This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
ICS 91.080.40
SABS
01001*
ISBN 0626124972
Edition 2.2
2000
Published by
THE SOUTH AFRICAN BUREAU OF STANDARDS
Gr 20
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Date
Text affected
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
ICS 91.080.40
: (012) 4287911
: (012) 3441568
: sales@sabs.co.za
: http://www.sabs.co.za
COPYRIGHT RESERVED
Printed in the Republic of South Africa by the
South African Bureau of Standards
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Notice


This part of SABS 0100 was approved in accordance with SABS procedures on 13 August 1992.
Amendment No. 2 was approved in accordance with SABS procedures on 31 March 2000.
Amdt 2, March 2000
NOTE 1 In terms of the Standards Act, 1993 (Act 29 of 1993), no person shall claim or declare that he or any other
person complied with an SABS standard unless
a) such claim or declaration is true and accurate in all material respects, and
b) the identity of the person on whose authority such claim or declaration is made, is clear.
NOTE 2 It is recommended that authorities who wish to incorporate any part of this standard into any legislation in the
manner intended by section 31 of the Act consult the SABS regarding the implications.
This part of SABS 0100 will be revised when necessary in order to keep abreast of progress. Comment
will be welcome and will be considered when this part of SABS 0100 is revised.
Foreword

Annex A (Methods of checking for compliance with serviceability criteria by direct calculation), annex B
(Movement joints), annex C (Elastic deformation of concrete), annex D (The design of deep beams)
and annex E (Bibliography) are for information only.
SABS 0100 consists of the following parts, under the general title The structural use of concrete:
 Part 1: Design
 Part 2: Materials and workmanship
A vertical line in the margin shows where the text has been modified by amendment Nos. 1 and 2.
Introduction
The Council of the South African Bureau of Standards decided that the South African code of practice
for the structural use of concrete should be based on the British Standards Institution codes of practice
BS 81101:1985 and BS 81102:1985. It should be emphasized, however, that the South African code
uses different loading procedures (compatible with section 4 of SABS 0160:1989) and introduces a few
minor changes on account of South African conditions.
ISBN 0626124972
ii
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Contents
Page
Notice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii
Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii
Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x
1
Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Normative references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Basis of limit states design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Durability and fire resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Strength of materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Other considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Analysis of structures and structural frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Analysis of complete structures and complete structural frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Analysis of structural frames supporting vertical loads only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Analysis of structural frames supporting vertical and lateral loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Redistribution of moments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Column and beam construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Continuous beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
iii
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.3.3
4.3.4
4.3.5
4.3.6
4.3.7
4.4
4.4.1
4.4.2
4.4.3
4.4.4
4.4.5
4.4.6
4.4.7
4.5
4.5.1
4.5.2
4.5.3
4.5.4
4.5.5
4.5.6
4.5.7
4.6
4.6.1
4.6.2
4.6.3
4.6.4
4.6.5
4.7
4.7.1
4.7.2
4.7.3
4.7.4
4.7.5
4.7.6
4.7.7
4.8
4.8.1
4.8.2
4.8.3
4.8.4
4.8.5
4.8.6
4.8.7
4.9
4.9.1
4.9.2
4.10
4.10.1
4.10.2
4.10.3
4.10.4
4.11
4.11.1
4.11.2
iv
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.11.3
4.11.4
4.11.5
4.11.6
4.11.7
4.11.8
4.11.9
4.12
4.12.1
4.12.2
4.12.3
4.12.4
4.12.5
4.12.6
4.12.7
4.12.8
4.12.9
4.12.10
4.12.11
4.12.12
5
92
93
96
96
101
106
108
110
110
110
110
110
111
111
111
112
112
112
112
112
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Basis of design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Durability and fire resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stability and other considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Strength of materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Structures and structural frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Analysis of structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Redistribution of moments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Serviceability limit state (cracking) for beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ultimate limit state for beams in flexure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shear resistance of beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Torsional resistance of beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deflection of beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Slabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tension members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Low density aggregate prestressed concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Prestressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maximum initial prestress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Loss of prestress other than frictional losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Loss of prestress due to friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transmission length in pretensioned elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
End blocks in prestressed elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Considerations affecting design details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Size and number of prestressing tendons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cover to prestressing tendons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spacing of prestressing tendons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
113
113
113
113
113
114
114
114
114
115
115
116
118
122
125
126
126
126
126
126
127
127
127
130
132
133
135
135
135
135
137
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
5.9.5
5.9.6
5.9.7
5.9.8
6
137
139
140
140
Precast, composite and plain concrete constructions (design and detailing) . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
6.1
6.1.1
6.1.2
6.2
6.2.1
6.2.2
6.2.3
6.2.4
6.2.5
6.3
6.3.1
6.3.2
6.3.3
6.3.4
6.4
6.4.1
6.4.2
6.4.3
6.4.4
6.4.5
6.5
6.5.1
6.5.2
6.5.3
Curved tendons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Longitudinal reinforcement in prestressed concrete beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Links in prestressed concrete beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shock loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Design objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Limit states design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Precast concrete construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Framed structures and continuous beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Slabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other precast units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bearings for precast units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Joints between precast units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Structural connections between units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Continuity of reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connections with structural steel inserts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other types of connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Composite concrete construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Serviceability limit states . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ultimate limit state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thickness of structural topping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Plain concrete walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Structural stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Design of plain concrete walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
140
140
140
142
142
142
143
143
147
150
150
152
153
153
154
154
154
154
156
158
158
158
158
158
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Floors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Additional protection to floors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Concrete walls containing at least 1,0 % of vertical reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Plain concrete walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
162
164
169
169
170
172
172
172
Annexes
A
Methods of checking for compliance with serviceability criteria by direct calculation . . . . . . 173
A.1 Analysis of structure for serviceability limit states . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
A.2 Calculation of deflection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
A.3 Calculation of crack width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
vi
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
B.2
B.3
B.4
B.5
C
Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
Tables
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
vii
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
32 Conditions at the ultimate limit state for rectangular beams with pretensioned tendons or
with posttensioned tendons having an effective bond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
33 Conditions at the ultimate limit state for posttensioned rectangular beams
having unbonded tendons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
34 Values of Vco /bh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
35 Shrinkage of concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
36 Transmission lengths for small diameter strand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
37 Design bursting tensile forces in end blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
38 Nominal cover to all steel to meet specified periods of fire resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
39 Minimum cover to curved ducts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
40 Minimum distance between centrelines of ducts in plane of curvature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
41 Deleted by amendment No. 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
42 Design ultimate horizontal shear stresses at interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
43 Fire resistance of reinforced concrete beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
44 Fire resistance of prestressed concrete beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
45 Fire resistance of reinforced concrete floors (siliceous or calcareous aggregate) . . . . . . . . 167
46 Fire resistance of prestressed concrete floors (siliceous or calcareous aggregate) . . . . . . . 168
47 Effect of soffit treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
48 Fire resistance of concrete columns (all faces exposed) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
49 Fire resistance of concrete columns (one face exposed) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
50 Fire resistance of siliceous aggregate concrete walls containing at least
1,0 % of vertical reinforcement and exposed to fire on one face only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
C.1 Modulus of elasticity of normaldensity concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
Figures
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
viii
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
27 Schematic arrangement of allowance for bearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
A.1 Assumptions made in calculating curvatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
A.2 Values of K for various bending moment diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
C.1 Effects of relative humidity, age of concrete at loading
and section thickness upon creep factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
C.2 Drying shrinkage of normaldensity concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
D.1 Equivalent truss resisting point loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
D.2 Equivalent arch resisting UD load and selfweight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
D.3 Equivalent truss resisting unequal point loads A > B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
D.4 Loaded area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
ix
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Committee
South African Bureau of Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VJ Woodlock
(Chairman)
I Jablonski
(Standards writer)
E Coetzee
(Committee clerk)
CSIR
Division of Building Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BG Lunt
A Jones
............................
DA Payne
JM Clifford
HH Meier
GJ de Ridder
AE Goldstein
PC Pretorius
H Scholz
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
CODE OF PRACTICE
SABS 01001
Edition 2.2
1 Scope
1.1 This part of SABS 0100 establishes principles for the structural use of concrete under the
following stipulations:
a) method of design: limit states classified as ultimate limit state and serviceability limit states;
b) material: ordinary concrete of normal and low density, used in reinforced, prestressed and precast
structures or elements and in plain concrete walls;
c) types of structures: buildings and structures in which all loadbearing elements (e.g. slabs,
columns, walls, etc.) are of concrete.
NOTE The rules for stability (see clause 3) also apply to structures in which concrete elements such as floor slabs and
walls are used in conjunction with loadbearing elements made of other materials.
1.2 This part of SABS 0100 does not cover the structural use of concrete for structures that are the
subject of specialist literature (shells, folded plates, bridges, tunnels, retaining walls, waterretaining
structures, chimneys, and other specialized elements).
2 Normative references
The following standards contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions
of this part of SABS 0100. All standards are subject to revision and, since any reference to a standard
is deemed to be a reference to the latest edition of that standard, parties to agreements based on this
part of SABS 0100 are encouraged to take steps to ensure the use of the most recent editions of the
standards indicated below. Information on currently valid national and international standards may be
obtained from the South African Bureau of Standards.
SABS 82, Bending dimensions and scheduling of steel reinforcement for concrete.

SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
SABS 920, Steel bars for concrete reinforcement.
SABS 01002, The structural use of concrete  Part 2: Materials and execution of work.
SABS 0144, Detailing of steel reinforcement for concrete.
SABS 0160 (as amended), The general procedures and loadings to be adopted in the design of
buildings.
3.1.1 The characteristic values of strengths and the nominal values of loads should be considered
in the initial stages of design, in order to take into account the variations in the strengths and properties
of the materials to be used and the variations in the loads to be supported. Where the necessary data
are available, the values should be based on statistical evidence (characteristic values) and where the
data are not available, the values should be based on an appraisal of experience (nominal values).
3.1.2 Two sorts of partial safety factors are to be used, one for material strength and the other for
loads. In the absence of special considerations, these partial safety factors should have the values
given in 3.3, appropriate to the limit state being considered, the type of loading and the material being
used.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
3.2.2.2 Stability
Structures should be so designed that adequate means exist to transmit the design ultimate selfweight
load, wind load and imposed loads safely from the highest supported level to the foundations. The
layout of the structure and the interaction between the structural elements should be such as to ensure
a stable design. The engineer responsible for the overall stability of the structure should ensure the
compatibility of the design and details of parts and components, even where all or part of the design
and details thereof were undertaken by someone else.
3.2.2.3 Robustness
Structures should be so designed that they are not unreasonably susceptible to the effects of
accidents. In particular, situations should be avoided where damage to a small area of a structure or
failure of a single element could lead to the collapse of major sections of the structure. In general, if
any failure were to occur, it should be in the beams and not in the columns. Unreasonable susceptibility
to the effects of accidents may generally be prevented if the factors given below are taken into
consideration.
3.2.2.3.1 Structures should be capable of safely resisting the design ultimate horizontal load, as given
in 4.1.2, applied at each floor or roof level simultaneously.
3.2.2.3.2 Structures should have effective horizontal ties (see 4.11.9)
a) around the periphery,
b) internally, and
c) to columns and walls.
3.2.2.3.3 The layout of buildings of five storeys or more should be checked to identify any key
elements whose failure would cause the collapse of more than a limited portion close to these key
elements. Where such elements are identified and the layout cannot be revised to avoid them, the
design should take their importance into account. The likely consequences of a failure of a key element
should be considered when appropriate design loads are chosen. In all cases, an element and its
connections should be capable of withstanding a design ultimate load of 34 kN/m2 (to which no partial
safety factor should be applied) from any direction. The area to which this load is applied will be the
projected area of the element (i.e. the area of the face presented to the load). A horizontal element,
or part of a horizontal element that provides lateral supports vital to the stability of a vertical key
element, should also be considered a key element.
3.2.2.3.4 Buildings of five storeys or more should be so detailed that any vertical loadbearing element
other than a key element can be removed without causing the collapse of more than a limited portion
close to that element. This is generally achieved by providing vertical ties (see 4.11.9) in addition to
satisfying 3.2.2.3.1 to 3.2.2.3.3. There may, however, be cases where it is inappropriate or impossible
to provide effective vertical ties in all or even in some of the vertical loadbearing elements.
When this occurs, the removal of each such loadbearing element should be considered, in turn, and
the elements normally supported by such loadbearing element should be designed to "bridge" the gap,
possibly with the use of catenary action or nonlinear deflection effects, and allowing for considerable
deflection.
3.2.2.4 Special hazards
In designing a structure to support loads occurring in the course of normal function, ensure that there
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
is a reasonable probability that the structure will not collapse disastrously as a result of misuse or
accident.
Consider whether, due to the nature of a particular occupancy or use of a structure (e.g. flour mill,
chemical plant, etc.), it will be necessary in the design concept or during a design reappraisal to
consider the effect of a particular hazard, to ensure that, in the event of an accident, there is a
reasonable probability that the structure will withstand the accident, even if damage does occur. In
such cases, partial safety factors greater than those given in 3.3.1.2 may be required.
NOTE  No structure can be expected to withstand the excessive loads or forces that could arise owing to an extreme
cause (such as an explosion), but the structure should not be damaged to an extent that is disproportionate to the original
cause.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
3.2.3.2.1.2 Partitions and finishes will be affected only by that part of the deflection (including the
effects of temperature, creep and shrinkage) that takes place after the construction of the partitions
or the application of the finishes. Information is lacking, but it is suggested that such deflection in the
case of flexible partitions (e.g. drywall) be limited to the lesser of span/350 or 20 mm. In the case of
rigid brick walls or other brittle partitions, this deflection should be limited to the lesser of span/500 or
10 mm. Investigation is required in more complicated cases.
3.2.3.2.1.3 If finishes are to be applied to prestressed concrete elements, the total upward deflection
of the elements should not exceed span/300, unless uniformity of camber between adjacent elements
can be ensured.
3.2.3.2.2 Consider the effects of lateral deflections, particularly for tall slender structures. The
acceleration associated with the deflections may be more critical than the deflection itself (see 3.2.3.4).
3.2.3.2.3 In any calculation of deflections, take the design strength of materials and the design loads
given in 3.3, as appropriate for a serviceability limit state.
3.2.3.3 Cracking
3.2.3.3.1 The permissible width of cracks should be determined taking into account the requirements
(e.g. tightness, aesthetic appearance, etc.) of the particular structure.
As a guide, the limits given below can be regarded as reasonable.
3.2.3.3.1.1 Reinforced concrete
An assessment of the likely behaviour of a reinforced concrete structure enables identification of the
sections where the effect of cracking should be considered. In general, the surface width of cracks
should not exceed 0,3 mm. Where elements are exposed to particularly aggressive environments (see
SABS 01002), the surface width of cracks at points nearest the main reinforcement should not, in
general, exceed 0,004 times the nominal cover to the main reinforcement. In a reinforced concrete
structure under the effects of load and environment, the actual widths of cracks will vary considerably;
the prediction of an absolute maximum width is therefore not possible, since the possibility of some
cracks being even wider must be accepted unless special precautions are taken.
3.2.3.3.1.2 Prestressed concrete
In the assessment of the likely behaviour of a prestressed concrete structure, the flexural tensile stress
for structures of different classes should be limited as follows:
 class 1: no tensile stresses;
 class 2: tensile stresses, but no visible cracking; and
 class 3: tensile stresses, but surface width of cracks do not exceed 0,1 mm for elements exposed
to a particularly aggressive environment (see SABS 01002) and do not exceed 0,2 mm for all other
elements.
3.2.3.3.2 In either tall or long buildings, the effects of temperature, creep and shrinkage could, unless
otherwise catered for, require the provision of movement joints both within the structure and between
the structure and the cladding.
3.2.3.3.3 In any calculations of crack widths (see annex A), take the design strength of the materials
and the design loads given in 3.3, as appropriate for a serviceability limit state.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
3.2.3.3.4 Sufficient nonprestressed reinforcement should be provided to control cracking adequately.
3.2.3.4 Vibration
Where a structure is likely to be subjected to vibration from causes such as wind forces or machinery,
take measures to prevent discomfort or alarm, damage to the structure, or interference with its proper
function. (Limits to the level of vibration that may be acceptable are described in specialist literature.)
NOTE  In certain circumstances, it could be necessary to isolate the source of vibration or, alternatively, to isolate a part
or the whole of the structure. Special consideration could be necessary for flexible elements of structure.
3.2.4.4 Lightning
Reinforcement may be used as part of a lightning protection system, but safeguards such as the
provision of bonding and the use of a resistance check after the completion of the building are
required.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
3.3 Loads and strength of materials
3.3.1 Loads
3.3.1.1 Nominal load
The following nominal loads should be used in the design of a structure:
a) nominal selfweight load Gn (i.e the weight of the structure complete with finishes, fixtures and
partitions);
b) nominal imposed load Qn;
c) nominal wind load Wn; and
d) earth and water pressure.
The nominal load values should be taken as defined in and calculated in accordance with SABS 0160.
3.3.1.2 Partial safety factors for load f
The design load for a given type of limit state and loading is obtained from:
 Gn.f = design selfweight load,
 Qn.f = design imposed load,

where f is the appropriate partial safety factor for load, which is introduced to take account of
a) possible unusual increases in load beyond those considered in the derivation of the nominal loads,
b) inaccurate assessment of the effects of loading,
c) unforeseen stress redistribution within the structure,
d) the variations in dimensional accuracy achieved in construction, and
e) the importance of the limit state that is being considered.
3.3.1.3 Load during construction
The loading conditions during erection and construction should be considered in design and should
be such that the structure's subsequent compliance with the limit state requirements is not impaired.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
b) the yield or proof stress of reinforcement fy, and
c) the ultimate strength of a prestressing tendon fpu below which not more than 5 % of the test results
fall.
3.3.2.2 Partial safety factors for strength of materials m
For the analysis of sections, the design strength for a given material and limit state is derived from the
characteristic strength divided by m, where m is the appropriate partial safety factor for material
strength given in 3.3.3 and 3.3.4. Factor m takes account of
a) differences between actual and laboratory values of strength,
b) local weakness,
c) inaccuracies in the assessment of the resistance of sections, and
d) the importance of the limit state that is being considered.
3.3.3 Values for the ultimate limit state (loads and materials)
3.3.3.1 Design loads
3.3.3.1.1 Take the design loads for the ultimate limit state (referred to in clauses 4 and 5 as the
ultimate loads) in accordance with clause 4 of SABS 0160 (as amended).
3.3.3.1.2 The design load effect may be adjusted, at the discretion of the designer, by multiplying the
design load as in 3.3.3.1.1 by an importance factor c to allow for the consequences of failure. In the
case of critical structural elements for structures in which large crowds gather and where there would
be very serious consequences in the event of a failure, a value of c in the range 1,1 to 1,2 should be
used. For structures with a very low degree of hazard to life and with less serious consequences of
failure, a value of c of 0,9 would be appropriate.
3.3.3.1.3 In assessing the effect of loads on the whole structure or on any part of the structure, so
arrange the loads as to cause the most severe stresses. It will only be necessary to use the factor 0,9
if the selfweight load is an essential factor in the stability, e.g. for cantilevers or for wind forces. If a
critical stability condition results in the case of selfweight and wind loads combined and when (on
selected parts of the structure) the selfweight load is increased, adopt the higher figure for the
selfweight load, i.e. 1,2 Gn. Generally, in the case of selfweight, imposed and wind loads combined,
assume that no variations in f factors need be considered.
3.3.3.1.4 Since the design of the whole or of any part of a structure may be controlled by any of the
load combinations, consider each in design, and adopt the most severe.
3.3.3.1.5 If the probable effect of excessive loads caused by misuse or accident has to be considered
in the design, take the f factor for the overload as 1,05, and consider this only in conjunction with the
sustained loads at the ULS. When considering the continued stability of the structure after it has
sustained localized damage, consider only the sustained portion of the loads at the ULS.
NOTE  In general, the effect of creep, shrinkage and temperature will be of secondary importance for the ULS, and no
specific calculations will be necessary.
3.3.3.2 Materials
When assessing the strength of a structure or of any part thereof, take the appropriate values of m
as follows:
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
a) reinforcement: m = 1,15
b) concrete in flexure or axial load: m = 1,50
c) shear strength without shear reinforcement and shear taken by concrete in combination with shear
reinforcement: m = 1,40
d) bond strength: m = 1,40
e) others (e.g. bearing stresses): m > 1,50
NOTE  When considering the effects of excessive loads or localized damage, take values of m as 1,3 for concrete and
1,0 for steel.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
3.4 Analysis
3.4.1 General
The analysis that is carried out to justify a design may be divided into two stages, as follows:
a) analysis of the structure; and
b) analysis of crosssections.
When the structure or any part thereof is being analysed to determine force distributions within the
structure, the properties of materials should be assumed to be those associated with their characteristic
strength, irrespective of which limit state is being considered.
In the analysis of any crosssection within the structure, the properties of the materials should be
assumed to be those associated with their design strength, appropriate to the limit state being
considered. Base the methods of analysis used on a representation of the behaviour of the structure
that is as accurate as is reasonably practicable. The methods and assumptions given in this clause are
generally adequate.
In certain cases, advantages may result from the use of more fundamental approaches in assessing
the behaviour of the structure under load. (Specific guidance on assumptions and methods that may
be used for the serviceability limit states is given in annex A.)
Cube strength of
concrete at the
appropriate age or stage
under consideration
Modulus of
elasticity of
concrete, Ec
MPa
GPa
20
25
30
25
26
28
40
50
60
31
34
36
For concrete of low density aggregate that has a density in the range 1 400 kg/m 3 to 2 300 kg/m3,
Dc2
multiply the values given in table 1 by
, where Dc is the density of the low density aggregate
2 300
concrete, in kilograms per cubic metre.
10
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
3.4.2.1.2 Concrete made from certain aggregates (such as certain sandstones, limestones and
granites) could have a modulus of elasticity significantly lower than the values given in table 1. Test
such aggregates in order to obtain an appropriate modulus of elasticity for use in design calculations.
(Further information on the modulus of elasticity of concrete is given in annex C.)
3.4.2.1.3 For sustained loading conditions, make appropriate allowance for shrinkage and creep.
3.4.2.2 Poisson's ratio (concrete)
For reinforcement, take the modulus of elasticity for all types of loading as E, = 200 GPa. For
prestressing tendons, take the shortterm modulus of elasticity as

