structure.4
Overview......................................................5
Members5
Agenda ....7
International Crime.........7
Transnational Organized Crime...............8
Present Crime Scenario................9
Corruption..........9
Cybercrime.......11
Firearms....11
Terrorism....12
Trafficking....13
War Crimes......14
Important Points ......15
Further Links...16

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LETTER FROM THE EXECUTIVE BOARD
Greetings Delegates!

We warmly welcome you to the International Criminal Police Organization at JKMUN
2014! It is our pleasure to be presiding over such a dynamic and intriguing committee
this year, and we assure you of an extremely enriching learning experience through this
MUN.

The following pages intend to guide you with the nuances of the agenda as well as the
Council. The Guide chronologically touches upon all the different aspects that are
relevant and will lead to fruitful debate in the Council. Make sure you go through the
guide in as much detail as you can, as this will be forming the basis of your entire
research for the conference. This guide will form the basis for the debate and your
research as well.

What we would expect from delegates is knowledge, research and facts. We also want
to see how delegates can respect disparities and differences of opinion and work around
these while extending their own foreign policy so that it encompasses more of the
others without compromising their own stand. Moreover, we also expect you to respect
fellow delegates and your Executive Board.
We wish you all the very best for your research and hope you are able to delve into the
important aspects of the agenda with immense clarity. Our email IDs and contact details
are listed below and feel free to contact us in case of any help required!

Please note that all information given in this Background Guide is solely for the
Research purposes of the delegates. No authentication or proof from the inputs of
the Background Guide is advocated.
With that we wish you the best of luck for the Conference!
Executive Board
International Criminal Police Organization - INTERPOL

Brijesh Choudhary Sania Sharma
Chairperson Director
brijesh.choudhary7@gmail.com
Mob: +919796285767
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COMMITTEE STRUCTURE AND MANDATE
The International Criminal Police Organization, or INTERPOL, is an intergovernmental
organization facilitating international police cooperation. It was established as
the International Criminal Police Commission (ICPC) in 1923 and adopted its telegraphic
address as its common name in 1956.
Interpol has an annual budget of around 70
million, most of which is provided through annual
contributions by its membership of 190
countries. The organization's headquarters is
in Lyon, France. It is the second
largest intergovernmental organization after
the United Nations by member states. In 2012,
the Interpol General Secretariat employed a staff of 703, representing 98 member
countries. Its current Secretary-General is Ronald Noble, a former United States Under
Secretary of the Treasury for Enforcement. Succeeding Khoo Boon Hui, its current
President is Deputy Central Director of the French Judicial Police Mireille Ballestrazzi.
To keep Interpol as politically neutral as possible, its constitution forbids it, at least in
theory, from undertaking interventions or activities of a political, military, religious, or
racial nature. Its work focuses primarily on public safety and battling terrorism, crimes
against humanity, environmental crime, genocide, war crimes organized crime, piracy,
illicit traffic in works of art, illicit drug production, drug trafficking, weapons
smuggling, human trafficking, money laundering, child pornography, white-collar
crime, computer crime, intellectual property crime and corruption.
Article 2 states that its role is:
To ensure and promote the widest possible mutual assistance between all criminal police
authorities within the limits of the laws existing in the different countries and in the
spirit of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
To establish and develop the institutions likely to contribute effectively to the
prevention and suppression of ordinary law crimes.
Article 3 states:
It is strictly forbidden for the Organization to undertake any intervention or activities
of a political, military, religious or racial character.
___________________________ Links
for further research:
http://www.interpol.int/
http://www.fairtrials.org/documents/Interpol_-_FAQs.pdf
http://www.interpol.int/About-INTERPOL/Legal-materials/The-Constitution
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Overview