For information on creep and drying shrinkage, consult specialist literature. (But see also annex C.)
The primary objective of structural analysis is to obtain a set of internal forces and moments
throughout the structure that are in equilibrium with the design loads for the required loading
combination. A redistribution of the calculated forces may be made if the members concerned possess
adequate ductility. Generally, it will be satisfactory to determine envelopes of forces and moments by
linear elastic analysis of the structure or of any part thereof and to allow for redistribution and possible
buckling effects, using the methods described in clauses 4 and 5. When slabs are being considered,
the yield line or other appropriate plastic theory may be used.
When linear elastic analysis is used, base the relative stiffnesses of the elements throughout on the
properties of any one of the following sections:
a) the concrete section: the entire concrete crosssection, ignoring the reinforcement;
b) the gross section: the entire concrete crosssection, including the reinforcement on the basis of
modular ratio; and
c) the transformed section: the compression area of the concrete crosssection combined with the
reinforcement on the basis of modular ratio. (But see 4.2.4(e).)
3.4.3.2 Analysis of crosssections
The strength of a crosssection at the ULS, under both shortterm and longterm loading, may be taken
from the shortterm design stress strain curves, as follows:
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
a) for normal density concrete, from figure 1 with m having the relevant value given in 3.3.3.2;
b) for reinforcement, from figure 2 with m having the relevant value given in 3.3.3.2;
c) for prestressing reinforcement, from figure 3, with m having the relevant value given in 3.3.3.2.
The strain distribution in concrete and the strains in reinforcement are derived from the assumption
that plain sections remain plain. The tensile strength of concrete is ignored.
For prestressing tendons, make appropriate allowance for relaxation; for concrete, make appropriate
allowance for shrinkage and creep.
12
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
NOTES
1 The coefficient 0,67 takes into account the difference between laboratory and site strength of concrete.
2 fcu is in megapascals.
3 For nonlinear analysis, specialist literature should be consulted.
13
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2





















14
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.1.2 Stability
Apart from the considerations given in 3.2.2, cognizance should also be taken of those given below:
4.1.2.1 Ultimate horizontal load
All structures should be capable of resisting an ultimate horizontal load applied at each floor and roof
level simultaneously, of at least 1,5 % of the nominal selfweight of the structure between midheight
of the storey below and either midheight of the storey above or the roof surface. This force could be
shared by the parts of the structure, depending on their stiffness and strength.
4.1.2.2 Safeguarding against vehicular impact
In order to obviate the possibility of vehicles running into and damaging or destroying vital loadbearing
elements in the ground floor of a structure, the provision of elements such as bollards, walls and
retaining earthbanks should be considered.
4.1.2.3 Provision of ties
In structures where all loadbearing elements are of concrete, horizontal and vertical ties should be
provided in accordance with 4.11.9.
15
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.1.4 Loads
In this clause, the design load for the ultimate limit state is referred to as the ultimate load or the
maximum design load, to avoid confusion with the service load, which is the design load for the
serviceability limit states.
In design, use the values of the ultimate loads given in 3.3.3.1, and the values of the service loads
given in 3.3.4.1.
Grade
Characteristic
strength, fcu
MPa
MPa
months
Age
12
20
25
30
20,0
25,0
30,0
23
29
34
24
30
35
25
31
36
35
40
45
50
35,0
40,0
45,0
50,0
39
44
49
54
40
46
51
56
42
48
53
58
Design consideration should be based on the characteristic strength fcu, or, if relevant, on the
appropriate strength given in table 2 for the age at loading.
For reinforced concrete, the lowest grade that should be used is 20 for concrete made with
normalweight aggregates and 15 for concrete made with lightweight aggregates.
4.1.5.2 Characteristic strength of reinforcement
Base the design on the appropriate characteristic strength of reinforcement given in table 3. (If
necessary, a lower design stress may be used to help control deflection or cracking, and possibly a
different grade of reinforcement may be used.)
16
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Table 3 Characteristic strength of reinforcement, f,
1
Designation of reinforcement
Nominal sizes
Characteristic strength f,
mm
MPa
All sizes
250
All sizes
450
All sizes
450
Up to and including 12
485
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
beam under consideration may generally be assumed to be fixed, unless the assumption of pinned
ends is clearly more reasonable. The stiffness of the beams on either side of the beam under
consideration should be taken as half their actual stiffness values if they are taken to be fixed at their
outer ends.
The critical loading arrangements should be taken as follows:
all spans loaded with total ultimate load (1,2G n + 1,6Qn);


all spans loaded with ultimate selfweight load (1,2Gn) and alternate spans loaded with ultimate
Amdt 1, Apr. 1994
imposed load (1,6Qn).
The moments in an individual column may also be found from this simplified subframe, provided that
the subframe has at its central beam the longer of the two spans framing into the column under
consideration.
4.2.2.3 "Continuous beam" simplification
As a more conservative alternative to the preceding subframe arrangements, the moments and shear
forces in the beams at one level may also be obtained by regarding the beams as a continuous beam
over supports providing no restraint to rotation. The critical loading arrangements should be in
accordance with 4.2.2.1.
4.2.2.4 Asymmetrically loaded columns where a beam has been analysed in accordance with
4.2.2.3
In these columns, the ultimate moments may be calculated by simple moment distribution procedures,
on the assumption that the columns and beam ends remote from the junction under consideration are
fixed and that the beams possess half their actual stiffness. The arrangement of the design ultimate
imposed load should be such as to cause the maximum moment in the column.
4.2.3.2.2 An analysis of the complete frame, assuming points of contraflexure at the centres of all
beams and columns, ignoring selfweight and imposed loads and considering only the design wind load
on the structure. If more realistic, instead of assuming points of contraflexure at the centres of ground
floor columns, the feet should be considered pinned.
18
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.2.4 Redistribution of moments
Redistribution of the moments obtained by elastic analysis or by the simplified methods given in 4.2.2
and 4.2.3 may be carried out, provided the following conditions are satisfied:
a)
condition 1: equilibrium between internal and external forces is maintained under all appropriate
combinations of ultimate load.
b)
condition 2: where the design ultimate resistance moment of the crosssection subjected to the
largest moment within each region of hogging or sagging is reduced, the neutral axis depth x
should not exceed
(b0,4)d
where
d is the effective depth; and
b =
c) condition 3: the ultimate resistance moment at any section of an element complies with the
appropriate value obtained from the final envelope of redistributed elastic moments on the element,
and the ultimate resistance moment at any section is at least 75 % or 80 %, as relevant, of the
elastic moment at that particular section, obtained from elastic maximum moment diagrams
covering all appropriate combinations of ultimate loads. The value of 75 % is applicable in the case
of uniform elements (the crosssection considered does not change along the element). The value
of 80 % is applicable in the case of nonuniform elements.
d) condition 4: in structures exceeding four storeys and in which the structural frame provides the
lateral stability, the redistribution of moments is limited to 10 % and the value given in condition 3
reads 90 %.
e) condition 5: in the case of linear elastic analysis being used, the relative stiffness of the elements
is not based on the transformed sections.
19
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.3 Beams
4.3.1 General
4.3.1.1 Design limitation
Beams of normal proportions are the subject of this subclause. In the case of beams of depth
exceeding half of their clear span, specialist literature should be consulted.
4.3.1.2 Effective span of simply supported beams
The effective span of a simply supported beam is the smaller of
a) the distance between the centres of bearings, and
b) the clear distance between supports plus the effective depth.
4.3.1.3 Effective span of a continuous beam
The effective span of a continuous beam is the distance between the centres of supports. In the case
of an embedded end, the centre of action of support should be taken to be half the effective depth from
the face of the support.
4.3.1.4 Effective length of a cantilever
The effective length of a cantilever should be taken as its length to the face of the support plus half
the effective depth. If a cantilever forms the end of a continuous beam, the effective span should be
taken as its clear length plus the distance to the centre of the support.
4.3.1.5 Effective width of flanged beam
In the absence of a more accurate determination, ensure that the effective flange width
a) for a Tbeam does not exceed the lesser of
1) the web width plus L z /5 and
2) the actual width of the flange, and
b) for an Lbeam does not exceed the lesser of
1) the web width plus L z /10 and
2) the actual width of the flange,
where L z is the distance between points of zero moment (considering the bending moment envelope
on spans). For a continuous beam, L z may be taken as 0,7 times the effective span.
4.3.1.6 Slenderness limits for beams
To ensure lateral stability, the clear distance between lateral restraints should not exceed the following:
a) for simplysupported and continuous beams,
the lesser of 60bc and 250b c2 /d; and
b) for cantilevers with lateral restraint provided only at the support,
20
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
the lesser of 25b, and lOOb ,* I d
where
b,
For parapet beams, lateral restraint may be assumed to be provided by slabs attached to the tension
zone, provided that the slab thickness is at least onetenth of the effective depth of the parapet beam
and the parapet beams themselves do not project above the slab by more than ten times their width.
For the relationship between slenderness limits for beams and the strength of concrete to be used,
specialist literature should be consulted.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Table 4  Ultimate bending moments*) and shear forces
1
Position
Moment
Shear
At outer support
0,45F
Fl
11
Fl
9
0,6F
Fl
14
Fl
12
0,55F
22
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.3.3.3 Symbols
For the purposes of this subclause, the following symbols apply:
As area of tension reinforcement
lever arm
23
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2


























4.3.3.4.1 In the case of a rectangular beam, flanged beam, solid slab, ribbed slab or voided slab when
the neutral axis lies within the flange, use the following equations based on figure 4:
K is 0,156 when redistribution of bending moments does not exceed 10 % (the neutral axis depth
is limited to d/2);
K is 0,402 (b  0,4)  0,18 ( b  0,4)2 when redistribution exceeds 10 %;
K=
M
bd 2 fcu
z =d
0,5
0,25
k
0,9
< 0,95d
x = (d  z)/0,45
As = M/0,87fyz;
If K > K ) , tension and compression reinforcement are required, and
24
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
z = d 0,5
8
K
0,9
0,25
f
d
> 1 ) yc , the compression stress will be less than fyc and should be obtained from figure 2.
x
700
x = (d  z)/0,45
As = (K  K ) fcu bd 2 /fyc(d  d )
As
If
K f cu bd 2
0,87 f yz
As f yc
0,87f y
4.3.3.4.2 In the case of a flanged beam where the neutral axis lies below the flange, the required steel
area may be calculated from the following equation:
As =
25
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Table 5 ) Values of the factor
1
f
b/bw
d/hf
2
1
2
4
0,15
0,15
0,15
0,15
0,14
0,13
0,15
0,12
0,11
0,15
0,12
0,10
0,15
0,11
0,09
0,15
0,08
0,04
6
8
0,15
0,15
0,15
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,11
0,10
0,10
0,09
0,09
0,08
0,08
0,08
0,07
0,03
0,02
0
4.3.3.4.3 The ultimate design moment of resistance of a flanged beam where the neutral axis lies
below the flange may be taken as the lesser of the values given by the following equations:
h
Mu = 0,87f y As d f
2
h
Mu = 0,45f cu b hf d f
(1)
2
Where it is necessary for the moment of resistance to exceed the value given by equation (1), analyse
the section in accordance with 4.3.3.1.
4.3.3.4.4 Guidance on the curtailment of reinforcement is given in 4.11.7.
0,75
V
bd
where
V is the design shear force due to design maximum loads for ultimate limit state;
b is the width of section (for a flanged beam, should be taken as the rib width); and
d is the effective depth.
4.3.4.1.2 Where the shear stress exceeds vc as calculated from equation (2), provide shear
reinforcement in the form of links or links combined with bentup bars (but see 4.11.4.5 for minimum
area of links).
Do not space bentup bars at more than 1,5 times the effective depth of the beam.
26
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Calculate vc from:
vc =
0,75
f cu
25
1/3
100 A s
1/3
bv d
400
d
1/4
(2)
where
m
where
As is the area of properly anchored tension reinforcement (in the case of prestressed concrete
the stressed and unstressed reinforcement should be considered), and
bv
is the width of section (for a flanged beam this should be taken as average width of the rib
below the flange),
Table 6 provides values of vc for 25 MPa concrete, for a typical range of steel contents and effective
depths.
Table 6 Maximum design shear stress, vc for grade 25 concrete
1
10
11







Effective depth, d
mm
125
150
175
200
225
250
300
400
500
800
0,15
0,25
0,50
0,38
0,45
0,57
0,36
0,43
0,54
0,35
0,41
0,52
0,34
0,40
0,51
0,33
0,39
0,49
0,32
0,38
0,48
0,31
0,36
0,46
0,28
0,34
0,43
0,27
0,32
0,40
0,24
0,28
0,36



0,75
1,00
1,50
0,66
0,72
0,82
0,62
0,68
0,78
0,60
0,66
0,75
0,58
0,64
0,73
0,56
0,62
0,71
0,55
0,60
0,69
0,52
0,58
0,66
0,49
0,54
0,61
0,46
0,51
0,58
0,41
0,45
0,52



2,00
3,00
0,90
1,03
0,86
0,99
0,83
0,95
0,80
0,92
0,78
0,89
0,76
0,87
0,73
0,83
0,67
0,77
0,64
0,73
0,57
0,65



Amdt 2, Mar. 2000
27
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.3.4.1.3 When links are used for shear reinforcement, ensure that the spacings of the legs (in the
direction of the span and at right angles to it) do not exceed 0,75 d and that the following condition
is satisfied:
where
f,
is the characteristic strength of link reinforcement (but not exceeding 450 MPa);
A,,
4.3.4.1.4 Up to 50 % of the shear reinforcement may be in the form of bentup bars, which are
assumed to form the tension members of one or more single systems of lattice girders in which the
concrete forms the compression members. The maximum stress in any bar should be taken as 0,87f,.
The shear resistance in any vertical section is the sum of the vertical components of the tension and
compression forces cut by the section.
Check bars for anchorage and bearing (see 4.1 1.6).
The shear resistance of a single system of bentup bars with the bars inclined at 45" or more, may be
calculated from the following equation:
v, = A,,
0,87f,
(cos a
d  d'
sin a cot P) Sb
where
A,,
is the crosssectional area of bentup bars within the length of that part of a beam traversed
by a shear failure plane;
,f
is the characteristic strength of bentup bars (but not exceeding 450 MPa);
Amdt 1, Apr. 1994
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
29
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
I SABS
01001
Drq.12030EC/000L
b,
is the width of section (for a flanged beam, this should be taken as average width of the rib
below the flange);
v,
is the characteristic strength of the link reinforcement (but not exceeding 450 MPa).
This reinforcement should be provided within the middle threequarters of a, . Where a, is less than
d, horizontal shear reinforcement will be more effective than will vertical, and both should be used.
4.3.4.2.3 Enhanced shear strength near supports (simplified approach)
The procedures given in 4.3.4.2.1 and 4.3.4.2.2 may be used for all beams. However, for beams
carrying a generally uniform load or where the principal load is located further than 2d from the face
of support, the shear stress may be calculated at a section a distance dfrorn the face of the support.
The value of v, is calculated in accordance with 4.3.4.1, and the appropriate shear reinforcement
assessed. If this amount of shear reinforcement is provided at sections closer to the support, no further
check for shear at such sections is required.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.3.4.3 Bottom loaded beams
Where load is applied through the side face below the neutral axis of a beam or the bottom of a beam,
sufficient vertical reinforcement to carry the load up to the top face of the beam should be provided
Amdt 2, Mar. 2000
in addition to any reinforcement required to resist shear.
vc
compression without shear reinforcement can be calculated from the equation 2(a). Both adverse and
beneficial load combinations should be considered (see SABS 0160).
vc
vc
0,6
NVh
AcM
(2(a))
where
vc
is the design shear stress of concrete (see 4.3.4.1), which should not be adjusted in
accordance with 4.3.4.2;
Ac is the gross area of concrete section. (N/Ac is intended to be the average stress in the
concrete, acting at the centroid of the section); and
M
vc 1
N / (Ac vc )
(2(b))
If v exceeds vc , shear reinforcement should be provided as in 4.3.4.1 but using vc instead of of vc.
The value of v should not exceed the limiting values given in 4.3.4.1.1.
31
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.3.5.2 Calculation of torsional rigidity
If the torsional resistance or stiffness of beams has to be taken into account in the analysis of a frame,
the torsional rigidity (G x C) of a beam may be calculated by assuming that the shear modulus G is
equal to 0,4 times the modulus of elasticity of the concrete and the torsional constant C is equal to half
the St. Venant value C ) calculated for the plain concrete section.
The St. Venant torsional stiffness of a rectangular section may be calculated from the following
equation:
C ) = h3min hmax
where
is the coefficient depending on the ratio h/b (overall depth of beam divided by the width),
see table 7;
hmin
hmax
hmin
1
1,5
2
3
5
>5
0,14
0,20
0,23
0,26
0,29
0,33
hmin
hmax
1 &
hmin
4
12hmax
The St. Venant torsional stiffness of a nonrectangular section may be obtained by dividing the section
into a series of rectangles and summing the torsional stiffness of these rectangles. The division of the
section should be so arranged as to maximize the calculated stiffness. (This will generally be achieved
if the widest rectangle is made as long as possible.)
4.3.5.3 Torsional shear stress vt
4.3.5.3.1 Rectangular sections
The torsional shear stress vt at any section should be calculated assuming a plastic stress distribution
and may be calculated from the following equation:
32
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
2T
vt =
2
hmin
hmax
hmin
3
where
T
is the torsional moment due to design loads for the ultimate limit state;
hmin
T T
hmin hmax
3
(hmin
hmax)
33
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Table 8 Minimum and ultimate torsional shear stress
Concrete
grade
Minimum torsional
shear stress, vt,min
Ultimate torsional
shear stress, vtu
0,27
0,30
0,33
0,36
3,18
3,56
4,00
4,50 < vtu < 4,75
*)
20
25
30
> 40
Recommendations for reinforcement for combinations of shear and torsion are given in table 9.
vt < vt,min
vt > vt,min
v < vc + 0,4
Minimum shear
reinforcement; no
torsion reinforcement
Designed torsion
reinforcement but not less
than the minimum shear
reinforcement
v > vc + 0,4
Designed shear
reinforcement; no
torsion reinforcement
T
0,8 x1 y1 (0,87 f yv)
34
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
As
where
Asv is the area of two legs of closed links at a section (in a section reinforced with multiple links,
the area of the legs lying closest to the outside of the section should be used);
As is the area of longitudinal reinforcement;
fyv
fy
is the characteristic strength of longitudinal reinforcement (but not exceeding 450 MPa);
sv
x1
y1
35
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
partitions for beams of span up to 10 m (see 3.2.3.2). For cantilevers, add or subtract, as appropriate,
the support rotation times the cantilever span.
Table 10  Basic span/effective
depth ratios for rectangular beams
1
Support conditions
Ratio
16
20
24
28
7
4.3.6.2.2 Table 10 may be used for spans exceeding 10 m but only when it is not necessary to limit
the increase in deflection after the construction of partitions and finishes. Otherwise, in order to prevent
damage to finishes and partitions, the values given in table 10 should be multiplied by 10/span, except
for cantilevers, where the design should be justified by calculation.
4.3.6.3 Modification of span/effective depth ratios for reinforcement
4.3.6.3.1 Tension reinforcement


Since deflection is influenced by the amount of tension reinforcement and its stresses, it is necessary
to modify the span/effective depth ratios according to the ultimate design moment and the service
stress at the centre of the span (or at the support in the case of a cantilever). Therefore, values of
span/effective depth ratio obtained from table 10 should be multiplied by the appropriate factor
Amdt 1, Apr. 1994
obtained from table 11.
36
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Table 11  Modification factors for tension reinforcement
1
10
11
12
13
Modification factors
Steel
service
stress
M/bd 2
0,5
1,0
1,5
2,0
2,5
3,0
3,5
4,0
4,5
5,0
5,5
6,0
300
290
280
1,60
1,66
1,72
1,33
1,37
1,41
1,16
1,20
1,23
1,06
1,09
1,12
0,98
1,01
1,03
0,93
0,95
0,97
0,89
0,90
0,92
0,85
0,87
0,89
0,82
0,84
0,85
0,80
0,81
0,83
0,78
0,79
0,81
0,76
0,78
0,79
270
260
250
1,78
1,84
1,90
1,46
1,50
1,55
1,27
1,30
1,34
1,14
1,17
1,20
1,06
1,08
1,11
0,99
1,01
1,04
0,94
0,96
0,98
0,90
0,92
0,94
0,87
0,88
0,90
0,84
0,86
0,87
0,82
0,83
0,85
0,80
0,81
0,82
240
230
220
1,96
2,00
2,00
1,59
1,63
1,68
1,37
1,41
1,44
1,23
1,26
1,29
1,13
1,16
1,18
1,06
1,08
1,10
1,00
1,02
1,04
0,95
0,97
0,99
0,92
0,93
0,95
0,88
0,90
0,91
0,86
0,87
0,88
0,84
0,85
0,86
210
200
190
2,00
2,00
2,00
1,72
1,76
1,81
1,48
1,51
1,55
1,32
1,35
1,37
1,20
1,23
1,25
1,12
1,14
1,16
1,06
1,07
1,09
1,00
1,02
1,04
0,96
0,98
0,99
0,93
0,94
0,96
0,90
0,91
0,92
0,87
0,88
0,90
180
170
160
2,00
2,00
2,00
1,85
1,90
1,94
1,58
1,62
1,65
1,40
1,43
1,46
1,28
1,30
1,33
1,18
1,21
1,23
1,11
1,13
1,15
1,06
1,07
1,09
1,01
1,02
1,04
0,97
0,98
1,00
0,94
0,95
0,96
0,91
0,92
0,93
150
140
130
120
2,00
2,00
2,00
2,00
1,98
2,00
2,00
2,00
1,69
1,72
1,75
1,79
1,49
1,52
1,55
1,58
1,35
1,38
1,40
1,43
1,25
1,27
1,29
1,31
1,17
1,19
1,21
1,23
1,11
1,12
1,14
1,16
1,05
1,07
1,09
1,10
1,01
1,03
1,04
1,05
0,98
0,99
1,00
1,01
0,94
0,96
0,97
0,98
NOTES
1 The values in the table are based on the formula:
Modification factor = 0,55 +
(477 f s)
< 2,0
M
120 0,9
bd 2
where
M
b
d
fs
is the design ultimate moment at the centre of the span or, for cantilevers, at the support;
is the width of section;
is the effective depth of section; and
is the design estimate service stress in tension reinforcement.
37
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
The design service stress in the tension reinforcement in a beam may be estimated from the following
equation:
fs
= 0,87 f y x
1
3
%
%
2
4
As,req
As,prov
1
b
where
fs
fy
As,req
is the area of tension reinforcement required at midspan to resist moment due to ultimate
loads (at the support in the case of a cantilever);
As,prov
is the area of tension reinforcement provided at midspan (at the support in the case of
a cantilever); and
If the percentage of redistribution is not known but the design ultimate moment of midspan is clearly
the same or exceeds the elastic ultimate moment, the stress fs given in table 11 may be calculated
from the above equation where b = 1,0.
4.3.6.3.2 Compression reinforcement
Because compression reinforcement also influences deflection, the value of the span/effective depth
ratio modified in accordance with table 11 may be multiplied by a further factor obtained from table 12.
38
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Table 12  Modification factors for
compression reinforcement
1
2
100As
Factor*)
bd
0,15
0,25
0,35
1,05
1,08
1,10
0,50
0,75
1,00
1,14
1,20
1,25
1,25
1,50
1,75
1,29
1,33
1,37
2,00
2,50
> 3,00
1,40
1,45
1,50
39
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.4 Solid slabs
4.4.1 Design of solid slabs
In general, the recommendations given in 4.3 for beams will apply also to solid slabs, but take 4.4.2
to 4.4.7 into account.
NOTE  In this context, a bay is a strip across the full width of a structure and supported on two sides (see figure 7).
40
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
b)
the ratio of the characteristic imposed load to the characteristic selfweight load does not exceed
1,25.
c)
the characteristic imposed load does not exceed 5 kN/m2, excluding partitions.
When analysis is carried out for the singleload case of maximum design load on all spans, the
resulting support moments, except those at the support of cantilevers, should be reduced by 20 %, with
a resultant increase in the span moments (see 4.2.4). When a span is adjacent to a cantilever of length
exceeding onethird of the span of the slab, the other possibility of loading arrangement should be
considered, i.e. the case of slab unloaded and the cantilever loaded.
d)
steel curtailment complies with the simplified rules for curtailment given in 4.11.7.3.
41
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Position
Moment
Shear
At outer support
Near middle of end span
At first interior support
0
0,086 Fl
0,086 Fl
0,4F
0,6F
0,063 Fl
0,063 Fl
0,5F
Allowance has been made in these coefficients for 20 % redistribution. No further redistribution should
be carried out. (See also 4.2.4 (d).)
42
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
The curtailment of reinforcement designed in accordance with table 13 may be carried out in
accordance with the rules given in 4.11.7.3.
4.4.4 Solid slabs spanning in two directions at right angles (uniformly distributed
loads)
In addition to other methods, the methods given in 4.4.4.1 to 4.4.4.3 may be used for the design of
slabs spanning in two directions at right angles and supporting uniformly distributed loads.
4.4.4.1 Simply supported slabs
When simply supported rectangular slabs do not have adequate provision to resist torsion at the
corners and to prevent the corners from lifting, the maximum moments per unit width are given by the
following equations:
Msx= sxnl
Msy= synl
x
x
where
Msx, Msy
are the maximum bending moments at midspan on strips of unit width spanning lx and
ly, respectively;
is the total ultimate load per unit area (1,2 gn + 1,6 qn);
lx
ly
sx, sy
Extend to the supports at least 50 % of the tension reinforcement provided at midspan. Extend the
remaining part of the reinforcement to within 0,1l x or 0,1l y of the support, as appropriate.
43
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Table 14  Bending moment coefficients
for slabs spanning in two directions
at right angles, simply supported on four sides
1
ly
lx
sx
sy
1,0
1,1
1,2
0,045
0,061
0,071
0,045
0,038
0,031
1,3
1,4
1,5
0,080
0,087
0,092
0,027
0,023
0,020
1,6
1,7
1,8
0,097
0,100
0,102
0,017
0,015
0,016
1,9
2,0
2,5
3,0
0,103
0,104
0,108
0,111
0,016
0,016
0,016
0,017
(3)
Msy = synl2x
(4)
where
Msx, Msy
are the maximum bending moments at midspan on strips of unit width spanning lx and
ly, respectively;
is the total ultimate load per unit area (1,2 gn + 1,6 qn);
lx
ly
sx, sy
44
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Table 15  Bending moment coefficients for rectangular panels
supported on four sides with provision for torsional reinforcement
at the corners
1
Shortspan coefficients sx
Case
Values of ly/lx
10
Longspan
coefficients, sy
for all values of
ly/lx
1,0
1,1
1,2
1,3
1,4
1,5
1,75
2,0
Interior panels
Negative moment at continuous
edge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Positive moment at midspan . . .
0,031
0,024
0,037
0,028
0,042
0,032
0,046
0,036
0,050
0,039
0,053
0,041
0,059
0,045
0,063
0,049
0,032
0,024
0,039
0,029
0,044
0,033
0,048
0,036
0,052
0,039
0,055
0,041
0,058
0,043
0,063
0,047
0,067
0,050
0,037
0,028
0,039
0,030
0,049
0,036
0,056
0,042
0,062
0,047
0,068
0,051
0,073
0,055
0,082
0,062
0,089
0,067
0,037
0,028
0,047
0,036
0,056
0,042
0,063
0,047
0,069
0,051
0,074
0,055
0,078
0,059
0,087
0,065
0,092
0,070
0,045
0,034
0,046
0,034
0,050
0,038
0,054
0,040
0,057
0,043
0,060
0,045
0,062
0,045
0,067
0,047
0,070
0,053
0,034
0,034
0,046
0,056
0,065
0,072
0,078
0,091
0,100
0,045
0,034
0,057
0,043
0,065
0,048
0,071
0,053
0,076
0,057
0,080
0,060
0,084
0,063
0,092
0,069
0,098
0,074
0,044
0,042
0,054
0,063
0,071
0,078
0,084
0,096
0,105
0,058
0,044
0,055
0,065
0,074
0,081
0,087
0,092
0,103
0,111
0,056
Where these equations are used, the conditions given below apply.
4.4.4.2.1 In the case of continuous slabs
The nominal selfweight and imposed loads on adjacent slabs should be approximately the same as
those on the slab under consideration, and the spans of all adjacent slabs should be approximately the
same in each of the two directions of the lines of the supports. (See also 4.4.4.2.2.)
4.4.4.2.2 In the case of continuous and discontinuous slabs
Regard slabs as divided in each direction into middle strips and edge strips as shown in figure 9, the
middle strip being threequarters of the width and each edge strip oneeighth of the width;
The maximum moments calculated as in 4.4.4.2 apply to the middle strips only and no redistribution
is permitted.
45
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
46
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.4.4.2.3 In the case of a restrained slab with unequal conditions at adjacent panels
If the support moments for adjacent panels (calculated using table 15) differ significantly, they may
be adjusted as follows:
a) calculate the sum of the moments at midspan and supports (ignoring signs);
b) treat the values from table 15 as fixed end moments;
c) distribute these fixed end moments across the supports according to the relative stiffness of
adjacent spans, giving new support moments;
d) adjust the midspan moment; this should be such that when it is added to the support moments as
in (c) above (ignoring signs), the total should equal that obtained in (a) above;
if, for a given panel, the resulting support moments now significantly exceed the values given by
equations (3) and (4), the tension steel over the supports will need to be extended beyond the
provisions of 4.11.7.3. The procedure is as follows:
1) the span moment is taken as parabolic between supports; its maximum value is as found in (d)
above;
2) the points of contraflexure of the new support moments (as in (c) above) and the span moment
(as in (1) above) are determined;
3) at each end, half the support tension steel is extended to at least an effective depth or 12 bar
diameters beyond the nearest point of contraflexure; and
4) at each end, the full area of the support tension steel is extended to half the distance obtained
in (3) above.
4.4.4.3 Loads on supporting beams
The design loads on beams supporting solid slabs spanning in two directions at right angles and
supporting uniformly distributed loads may be assumed to be in accordance with figure 10. If the edges
of two slabs having the same support meet at a corner, the dividing angle is 45. If a fully restrained
edge meets a freely supported edge, the dividing angle on the restrained side is 60. With partial
restraint, the angles may be assumed to lie between 45 and 60 (see figure 10(b)).
47
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
0,75 f cu
reinforcement is provided.
Calculate v from:
v '
V
bd
(5)
where
v is the design shear stress;
V is the shear force due to design maximum loads;
b is the width of slab under consideration (usually 1 000 mm); and
d is the effective depth;
and the allowable stress vc is the maximum design shear stress in concrete without shear
reinforcement (obtainable from 4.3.4.1).
When the design shear stress v is less than the allowable shear stress vc, no shear reinforcement is
needed.
When v exceeds vc, shear reinforcement should be provided in accordance with the appropriate rules
for beams (see 4.3.4). When links are used in slabs less than 200 mm thick, the partial loss of
efficiency of the links should be taken into consideration unless structural steel shear heads are
provided that have been designed in accordance with specialist literature. It may be assumed that
every 10 mm reduction in the slab thickness reduces the links' efficiency by 10 %.
48
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
The enhancement in design shear strength close to supports (as described in 4.3.4.2) may also be
applied to solid slabs.
4.4.5.2 Shear stresses in solid slabs under concentrated load
4.4.5.2.1 The following terms specific to perimeters are used in this subclause:
a) perimeter: a boundary of the smallest rectangle (or square) that can be drawn around a loaded
area and that nowhere comes closer to the edges of the loaded area than some specified distance
lp (a multiple of 0,75d) (see figure 11).
NOTE  See 4.4.5.2.8 for loading close to a free edge.
b) failure zone: an area of slab bounded by perimeters 1,5d apart (see figure 12);
c) effective length of a perimeter: the length of the perimeter reduced, where appropriate, for the
effects of openings or external edges;
d) effective depth d: the average effective depth for all effective reinforcement passing through a
perimeter; and
e) effective steel area: the total area of all tension reinforcement that passes through a zone and that
extends at least one effective depth (see above) or 12 times the bar size beyond the zone on either
side.
NOTE  The reinforcement percentage used to calculate the design ultimate shear stress vc is given by:
100 x effective steel area
ud
where
u is the outer perimeter of zone concerned; and
d is the effective depth (as defined above).
49
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
V
uo d
(6)
where





uo
The maximum shear capacity may also be limited by the provisions of 4.4.5.2.6.



4.4.5.2.3 The shear capacity of punching shear zones is checked first on a perimeter 1,5 d from the
face of the loaded area. If the calculated shear stress does not exceed vc, then no further checks are
Amdt 1, Apr. 1994
needed.
50
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
If shear reinforcement is required, then it should be provided on at least two perimeters within the zone
indicated in figure 12. The first perimeter of reinforcement should be located at approximately 0,5d
from the face of the loaded area and should contain not less than 40 % of the calculated area of
reinforcement.
The spacing of perimeters of reinforcement should not exceed 0,75d and the spacing of the shear
reinforcement around any perimeter should not exceed 1,5d. The shear reinforcement should be
anchored round at least one layer of tension reinforcement. The shear stress should then be checked
on successive perimeters at 0,75d intervals until a perimeter is reached which does not require shear
reinforcement.
In the provision of reinforcement for the shear calculated on the second and subsequent perimeters,
the reinforcement provided for the shear on previous perimeters and that lies within the zone shown
in figure 12 should be taken into account.
4.4.5.2.4 The nominal design shear stress v, appropriate to a particular perimeter, is calculated from:
V
ud
v '
(7)
where
V, d are as in equation (5); and
u
4.4.5.2.5 No shear reinforcement is required when the stress v is less than vc as calculated in 4.3.4.1.
The value of 100 As/bvd to be used in 4.3.4.1 may be taken as the average for the two directions.


In the case of zone 1, As in each direction should include all the tension reinforcement within a strip
of width bv equal to the width of the loaded area plus three times the effective depth of slab on either
Amdt 1, Apr. 1994
side of the loaded area.
The enhancement of vc permitted in 4.3.4.2 should not be applied to the shear strength of perimeters
at a distance of 1,5d or more from the face of the loaded area. Where it is desired to check perimeters
closer to the loaded area than 1,5d, vc may be increased by a factor 1,5 d/av (up to 4 MPa), where av
is the distance from the edge of the loaded area to the perimeter considered.
4.4.5.2.6 The use of shear reinforcement other than links is not covered specifically by this code and
Amdt 1, Apr. 1994
should be justified separately.


In slabs over 200 mm, if vc <v <2vc, shear reinforcement may be provided in accordance with equation
7(a) or 7(b), as relevant:
For cases where vc <v <1,6vc, shear reinforcement should be provided in accordance with
ASV
>
(v & vc )ud
(7(a))
0,87f yv
For cases where 1,6vc <v <2vc, shear reinforcement should be provided in accordance with
ASV
>
5( 0,7v & vc ) ud
(7(b))
0,87f yv
51
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Equations 7(a) and 7(b) should not be applied where the shear stress v exceeds 2vc.
Where v>2vc and a reinforcing system is provided to increase the shear resistance, justification should
be provided to demonstrate the validity of the design.
In the above equations:
Asv
fyv
is the characteristic strength of shear reinforcement (but not exceeding 450 MPa);
52
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2





















































Amdt 1, Apr. 1994


NOTE d is the average effective depth for all effective reinforcement passing through a perimeter.
53
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.4.5.2.7 When openings in slabs and footings (see figure 13) are located at a distance of less than
six times the thickness of the slab from the edge of a concentrated load or reaction, then that part of
the periphery of the critical section that is enclosed by radial projections of the openings to the centroid
of the loaded area is to be considered ineffective.
54
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.4.6 Deflection of solid slabs
Deflections may be calculated and compared with the serviceability provisions given in 3.2.3.2 but,
in all normal cases, it will be sufficient to restrict the span/effective depth ratio. The appropriate ratio
for a solid slab may be obtained from table 10, modified by tables 11 and 12. The reinforcement at the
middle of the span in the width of the slab under consideration should be considered to influence
deflection.
In the case of a twoway spanning slab, the ratio should be based on the shorter span and its amount
of reinforcement in that direction.
55
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
containing permanent blocks;
d) the greater of 50 mm or onetenth of the clear distance between the ribs, for all other slabs without
permanent blocks.
4.5.1.3 Size, spacing and position of ribs
The minimum width of ribs, whether they are rectangular or tapered, should be at least 65 mm and
their depth, excluding any topping, should not exceed four times their width.
Insitu ribs should be spaced at centres not exceeding 1,5 m and the edge rib that bears along its
length on a beam or wall shall be at least as wide as the bearing, i.e. the block or void shall not be on
the bearing.
4.5.1.4 Hollow blocks and formers
4.5.1.4.1 Blocks and formers may be of any suitable material but, when required to contribute to the
structural strength of a slab, they should be made of
a) concrete or burnt clay and have a crushing strength of at least 14 MPa measured on the net section
when axially loaded in the direction of compressive stress in the slab, or

4.5.1.4.2 When a slab is constructed in accordance with 4.5.1.2(a) but the topping is not used to
contribute to structural strength, the blocks should comply with 4.5.1.4.1(a) or (b). In addition, the
thickness of the block material above its void shall be the greater of at least 20 mm or onetenth of the
clear distance between the ribs. The overall thickness of the block and topping (if any) should be not
less than onefifth of the clear distance between the ribs.
4.5.4 Shear
In oneway or twoway spanning slabs, the design shear stress v should be calculated from the
following equation:
56
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
v '
V
bv d
where
V is the design shear force due to design ultimate loads on a width of slab equal to the
centretocentre distance between ribs;
bv is the average width of rib; and
d is the effective depth.
In the determination of bv, the following shear contribution cases should be taken into consideration:
a) shear contribution by hollow blocks: bv may be increased by the wall thickness of the block, on
one side of the rib;
b) shear contribution by solid blocks: when blocks comply with 4.5.1.4, bv may be increased by
onehalf of the rib depth, on each side of the rib;
c) shear contribution by joints between narrow precast units: bv may be increased by the width
of the mortar or concrete joint.
When v is less than vc, where vc is obtained from 4.3.4.1, no shear reinforcement need be provided.
Where v exceeds vc, reinforcement should be provided in accordance with 4.3.4; ensure that v will not
exceed the lesser of
Where a critical perimeter (see 4.4.5.2) cuts any ribs, they should each be designed to resist an equal
proportion of the applied effective design force. Shear links in the ribs should continue for a distance
of at least d into the solid area.
4.5.5 Deflection
The provisions given in 4.4.6 in respect of solid slabs may be applied to the ribs of ribbed slabs. The
span/effective depth ratios given in 4.3.6.5 for a flanged beam are applicable, but when the final
reduction factor for web width is calculated, the rib width for hollow block slabs may be assumed to
include the walls of the blocks on both sides of the rib. For slabs with voids and slabs constructed of
boxsection or Isection units, calculate an effective rib width by assuming that all material below the
upper flange of the unit is concentrated in a rectangular rib having the same crosssectional area
and depth.
57
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
If a slab has been designed as simply supported but is continuous over supports, the reinforcement
provided in the top of the slab should be at least onequarter of that required in the middle of adjoining
spans. This reinforcement shall extend by at least onetenth of the clear span into adjoining spans.
4.5.6.2.2 A single layer of mesh should be provided in the topping of all ribbed and hollow block slabs.
The mesh should have a crosssectional area in each direction of at least 0,12 % of the topping. The
spacing of wires should not exceed half the centretocentre distance between ribs.
panel length, measured from centres of columns, in direction of span under consideration
l2
panel width, measured from centres of columns at right angles to direction of span under
consideration
lm
average of l1 and l2
hc
diameter of column or of column head (see figure 15) (which shall be taken as the diameter of a
circle of the same area as the crosssection of the head (see 4.6.1.3))
58
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
59
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.6.1.3 Column heads
Ensure that where column heads are provided, the heads of interior columns and such portions of the
heads of exterior columns as will lie within the structure, meet with the following conditions:
a)
the angle of greatest slope of the head, for the purposes of analysis, does not exceed 45 from
the vertical; and
b)
the diameter of the column head hc is taken as its diameter measured at a distance of 40 mm
below the soffit of the slab (or the soffit of the drop, where provided), as shown in figure 15, but
does not exceed 0,25lm.
take the width of the column strip as onehalf of the width of the panel, except that where drops
are used, the width may be taken as the width of the drop; and
b)
take the width of the middle strip as the difference between the width of the panel and that of the
column strip.
Drops should be ignored if their smaller dimension is less than onethird of the shorter span of the
surrounding panels. Smaller drops may still be taken into account in assessing the resistance to
punching shear.
In the case of unalike panels: if there is a support common to two panels that are of such dimensions
that the strips in one panel do not match those in the other, the division of the panels over the region
of the common support should be taken as that calculated for the panel giving the wider column strip.
4.6.1.5 Thickness of panels
The thickness of the slab will generally be controlled by considerations of deflection (see 4.6.3). In no
case, however, should the thickness of the slab be less than 125 mm.
The minimum thickness required when shear reinforcement is provided, is 150 mm.
60
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Figure 16 Division of flat slab panels into columns and middle strips
61
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.6.1.6 Openings in panels
Openings, excluding those that comply with the conditions given in 4.6.1.6.1 to 4.6.1.6.3, shall be
completely framed on all sides by beams that carry the loads to the columns, and an opening shall not
encroach upon a column head. (But see also 4.4.5.2.)
4.6.1.6.1 Openings in the area common to two intersecting middle strips
The greatest dimension in a direction parallel to a centreline of the panel should not exceed 0,4l, and
the total positive and negative moments specified in 4.6.5.1 or 4.6.5.2 should be redistributed between
the remaining principle design sections to meet the changed conditions.
4.6.1.6.2 Openings in the area common to two column strips
Aggregate length and aggregate width should not exceed onetenth of the width of the column strip;
the reduced sections should be capable of resisting the appropriate moments specified in 4.6.5.1 or
4.6.5.2, and the perimeter for calculating shear stress should be reduced as appropriate (see 4.4.5.2).
4.6.1.6.3 Openings in the area common to one column strip and one middle strip
Aggregate length and aggregate width should not exceed onequarter of the width of the column strip,
and the reduced sections should be capable of resisting the appropriate moments specified in 4.6.5.1
or 4.6.5.2.