INTERPOL is the worlds largest international police organization, with 190 member
countries.
Its role is to enable police around the world to work together to make the world a safer
place. Its high-tech infrastructure of technical and operational support helps meet the
growing challenges of fighting crime in the 21st century. At INTERPOL, we aim to facilitate
international police cooperation even where diplomatic relations do not exist between
particular countries. Action is taken within the limits of existing laws in different countries
and in the spirit of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Our Constitution prohibits
any intervention or activities of a political, military, religious or racial character'.
The General Secretariat is located in Lyon, France, and operates 24 hours a day, 365 days a
year. INTERPOL also has seven regional offices across the world and a representative
office at the United Nations in New York and at the European Union in Brussels. Each of our
190 member countries maintains a National Central Bureau staffed by its own highly trained
law enforcement officials.
The vision:
"Connecting police for a safer world".
The mission:
"Preventing and fighting crime through enhanced cooperation and innovation on police and
security matters"

Members
Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
American Samoa
Andorra
Angola
Anguilla
Antigua and
Barbuda
Argentina
Armenia
Aruba
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bahamas
Bahrain
Bangladesh

Curaao
Cyprus
Czech Republic
Denmark
Djibouti
Dominica
Dominican Republic
East Timor
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Fiji
Finland
France

Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Liechtenstein
Lithuania
Luxembourg
Macau
Macedonia
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Maldives
Mali
Malta
Marshall Islands
Mauritania

Rwanda
St. Kitts and Nevis
St. Lucia
St. Vincent and the
Grenadines
Samoa
So Tom and
Prncipe
Saudi Arabia
San Marino
Senegal
Serbia
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Sint Maarten
Slovakia
Slovenia
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Barbados
Belarus
Belgium
Belize
Benin
Bermuda
Bhutan
Bolivia
Bosnia and
Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
British Virgin
Islands
Brunei
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Cape Verde
Cayman Islands
Central African
Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Colombia
Comoros
Republic of the
Congo
Congo (Democratic
Rep.)
Costa Rica
Cte d'Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Gabon
Gambia
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Gibraltar
Greece
Grenada
Guatemala
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Guyana
Haiti
Honduras
Hong Kong
Hungary
Iceland
India
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Republic of Korea
Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan
Laos
Mauritius
Mexico
Moldova
Monaco
Mongolia
Montenegro
Montserrat
Morocco
Mozambique
Myanmar
Namibia
Nauru
Nepal
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Norway
Oman
Pakistan
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico
Qatar
Romania
Russia
Somalia
South Africa
South Sudan
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Suriname
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syria
Tajikistan
Tamil Eelam
Tanzania
Thailand
Togo
Tonga
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia
Turkey
Turks and Caicos
Turkmenistan
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab
Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Vatican City
Venezuela
Vietnam
Yemen
Zambia
Zimbabwe

At INTERPOL today, we have a global membership of 190 countries. Each country maintains
a National Central Bureau (NCB), staffed by national law enforcement officers. It forms the
link with INTERPOL's global network, enabling member countries to work together on cross-
border investigations. NCBs are increasingly involved in shaping the Organization's direction.

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AGENDA



International or Transnational Crime
International crimes are crimes that have actual or potential effect across
national borders and crimes which are intra-State but which offend fundamental values of
the international community. The term is commonly used in the law
enforcement and academic communities.
The word "transnational" describes crimes that are not only international (that is,
crimes that cross borders between countries), but crimes that by their nature involve
cross-border transference as an essential part of the criminal activity. International
crimes also include crimes that take place in one country, but their consequences
significantly affect another country and transit countries may also be involved. Examples of
international crimes include: human trafficking, people smuggling, smuggling/trafficking
of goods (such as arms trafficking and drug trafficking and illegal animal and plant products
and other goods prohibited on environmental grounds (e.g. banned ozone depleting
substances), sex slavery, terrorism offences, torture and apartheid. Transnational organized
crime (TOC) refers specifically to transnational crime carried out by organized crime
organizations.
Transnational crimes may also be crimes of customary international law or international
crimes when committed in certain circumstances. For example they may in certain situations
constitute crimes against humanity.
The international community is confronted with an increasing level of transnational crime in
which criminal conduct in one country has an impact in another or even several others. Drug
trafficking, human trafficking, computer crimes, terrorism, and a host of other crimes can
involve actors operating outside the borders of a country which might have a significant
interest in stemming the activity in question and prosecuting the perpetrator. Contemporary
international crimes take advantage of globalization, trade liberalization and exploding new
technologies to perpetrate diverse crimes and to move money, goods, services and people
instantaneously for purposes of perpetrating violence for political ends.
Moreover, problems of weakened states and international crime create an unholy confluence
that is uniquely challenging. When a criminal operates outside the territory of an offended
International Crime Scenario and Possible
Counter Measures
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state, the offended state might ordinarily appeal to the state from which the criminal is
operating to take some sort of action, such as to prosecute the offender domestically or
extradite the offender so that he or she may face punishment in the offended state.
Nonetheless, in situations in which a government is unable (or unwilling) to cooperate in the
arrest or prosecution of a criminal, the offended state has few options for recourse.