Punching shear around the columns is the critical consideration for shear in flat slab structures. The
design effective shear force should be found in the subclauses given below and then the procedure
given in 4.4.5.2 should be followed. For flat slabs between 150 mm and 200 mm thick, the allowable
stress in the shear reinforcement should be reduced from the full value at 200 mm of thickness to zero
at 150 mm of thickness, with intermediate values being interpolated linearly. Edges of the drop should
be considered the consecutive perimeter on which the shear stress is to be checked (see figure 17).
Amdt 1, Apr. 1994
If the ratio of spans exceeds 2, specialist literature should be consulted.
62
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
63
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.6.2.2 Design effective shear force at slab/internal column connection
4.6.2.2.1 In the case of structures in which stability is provided by shear walls or other bracing
designed to resist lateral forces, and where the ratio between adjacent spans does not exceed 1,25,
the design effective shear force at the perimeter may be calculated on the assumption that the
maximum design load is applied to all panels adjacent to the column under consideration. It will be
satisfactory then to take a value of
Veff = 1,15Vt
where
Veff is the design effective shear including allowance for moment transfer; and
Vt
4.6.2.2.2 In other cases, i.e. braced frames where the ratio between adjacent spans exceeds 1,25, or
in the case of an unbraced frame, the shear force should be calculated as the greater of the following:
Veff =
Vt
1 %
1,5 Mt
Vt x
or
(8)
Veff = 1,15Vt
where
Veff is as in 4.6.2.2.1;
Vt
is the design shear for a particular loading arrangement transferred to column (see figure 18);
Mt
is the sum of design moments in column above and below slab for a particular loading
arrangement (see 4.6.5.1 and 4.6.5.2); and
Equation (8) should be used independently for the moments and shear forces about both axes of the
column and the design checked for the worst case.
NOTE ) Mt may be reduced by 30 % where the equivalent frame method has been used and analysis has been based
on pattern loads.
64
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
For other cases of edge columns that are bent in a direction parallel to the edge, the design effective
shear should be calculated from the following:
Veff = Vt
1,25
1,5 Mt
Vt x
where
Veff, Vt, Mt and x are as in equation (8).
NOTE Mt may be reduced by 30 % where the equivalent frame method has been used and analysis has been based
on pattern loads.
or
5,0 MPa, when assessed by means of equation (6) or (7), as appropriate, on a perimeter equal to the
perimeter of the column or column head (this includes an allowance for m of 1,40).
65
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.6.5.1.1.2 Each frame may be analysed in its entirety by the Hardy Cross method or other suitable
elastic methods. Alternatively, the following simplified subframes may be considered:
a) each strip of floor or roof under vertical load only may be analysed as a separate frame with the
columns above and below fixed in position and direction at their extremities (see 4.2.2.1); or
b) the simplified subframe described in 4.2.2.2.
In either case, the analysis should be carried out for the appropriate design ultimate loads on each
span calculated for a strip of slab of width equal to the distance between centrelines of the panels on
each side of the column.
4.6.5.1.1.3 When the relative stiffness of the slabs and columns is being calculated, the gross
crosssection of the concrete alone should be considered. In the case of a recessed or coffered slab
that is made solid in the region of the columns, the stiffening effect may be ignored, provided that the
solid part of the slab does not extend more than 0,15l into the span, measured from the centreline of
the columns.
4.6.5.1.2 The following arrangement of loads should be considered:
a) all spans loaded with total ultimate load (1,2Gn + 1,6Qn);
b) all spans loaded with ultimate selfweight load (1,2Gn) and even spans loaded with ultimate imposed
load (1,6Qn); and
c) all spans loaded with ultimate selfweight load (1,2Gn) and odd spans loaded with ultimate imposed
load (1,6Qn).
4.6.5.1.3 The following limitation of negative design moments should be considered:
Negative moments exceeding those at a distance hc /2 from the centreline of the column may be
ignored, provided that the sum of the maximum positive design moment and the average of the
negative design moments in any one span of the slab for the whole panel width is at least:
n l2
8
l1 &
2hc
66
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
c) the column stiffness EI/l of the columns is not less than the EI/l of the slab, or the detailing rules in
4.6.5.4 are followed; and
d) the hogging moments are reduced by 20 % and the sagging moments increased to maintain
equilibrium.
Table 16 Bending moments and shear force coefficients for flat slabs
of three or more equal spans
1
Position
Moment
Shear
Total
column
moment
Outer support:
Column
Wall
0,040Fl*)
0,020Fl
0,045F
0,40F
0,04Fl

0,083Fl*)
0,063Fl
0,60F
0,022Fl
0,071Fl
At interior supports
0,055Fl
0,50F
0,022Fl
67
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Table 17  Distribution of moments in panels
of flat slabs designed as continuous frames
1
Moments
Negative
Positive
Middle strip
75
55
25
45
4.6.5.3.2 Design moments transferable between a slab and the edge or corner columns will only be
able to be transferred by a column strip considerably narrower than in the case of an internal column.
The breadth of this strip be for various typical cases is shown in figure 19. The value of be should never
be taken as exceeding the column strip width appropriate for an internal panel. The maximum design
moment Mt,max that can be transferred to a column by the appropriate strip may be calculated from the
following equation:
Mt,max = 0,15 be d 2 fcu
where
be is the breadth of strip;
d is the effective depth for the top reinforcement in the column strip; and
fcu is the characteristic strength of concrete.
The value of Mt,max should exceed half the design moment obtained from an equivalent frame analysis
or it should exceed 70 % of the design moment if a grillage or finite element analysis has been used.
If the value of Mt,max is less than this, the structural arrangements should be changed.
68
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
69
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.6.5.4 Arrangement of reinforcement
In general, twothirds of the amount of reinforcement required to resist the negative design moment
in the column strip should be placed in a width equal to half that of the column strip and central to the
column.
Half the bottom reinforcement should be extended 20 diameters beyond the centreline of supports.
When the simplified method given in 4.6.5.2 is used and the columns are relatively flexible (with the
stiffness EI/l of smaller order than the stiffness EI/l of the slab), at least 50 % of the top reinforcement
shall extend a distance of 0,3l from the face of supports.
Otherwise the reinforcement should be arranged and bars curtailed in accordance with 4.11.7.
4.6.5.5 Panels with marginal beams or with walls
Where the slab is supported by a marginal beam of depth exceeding 1,5 times the thickness of the
slab, or by a wall, ensure that
a) the total load to be carried by the beam or wall comprises the direct load on the beam or wall plus
a uniformly distributed load equal to onequarter of the total load on the panel; and
b) the moments on the halfcolumn strip adjacent to the beam or wall are onequarter of the moments
given in 4.6.5.1 and 4.6.5.2.
4.7 Columns
4.7.1 General
NOTE The provisions of this subclause relate to columns whose greater overall crosssectional dimension does not
exceed four times its smaller dimension. While the provisions relate primarily to rectangular crosssections, the principles
adopted may be applied to other shapes, where appropriate.
4.7.1.1 Symbols
For the purposes of this subclause, the following symbols apply:
Ac
Asc
au
deflection at ultimate limit state for each column, calculated from equation (10)
effective depth
d
emin
fcu
fy
material factor
70
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
h
le
lo
M1
M2
Mi
initial design ultimate moment in a column before allowance for additional design moments
arising out of slenderness
MV
MH
Mx
M
x
My
M
y
Madd
Mbal
Nbal
design axial load capacity of a balanced section, i.e. with a compressive strain of 0,003 5 in the
concrete and a tensile strain equal to 0,002 in the outermost layer of reinforcement (for
symmetrically reinforced rectangular sections, it may be taken as 0,25 fcubd)
Nuz
Sb
Su
71
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.7.1.2.3 If a column has a large enough section to withstand the design maximum loads without the
addition of reinforcement, it may be designed in the same way as a plain concrete wall (see 6.5).
4.7.1.3 Braced and unbraced columns
A column may be considered braced in a given plane if lateral stability to the structure as a whole is
provided by walls, bracing or buttressing designed to resist all lateral forces in that plane. It should
otherwise be considered unbraced. If the degree of lateral restraint is in doubt, the stiffness of the
bracing system should be evaluated from the ratio Sb/Su. If the ratio exceeds 5, the frame can be
considered fully braced.
4.7.1.4 Short and slender columns
A column may be considered slender in a particular plane if its slenderness ratio in that plane (lex/h or
ley/b) exceeds 10 for unbraced columns and 177M1/M2 for braced columns. It should otherwise be
considered short. It is therefore possible that a column may be slender in one plane and short in the
other plane and it should be treated accordingly.
4.7.1.5 Slenderness limits for columns
Generally, the clear height lo should satisfy the following:
lo < 60b and b > 0,25h (see also note to 4.7.1)
If, in any given plane, one end of an unbraced column is unrestrained (e.g. a cantilever column), its
clear height lo should satisfy the following:
lo < 25b and b > 0,25h (see also note to 4.7.1)
For unbraced columns, the considerations of deflection (see 4.7.5) may introduce further limitations.
4.7.1.6 Effective height of a column
4.7.1.6.1 Effective height of a column: general method
The effective height le of a column in a given plane may be obtained from the following equation:
le = lo
Values of are given in tables 18 and 19 (for braced and unbraced columns, respectively) as a
function of the end conditions of the column. Figure 20 may be used to obtain an approximate
assessment of the effective height, if desired. It should be noted that the effective height of a column
in the two plane directions may be different.
In tables 18 and 19, the end conditions are defined in terms of a scale of 1 to 4. An increase in this
scale corresponds to a decrease in end fixity. An appropriate value can be assessed from the following
four end conditions:
a) end condition 1: the end of the column is connected monolithically to beams on either side that
are at least as deep as the overall dimension of the column in the plane under consideration. Where
the column is connected to a foundation structure, this should be of a form specifically designed to
carry moment.
b) end condition 2: the end of the column is connected monolithically to beams or slabs on either side
that are shallower than the overall dimensions of the column in the plane under consideration.
72
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
c) end condition 3: the end of the column is connected to members that, while not specifically
designed to provide restraint to rotation of the column, will nevertheless provide some nominal
restraint.
d) end condition 4: the end of the column is unrestrained against both lateral movement and rotation
(e.g. the free end of a cantilever column in an unbraced structure).
Table 18  Values of for braced columns
1
End condition
at top
1
2
3
0,75
0,80
0,90
0,80
0,85
0,95
0,90
0,95
1,00
End condition
at top
1
2
3
4
1,2
1,3
1,6
2,2
1,3
1,5
1,8

1,6
1,8

c1
is the ratio of sum of column stiffnesses to sum of beam stiffnesses at one end of column;
c2
is the ratio of sum of column stiffnesses to sum of beam stiffnesses at other end of
column; and
73
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
c,min
The stiffness of a member should be obtained by dividing the second moment of area of its
concrete section by its actual length, which is the distance centretocentre of restraints. When c
is being calculated, only elements properly framed into the end of the column in the appropriate
plane of bending should be considered. In cases of relative stiffness, the following simplifying
assumptions may be made:
1) flat slab construction: the stiffness of an equivalent beam that has the width and thickness of
the slab forming the column strip should be assumed; (For edge columns, see 4.6.5.3.2.)
2) simply supported beams framing into a column: c may be taken as 10;
3) connection between column and base design to resist nominal moment only: c may be
taken as 10;
4) connection between column and base design to resist column moment: c may be taken
as 1,0.
4.7.1.6.3 Columns effective length charts
NOTE  Figure 20 should be used only for the purposes of this subclause.
In the absence of more detailed information, the recommended practical stiffness ratios at the base
are:
= 10 for columns designed as "pinned" at the base; and
= 1 for columns rigidly connected to the base.
Where ideal conditions prevail, the ratio as above can be obtained as equal to infinity and as zero
respectively but should be justified by analysis.
It is recommended that calculations be based on I/l for columns and 0,5 times I/l for beams, where I
may be based on the concrete section only and l is the distance between centres of restraints. To
account for different far end conditions of beams, a further factor can be applied to the beam stiffness
as follows:
Braced column
Far end of beam is hinged
Far end of beam is fixed against rotation
: 1,5
: 2,0
Unbraced column
Far end of beam is hinged
Far end of beam is fixed against rotation
: 0,5
: 0,67
74
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
M ( )
n
i
i i
(9)
2
75
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
where
lo is the clear height of reference column; clear storey height in regular frameworks;
M 1
n
1
76
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
au a Kh
(10)
In this equation, a has the value obtained from table 20 or, alternatively, from equation (12) from
which the table is derived. K is the reduction factor that corrects the deflection to allow for the influence
of axial load. It is derived from the following equations:
K
Nuz N
(11)
Nuz Nbal
and if the factor K in equation (11) exceeds 1,0, i.e. N is less than Nbal, then:
K
Mi
Mbal
In equation (11), Nuz = 0,45 fcuAc + 0,75 fy Asc (this includes an allowance for m).
Table 20 Values of a
1
le/h
10
12
15
0,05
0,07
0,11
20
25
30
0,20
0,31
0,45
35
40
45
0,61
0,80
1,01
50
55
60
1,25
1,51
1,80
The appropriate values of K may be found iteratively, taking an initial value of 1,0. Alternatively, it
would always be conservative to assume that K = 1,0.
Values of a in table 20 are derived from the following equation:
a
1
2 000
le
(12)
(13)
77
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
If calculations show that the primary moment in one or both planes is less than the nominal eccentricity
moment (see 4.7.2.3), the primary moment in the relevant plane(s) should be based on the eccentricity
moment.
The critical section is designed to withstand the design ultimate axial load N, plus the total design
moment in either of the two directions.
4.7.3.2.1 Slender braced columns bent uniaxially
Figure 21 shows the distribution of moments assumed over the height of a typical braced column. It
may be assumed that the initial moment at the point of maximum additional moment (i.e. near
midheight of the column) is given by:
Mi = 0,4 M1 + 0,6 M2
where
M1 is the smaller initial end moment due to design ultimate vertical loads; and
M2 is the larger initial end moment due to design ultimate vertical loads.
Assuming the column is bent in double curvature, M1 should be taken as negative and M2 as positive.
If a column is bent in a single curvature, both terms are assumed positive.
It can be seen from figure 21 that the maximum design moment will be the greatest of (a), (b) or (c)
below.
a) M2;
b) Mi + Madd; and
c) eminN.
4.7.3.2.2 Slender unbraced columns bent uniaxially
The distribution of moments assumed over the height of an unbraced column is indicated in figure 22.
The additional moment referred to in 4.7.3.1 may be assumed to occur at whichever end of the column
has the stiffer joint (i.e. where the largest primary moment occurs).
The additional moment is to be based on the unbraced effective length. The additional moment at the
other end of the column may be reduced in proportion to the ratio of the joint stiffness. The moment
will act in a direction such that it increases the absolute magnitude at the critical section. The
maximum design moment for the column will therefore be the greater of (a) and (b) below.
a) M2 = Mv + MH [1 + Madd,unbr /(Mv + MH)]; or
b) 0,6 M2 + 0,4 M1 + Madd, braced
where M1 and M2 are the smaller and larger column end moment respectively, after including for the
sway effect as illustrated in figure 22, and Madd, braced from equation (13), using the braced effective
length.
If calculations show that the total primary moments at both ends Mv + MH are less than the nominal
eccentricity moment eminN, MH shall be taken as eminN about each axis separately.
78
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
79
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
80
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.7.4 Design of column section for ULS
4.7.4.1 Analysis of the crosssection
In the analysis of the crosssection of a column to determine its design ultimate resistance to moment
and to axial force, the same assumptions should be made as when a beam is being analysed
(see 4.3.3.1).
4.7.4.2 Design charts for symmetrically reinforced columns
Suitable design charts for symmetrically reinforced columns, based on the relevant material properties
and partial safety factors, may be used in the design of column sections.
4.7.4.3 Maximum axial load capacity in presence of nominal eccentricity moment
Where, owing to the nature of the structure, a short column cannot be subjected to significant
moments, its maximum ultimate axial design load in the presence of the nominal eccentricity moment
given in 4.7.2.3 may be taken as
N = 0,40 fcu Ac + 0,67 Asc fy
NOTE This includes an allowance for m.
h
Mx /h > My /b, M Mx b
My
x
b
b) for
b
Mx /h < My /b, M My b
Mx
y
h
where
h is the overall section dimension in plane of moment Mx;
b is the overall section dimension in plane of moment My;
81
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Table 21 Values of coefficient b
1
N
bhfcu
0,000
0,075
0,150
0,50
0,60
0,70
0,250
0,300
0,400
0,70
0,65
0,53
0,500
>0,600
0,42
0,30
82
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
a =
1
11,5
le
h
where csu is the concrete flexural compressive strain due to sustained load and a creep related
factor, which, if set equal to the creep factor, will give good results for the combined creep and
shrinkage effect.
83
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.8.2.3 Forces in lateral supports
4.8.2.3.1 A lateral support is an element (a prop, a buttress, a floor, crosswall or other vertical or
horizontal element) able to transmit lateral forces from a braced wall to the principal structural bracing
or to the foundations.
4.8.2.3.2 The forces that lateral supports should be able to transmit are assumed to be equal in
magnitude to the sum of the following:
a) the simple static reactions to the sum of the applied maximum design horizontal forces at the point
of lateral support; and
b) 2,5 % of the total maximum design vertical load that the wall or column is designed to carry at the
point of lateral support.
4.8.2.4 Resistance of lateral supports to rotation
Resistance of lateral supports to rotation should only be considered to exist in the following cases:
a) where both the lateral support and the braced wall are concrete walls that are adequately detailed
to provide bending restraint; or
b) where precast or insitu concrete floors (irrespective of the direction of span) have a bearing on at
least twothirds of the thickness of the wall, or where there is a connection that provides adequate
bending restraint.
84
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.8.4 Short reinforced walls
4.8.4.1 Short braced axially loaded reinforced walls
Short braced axially loaded reinforced walls that by the nature of the structure cannot be subjected
to significant moments, may be designed in the presence of the nominal eccentricity moment by the
following equation:
N < 0,40 fcuAc + 0,67Ascfy
NOTE  This includes an allowance for m.
where
N
is the total design axial load on the wall due to maximum design loads;
4.8.4.2 Walls subjected to transverse moments and to uniformly distributed axial forces
When the only eccentricity of force derives from the transverse moments, the design axial load may
be assumed to be distributed uniformly along the length of the wall. The crosssection of the wall
should be designed to resist the appropriate design ultimate axial load and transverse moment. The
assumptions made in the analysis of beam sections apply (see 4.3.3).
4.8.4.3 Walls subjected to inplane moments and to axial forces
The crosssection of the wall should be designed by application of the assumptions given in 4.3.3.
4.8.4.4 Walls subjected to axial forces and to significant transverse and inplane moments
The assessment of the effects should comprise three stages, as follows:
a) inplane moments and axial forces: the distribution of force along the wall is calculated by elastic
analysis, assuming no tension in the concrete (see 4.8.3.3);
b) transverse moments: the transverse moments are calculated (see 4.8.3.2).
At various points along the wall, effects (a) and (b) above are combined and checked, using the
assumptions given in 4.3.3.
85
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
a) inplane moments and axial forces: the distribution of force along the wall is calculated by elastic
analysis, assuming no tension in the concrete (see 4.8.3.3);
b) transverse moments: the transverse moments are calculated (see 4.8.3.2).
At various points along the wall, effects (a) and (b) above are combined and checked, using the
assumptions given in 4.7.4.
4.8.5.2 Limits of slenderness
The slenderness ratio is the ratio of the effective height of the wall le to its thickness h. The following
limitations of the slenderness ratio shall be observed:
a) in the case of a braced wall reinforced as in 4.11.4 but less than 1 %, the ratio le/h shall not exceed
40;
b) in the case of a braced wall reinforced as in 4.11.4 but exceeding 1 %, the ratio le/h sha ll not exceed
45;
c) in the case of an unbraced wall reinforced as in 4.11.4, the ratio le/h shall not exceed 30.
4.9 Staircases
4.9.1 General
4.9.1.1 Distribution of loading
4.9.1.1.1 Assume the ultimate load to be uniformly distributed over the plan area of the staircase.
When, however, staircases surrounding open wells include two spans that intersect at right angles, the
load on the areas common to both spans may be assumed to be divided equally between the two
spans.
4.9.1.1.2 When staircases or landings that span in the direction of the flight are built at least 110 mm
into walls along part or all of their length, a 150 mm strip adjacent to the wall may be deducted from
the loaded area.
4.9.1.2 Effective width of staircases
Take the effective width of a staircase without stringer beams as the actual width of the staircase.
When a staircase is built into a wall along part or all of its span, include twothirds of the embedded
width up to a maximum of 80 mm, in the effective width.
86
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.9.1.3 Effective span of staircases
4.9.1.3.1 When a staircase without stringer beams is built monolithically at its ends into structural
elements spanning at right angles to the span of the staircase, take the effective span as the sum of
the clear horizontal distance between the supporting elements plus half the widths of the supporting
elements, subject to maximum additions of 900 mm at both ends.
4.9.1.3.2 When a staircase without stringer beams is simply supported, take the effective span as the
horizontal distance between the centrelines of the supports.
4.9.1.3.3 For the purposes of this subclause, a staircase may be taken to include a section of landing
spanning in the same direction and continuous with the stair flight.
4.9.1.4 Depth of section
Take the depth of the section as the minimum thickness perpendicular to the soffit of the staircase.
4.10 Bases
4.10.1 General
This subclause covers the design of pad footings and pile caps.
87
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.10.2.3 The design moment on a vertical section passing completely across a base should be taken
as the moment due to reactions to all design ultimate loads on one side of this section. No
redistribution of moments should be made.
4.10.2.4 When the flexural and shear strengths of sections are being calculated, account should be
taken of pockets for precast members unless they are to be subsequently grouted with a cement
mortar of compressive strength at least equal to that of the concrete in the base.
4.10.2.5 When the resistance to bending is being calculated, bases may be regarded as beams or
solid slabs, as appropriate.
b) the remaining reinforcement should be spread evenly over the outer parts of the section.
Where there are two or more columns and lc is the greater of half the spacing between them or the
distance to the edge of the pad, then the following should be considered:
When lc exceeds (3c/4 + 9d/4), where c is the column width and d is the effective depth of a pad
footing, twothirds of the required reinforcement should be concentrated within a zone from the
centreline of the column to a distance 1,5d from the face of the column; otherwise the reinforcement
should be uniformly distributed over lc.
4.10.3.3 Shear
4.10.3.3.1 The design shear force is the algebraic sum of all the ultimate vertical loads and reactions
acting on one side or outside the periphery of the critical section.
4.10.3.3.2 The shear strength of bases in the vicinity of concentrated loads or reactions is governed
by the more severe of the following two conditions:
a) shear along a vertical section that extends across the full width of the base (for pad footings, this
section may be considered at 1,5 times the effective depth from the face of the loaded area and
the provisions given in 4.3.4.1 will apply); and
b) punching shear around the loaded area, where the provisions given in 4.4.5.2 will apply.
88
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.10.3.4 Bond and anchorage
The provisions given in 4.11.6 apply to reinforcement in bases.
The critical sections for local bond stress are
a) the critical sections described in 4.11.6, and
b) sections at which the depth changes or any reinforcement ends.
4.10.3.5 Limit state of deflection
This limit state may be ignored for bases.
4.10.3.6 Crack control in bases
The provisions given in 4.11.8.2 concerning the maximum distance between bars in tension apply to
bases, but reinforcement need not be provided in the side of bases to control cracking.


4.10.4.3.1 Where the spacing of the piles is less than or equal to 3 pile diameters, the enhancement
of the shear strength may be applied over the whole of the critical section.
Where the spacing is greater, the enhancement may only be applied to strips of width equal to 3 pile
diameters, centred on each pile. Minimum stirrups are not required in pile caps where v < vc (enhanced
if appropriate).
4.10.4.3.2 The tension reinforcement should be provided with a full anchorage, in accordance with
4.11.6.
89
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
The maximum shear capacity may also be limited by the provisions of 4.4.5.2.6.
90
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.11.1.3 Tolerance on position of reinforcement
4.11.1.3.1 In all normal cases, the design may be based on the assumption that the reinforcement is
in its nominal position. However, when reinforcement is located in relation to more than one face of
an element (e.g. a link in a beam in which the nominal cover for all sides is given), the actual concrete
cover on one side may be greater and can be derived from consideration of certain other tolerances
appropriate to
a) dimensions and spacing of cover blocks, spacers or chairs or both (including the compressibility of
these items and the surfaces they bear on);
b) stiffness, straightness, and accuracy of cutting, bending and fixing of bars or reinforcement cage;
c) accuracy of formwork in both dimension and plan (this includes permanent forms such as blinding
or brickwork); and
d) the size of the structural part and the relative size of the bars or reinforcement cage.
4.11.1.3.2 In certain cases where bars or reinforcement cages are positioned accurately on one face
of a structural element, this may lead to an accumulation of tolerances affecting the position of highly
stressed reinforcement at the opposite face of the element. The consequent possible reduction in
effective depth to this reinforcement may exceed the percentage allowed for in the normal value of
the partial safety factor for loads. In the design of a particularly critical element, therefore, appropriate
adjustment to the effective depth assumed may be necessary.
4.11.1.4 Construction and movement joints
4.11.1.4.1 Construction joints
The number of construction joints should be kept to the necessary minimum. Their exact location
should be indicated on a drawing or agreed on with the contractor. Generally, construction joints should
be at right angles to the direction of the element.
The concrete at the joint should be bonded with the concrete subsequently placed against it to such
degree that the loadbearing capacity of the concrete in the area of the joint is not impaired. If it is
necessary for a joint to transfer tensile or shear stresses, the surface of the first pour should be
roughened to increase the bond strength and to provide aggregate interlock. (For details, see
SABS 01002.)
4.11.1.4.2 Movement joints
Movement joints are those specifically designed and provided to allow relative movement of adjacent
parts of an element or structure to occur without impairment of the functional integrity of the element
or structure. They may also act as connection joints between several parts of an element or structure,
or they may be provided solely to permit translocation or rotation or both.
Careful consideration should be given to the location of movement joints and their position should be
clearly indicated on the drawings, both for the individual elements and for the structure as a whole. In
general, movement joints in the structure should pass through the whole structure in one plane. If
special preparation of the joint faces is required, this should be specified.
Further information on various types of movement joints is given in annex B.
91
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.11.2 Concrete cover to reinforcement
4.11.2.1 Nominal cover is that dimension used in design and indicated on the drawings.
4.11.2.2 Determine the concrete cover to reinforcement by consideration of fire resistance and
durability under the envisaged conditions of exposure.
4.11.2.3 Cover is not required to the end of a straight bar in a floor or roof unit when the end of the
unit is not exposed to the weather. However, the ends of simply supported beams not directly exposed
to the weather may be liable to condensation with the consequent need to protect the reinforcement
against corrosion. Regard the following as subject to moderate exposure: roofs, balconies, washeddown floors, car parks, or any other construction that, although nominally protected from water, might
become moist as a result of deterioration of finishes or for other reasons.
4.11.2.4 Always make the nominal cover at least equal to the diameter of the bar and, in the case of
bundles of three or more bars, equal to the diameter of a single bar of equivalent area.
4.11.2.5 Concrete cover to all reinforcement, including links, should be at least equal to the maximum
nominal size of the aggregate.
4.11.2.6 Where a surface treatment (such as bush hammering) cuts into the face of the concrete, add
the expected depth of treatment to the nominal cover.
4.11.2.7 Where, owing to its particular situation, an element is required to resist the action of fire for
a specified period, the nominal cover may need to be increased or, alternatively, the concrete cover
to the main bars may need to be reinforced to prevent premature spalling.
4.11.2.8 Take special care in conditions of extreme exposure or where low density or porous
aggregates are used. (See the appropriate clause of SABS 01002, and 4.12.2.)
4.11.2.9 Take account of possible deviations in reinforcement fitting between two concrete faces
(see 4.11.3.2).
4.11.2.10 Minimum concrete cover for reinforcement is given in SABS 01002. For fireresistant
covering, see clause 7.
92
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Table 22  Bar schedule dimensions: Deductions for tolerance
1
Distance between
concrete faces
Type of bar
Total
deduction
mm
m
01
12
Over 2
Any length
10
15
20
40
4.11.3.2.3 These deductions will apply to most reinforced concrete constructions but if the tolerance
on element size for the four categories in table 22 exceeds 5 mm, 5 mm, 10 mm and 10 mm
respectively, make larger deductions or increase the cover.
width of section
bw width or effective width of the rib (for a box, Tsection or Isection, bw is taken as the average
width of the concrete below the flange)
fy
hf
depth of flange
span of beam
93
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.11.4.2 Minimum area of main reinforcement
4.11.4.2.1 The minimum percentages of main reinforcement appropriate for various conditions of
loading and types of member are given in table 23.
4.11.4.2.2 Ensure that the minimum number of longitudinal bars provided in a column is four in
rectangular columns and six in circular columns and that the diameter of the bars is at least 12 mm.
Ensure that the total crosssectional area of these bars will be at least 0,4 % of the crosssectional area
of the column.
4.11.4.2.3 A wall cannot be regarded as a reinforced concrete wall unless the percentage of vertical
reinforcement provided is at least 0,4 % of the gross crosssectional area. This vertical reinforcement
may be in one or two layers.
4.11.4.2.4 For purposes of fire resistance, a wall containing less than 1,0 % of vertical reinforcement
is classed as a plain concrete wall.
4.11.4.3 Minimum area of secondary reinforcement
4.11.4.3.1 For a solid concrete suspended slab, the amount of reinforcement provided at right angles
to the main reinforcement is given in table 23. The distance between bars of the secondary
reinforcement shall not exceed five times the effective depth of the slab.
4.11.4.3.2 Where the main vertical reinforcement in a wall is used to resist compression or to provide
horizontal reinforcement, the amount of reinforcement provided, expressed as a percentage of the
gross crosssection, shall be at least 0,25 % in the case of highyield steel or 0,3 % in the case of mild
steel. The reinforcement shall be of diameter at least 6 mm or at least onequarter of the diameter of
the vertical bars. It may also be necessary to provide links in the thickness of the wall (see 4.11.4.5).
4.11.4.4 Minimum size of bars near side faces of beams of overall depth exceeding 750 mm
In order to control cracking, bars provided near side faces of beams should be of diameter at least
s bb /f y , where sb is the bar spacing and b the width of the section at the point considered (or 500 mm,
whichever is the smaller). The bars should be distributed at a spacing not exceeding 250 mm near the
side faces of the beam and the distribution should be done over a distance of twothirds of the overall
Amdt 1, Apr. 1994
depth of the beam, measured from its tension face.
4.11.4.5 Minimum area of links
4.11.4.5.1 In a beam or column, where part or all of the main reinforcement is required to resist
compression, provide links or ties of diameter at least onequarter of the diameter of the largest
compression bar at a maximum spacing of twelve times the diameter of the smallest compression bar.
So arrange links that every corner bar and alternate bar or group in an outer layer of reinforcement is
supported by a link passing round the bar and having an included angle of not more than 135. Ensure
that all other bars or groups within a compression zone are within 150 mm of a restrained bar. In the
case of circular columns, where the longitudinal reinforcement is located round the periphery of a
circle, provide adequate lateral support by using a circular tie that passes round the bars or groups.
4.11.4.5.2 In a wall, where the percentage of vertical reinforcement used to resist compression
exceeds 2 %, provide links of diameter at least 6 mm (or at least onequarter of the diameter of the
largest compression bar) throughout the thickness of the wall. Ensure that the spacing of these links
does not exceed twice the wall thickness in either the horizontal or the vertical direction and, in the
vertical direction, does not exceed 16 times the bar diameter.
Ensure that any vertical compression bar not enclosed by a link is within 200 mm of a restrained bar.
94
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Table 23 Minimum percentage of reinforcement
Situation
Definition of
percentage
Minimum
f, = 250 MPa
Amdt l,
Apr. 1994
rcentage
f, = 450 MPa
Tension reinforcement
Sections subjected mainly to
tension
IOOA, /A,
0,45
1OOA, Ib&
1OOA, lb,,,h
0,18
0,13
1OOA, IbJi
1OOA, lb,h
0,26
0,20
1OOA, /A,
0,13
1OOA,, /Acc
0,4
1OOA,, /A,
0,4
1OOA,, lbh,
1OOA,, lb,h
0,4
02
IOOA,, /A,
02
1OOA,, /h, l
0,15
Transverse reinforcement in
Ranges of flanged beams
(provided over full effective
Range width near top surface
to resist horizontal shear)
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.11.4.5.3 In all beams except those of minor structural importance (e.g. lintels) or where the
maximum shear stress, calculated in accordance with 4.3.4, is less than half the recommended value,
provide nominal links throughout the span such that
for highyield steel links,
Asv
Sv
0,0012 bt
0,002 bt
where
Asv
bt
is the width of the beam at the level of the tension reinforcement; and
sv
4.11.4.5.4 The spacing of links shall not exceed 0,75 times the effective depth of the beam, and the
lateral spacing of the individual legs of the links shall not exceed this value. Links shall enclose all
tension reinforcement.
96
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.11.6.2 Anchorage bond stress
Anchorage bond stress is assumed to be constant over the effective anchorage length. It may be
calculated as the force in the bar divided by its effective surface anchorage area (see 4.11.6.3). It
should not exceed the values for ultimate anchorage bond stress fbu given in table 24. In beams where
minimum links in accordance with 4.3.4 have not been provided, the anchorage bond stresses used
should be those appropriate to plain bars, irrespective of the type of bar provided. This does not apply
to slabs.
Table 24  Ultimate anchorage bond stress fbu
1
Bar type
20
25
30
40 or more
1,2
1,5
2,2
2,7
1,4
1,7
2,5
3,1
1,5
1,9
2,9
3,5
1,9
2,3
3,4
4,2
Fs
is the effective bar diameter (for a single bar, the actual bar diameter and for a group
of bars in contact, equal to the diameter of a bar of equal total area); and
fbu
97
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
a) it passes round another bar of at least its own diameter, through an angle of 90, and continues for
a minimum length of eight times its own diameter; or
b) it passes round another bar of at least its own diameter, through an angle of 180, and continues
for a minimum length of four times its own diameter.
4.11.6.5 Anchorage of column starter bars in bases
The compression bond stresses that develop on starter bars within bases or pile caps do not need to
be checked, provided that
a) the starters extend to the level of the bottom reinforcement, and
b) the base or pile cap has been designed for moments and shears in accordance with 4.10.
4.11.6.6 Laps and joints
4.11.6.6.1 General
Connections transferring stress may be lapped, welded, or joined by mechanical devices. They should,
if possible, occur away from points of high stress and should, preferably, be staggered. Do not use
welded joints where the imposed load is predominantly cyclic in nature.
4.11.6.6.2 Minimum laps
The minimum lap length for bar reinforcement should be at least the greater of 15 times the bar
diameter or 300 mm, and for mesh reinforcement should be at least 250 mm.
4.11.6.6.3 Design of tension laps
The lap length for a tension lap should be at least equal to the design tension anchorage length
(see 4.11.6.2). The lap length for bars (or wires in fabric) of unequal diameter may be based upon the
smaller bar (or wire). The following should also apply:
a) where a lap occurs at the top of a section as cast and the minimum cover is less than twice the size
of the lapped reinforcement, the lap length should be increased by a factor of 1,4;
b) where a lap occurs at a corner of a section and the minimum cover to either face is less than twice
the size of the lapped reinforcement or, where the clear distance between adjacent laps is less than
the greater of 75 mm or six times the size of the lapped reinforcement, the lap length should be
increased by a factor of 1,4; and
c) in cases where both preceding conditions apply, the lap length should be increased by a factor of
2,0.
Values for lap length are given in SABS 0144.
4.11.6.6.4 Design of compression laps
The lap length for a compression lap should exceed the compression anchorage length (see 4.11.6.3)
by at least 25 %. Lap length for bars (or wires in fabric) of unequal diameter may be based upon the
smaller bar (or wire).
Values for lap length are given in SABS 0144.
98
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.11.6.6.5 Laps in beams and columns with limited cover
Where the diameter of both bars at a lap exceed 20 mm and the cover is less than 1,5 times the
diameter of the smaller bar, transverse links should be provided throughout the lap length. At the lap,
the diameter of the links should be at least onequarter of the diameter of the smaller bar and the
spacing should not exceed 200 mm.
4.11.6.6.6 Maximum amount of reinforcement in a layer
At laps, the sum of the reinforcement diameters in a particular layer should not exceed 40 % of the
width of the section at that level.
4.11.6.6.7 Joints with compressive bars
Where the stress in a bar at a joint is entirely compressive, the load may be transferred by an end
bearing of squaresawn ends held in concentric contact by a suitable sleeve or mechanical device
(see 6.3.2.3). The concrete cover for the sleeve should be at least that specified for normal
reinforcement.
4.11.6.7 Welded joints in bars
4.11.6.7.1 Welding of coldworked bars is not permissible.
4.11.6.7.2 Ensure that welded joints do not occur at bends in reinforcement. Where possible, stagger
joints in parallel bars of the principal tensile reinforcement in the longitudinal direction.
NOTE  Joints may be considered staggered if the distance between them is not less than the end anchorage length for
the bar. (See also the appropriate clause of SABS 01002.)
4.11.6.7.3 Where the strength of the weld has been proved by tests to be at least equal to that of the
parent bar, the strength of joints may be based on 80 % of the specified characteristic strength of the
joined bars for joints in tension and 100 % for joints in compression, divided, in each case, by the
appropriate m factor. However, the strength of welded joints in tension may be based on 100 % of the
specified characteristic strength of the bars if the welding operations are carried out under strict
supervision and if, at any crosssection of the element, not more than 20 % of the tensile
reinforcement is welded.
4.11.6.7.4 In the welds of a lapped joint, take the shear strength of the filler material as 0,38 times its
yield or proof stress. Make the length of weld sufficient to transmit the design load in the bar, i.e. make
the bar crosssectional area times 0,87 fy equal to the effective length of weld times the throat
thickness times the shear strength of filler material. Ensure that the length of a run of weld does not
exceed five times the diameter of the bar. If a longer length of weld is required, divide it into sections
and make the space between runs at least five times the diameter of the bar.
4.11.6.8 Hooks and bends
4.11.6.8.1 General
Reinforcement end anchorages such as hooks and bends should be so formed, dimensioned and
arranged as to avoid overstressing the concrete and should only be used to meet specific design
requirements as specified in SABS 82.
99
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.11.6.8.2 Effective anchorage length
The effective anchorage length of a hook or bend is measured from the start of the bend to a point four
times the bar diameter beyond the end of the bend. This effective anchorage length may be taken as
follows:
a) in the case of a 180E hook: the greater of either eight times the internal radius of the hook with
a maximum of 24 times the bar diameter, or the actual length of bar in the hook including the
straight portion;
b) in the case of a 90E bend: the greater of either four times the internal radius of the bend with a
maximum of 12 times the bar diameter, or the actual length of the bar. Any length of bar in excess
of four bar diameters beyond the end of the bend and that lies within the concrete to which the bar
is to be anchored may also be included for effective anchorage. (But see 4.11.6.9 for limits to
bearing stresses within bends.)
4.11.6.8.3 Minimum radius of bends
Ensure that in no case is the radius of any bend less than twice the radius of the test bend guaranteed
by the manufacturer of the bar and, in addition, ensure that the bearing stress at the midpoint of the
curve does not exceed the value given in 4.11.6.9.
4.11.6.9 Design bearing stress within bends
4.11.6.9.1 In the following cases, the design bearing stress within bends need not be checked:
a) where the bar does not extend beyond the point four bar diameters past the end of the bend; or
b) where the bar is assumed not to be stressed beyond the point four times the bar diameter past the
end of the bend at the ultimate limit state.
4.11.6.9.2 In any other bar, the design bearing stress should be calculated from the following equation:
Bearing stress =
F bt
r
<
2 f cu
1 % 2
/ ab
where
Fbt
is the tensile force due to maximum design loads in a bar or group of bars in contact at
the start of a bend;
is the diameter of bar (or, for a group of bars in contact, the diameter of a bar of
equivalent area);
fcu
ab
is, for a given bar (or group of bars in contact), the centretocentre distance between bars
(or groups of bars) perpendicular to the plane of the bend (for a bar or group of bars
adjacent to the face of the element, ab should be taken as the cover plus ).
100
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.11.7 Curtailment and anchorage of reinforcement
4.11.7.1 General recommendations for curtailment and anchorage of bars
4.11.7.1.1 In any element subject to bending, extend every bar, except at end supports, beyond the
point at which it is no longer needed, for a distance equal to the greater of the effective depth of the
elements or 12 times the diameter of the bar. A point at which a bar is no longer required is where the
resistance moment of the section, considering only the continuing bars, is equal to the required
moment. In addition, do not stop any bar in a tension zone unless one of the following conditions is
satisfied:
a) the bar extends an anchorage length appropriate to its design strength (0,87 fy) from the point at
which it is no longer required to resist bending; or
b) the shear capacity at the section where the bar stops exceeds twice the shear force actually
present; or
c) the continuing bars at the section where the bar stops provide double the area required to resist
the moment at that section.
NOTE  Satisfy any one of these conditions for all arrangements of ultimate load considered.
4.11.7.1.2 At a simply supported end of an element, anchor each tension bar by one of the following:
a) an effective anchorage length equivalent to 12 times the bar diameter beyond the centreline of
the support; no bend or hook should begin before the centre of the support;
b) an effective anchorage length equivalent to 12 times the bar diameter plus d/2 from the face of
the support, where d is the effective depth of element; no bend or hook should begin before d/2
from the face of the support; or
c) for slabs, provided that the design ultimate shear stress at the face of the support is less than half
the appropriate value vc given in 4.3.4, a straight length of bar beyond the centreline of the
support equal to the greater of onethird of the support width or 30 mm.
4.11.7.1.3 As curtailment of substantial areas of reinforcement at a single section can lead to the
development of large cracks at that point, in the case of curtailment of a large number of bars, it is
advisable to stagger the curtailment points in heavily reinforced elements.
4.11.7.1.4 Where a cantilever forms an extension beyond the end support of a continuous beam or
slab, the top steel in the adjacent span should be extended beyond the point of contraflexure.
4.11.7.1.5 To satisfy the requirements for ties, the provisions of 4.11.9 should be observed in addition
to the rules given in this clause.
4.11.7.2 Simplified rules for curtailment of bars in beams
In the case of beams that support substantially uniformly distributed loads, the simplified rules given
below may be applied as an alternative to the provisions given in 4.11.7.1. (See also figure 24.) The
rules do not apply to doubly reinforced elements or haunched elements.
101
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.11.7.2.1 Simply supported beams
Extend at least 50 % of the tension reinforcement provided at midspan to the supports and give it an
effective anchorage of 12 past the centre of the support. Extend the remaining part of the
reinforcement to within 0,08l of the centre of the support.
4.11.7.2.2 Cantilever beams
Extend at least 50 % of the tension reinforcement provided at the support to the end of the cantilever.
Extend the remaining part of the reinforcement a distance of the greater of l/2 or 45 times the bar
diameter from the face of the support.
4.11.7.2.3 Continuous beams of approximately equal spans under substantially uniformly
distributed loads and that are designed in accordance with 4.3.2.2
The rules are as follows:
a) top reinforcement: make at least 20 % of the reinforcement in tension over the supports
effectively continuous through the spans; of the remainder, extend half to a point at least 0,25l
from the face of the support, and the other half to a point at least 0,15l from the face of the
support, but do not stop any bar at a point less than 45 times its own diameter from the face of the
support;
b) bottom reinforcement: extend at least 30 % of the reinforcement in tension at midspan to the
centre of the supports; extend the remainder to within 0,15l of the centre of interior supports, and
to within 0,1l of the centre of an exterior support;
c) at a simply supported end: use the detailing given in 4.11.7.2.1.
102
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
103
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.11.7.3 Simplified rules for curtailment of bars in slabs
In the case of solid slabs spanning one way and that support substantially uniformly distributed loads,
the following simplified rules given below may be applied as an alternative to the provisions given in
4.11.7.1. (See also figure 25.)
4.11.7.3.1 Simply supported slabs
For bottom reinforcement, extend at least 50 % of the tension reinforcement provided at midspan to
the supports and give it an effective anchorage of 12 past the centre of the supports. Extend the
remaining part of the reinforcement to within 0,08l of the supports.
4.11.7.3.2 Cantilever slabs
Extend at least 50 % of the tension reinforcement provided at the support to the end of the cantilever.
Extend the remaining part of the reinforcement a distance of the greater of l/2 or 45 times the bar
diameter, from the face of the support.
4.11.7.3.3 Continuous slabs of approximately equal spans under substantially uniformly
distributed loads and that are designed in accordance with 4.3.2.2
The rules are as follows:
a) top reinforcement: extend all tension reinforcement over supports a distance of the greater of
0,15l or 45 times the bar diameter, from the face of the support, and extend at least 50 % of the
reinforcement a distance of 0,3l from the face of the support into the spans.
b) bottom reinforcement: extend the tension reinforcement provided at midspan of a slab to within
0,2l from the centre of the internal support and to within 0,1l from the centre of the external
support, and extend at least 40 % into the support.
c) where, at an end support, there is a monolithic connection between the slab and its
supporting beam or wall: make provision for the negative moment that may arise. The negative
moment to be assumed in this case depends on the degree of fixity, but it will generally be
sufficient to provide tension reinforcement equal to half that provided at midspan, extending a
distance of the greater of 0,1l or 45 times the bar diameter, from the face of the support into the
span.
d) for solid slabs spanning in two directions at right angles: see 4.4.4, where simplified rules
for curtailment are given in connection with the simplified methods of analysis used. When other
methods of analysis are used to obtain the moments in slabs, base the detailing of the
reinforcement on similar principles.
NOTE  Recommendations for the arrangement of reinforcement in flat slabs are given in 4.6 and for that in ribbed slabs
(with solid or hollow blocks or with voids) in 4.5.
104
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
105
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.11.8 Spacing of reinforcement
4.11.8.1 Minimum distances between bars
4.11.8.1.1 When the diameter of a bar exceeds the maximum size of coarse aggregate by more than
5 mm, a spacing smaller than the bar diameter should be avoided. A pair of bars in contact or a bundle
of three or four bars in contact should be regarded as a single bar of equivalent area when the spacing
is being assessed.
4.11.8.1.2 The spacing of bars should be made suitable for the proper compaction of concrete, and
when an internal vibrator is likely to be used, adequate spacing should be provided in the
reinforcement to enable the vibrator to be inserted. Minimum reinforcement spacing is best determined
by experience or proper work tests, but in the absence of better information, the distances given below
may be used.
4.11.8.1.2.1 Individual bars
Except where bars form part of a pair or bundle (see 4.11.8.1.2.2 and 4.11.8.1.2.3), the horizontal
distance between bars should be at least (hagg + 5) mm, where hagg is the maximum size of the coarse
aggregate. Where there are two or more rows,
a) the gaps between corresponding bars in each row should be vertically in line; and
b) the vertical distance between bars should be at least 2/3hagg.
4.11.8.1.2.2 Pairs of bars
Bars may be arranged in pairs either touching or closer than in 4.11.8.1.2.1, in which case
a) the gaps between corresponding pairs in each row should be vertically in line and of width at least
(hagg + 5) mm;
b) when the bars forming the pair are one above the other, the vertical distance between pairs should
be at least 2/3hagg; and
c) when the bars forming the pair are side by side, the vertical distance between pairs should be at
least (hagg + 5) mm.
4.11.8.1.2.3 Bundled bars
Horizontal and vertical distances between bundles should be at least (hagg + 15) mm and the gaps
between the rows or bundles should be vertically in line.
4.11.8.2 Maximum distances between bars in tension
4.11.8.2.1 Beams
4.11.8.2.1.1 The rules given below for beams may apply in normal internal or external conditions of
exposure (but see 4.11.8.2.1.6) where a crack width limited to 0,3 mm is appropriate, unless the
calculations of crack width (see A.3 in annex A) show that greater spacing is acceptable.
4.11.8.2.1.2 In the application of these rules in the case of bars of mixed sizes, any bar of diameter
less than 0,45 times the diameter of the maximum bar in the section should be ignored, except when
those near the side faces of beams are being considered.
106
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.11.8.2.1.3 Bars placed near the side faces of beams to control cracking should comply with 4.11.4.4.
4.11.8.2.1.4 The clear horizontal distance between adjacent bars or groups near the tension face of
a beam should not exceed the value given in table 25, depending on the amount of redistribution
carried out in analysis and the characteristic strength of reinforcement. Instead of using the values
given in table 25, assess the clear spacing from the following relationship:
300 > clear spacing <
47 000
fs
where fs is the design service stress in the reinforcement, which may be obtained from 4.3.6.3.
250
450
485
10
11
12
Characteristic
strength of
reinforcement, fy
MPa
mm
Percentage redistribution to or from section considered
30
25
20
15
10
+10
+15
+20
+25
+30
215
120
110
230
130
120
245
135
125
260
145
135
275
155
140
300
170
155
300
185
170
300
195
180
300
205
190
300
210
195
300
220
205
4.11.8.2.1.5 The clear distance from a corner of a beam to the surface of the nearest longitudinal bar
should not exceed half the clear distance given in table 25.
4.11.8.2.1.6 The above rules are not applicable to beams subjected to particularly aggressive
environments unless, in the calculation of the resistance moment, fy has been limited to 300 MPa.
4.11.8.2.2 Slabs
The clear spacing between main bars should not exceed the lesser of three times the effective depth
or 750 mm. In normal internal or external conditions, unless crack widths are checked by direct
calculations, the additional rules given below ensure adequate control of cracking.
4.11.8.2.2.1 No additional check is required on bar spacing if
a) grade 250 steel is used and the slab depth does not exceed 250 mm;
b) grade 450 steel is used and the slab depth does not exceed 200 mm; or
c) the amount of tension reinforcement in a slab, expressed as a percentage of the crosssectional
area (the width of section times the effective depth), is less than 0,3 % .
4.11.8.2.2.2 When none of the conditions given in 4.11.8.2.2.1 apply, then
a) where the reinforcement percentage is more than 1 %, the bar spacing should be limited to the
values given in table 25; and
107
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
b) where the reinforcement percentage is less than 1 %, the bar spacing should be limited to the
values given in table 25, divided by this percentage of reinforcement.
4.11.8.2.2.3 When table 25 is used for slabs and the amount of redistribution is unknown (e.g. table 15
is used), a value of 15 % may be assumed for support moments and a value of zero may be
assumed for span moments.
4.11.8.3 Spacing of shrinkage reinforcement
When it is considered necessary to provide reinforcement in an element to distribute cracking arising
from shrinkage and temperature effects, follow the provisions given in 6.5.3.17 for plain walls.
4.11.9 Ties
4.11.9.1 General
Ties provide the interaction that is necessary between elements of the structure to ensure that all
forces are distributed evenly throughout the structure. All structures are provided with the following
types of tie:
a) peripheral ties;
b) internal ties;
c) horizontal ties to columns and walls; and
d) for buildings of five storeys or more, vertical ties.
4.11.9.2 Proportioning of ties
In the design of ties, it may be assumed that the reinforcement acts at its characteristic strength and
that there are no forces, other than those mentioned in 4.11.9.4 to 4.11.9.6. Reinforcement provided
for other purposes may be regarded as forming part of, or the whole of, these ties.
4.11.9.3 Continuity and anchorage of ties
Bars should be lapped, welded or mechanically joined, in accordance with 4.11.6.6. A tie may be
considered anchored to another tie at right angles if the bars of the first tie extend
a) 12 times the bar diameter or an equivalent anchorage beyond all the bars of the other tie, or
b) an effective anchorage length (based on the force in the bars) beyond the centreline of the bars
of the other tie. At reentrant corners or at substantial changes in construction, ensure that the ties
are adequately anchored or otherwise made effective.
Where a structure is divided into structurally separated sections by means of expansion joints, there
should not be any form of tie between such sections.
4.11.9.4 Peripheral ties
At each floor and roof level, an effectively uninterrupted peripheral tie should be provided, capable of
resisting a tensile force of 1,0Ft (in kilonewtons), located within 1,2 m of the edge of the structure or
in the perimeter wall; the value of Ft is the lesser of Ft = 60 and the value obtained from
108
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Ft = (20 + 4 ns)
where ns is the number of storeys in the structure.
4.11.9.5 Internal ties
In addition to the peripheral tie, internal ties should be provided at each floor and roof level in two
directions approximately at right angles such that the ties will be effectively uninterrupted throughout
their length and will be anchored to the peripheral tie at both ends unless they continue as column and
wall ties. Some or all of the internal ties may be spread evenly over the width of the structure or may
be grouped at beams or walls, or at other appropriate intervals, but at spacings generally not
exceeding 1,5lr , where lr is the greater of the distances between the centres of the columns, walls or
frames supporting any two adjacent floor spans in the direction of the tie under consideration. Ties in
a wall should be located within 0,5 m of the top or bottom of the floor slab.
The ties should be capable of resisting, in each direction, a tensile force of
Ft
gn + qn
lr
7,5
kilonewtons per metre of width but at least Ft kilonewtons per metre of width,
where
Ft
is as in 4.11.9.4;
gn + qn is the sum of average nominal selfweight and imposed floor loads (in kilonewtons per
square metre); and
is as defined above.
lr
Where the vertical loadbearing elements are walls that, on plan, occur in one direction only
(crosswall or spinewall construction), the ties parallel to the walls should be capable of resisting a
tensile force of Ft kilonewtons per metre of width.
4.11.9.6 Horizontal ties to columns and walls
Each external column and each metre length of external wall should be anchored or tied horizontally
into the structure at each floor and roof level with a tie capable of developing a force equal to the
greater of the forces given in (a) and (b) below.
a) the lesser of 2,0Ft kilonewtons or
lo
2,5
Ft kilonewtons,
109
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.11.9.7 Vertical ties (generally required in buildings of five storeys or more)
Each column and each wall that bears a vertical load should be tied continuously from the foundations
to the roof level. The tie should be capable of resisting a tensile force equal to the maximum design
ultimate selfweight plus imposed loads transferred to the column or wall from any one storey or from
the roof.
is provided.
110
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Table 26  Maximum design shear stress* ) v c
in low density aggregate concrete beams
1
3
Maximum shear stress, vc
MPa
100 As
bd
0,15
0,25
0,50
0,75
1,00
2,00
> 3 ,00
Concrete grade
20
25 or higher
0,22
0,27
0,33
0,38
0,42
0,53
0,61
Concrete grade
MPa
MPa
MPa
25
30
> 40
0,23
0,27
0,29
2,86
3,12
3,57
111
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
4.12.8 Deflection of slabs
Deflection of low density aggregate concrete slabs may be calculated using a value of Ec as described
in 3.4.2.1. Alternatively, the provisions given in 4.4.6, 4.5.5 or 4.6.3 may be used for any slab subject
to a nominal imposed load of 4 kN/m2 or less. For slabs supporting a higher nominal imposed load,
multiply the span/effective depth ratios obtained from 4.4.6, 4.5.5 or 4.6.3 by a factor of 0,85.
4.12.9 Columns
The recommendations of 4.7 apply to lightweight aggregate concrete columns, subject to the following:
a) short columns: a column of reinforced low density aggregate concrete may be considered short
when the ratios lex/h and ley/b (see 4.7.1.4) are less than 10; all other columns are slender.
b) slender columns: in 4.7.3.1, the divisor 2 000 in equation (12) should be replaced by the divisor
1 200. Values of a in table 20 should be altered accordingly.
4.12.10 Walls
The recommendations of 4.8 and 6.5 apply to low density aggregate concrete walls, subject to the
following:
a) short walls: a wall of low density aggregate concrete may be considered short when le/h
(see 4.7.1.1) does not exceed 10; all other walls are slender;
b) slender walls: in 4.8.5, slender reinforced walls, when regarded as slender columns, require the
use of the equations given in 4.7.3, modified as described in 4.12.9(b).
For plain slender walls in 6.5.3, take the additional eccentricity due to deflection ea used in
equation (21) as l 2e /1 700.
4f cu
3(1 %
2 )
ab
112
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
5.1.4 Loads
5.1.4.1 Values of loads
The values of the design ultimate loads are those given in 3.3.3.1 and 3.3.4.1. The design loads to be
used for the serviceability limit states are given in 3.3.4. (See also 5.3.2.)
5.1.4.2 Design load arrangements
In general, when assessing any particular effect of loading, ensure that the arrangement of loads is
the one that causes the most severe effect. Consider the secondary effects due to both the
construction sequence and the prestress, particularly for the serviceability limit states.
113
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
5.1.5 Strength of materials
5.1.5.1 Characteristic strength of concrete
The characteristic strengths of concrete that may be specified for prestressed concrete are given in
table 28 together with their required strengths at other ages. The minimum grades recommended are
those that have characteristic compression strengths of 30 MPa and 40 MPa for posttensioning and
pretensioning, respectively. The concrete strength at transfer should be at least 18 MPa for unbonded
systems and 25 MPa for bonded systems.
Table 28 Strength of concrete fcu
1
Characteristic strength*)
Grade
MPa
Characteristic
strength, fcu
Age,
months
MPa
30
40
50
60
30,0
40,0
50,0
60,0
12
34
44
54
64
35
46
56
66
36
48
58
68
*)These increased strengths due to age should only be used if it has been
demonstrated to the satisfaction of the engineer that the materials to be used are
capable of producing these higher strengths.
The design should be based on the 28 d characteristic strength or, if appropriate, on the required
strength given in table 28 for the age at loading.
5.1.5.2 Characteristic strength of steel
The specified characteristics of prestressing tendons and wires are not covered by this code. The
characteristic strengths of reinforcement are those given in 4.1.5.2.
114
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
b) the ultimate resistance moment provided at any section of an element is at least 80 % of the
moment at that section, obtained from an elastic maximum moments diagram covering all
appropriate combinations of ultimate load;
c) in structures exceeding four storeys, in which the structural frame provides the lateral stability, the
reduction in moment allowed by condition (b) above is not more than 10 %; and
d) where, as a result of redistribution, the ultimate resistance moment at a section is reduced, the
neutral axis depth x of the section resisting the reduced moment does not exceed
x = (red  0,5)d
where
d
red
5.2.2.2 In general, condition 5.2.2.1(d) will limit or prevent redistribution in rectangular elements of
class 1 and class 2 (see 3.2.3.3.1.2), unless the prestress is small. Redistribution with a reduction of
moment in columns will generally be ruled out, unless the design ultimate axial load and the prestress
in the column are small.
5.3 Beams
5.3.1 General
5.3.1.1 Definitions
The definitions and limitations of the geometric properties of prestressed beams are as given for
reinforced concrete beams in 4.3.1.
5.3.1.2 Slender beams
In addition to limiting the slenderness of a beam (see 4.3.1.6) when under load in its final position, the
possible instability of a prestressed beam during erection should be considered (see the appropriate
clause of SABS 01002). Elements may collapse by tilting about a longitudinal axis through the lifting
points. This initial tilting, which may be due to imperfections in beam geometry and in locating the
lifting points, could cause lateral bending moments and these moments, if too high, could result in
lateral instability.
The following factors may require consideration:
a) beam geometry, i.e. type of crosssection, span/breadth/depth ratios, etc.;
b) location of lifting points;
c) method of lifting, e.g. inclined or vertical slings, type of connection between the beam and the
slings; and
d) tolerances in construction, e.g. maximum lateral bow.
It may be necessary to assess the design stresses due to the combined effects of lateral bending,
selfweight load and prestress; if cracking is possible, the method of lifting should provide adequate
lateral support.
115
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
5.3.1.3 Continuous beams
Carry out an elastic analysis with the following arrangements of load (see 3.3.3.1 and 3.3.4.1):
a) only alternate spans loaded with the maximum design load; and
b) all spans loaded with the maximum design load.
The moments obtained by this method may be redistributed, for the ultimate limit state only, within the
conditions and limits recommended in 5.2.2.
Nature of loading
0,33 fcu
In continuous beams and other statically
indeterminate structures, this may be increased
to 0,4 fcu within the range of support moments.
0,25 fcu
116
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
b) class 2 elements:
1) ensure that the tensile stresses do not exceed the flexural tensile stresses given in table 30;
Table 30  Flexural tensile stresses for class 2
elements (serviceability limit state (cracking))
1
Pretensioned
Posttensioned
30
40
50
60
2,1
2,9
2,3
3,2
2,55
3,5
2,8
f cu for pre
f cu for posttensioned
members.
2) the stress obtained from table 30 may be increased by up to 1,7 MPa, provided that it is shown
by tests that such enhanced stress does not exceed threequarters of the tensile stress
calculated from the loading in the performance test corresponding to the appearance of the first
crack; where such increase is used, ensure that the stress in the concrete due to prestress after
losses will be at least 8,0 MPa; distribute pretensioned tendons well throughout the tension
zone of the section and supplement posttensioned tendons, if necessary, with unstressed
reinforcement located near the tension face of the member;
3) where a service load is of a temporary nature and is exceptionally high in comparison with the
load normally carried, a higher calculated tensile stress is allowable, provided that under normal
service conditions the stress is compressive enough to ensure that any cracks that might have
occurred, close up; ensure that this increase in stress will not exceed 1,0 MPa;
c) class 3 elements: although cracking is allowed in the case of class 3 elements (see 3.2.3.3.1.2),
it may be assumed that the concrete section is uncracked but that hypothetical tensile stresses exist
at the maximum size of cracks defined in 3.2.3.3; the interrelationship between the hypothetical
tensile stress and the crack width for elements with pretensioned or grouted posttensioned tendons
is represented by equation (14) and modified by table 31.
ft
As
bh
(14)
where
w
ft
is the maximum extreme fibre tension stress due to prestress and all other loads (after all
Amdt 2, Mar. 2000
losses), in megapascals;
117
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2