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Links for further research:
http://www.interpol.int/Crime-areas
www.internationalcrimesdatabase.org/
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/721820/international-criminal-law/242853/Categories-
of-international-crime
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Transnational Organized Crime
Transnational organized crime (TOC or transnational crime) is organized crime coordinated
across national borders, involving groups or networks of individuals working in more than one
country to plan and execute illegal business ventures. In order to achieve their goals, these
criminal groups utilize systematic violence and corruption. The most commonly seen
transnational organized crimes are money laundering; human smuggling; cyber crime;
and trafficking of humans, drugs, weapons, endangered species, body parts, or nuclear
material.
Definitions of what constitutes organized crime vary widely from country to country.
Organized networks are typically involved in many different types of criminal activity
spanning several countries.
These activities may include trafficking in humans, illicit goods, weapons and drugs, armed
robbery, counterfeiting and money laundering. Indeed, almost all the crimes areas that we
tackle at INTERPOL have an organized aspect.
In this section we focus on three projects that were set up in response to very particular
types of criminal network, each of which comes with its unique set of challenges.
Pink Panthers armed jewelry robberies
AOC Asian organized crime
Millennium Eurasian criminal organizations
These projects facilitate cooperation among our member countries and stimulate the
exchange of information between all national and international enforcement bodies
concerned with countering these problems.

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Transnational Organized Crime is one of "The Ten Threats" warned by the High Level
Threat Panel of the United Nations.
The UN has taken a stand against this threat with the Convention against Transnational
Organized Crime which has been adopted to fight against transnational organized crime,
with the recognition of UN Member States that this is a serious and growing problem that
can only be solved through close international cooperation, since November 2000. The Ad
Hoc Committee established by the United Nations General Assembly is to deal with this
problem by taking a series of measures against transnational organized crime.
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Links for further research:
http://www.interpol.int/Crime-areas/Organized-crime/Organized-crime
http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CTOC/index.html
http://www.unodc.org/unodc/index.html
http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780195396607/obo-9780195396607-
0024.xml;jsessionid=7E66C90064961BF331D43A12D39628C5
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PRESENT CRIME SCENARIO

Crime today has risen; and it has risen drastically. Modern society has advanced in science,
technology and information. Prosperity has increased manifold. But progress and affluence
have their negative aspect too. Crimes such as burglary, kidnapping, robbery, violence,
assault, sexual harassment, rapes, threats, verbal abuse have become the bane of today's
society. They extort money by coercion and suffer no qualms of conscience to kill a victim if
the demand is not fulfilled. On a lower-level, the small-time urchins and pick-pockets grow
up to be henchmen of the bosses and indulge in crimes against women and society. Despite
the growth of private guards and ever-increasing number of civil police, the rate of crime is
increasing day by day. This is quite a shocking trend. Healthy and active cooperation of the
people, police and political leaders can control the situation. Political leaders having links
with the underworld should be identified and pressurised to yield to public opinion. The
general public needs enlightenment. Every day the newspapers report ghastly murders,
sensational robberies, rapes, thefts and kidnappings. Naturally, the graph of crime in
today's society is sharply on the rise. Living has become quite risky, unpleasant and unsafe.
Women and old people are the worst suffers. Our cities have become the dens of smugglers
and criminals. Growing unemployment and lacks of motivation among the educated young men
have drawn many of them to the world of crimes. Thefts and weigh-laying are no more the
monopoly of illiterate ruffians.