As is the area of bonded prestressed reinforcement in the tension zone and the area of
unstressed reinforcement in the tension zone, in square millimetres;
Amdt 1, Apr. 1994
b
is the width of section in tension zone, in millimetres (For sections with a flange in tension
zone, b is the width of equivalent tension zone area, assuming a neutral axis depth of h/3.);
and
For deflection and cracking of class 3 elements, see the methods described in annex A.
Table 31  Depth factors for tensile stresses for class 3 elements
1
Depth of member
mm
< 200
400
600
1,1
1,0
0,9
800
> 1 000
0,8
0,7
118
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
a) the strain distribution in the concrete in compression is derived from the assumption that plane
sections remain plane;
b) the stresses in the concrete in compression are either derived from the stress strain curve given
in figure 1, with a m of 1,5, or are taken as equal to 0,45fcu over the whole compression zone (see
figure 4); in both cases, the strain at the outermost compression fibre is taken as 0,0035;
c) the tensile strength of the concrete is ignored;
d) the strains in bonded prestressing tendons and in any unstressed reinforcement, whether in tension
or in compression, are derived from the assumption that plane sections remain plane;
e) the stresses in bonded prestressing tendons, whether initially tensioned or untensioned, and in
unstressed reinforcement are derived from the appropriate stress/strain curves;
NOTE  The stress/strain curves for prestressing reinforcement are given in figure 3 and those for reinforcement are given
in figure 2. An empirical approach towards obtaining the stress in the tendons at failure is given in 5.3.3.2.
f) in posttensioned elements where the tendons are unbonded, the stress in the tendons does not
exceed the values given in table 33 unless a higher stress can be justified on the basis of tests.
Table 32  Conditions at the ultimate limit state for rectangular
beams with pretensioned tendons or with posttensioned tendons
having an effective bond
1
fpu Aps
fpe /fpu
fpe/fpu
fcu bd
0,6
0,5
0,05
0,10
0,15
1,0
1,0
0,99
1,0
1,0
0,97
0,20
0,25
0,30
0,92
0,88
0,85
0,35
0,40
0,45
0,50
0,83
0,81
0,79
0,77
0,4
0,6
0,5
0,4
1,0
1,0
0,95
0,11
0,22
0,32
0,11
0,22
0,31
0,11
0,22
0,31
0,90
0,86
0,83
0,88
0,84
0,80
0,40
0,48
0,55
0,39
0,47
0,54
0,38
0,46
0,52
0,80
0,77
0,74
0,71
0,76
0,72
0,68
0,64
0,63
0,70
0,77
0,83
0,60
0,67
0,72
0,77
0,58
0,62
0,66
0,69
119
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Mu
fpb
dn
Aps
5.3.3.2.2 For rectangular beams, and for flanged beams in which the compression block lies within
the flange, dn = 0,45x, where x is the neutral axis depth.
5.3.3.2.3 Values for fpb and x may be derived from table 32 for pretensioned elements and for
posttensioned elements with effective bond between the concrete and tendons. The effective
prestress after all losses shall be at least 0,45fpu. Ignore prestressing tendons and unstressed
reinforcement in the compression zone in strength calculations when using this method.
5.3.3.2.4 For rectangular beams, and for flanged beams in which the neutral axis lies within the
flange, the stress in the tendons at failure may be derived from table 33 for unbonded tendons.
Table 33  Conditions at the ultimate limit state for posttensioned
rectangular beams having unbonded tendons
1
fpe Aps
fcu bd
Stress in tendons as a
proportion of effective
prestress fpb/fpe for values of
effective span l
effective depth d
0,025
0,05
0,10
1,23
1,21
1,18
1,34
1,32
1,26
1,45
1,45
1,45
0,10
0,16
0,30
0,10
0,16
0,32
0,10
0,18
0,36
0,15
0,20
1,14
1,11
1,20
1,16
1,36
1,27
0,44
0,56
0,46
0,58
0,52
0,64
120
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
fpb = fpe +
x = 2,47
7 000
le /d
1 & 1,7
f pu Aps
f pb
f cu bd
f pu
f pu Aps
f cu bd
(15)
(16)
where
fpb, Aps and d are as in 5.3.3.2.1;
fpe
is the design effective prestress in tendons after all losses have occurred;
fpu
fcu
is the width or effective width of the section or flange in compression zone; and
le
Equation (15) has been derived by taking the length of the zone of inelasticity within the concrete as
10x. The length le should normally be taken as the length of the tendons between end anchorages. In
the case of continuous multispan beams, this length may be determined as in figure 26.
Figure 26 Determination of le
5.3.3.3 Nonrectangular beams
Nonrectangular sections may be analysed using the assumptions given in 5.3.3.1 or the design
formulae given in 5.3.3.2.
121
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
5.3.3.4 Unstressed reinforcement in the tension zone
In the absence of a rigorous analysis, the area of reinforcement As may be replaced by an equivalent
area of prestressing tendons Asfy /fpu.
(17)
where
ft
fcp
is the design compressive stress at the centroidal axis due to prestress, taken as positive;
is the width of beam, which, for Tbeams, Ibeams and Lbeams, is replaced by the width
of rib, bw; and
Table 34 gives values of Vco /bh obtained from equation (17) for different concrete grades and
applicable values of fcp.
122
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Table 34 Values of Vco /bh
1
Vco /bh
fcp
MPa
MPa
Concrete grade
30
40
50
60
1,27
1,41
1,54
1,64
1,59
1,74
1,90
2,00
1,85
2,02
2,17
2,12
2,08
2,26
2,42
2,56
10
2,29
2,48
2,65
2,80
14
2,65
2,87
3,06
3,22
5.3.4.2.3 In flanged beams where the centroidal axis occurs in the flange, limit the principal tensile
the
stress ft to 0,23 f cu at the intersection of the flange and web. When calculating Vco, use 0,8 of
Amdt 1, Apr. 1994
stress due to prestress at this intersection.
5.3.4.2.4 For a section uncracked in flexure and with inclined tendons or compression zones, the
component of prestressing force or that of compression force normal to the longitudinal axis of the
beam may be added to Vco.
5.3.4.2.5 In a pretensioned beam, the critical section should be taken at a distance from the edge of
the bearing equal to the height of the centroid of the section above the soffit. Where this section occurs
within the prestressed development length, the compressive stress at the centroidal axis due to
prestress to be used in equation 17 may be calculated from the following relationship:
fcpx =
x
lp
2 &
x
lp
fcp
where
fcp is the design stress at the end of the prestress development length lp.
The prestress development length lp should be taken as the greater of the transmission length (see
5.8.4) or the overall depth of the element.
5.3.4.3 Sections cracked in flexure
5.3.4.3.1 Calculate the design ultimate shear resistance Vcr of a section cracked in flexure, using the
following equation:
Vc r ' 1 & 0,55
fp e
f pu
vc bd % Mo
V
M
(18)
where
123
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
d
is the distance from extreme compression fibre to centroid of steel area (Aps + As) in tension
zone;
Mo
is the moment necessary to produce zero stress in concrete at the extreme tension fibre;
and
Mo
is equal to 0,8 f pt
Yt
where
Yt
is the distance from the centroid of the concrete section to the extreme tension fibre;
fpt
fpe
is the design effective prestress in tendons after all losses have occurred (should not be
taken as exceeding 0,6 fpu).
NOTE ) Where the steel area in the tension zone consists of tendons and reinforcement, fpe may be taken as the value
obtained by dividing the effective prestressing force by an equivalent area of tendons equal to
Aps % As
fy
f pu
where
fpu
vc
is the maximum design shear resistance of the concrete (the value obtainable from 4.3.4);
V and M are the design shear force and bending moment, respectively, at the section under consideration, and due
to the particular ultimate load condition; and
b
is the width or effective width of rectangular section or the width of the rib.
124
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
b) in elements of minor importance; and
c) where tests carried out in accordance with 3.4.5 have shown that shear reinforcement is not
required.
5.3.4.4.2 In all cases except those in 5.3.4.4.1, minimum shear reinforcement in the form of links
should be provided such that
Asv
sv
0,4b
0,87 f yv
where
fyv
is the characteristic strength of the reinforcement (but not more than 450 MPa);
is as in equation (18);
Asv
sv
5.3.4.4.3 When V, the shear force due to the design ultimate loads, exceeds Vc, ensure that the shear
reinforcement provided in addition is such that
Asv
sv
V Vc
0,87 f yv dt
where dt is taken as the depth from the extreme compression fibre, to the greater of either the
longitudinal bars (tendons, group of tendons) or the centroid of the tendons.
5.3.4.5 Arrangement of shear reinforcement
5.3.4.5.1 In rectangular beams, at both corners in the tensile zone, a link should pass round a
longitudinal bar, a tendon or a group of tendons having a diameter not less than the link diameter. A
link should extend as close to the tension or compression faces as possible, with due regard to cover.
Ensure that the links provided at a crosssection enclose all the tendons and unstressed reinforcement
provided at the crosssection and that they are adequately anchored (see 4.11.6.4).
5.3.4.5.2 Ensure that the spacing of links along a beam does not exceed 0,75dt or four times the web
thickness for flanged beams. When V exceeds 1,8Vc, reduce the maximum spacing to 0,5dt. Ensure
that the lateral spacing of the individual legs of the links provided at a crosssection does not exceed
0,75dt.
125
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
5.3.6 Deflection of beams
NOTE  See also annex A.
5.4 Slabs
The provisions given in 5.3 for beams apply also to slabs. The methods of analysis given in 4.4.2 and
4.5.2 are appropriate for the ultimate limit state. Elastic analysis should be used for the serviceability
limit states.
The design for shear should be in accordance with 5.3.4 except that shear reinforcement need not be
provided if v is less than vc.
The analysis and design of flat slabs should be carried out in accordance with appropriate specialist
literature.
5.5 Columns
Prestressed concrete columns in framed structures, where the mean stress in the concrete section
imposed by the tendons is less than 2,5 MPa, may be analysed as reinforced columns in accordance
with 4.7.
126
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
5.8 Prestressing
5.8.1 Maximum initial prestress
5.8.1.1 The jacking force should not normally exceed 75 % of the characteristic strength of the tendon
but may be increased to 80 %, provided that additional consideration is given to safety, to the
stress/strain characteristics of the tendon, and to the assessment of the friction losses.
5.8.1.2 In the determination of the jacking force to be used, consideration should also be given to the
gripping efficiency of the anchorage.
5.8.1.3 When deflected tendons are used in pretensioning, consideration should, in the determination
of the maximum initial prestress, be given to the possible influence of the size of the deflector on the
strength of the tendons. (See the appropriate clause of SABS 01002.)
Attention should also be paid to the effect of any frictional forces that may occur.
127
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
5.8.2.3 Loss of prestress due to elastic deformation of the concrete
5.8.2.3.1 Calculation of the immediate loss of force in the tendons due to elastic deformation of the
concrete at transfer may be based on the values for the modulus of elasticity of the concrete given in
table 1 when the actual experimental values are not available (see annex C). The modulus of elasticity
of the tendons may be obtained from 3.4.2.3.
5.8.2.3.2 For pretensioning, calculate the loss of prestress in the tendons at transfer on a modular
ratio basis, using the stress in the adjacent concrete.
5.8.2.3.3 For elements with posttensioning tendons that are not stressed simultaneously, there is a
progressive loss of prestress during transfer, due to the gradual application of the prestressing force.
Calculate the resulting loss of prestress in the tendons on the basis of half the product of the modular
ratio and the stress in the concrete adjacent to the tendons averaged along their length; alternatively,
the loss of prestress may be accurately calculated by basing it on the sequence of tensioning.
5.8.2.3.4 In making these calculations, it may usually be assumed that the tendons are located at their
centroid.
5.8.2.4 Loss of prestress due to shrinkage of the concrete
5.8.2.4.1 The shrinkage strain to be considered depends upon the following:
a) the aggregate used;
b) the original water content;
c) the effective age of transfer;
d) the effective section thickness; and
e) the ambient relative humidity.
5.8.2.4.2 The loss of prestress in the tendons due to shrinkage of the concrete may be calculated as
the product of the shrinkage per unit length of the concrete (see table 35) and the modulus of elasticity
of the tendons (as in 3.4.2.3).
128
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Table 35  Shrinkage of concrete
1
60 %
35 %
e.g. coastal
towns
e.g. most
inland areas
e.g. environments of
unusually low
relative humidity
such as Windhoek
and Upington
Pretensioning
Transfer at 3 d to 5 d
after concreting
180 x 106
310 x 106
420 x 106
Posttensioning
Transfer at 7 d to 14 d
after concreting
140 x 106
250 x 106
350 x 106
System
5.8.2.4.3 Some adjustment to the figures in table 35 will be necessary for other ages of concrete at
transfer, for other conditions of exposure, or for massive structures, in which cases specialist literature
should be consulted.
5.8.2.4.4 When it is necessary to determine the loss of prestress and the deformation of the concrete
at some stage before the total shrinkage is reached, it may be assumed that half the total shrinkage
takes place during the first month after transfer and that threequarters of the total shrinkage takes
place within the first 6 months after transfer.
5.8.2.4.5 In certain regions of South Africa, the aggregate may exhibit abnormally high shrinkage
characteristics. The finegrained shales and sandstones of the Beaufort group of the Karoo sequence
are those most likely to lead to high dimensional changes in concrete. Seek advice when these
aggregates or others of a similar type are to be used.
5.8.2.5 Loss of prestress due to creep of the concrete
5.8.2.5.1 The loss of prestress in the tendons may be calculated on the assumption that creep is
proportional to the stress in the concrete (see 5.8.2.5.4). The loss of prestress is obtained as the
product of the creep per unit length of the concrete adjacent to the tendons and the modulus of
elasticity of the tendons (see 3.4.2.3). When calculating this loss, it is usually sufficient to assume that
the tendons are located at their centroid.
5.8.2.5.2 For pretensioning at between 3 d and 5 d after concreting and for humid or dry conditions
of exposure where the required cube strength at transfer exceeds 40,0 MPa, take the creep of the
concrete per unit length as 48 x 106 per megapascal. For lower values of cube strength at transfer,
assume the creep per unit length to be 48 x 106 x 40,0/fci per megapascal, where fci is the concrete
strength at transfer.
5.8.2.5.3 For posttensioning at between 7 d and 14 d after concreting and for humid or dry conditions
of exposure where the required cube strength at transfer exceeds 40,0 MPa, take the creep of the
concrete per unit length as 36 x 106 per megapascal. For lower values of cube strength at transfer,
take the creep per unit length as 36 x 106 x 40,0/fci per megapascal.
5.8.2.5.4 The values as in 5.8.2.5.2 and 5.8.2.5.3 are applicable when the maximum stress anywhere
129
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
in the section at transfer is less than onethird of the cube strength of concrete. Where the maximum
stress anywhere in the section at transfer exceeds onethird of the cube strength of the concrete, the
value for the creep per unit length should be increased up to the maximum value equal to 1,25 times
the values given in 5.8.2.5.2 and 5.8.2.5.3, as relevant. This maximum value is applicable when the
maximum stress at transfer is half the cube strength. For intermediate stresses, the values for the
creep per unit length should be interpolated linearly.
5.8.2.5.5 The values in the preceding subclauses relate to the ultimate creep after a period of years.
When it is necessary to determine the deformation of the concrete due to creep at some earlier stage,
it may be assumed that half the total creep takes place in the first month after transfer and that threequarters of the total creep takes place in the first 6 months after transfer.
5.8.2.5.6 When applying the provisions given above, which are necessarily general, consult specialist
literature for more detailed information on the factors affecting creep, particularly those such as
aggregates used, original water content, effective age at transfer, effective section thickness, ambient
relative humidity and ambient temperature. Care should be taken when using Reef quartzite,
aggregates of the Beaufort group of the Karoo sequence and the Lesotho basalts, since the values
may be three times bigger. (See also figure C.1.)
5.8.2.6 Drawin during anchorage
In posttensioning systems, make allowance for any movement of the tendon at the anchorage when
the prestressing force is transferred from the tensioning equipment to the anchorage. The loss due to
this movement is particularly important in short elements and for such elements check, on site, the
allowance made by the designer.
5.8.2.7 Loss of prestress due to steam curing
Where steam curing is used in the manufacture of prestressed concrete elements, consider changes
in the behaviour of the material at temperatures higher than normal.
130
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
tendon and the sides of the duct, and so produce friction. Calculate the prestressing force Px at any
distance x from the jack, from the following equation:
Px = PoeKx
(where Kx < 0,2, take eKx as 1  Kx)
where
Po is the prestressing force in tendon at jacking end;
e
is the constant depending on the type of duct or sheath employed, the nature of its inside
surface, the method of forming it, and the degree of vibration employed in placing the
concrete.
Take the value of K per metre of length in the above formula as at least 33 x 104 but
a) K = 17 x 104 where strong rigid sheaths or duct formers are used so closely supported that they are
not displaced during the concreting operation; and
b) K = 25 x 104 for greased strands running in plastics sleeves.
Other values may be used, provided they have been established by tests to the satisfaction of the
engineer.
5.8.3.4 Friction in the duct due to curvature of the tendon
5.8.3.4.1 When a tendon is curved, the loss of tension due to friction is dependent on the angle the
tendon is turned through and on the coefficient of friction between the tendon and its supports.
5.8.3.4.2 Calculate the prestressing force Px at any distance x along the curve from the tangent point
from the following equation:
Px = Poe
x/rps
where
Po is the prestressing force in the tendons at tangent point near jacking end;
rps is the radius of curvature; and
e
is as defined in 5.8.3.3.
131
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
e) 0,05 for greased strand running in plastics sleeve.
132
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
of sleeves or tape, the values given in table 36 for the transmission length may be used, the
assumption being that the transmission zone starts at the point where the debonding process has been
stopped.
Table 36  Transmission lengths for small
diameter strand
1
Diameter of
strand
Transmission length l t
mm
mm
9,3
12,5
15,0
465
625
750
5.8.4.5 Alternatively, for calculating the transmission length lt, in the absence of experimental
evidence, the following equation may be used for initial prestressing forces of up to 75 % of the
characteristic strength of the tendon, when the ends of the elements are fully compacted:
lt =
Kt
f ci
where
fci
: K = 400;
t
133
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
jacking force for the strength of concrete at the time of prestressing; and
d) posttensioning anchorage zones shall be designed to develop the guaranteed ultimate strength of
the lesser of prestressing anchorages or prestressing tendons.
5.8.5.2 Bursting tensile forces in posttensioned elements
5.8.5.2.1 The bursting forces round individual anchorages should be assessed in the end blocks on
the basis of the tendon jacking load (for serviceability limit state) or the nominal tendon force (for
ultimate limit state). The latter is necessary only in the case of elements with unbonded tendons. For
elements with rectangular anchorages and for rectangular end blocks, the bursting tensile force Fbst
may be calculated from table 37 in relation to the value of Ypo/Yo for each direction,
where
Yo
Ypo
Pk
Ypo/Yo
Fbst/Pk
0,2
0,3
0,4
0,23
0,23
0,20
0,5
0,6
0,7
0,17
0,14
0,11
5.8.5.2.2 This force, Fbst, will be distributed in a region extending from 0,2 Yo to 2,0 Yo from the loaded
face and should be resisted by reinforcement in the form of spirals or closed links, uniformly distributed
thoughout this region. The reinforcement should act at a stress of 200 MPa (in the case of
serviceability limit state) or at its design strength, i.e. 0,87fy (in the case of ultimate limit state). When
the concrete cover to the reinforcement is less than 50 mm, the stress shall be limited to a value
corresponding to a strain of 0,001.
5.8.5.2.3 Where groups of anchorages or bearing plates are used, the end block should be divided
into a series of symmetrically loaded prisms, and each prism should be treated in the above manner.
However, additional reinforcement will be required round the groups of anchorages to ensure overall
equilibrium of the end block.
5.8.5.2.4 Special attention should also be paid to end blocks having a crosssection different in shape
from that of the general crosssection of the beam. Specialist literature should be consulted.
5.8.5.2.5 Compliance with the above requirements will generallly ensure that bursting tensile forces
along the load axis are provided for. Alternative methods of design that make allowance for the tensile
134
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
strength of the concrete may be used, in which case specialist literature should be consulted.
of durability
135
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Table 38  Nominal cover to all steel to meet specified
periods of fire resistance
1
Nominal cover
Fire
resistance
h
mm
Beams
Floors
Ribs
Simply
supported
Continuous
Simply
supported
Continuous
Simply
supported
Continuous
0,5
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
25
20
35
20
1,5
35
20
30
25
45
35
60
35
40
35
55
45
70
60
55
45
65
55
80
70
65
55
75
65
NOTES
1 For the purposes of assessing a nominal cover for beams, the cover to main bars, which
would have been obtained from table 43, has been reduced by a notional allowance for stirrups
of 10 mm to cover the range 8 mm to 12 mm.
2 The nominal covers given relate specifically to the minimum element dimensions (see clause
7). Increased covers are necessary if smaller elements are used. (Specialist literature should
be consulted.)
3 Cases that lie below the line require attention to the additional measures necessary
to reduce the risks of spalling (see clause 7).
136
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
5.9.4 Spacing of prestressing tendons
5.9.4.1 General
In all prestressed elements, there should be sufficient gaps between the tendons or groups of tendons
to allow the largest size of aggregate used to move, under vibration, to all parts of the mould.
5.9.4.2 Spacing of bonded tendons
The provisions of 4.11.8 concerning spacing of reinforcement apply. In pretensioned elements, where
anchorage is achieved by bond, the spacing of the wires or strands in the ends of the elements should
be such as to allow the transmission length given in 5.8.4 to develop. In addition, if the tendons are
positioned in two or more widely spaced groups, the possibility of longitudinal splitting of the element
should be considered.
5.9.4.3 Spacing of tendons in ducts
The clear distance between ducts or between ducts and other tendons should be not less than the
greatest of the following:
a) hagg + 5 mm, where hagg is the nominal maximum size of the coarse aggregate;
b) in the vertical direction, the vertical internal dimension of the duct; or
c) in the horizontal direction, the horizontal internal dimension of the duct.
Where internal vibrators are used, sufficient space should be provided between ducts to enable the
vibrator to be inserted.
Where two or more rows of ducts are used, the horizontal gaps between the ducts should be vertically
in line wherever possible, for ease of construction.
5.9.4.4 Spacing of curved tendons
For spacing of curved tendons, see 5.9.5.3.
137
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Where the curved tendons run close to, and approximately parallel with, the surface of an element and
if the tendons develop radial forces perpendicular to the exposed surface of the concrete, the duct, if
necessary, should be restrained by stirrup reinforcement anchored into the element.
Table 39  Minimum cover to curved ducts
1
10
80
90
100
Minimum cover
mm
Radius of
curvature
of duct
30
40
50
60
70
Tendon force
kN
2
4
6
296
387
960
1337
1920
2640
3360
4320
5183
50
55
50
155
70
50
220
100
65
320
145
90
445
205
125
265
165
350
220
420
265
55
50
75
65
60
95
85
75
115
100
90
150
120
110
185
140
125
70
85
80
100
95
90
115
110
105
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
40
100
50
50
50
50
60
70
80
90
100
NOTES
1 The tendon force shown is the maximum normally available for the given size of duct (taken
as 80 % of the characteristic strength of the tendon).
2 Where tendon profilers or spacers are provided in the ducts, and these are of a type that will
concentrate the radial force, the values given in the table will need to be increased.
3 The cover for a given combination of duct internal diameter and radius of curvature shown
in the table may be reduced in proportion to the square root of the tendon force when this is less
than the value tabulated, subject to the provisions of 5.9.3.3 and 5.9.3.4.
138
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Table 40  Minimum distance between centrelines of ducts
in plane of curvature
1
10
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Tendon force
kN
2
4
6
296
387
960
1337
1920
2640
3360
4320
5183
110
55
38
140
70
60
350
175
120
485
245
165
700
350
235
960
480
320
610
410
785
525
940
630
90
80
125
100
175
140
60
240
195
160
305
245
205
395
315
265
470
375
315
140
175
160
225
195
180
270
235
210
140
160
180
200
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
40
38
60
80
100
120
NOTES
1 The tendon force shown is the maximum normally available for the given size of duct (taken
as 80 % of the characteristic strength of the tendon).
2 Values less than 2 x the internal diameter of the duct are not included.
3 Where tendon profilers or spacers are provided in the ducts, and these are of a type that will
concentrate the radial force, the values given in the table will need to be
increased. If necessary, reinforcement should be provided between ducts.
4 The distance for a given combination of duct internal diameter and radius of curvature shown
in the table may be reduced in proportion to the tendon force when this is less than
the value tabulated, subject to the provisions of 5.9.4.3.
139
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
5.9.6.2 Ensure that any calculation that takes unstressed reinforcement into account will still be in
accordance with 5.3.2.1 and 5.3.3.1.
5.9.6.3 Reinforcement may be necessary, particularly where posttensioning systems are used, to
control any cracking resulting from the restraint to longitudinal shrinkage of beams that is provided by