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Corruption
Corruption is universal. It affects all regions of the world and all levels of society, but the
impact is greatest in developing countries. If left unchecked, corruption will undermine
political, social and economic stability, ultimately threatening the safety and security of
society as a whole.
The ability to coordinate global action is vital for the worlds police and judicial systems.
INTERPOLs initiatives include:
International asset recovery: The Global Focal Point Network for Asset
Recovery assists law enforcement bodies in returning stolen public funds to victim
countries. Accessible via INTERPOLs secure global police communications network
(I-24/7), the platform allows authorized users to exchange information and better
coordinate their investigations. Among the tools on offer is SECOM, a secure web-
based email capability.
Operational support: It can coordinate working meetings between member countries
in order to facilitate investigations that cover more than one jurisdiction, while
Corruption Response Teams can be rapidly deployed to support investigations in the
field.
Training: Success in international asset recovery depends on sound and credible
investigation. INTERPOL offers regional training workshops to investigators and
prosecutors, focusing on evidence, through the INTERPOL Global Programme on Anti-
Corruption, Financial Crimes and Asset Recovery.

Crimes against children
Crimes against children tend to be local crimes with the vast majority taking place within
the home or family circle. There are, however, a number of areas where there is an
international angle:
Internet crimes: crimes against children are facilitated by the Internet, the
increased use of which in recent years has led to a huge rise in offending. Not only
can offenders distribute and access child abuse material more easily, but they can
also come into direct contact with children via chat rooms and social networking
sites. We run a project in conjunction with Internet Access Service Providers to
block access to child abuse material online.
Travelling sex offenders: also known as sex tourism, this type of crime involves the
abuse of children in developing countries by people who travel there. The relative
wealth of the offender coupled with lack of understanding or effective legislation
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means that the abuse of children is easier in these countries. This type of crime is
linked to child trafficking, organized crime and murder.

It brings together experts in the INTERPOL Specialists Group on Crimes against Children.
Formed in 1992, this group consists of a number of sub-groups dealing with particular issues
and chaired by investigators from around the world.

It is worth noting that we avoid using the term "child pornography" when describing
images of sexual abuse of children. Other, more appropriate terminology includes the
term "child sexual abuse material".

________________________
Links for further Research:
http://www.interpol.int/en/Crime-areas/Corruption/International-asset-recovery
http://www.interpol.int/en/Crime-areas/Corruption/Training
http://www.interpol.int/en/Crime-areas/Crimes-against-children/Internet-crimes
http://www.interpol.int/en/Crime-areas/Crimes-against-children/Victim-identification
________________________

Cybercrime
Cybercrime is a fast-growing area of crime. More and more criminals are exploiting the
speed, convenience and anonymity of the Internet to commit a diverse range of criminal
activities that know no borders, either physical or virtual.
These crimes can be divided into three broad areas:
Attacks against computer hardware and software, for example, botnets, malware and
network intrusion;
Financial crimes, such as online fraud, penetration of online financial services and
phishing;
Abuse, especially of young people, in the form of grooming or sexploitation. Read
more about INTERPOL's work to combat crimes against children.

Firearms
A threat to the safety of citizens in any country, the criminal misuse of firearms also poses
a wider threat to global security, peace, stability and development. Firearms are easy to
conceal and transport, and offer lucrative profits to criminals trafficking in illicit small arms
and light weapons. No country is unaffected by firearms violence.
The INTERPOL Firearms Reference Table (IFRT) is an interactive online tool that
provides a standardized methodology to identify and describe firearms, and enables
an investigator to obtain or verify the details of a firearm.
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The INTERPOL Ballistic Information Network (IBIN) provides a global platform for
the centralized collection, storage and cross-comparison of ballistics imaging.
The INTERPOL Illicit Arms Records and Tracing Management System (iARMS) is an
information technology application which facilitates information exchange and
cooperation between law enforcement agencies on firearm-related crime.

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Links for further Research:
http://www.interpol.int/en/Crime-areas/Cybercrime/Activities/Operational-and-forensic-support
http://www.interpol.int/en/Crime-areas/Cybercrime/Activities/Capacity-building
http://www.interpol.int/en/Crime-areas/Cybercrime/Activities/Harmonization
http://www.interpol.int/en/Crime-areas/Financial-crime/Payment-cards
http://www.interpol.int/en/Crime-areas/Financial-crime/Fraud
www.bjs.gov/content/guns.cfm
www.nij.gov/topics/crime/gun-violence/Pages/welcome.aspx
________________________

Maritime piracy
In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the number of attacks on vessels by
pirates, in particular in the Gulf of Aden, Somali Basin and the Indian Ocean. Vast areas of
waters are affected making it a challenge to prevent maritime piracy incidents.
Maritime piracy affects major shipping lanes, and puts at risk the lives of seafarers and
merchant seamen from all over the world, of whom hundreds are taken captive each year.
Millions of dollars in ransom payments are paid to pirates. It is believed that these
payments are divided between the pirates, their leaders and those who finance them.
Intelligence indicates that part of the money is reinvested abroad through Somali
emigrants.
Tracing the financial flows of ransom money is one of the main challenges faced by law
enforcement agencies.

Terrorism
Terrorism poses a grave threat to national security and the lives of individuals around the
world. At INTERPOL, we run a number of initiatives to support our member countries in
their efforts to protect their citizens from terrorism in its many forms.

We also circulate alerts and warnings on terrorists, dangerous criminals and weapons threats
to police in member countries. Additionally, the INTERPOL-United Nations Security Council
Special Notice is used to alert member countries to individuals and entities associated with
Al-Qaida and the Taliban, as listed by the 1267 Committee of the UN Security Council, and
to help countries implement the freezing of assets, travel bans and arms embargoes.
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Organizations like Al Qaeda, Taliban and others not only support terror acts but also
advocate the violation of human rights.
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Links for further Research:
http://www.interpol.int/en/Media/Files/Crime-areas/Maritime-piracy/Related-documents/Pirate-Trailes-World-
Bank-Study
http://www.interpol.int/en/Crime-areas/Terrorism/CBRNE/Chemical-and-explosives-terrorism
http://www.interpol.int/en/Crime-areas/Terrorism/CBRNE/Biological-threats
http://www.interpol.int/en/Crime-areas/Terrorism/CBRNE/Radiological-and-nuclear-terrorism
http://www.interpol.int/en/Crime-areas/Terrorism/CBRNE
http://www.interpol.int/en/INTERPOL-expertise/Notices/Special-Notices
________________________

Trafficking in human beings

Trafficking in human beings is a multi-billion-dollar form of international organized crime,
constituting modern-day slavery.
Victims are recruited and trafficked between countries and regions using deception or
coercion. They are stripped of their autonomy, freedom of movement and choice, and face
various forms of physical and mental abuse.
There are three main types of human trafficking:
Trafficking for forced labor;
Trafficking for sexual exploitation;
Trafficking of organs.
Closely connected is the issue of people smuggling in which smugglers procure, for financial
or material gain, the illegal entry of an individual into a country of which he is neither a
citizen nor a permanent resident. Generally speaking, once payment is completed, the
relationship between the illegal immigrant and the smuggler is terminated.
Trafficking in illicit goods is a generic term used by INTERPOL to describe all types of
illicit trade. It includes such practices as counterfeiting (trademark infringements), piracy
(copyright infringements), smuggling of legitimate products and tax evasion. Selling fake or
counterfeit products as the real thing is one aspect of this crime; so is selling genuine goods
on the black market to avoid paying taxes.

By avoiding regulatory controls the criminals behind these activities typically peddle often
dangerous goods with a complete disregard for the health and safety of consumers. The
phenomenon has grown to an unprecedented level, posing tremendous risks to society and
the global economy.