the formwork during the time before the prestress is applied.
140
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
When necessary, specify the positions of lifting and supporting points. Consultation at the design stage
with those responsible for handling is an advantage. Ensure that the design takes into account the
effects of both snatch lifting from and placing onto supports.
6.1.2.3 Connections and joints
6.1.2.3.1 The design of connections is of fundamental importance in precast construction and should
be carefully considered. The engineer responsible for the overall stability of the structure should ensure
the compatibility of the design and details of components. The responsibility for overall stability shall
be clearly assigned when some or all of the design and details are not worked out by the engineer.
6.1.2.3.2 Joints to allow for movement due to shrinkage, thermal effects and possible differential
settlement of foundations are of as great importance in precast as in insitu construction. Determine
the number and spacing of such joints (see annex B) at an early stage in the design. In the design of
beam and slab ends on corbels and nibs, take particular care to provide overlap and anchorage (in
accordance with 4.11.6 and 4.11.7) of all reinforcement adjacent to the contact faces, taking
constructional tolerances into consideration.
6.1.2.4 Stability
6.1.2.4.1 The provisions regarding stability given in 4.1.2 apply also to precast, composite and plain
concrete construction except that, in structures of five storeys or more, supported by plain concrete
walls, it will be necessary to ensure that the area of effective vertical ties from foundation to roof level
is at least 0,2 % of the crosssectional area of the walls.
6.1.2.4.2 The tie forces referred to in 4.1.2 should be resisted by reinforcement or prestressing
tendons embedded in precast units or in insitu structural elements or in both, but they should be
effectively continuous.
6.1.2.4.3 Ties should be joined, generally using one of the methods described in 6.3.2, 6.3.3 or 6.3.4.
6.1.2.4.4 Ties connecting precast units should be so arranged as to minimize outofbalance effects.
6.1.2.4.5 The minimum dimension of any insitu concrete section in which tie bars are provided should
be not less than the sum of the bar size (or twice the bar size at laps) plus twice the maximum
aggregate size plus 10 mm.
6.1.2.4.6 The tie should be able to transmit the forces from the reinforcement in the precast units and
to develop the required strength at all lapped joints. If enclosing links are used, the ultimate tensile
resistance of the links should be not less than the ultimate tension in the tie.
6.1.2.4.7 Ensure that column and wall ties do not, for their anchorage at either end, rely solely on the
bond of a straight plain bar. So bend or so hook plain bars as to provide the required anchorage in
bearing on sound concrete unless they are welded or mechanically anchored to the main reinforcement
in a precast unit.
6.1.2.4.8 As an alternative to providing the vertical ties recommended above for structures of five
storeys or more, such structures may be designed in accordance with the provisions given below.
6.1.2.4.8.1 So design the structure that, at each storey in turn, if any single vertical loadbearing
element (other than one complying with 6.1.2.4.8.2 becomes incapable of carrying its load, it does not
cause the collapse of the structure or of any significant part thereof. In designing the structure for this
condition, take into account any building components that are otherwise nonloadbearing. When
reliance is placed on catenary action, make allowance for the horizontal reactions necessary for
equilibrium. In the case of a wall, take the length under consideration to be a single loadbearing
141
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
element such as the length between adjacent lateral supports or between a lateral support and a free
edge. For the purposes of this definition of wall length only, a lateral support may be considered to
occur at
a) a stiffened section of the wall (not exceeding 1 m in length) capable of resisting a horizontal force
of 1,5Ft kN per metre height of wall, or
b) a substantial partition at right angles to the wall, provided that it is tied to the wall with a tie force
equal to 0,5Ft kN per metre height of wall (a substantial partition may be taken as one having an
average mass per unit area of at least 150 kg/m2),
where Ft is a tie force as in 4.11.9.4.
To comply with 6.1.2.4.8.2, ground floor columns that are exposed to the risk of impact by vehicles
and that cannot be allowed to become ineffective, should be so designed as to withstand an
appropriate impact.
6.1.2.4.8.2 Any vertical loadbearing element that cannot be allowed to become ineffective, together
with its connections, shall be so designed as to withstand a load of 34 kN/m2 applied to it from any
direction. Any horizontal element (or any part thereof) that provides lateral support vital to the stability
of that vertical loadbearing element shall be so designed, together with its connections, as to
withstand a load of 34 kN/m2 applied to it from any direction. Any element or lateral support so
designed should also be capable of supporting the reaction from any attached building components
also subject to a loading of 34 kN/m2 or such reaction as might reasonably be transmitted, having
regard to the strength of the attached component and the strength of its connection.
6.1.2.4.9 In order to comply with 3.3.3.2, when a structure is designed in accordance with 6.1.2.2.8.1,
or a vertical loadbearing element is designed in accordance with 6.1.2.2.8.2, take the partial safety
factor for strength m as 1,3 for concrete and 1,0 for steel. The partial safety factor for loads f is 1,05.
6.1.2.4.10 Durability should be considered in the design and detailing of connections.
6.2.2 Slabs
6.2.2.1 Slabs consisting of wide precast units or of a series of narrow precast units with effective
jointing between them capable of shear transfer, may be designed in accordance with 4.4 or 4.5 or
5.4, as appropriate.
6.2.2.2 When assessing the effect of concentrated loads (including partitions in the direction of span),
ensure that the width of slab assumed to contribute to the support of the load does not exceed the
width of the loaded area together with the width of three precast units and joints (when there is no
topping) or the width of four precast units and joints (where the topping is at least 30 mm thick), unless
test results substantiate the use of a wider area. In no case take the width as extending more than
0,25l on either side of the loaded area, where l is the span.
142
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
6.2.3 Other precast units
Design and detail other precast concrete units, including large panels, in accordance with the
appropriate provisions of clause 4, clause 5 or subclause 6.5, and make provision for the appropriate
connections as recommended in 6.3.
Design precast units intended for use in composite constructions (see 6.4) as such, but also check or
design for the conditions arising during handling, transportation and erection. In a floor or roof
construction of hollow blocks supported by precast concrete ribs, pay particular attention to the bearing
of blocks on the ribs when no topping is provided.
143
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
6.2.4.2.5 Provide shear reinforcement in the form of horizontal links distributed in the upper twothirds
of the effective depth of the corbel at the column face; ensure that this reinforcement is at least
onehalf of the area of the main tension reinforcement, and anchor it adequately.
6.2.4.2.6 Corbels should be designed for shrinkage and temperature stresses.
6.2.4.3 Continuous concrete nibs
Where a continuous nib less than 300 mm deep provides a bearing, as on a boot lintel, design the
nib as a short cantilever slab in accordance with the provisions given below:
6.2.4.3.1 Ensure that the projection of the nib is sufficient to provide an adequate bearing width for
the type of unit to be supported (see 6.2.4.4). Give the reinforcement in the nib and any reinforcement
in the supported unit a minimum nominal overlap in plan of 60 mm.
6.2.4.3.2 Assume the line of action of the design load to occur at the outer edge of the loaded area,
i.e. at the front edge of the nib, or at the beginning of the chamfered edge, or at the outer edge of the
bearing pad, as appropriate.
6.2.4.3.3 Take the maximum design bending moment as the distance from the line of action of the
load to the nearest vertical leg of the links in the beam element from which the nib projects, times the
load. (Ensure that the tension reinforcement in the nib is at least that required by 4.11.4, and anchor
the reinforcement adequately.)
6.2.4.3.4 Extend the tension reinforcement (the area of the reinforcement being not more than that
given in 4.11.5) as near to the front face of the nib as considerations of adequate cover will allow, and
anchor it there, either by welding to a transverse bar of equal strength or by bending the bars through
180 to form loops in the horizontal or vertical plane (ensure that vertical loops are of a bar diameter
not exceeding 12 mm).
6.2.4.3.5 Provide links in the element from which the nib projects. The links should be capable of
transmitting (in addition to any other forces they resist) the load from the nib to the compression zone
of the element.
6.2.4.4 Bearings for precast units
6.2.4.4.1 General
Ensure that the bearing width (see 6.2.4.1(f)) of precast units is sufficient to provide
a) a proper anchorage of the tension reinforcement (see 4.11.7), and
b) a proper restraint against loss of bearing through movement. Do not use direct bearing connections
as column/column or wall/wall connections, either with or without flexible padding.
6.2.4.4.2 Calculation of net bearing width
For nonisolated units (see 6.2.4.1(d)), the net bearing width should be the greater of 40 mm and the
value calculated from the equation:
net bearing width =
where the design effective bearing length is as in 6.2.4.4.3 and the design ultimate bearing stress is
as in 6.2.4.4.4. For isolated units, the net bearing width should exceed that of nonisolated units
(see 6.2.4.1(d)) by 20 mm.
144
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
6.2.4.4.3 Design effective bearing length
In the equation given in 6.2.4.4.2, the effective bearing length is the least of
a) bearing length per element,
b) onehalf of bearing length per element plus 100 mm, and
c) 600 mm.
6.2.4.4.4 Design ultimate bearing stress
The design ultimate bearing stress is based on the weaker of the bearing surfaces and has the
following value:
a) for dry bearing on concrete: 0,4 fcu (an allowance for m included);
b) for bedded bearing on concrete: 0,6 fcu (an allowance for m included);
c) for the concrete face of a steel bearing plate cast into a unit or support and not exceeding
40 % of the bearing length: 0,8 fcu (an allowance for m included).
Bearings using flexible padding may be designed using stresses intermediate between those for dry
and for bedded bearings.
6.2.4.5 Spalling at supports
The outer edges of the concrete interface of precast units and the bearings are subject to spalling.
Chamfers occurring within areas subject to spalling may be ignored when the outer edge of a
supporting unit or the end of a supported unit is being determined (see figure 27). The
recommendations for allowances for effects of spalling at supports and at the end edges of supported
units are given below.
6.2.4.5.1 The distances to be assumed ineffective as bearing surfaces for the outer edges of supports
in relation to the material of the support:
a) steel: nil;
b) concrete grade 30 or higher, plain or reinforced: 15 mm;
c) brickwork or masonry: 25 mm;
d) concrete of a grade lower than grade 30, plain or reinforced: 25 mm;
e) reinforced concrete less than 300 mm deep at the outer edge: not less than the nominal cover to
reinforcement on the outer face of the support; and
f) reinforced concrete where verticalloop reinforcement exceeds 12 mm diameter: nominal end cover
plus inner radius of bend. Where unusual spalling characteristics are known to apply when
particular constituent materials are being used, adjustment should be made to the distances
recommended.
145
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
146
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
b) 20 mm, or 4 mm per metre of distance between the faces of masonry supports; and
c) 25 mm, or 5 mm per metre of distance between the faces of insitu concrete supports.
6.2.4.7 Horizontal forces or rotation at a bearing
The presence of horizontal forces at a bearing can reduce the loadcarrying capacity of the supporting
unit considerably by causing premature splitting or shearing. These forces may be due to creep,
shrinkage, and temperature effects, or may result from misalignment, lack of plumb or other causes.
When they are likely to be significant, consider these forces in designing and detailing the joints by
providing
a) either sliding bearings or suitable lateral reinforcement in the top of the supporting unit, and
b) continuity reinforcement to tie together the ends of the supported units.
Where, owing to large spans or other reasons, large rotations are likely to occur at the end supports
of flexural units, use bearings that are capable of accommodating these rotations.
147
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
6.2.5.2.2 Pay particular attention to detailing the joint and joint reinforcement to prevent premature
splitting or spalling of the concrete in the ends of the precast units.
6.2.5.2.3 Where a wall or a column is subjected to lateral loads, design the horizontal joints for shear
in accordance with 6.5.3.14.
6.2.5.3 Joints transmitting shear in slabs
A joint may be assumed to transmit a shear force between panels when, for example, a wall acts as
a windbracing wall or a floor acts as a wind girder, provided that one of the provisions given below
is complied with.
6.2.5.3.1 Floor units transmitting shear in a horizontal plane should be restrained to prevent their
moving apart horizontally, and the joints between them should be formed by grouting with a suitable
concrete or mortar mix. When the calculated shear stress in the joint under ultimate loads does not
exceed 0,23 MPa, no reinforcement need be provided in or across the joint, and the sides of the unit
forming the joint may have the normal finish.
6.2.5.3.2 When the sides or ends of the panels or units forming the joints have a finish "asextruded"
(see table 42), and when the shear stress due to ultimate loads does not exceed 0,45 MPa, no
reinforcement need be provided in joints that are under compression in all loading conditions.
6.2.5.3.3 The shear stress due to design ultimate loads, calculated on the minimum root area of a
castellated joint, should be less than 1,3 MPa. Separation of the units normal to the joint should be
prevented either by the provision of steel ties across the ends of the joint or by the provision of a
compressive force normal to the joint under all loading conditions. A taper should usually be provided
to the projecting keys of a castellated joint to ease the removal of formwork; to limit movements in the
joint, ensure that this taper is not excessive.
6.2.5.3.4 When reinforcement is provided to resist the entire shear force due to design ultimate loads,
the shear force V should comply with the following equation:
V = 0,6 Fb tan f
where
Fb is the lesser of 0,87fyAs or the anchorage value of the reinforcement;
As is the minimum area of reinforcement;
fy is the characteristic strength of reinforcement; and
f is the angle of internal friction between faces of joint.
Tan f can vary between 0,7 and 1,7 and is best determined by tests. However, for
concretetoconcrete connections, the following values may be assumed:
a) tan f = 0,7 for a smooth interface, as in untreated concrete;
b) tan f = 1,4 for a roughened or castellated joint without continuous insitu strips across the ends of
joints; and
c) tan f = 1,7 for a roughened or castellated joint with continuous insitu strips across the ends of
joints.
148
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
6.2.5.3.5 It should be able to be demonstrated that resistance to sliding of the joint is provided by
other means; this would normally mean testing in accordance with 3.4.5.
6.2.5.4 Halving joint
6.2.5.4.1 For a halving joint, ensure that the maximum vertical ultimate load Fv does not exceed
4vcbdo, where b is the width of the beam, do is the effective depth of the half section and vc is the shear
stress given in 4.3.4.1 for the full beam section. When determining the value of Fv, give consideration
to the method of erection and the forces involved.
6.2.5.4.2 Detail reinforcement of the halving joint to suit the overall size and geometrical proportions
of the joint. Several arrangements of reinforcement are possible and are covered in specialist
literature. Inclined links may be used as the diagonal tension reinforcement where the line of action
of Fv intersects the inclined link. If this is not the case, then use vertical and horizontal links.
6.2.5.4.3 The total force in the links may be determined by an appropriate truss analogy. The
crosssectional area of the links is then given by
Fv
Asv =
Asv =
0,87f yv
where
Asv
fyv
is the characteristic strength of links (but not more than 450 MPa).
6.2.5.4.4 Provide nominal vertical links in accordance with 4.11.4.5. So secure inclined links that they
cannot be displaced.
6.2.5.4.5 Check the anchorage of all main reinforcement. In the tension face of the beam, transfer the
horizontal component of force in inclined links Fh, which for 45E links is equal to Fv, to the main
reinforcement. If the main reinforcement is straight without hooks or bends, the links may be
considered anchored if
Fh
2us lsb
where
lsb
149
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
6.2.5.4.6 If the main reinforcement is hooked or bent vertically, anchor the inclined links by bending
them parallel to the main reinforcement; in this case, or if inclined links are replaced by bentup bars,
ensure that the bearing stress within the bends does not exceed the value given in 4.11.6.9. Bentup
bars may only be used to replace inclined links when effective end anchorage is possible (by means
of welded crossbars or other positive anchorage device).
6.2.5.4.7 Ensure that horizontal links are capable of carrying horizontal loads that may be applied to
the joint in addition to the forces arising from the vertical reaction.
6.2.5.4.8 Place vertical links at the end of the fulldepth section as near to the end face as possible.
150
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
6.3.1.3.3 Manufacture, assembly and erection
During design, consider methods of manufacture, assembly and erection, and give particular attention
to the following points:
a) where projecting bars or sections are required, keep them to a minimum and make them as simple
as possible; make such projections no longer than is necessary for security;
b) avoid fragile fins and nibs;
c) locate fixing devices of adequate strength in concrete sections;
d) consider the practicability of both casting and assembly;
e) most connections require the introduction of suitable jointing material; in the design, allow sufficient
space for such material to ensure that the proper filling of the joint is practicable;
f) it may be desirable to slacken, release or remove levelling devices such as nuts, wedges, etc., that
have no loadbearing function in the completed structure; where this is necessary, ensure that the
details are such that inspection (to make certain that this has been done) can be carried out without
undue difficulty.
6.3.1.4 Site instructions
6.3.1.4.1 The strength and stiffness of any connection can be significantly affected by workmanship
on site. The diversity of types of joints and their critical role in the strength and stability of the structure
place a particular responsibility on the designer to make clear to those responsible for manufacture
and erection, those details that are essential to the correct operation of the joint.
6.3.1.4.2 Consider the following points and, where necessary, pass specific instructions to the site:
a) the sequence of forming the joint;
b) critical dimensions, allowing for permitted deviations, e.g. minimum permissible bearing;
c) critical details, e.g. accurate location of a particular reinforcing bar;
d) the method of correcting possible lack of fit in the joint;
e) details of temporary propping, and the stage at which it may be removed (see the relevant clause
of SABS 01002);
f) the description of the general stability of the structure, with details of any temporary bracing
necessary;
g) the extent to which the uncompleted structure may proceed above the completed and matured
section;
h) full details of special materials; and
i) the weld sizes, fully specified (where weld symbols are used, ascertain that these are understood
on site).
151
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
6.3.2 Continuity of reinforcement
6.3.2.1 General requirements
Where continuity of reinforcement is required through the connection, use a jointing method such that
the assumptions made in analysing the structure and critical sections are realized. The following
methods may be used to achieve continuity of reinforcement:
a) lapping of bars;
b) sleeving;
c) threading of bars;
d) welding; and
e) any other method proven by tests in accordance with 3.4.5.
6.3.2.2 Lapping of bars
Where straight bars passing through the joint are lapped, the provisions given in 4.11.6.6 apply. When
reinforcement is grouted into a pocket or recess, provide an adequate shear key on the inside of the
pocket.
Where continuity over a support is achieved by having dowel bars pass through overlapping loops of
reinforcement (which project from each supported element), make the bearing stresses inside the
loops in accordance with 4.11.6.9.
6.3.2.3 Sleeving
6.3.2.3.1 Three principal types of sleeve jointing may be used, provided that the strength and
deformation characteristics have been determined by tests in accordance with 3.4.5. The three types
are
a) groutfilled or resinfilled sleeves capable of transmitting both tensile and compressive forces;
b) sleeves that mechanically align the squaresawn ends of two bars to allow the transmission of
compressive forces only; and
c) swaged connectors.
6.3.2.3.2 Ensure that the detailed design of the sleeve and the method of manufacture and assembly
are such that the ends of the two bars will be accurately aligned into the sleeve. Ensure that the
concrete cover provided for the sleeve is at least that specified for normal reinforcement.
6.3.2.4 Threading
6.3.2.4.1 The following methods may be used for jointing threaded bars:
a) the threaded ends of bars may be joined by a coupler having lefthand and righthand threads; this
type of threaded connection requires a high degree of accuracy in manufacture in view of the
difficulty of ensuring alignment;
152
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
b) one set of bars may be welded to a steel plate, which is drilled to receive the threaded ends of the
second set of bars; the second set of bars is fixed to the plate by means of nuts; and
c) threaded anchors may be cast into a precast unit to receive the threaded ends of reinforcement.
6.3.2.4.2 When there is a risk of the threaded connection working loose, e.g. during vibration while
insitu concrete is being cast, use a locking device.
6.3.2.4.3 Restrict the threading of reinforcement to plain round mild steel bars. Where there is
difficulty in producing a clean thread at the end of a bar, use steel that is normally specified for black
bolts and that has a characteristic strength of 430 MPa.
6.3.2.4.4 Base the structural design of special threaded connections on tests in accordance with 3.4.5.
Where tests have shown the threaded connection to be at least as strong as the parent bar, the
strength of the joint may be based on 80 % of the specified characteristic strength of the joined bars
in tension and on 100 % of that of bars in compression, divided in each case by the appropriate m
factor.
6.3.2.5 Welding of bars
The design of welded connections may be in accordance with 4.11.6.7, provided that the welding is
carried out as recommended in the relevant clause of SABS 01002.
153
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
6.4 Composite concrete construction
6.4.1 General
6.4.1.1 The provisions of this subclause apply to flexural composite elements consisting of precast
concrete units acting in conjunction with added concrete where provision has been made for the
transfer of horizontal shear at the contact surface. The precast units may be of either reinforced or
prestressed concrete. Analyse and design composite concrete structures and elements in accordance
with clause 4 or clause 5, modified, where appropriate, in accordance with 6.4.3 and 6.4.4. Pay
particular attention, in the design of both the components and the composite section, to the effect of
the method of construction, on stresses and deflections, and to whether or not propping is to be used.
6.4.1.2 Base the relative stiffnesses of elements on the properties of the concrete, gross or
transformed sections, as described in 3.4.3.1. If the concrete strength in the two components of a
composite element differs by more than 10 MPa, make allowance for this when stiffness is being
assessed.
6.4.1.3 Differential shrinkage of the added concrete and precast concrete units may require
consideration in analysing composite elements for the serviceability limit states (see 6.4.3.4);
differential shrinkage need not be considered for the ultimate limit state.
6.4.1.4 When precast prestressed units, having pretensioned tendons, are designed as continuous
elements and continuity is obtained with reinforced concrete cast insitu over the supports, the
compressive stresses due to prestress in the ends of the units may be ignored over the transmission
length of the tendons when the strength of sections is being assessed.
6.4.2 Shear
6.4.2.1 Carry out the analysis of the resistance of composite sections to vertical shear due to design
ultimate loads in accordance with 4.3.4 for reinforced concrete and 5.3.4 for prestressed concrete.
However, when insitu concrete is placed between precast prestressed units and the composite
concrete section is used in design, ensure that the principal tensile stress does not exceed 0,24 f cu
anywhere in the prestressed units; calculate this stress by making due allowance for the construction
sequence and by taking into account only 0,8 of the compressive stress due to prestress at the section
under consideration.
6.4.2.2 Calculations for horizontal shear between the two components of a composite section are
governed by the ultimate limit state. The methods given in 6.4.4.1 to 6.4.4.4 ensure that composite
action does not break down for the serviceability limit states and that the design shear strength is
adequate for the ultimate limit state.
154
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
analysis may be as given in 5.3.3. However, the compressive stresses in the precast unit at the
interface may be increased by not more than 50 % above the value given in table 29, provided that
the ultimate failure of the composite element is due to excessive elongation of the steel.
6.4.3.3 Tension in the concrete in the case of prestressed precast units
When there is a danger of corrosion (e.g. if there is nonprestressed reinforcement in the insitu
concrete), the flexural tensile stress in the insitu concrete should be limited by crack control
measures, in accordance with 4.3.7.
Amdt 1, Apr. 1994