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All levels of society are impacted by trafficking in illicit goods. For example, counterfeiting
harms businesses which produce and sell legitimate products, governments lose tax revenue
from products manufactured or sold on the black market, and consumers are at risk from
substandard products.
________________________
Links for further Research:
http://www.interpol.int/en/Crime-areas/Trafficking-in-human-beings/Types-of-human-trafficking
http://www.interpol.int/en/Crime-areas/Trafficking-in-human-beings/People-smuggling
http://www.interpol.int/en/Crime-areas/Trafficking-in-human-beings/Operations
http://www.interpol.int/en/Crime-areas/Trafficking-in-illicit-goods-and-counterfeiting/Databases
________________________

War crimes
Genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes are the most serious crimes of concern to
the international community as a whole. They have a lasting impact on societies and can
continue to destabilize the safety and security of communities, regions and nations for
decades after they occur.

Governments, civil society and international criminal tribunals cannot address all the
challenges in this area on their own. As the worlds largest international police organization,
INTERPOL possesses the police networks, technical tools and mandate to complement the
ongoing efforts in the area of war crimes.

INTERPOL has been cooperating with the United Nations International Tribunals for the
Former Yugoslavia and Rwanda since 1994.

The INTERPOL General Assembly has adopted several resolutions increasing the
Organizations support to its member countries and partner organizations in the
investigation and prosecution of genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity.


INTERPOL undertakes three main areas of activity to support the investigation of genocide,
war crimes, and crimes against humanity, and the location and apprehension of criminals
connected with these crimes:
Operational support to national authorities and international justice institutions
Rwandan Genocide Fugitives Project
Project Basic
Training and development
Building partnerships.
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This year we will be having a strong debate and possibly formulate solutions to ongoing crisis
in Middle East because of organizations like ISIS, Islamic State, etc.
________________________
Links for further Research:
www.crimesofwar.org/
www.unwcc.org/
http://www.icc-cpi.int/en_menus/icc/about%20the%20court/frequently%20asked%20questions/Pages/13.aspx
https://www.icrc.org/en/war-and-law/treaties-customary-law/geneva-conventions
________________________




IMPORTANT POINTS TO CONSIDER

Criminal Intelligence
The issue of local crime with special reference to Asia and Africa
Transnational Crime and its remedies
Government involvement in hate and sectarian crimes.
Strengthening worldwide police organizations
Role of developed countries towards developing and underdeveloped countries.
Civilian safety
Technological aspects of police working
Possible revamp and improvements in INTERPOLs working and functioning
Strong and fruitful solutions with respect to crimes involving poorly developed
countries in regions of Asia and Africa including corruption, trafficking etc
Privacy and Crime
Punishments, Detention and Human Rights
Secret Police Organizations including those of DPRK, Russia, Syria amongst others.






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MAJOR POLICE ORGANIZATIONS

http://www.interpol.int/
http://www.troopers.ny.gov/
http://content.met.police.uk/Home
https://mumbaipolice.maharashtra.gov.in/index.asp
http://www.lapdonline.org/
http://www.police.vic.gov.au/content.asp?Document_ID=2
http://www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/index-eng.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corps_of_Gendarmerie_of_Vatican_City



LINKS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH

http://www.state.gov/j/inl/c/
http://in.reuters.com/subjects/cyber-crime
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_law_enforcement_agencies
http://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/crimestats
http://www.transparency.org.uk/corruption/statistics-and-quotes
http://www.interpol.int/INTERPOL-expertise/Databases
http://www.interpol.int/content/download/788/6323/version/21/file/04_GI04_03_2014_EN_web.pdf
http://www.interpol.int/content/download/25671/352500/version/4/file/INTERPOL%20Annual%20Rep
ort%202013_EN_LR.pdf
http://www.interpol.int/content/download/25587/351786/version/5/file/27_CAS01_05_2014_EN_web.
pdf
http://www.interpol.int/News-and-media/Publications
https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/data-and-analysis/United-Nations-Surveys-on-Crime-Trends-and-the-
Operations-of-Criminal-Justice-Systems.html
http://www.unicri.it/