Where continuity is obtained with reinforced concrete cast insitu over the supports, the flexural tensile
stresses and the hypothetical tensile stresses in the precast prestressed units at the supports should
be limited in accordance with 5.3.2.3.
Amdt 1, Apr. 1994
= diffEcfAcfacent
(19)
where
diff
Ecf
Acf
155
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
acent is the distance from the centroid of the concrete flange to the centroid of the composite
section;
6.4.3.5.2 The hogging restraint moment Mcs will be modified with time by creep due to selfweight load
and creep due to any prestress in the precast units. The restraint moment due to prestress may be
taken as the restraint moment that would have been set up if the composite section as a whole had
been prestressed, multiplied by a reduction factor 1 taken as 0,92 (see also 6.4.3.5.4).
6.4.3.5.3 Use the information given in 6.4.3.4 for assessing a value for the differential shrinkage
strain.
6.4.3.5.4 Equation (19) for calculating the restraint moments due to creep and differential shrinkage
is based on an assumed value of 2,5 for the ratio cc of total creep to elastic deformation. If the design
conditions are such that this value is significantly low, then the engineer should calculate values for
the reduction factors and 1 from the following:
1
(1 e
cc
cc
(1 e
cc


The average horizontal design shear stress should then be distributed in proportion to the vertical
design shear force diagram, to give the horizontal shear stress at any point along the length of the
composite component. The horizontal design shear stress v so detained, should nowhere exceed the
Amdt 2, Mar. 2000
appropriate value in table 42.
156
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Table 42  Design ultimate horizontal shear stresses at interface
Surface type
Without links
Ascast or asextruded
0,4
/
With nominal links
projecting into insitu
concrete
Washed to remove
laitance or treated with
retarder and cleaned
0,6
40
0,55
Brushed, screeded or
roughtamped
30
I
0,65
I
0,65
0,75
0,7
0,75
0,80
Ascast or asextruded
1,2
1,8
2,o
Brushed, screeded or
roughtamped
1,8
2,O
22
Washed to remove
laitance or treated with
retarder and cleaned
21
2.2
2.3
NOTES
1 The description "ascast" covers those cases where the concrete is placed and vibrated,
leaving a rough finish. The surface is rougher than would be required for finishes to be
applied directly without a further finishing screed but not as rough as would be obtained if
tamping, brushing or other artificial roughening had taken place.
2 The description "asextruded" covers those cases in which an opentextured surface is
produced direct from an extruding machine.
3 The description "brushed, screeded or roughtamped" covers those cases where some
form of deliberate surface roughening has taken place but not to the extent of exposing the
aggregate.
4 For structural assessment purposes, it may be assumed that the appropriate value of
v, (included in the table) is 1 3 .
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Ah =
1 000 bvh
0,87f y
where
b
158
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
where lo is the clear height of the wall between lateral supports; for gable walls, lo may be measured
midway between eaves and ridge.
6.5.3.3 Effective height of braced plain concrete walls
The effective height of braced plain concrete walls should be taken as follows:
a) where the lateral supports provide resistance both to lateral movement and to rotation, le equals
threequarters of the clear distance between lateral supports or twice the distance between a
support and a free edge, as appropriate;
NOTE  This distance is measured vertically if the lateral supports are horizontal (e.g. floors) or horizontally if the
lateral supports are vertical (e.g. other walls).
b) where the lateral supports provide resistance to lateral movement only, le equals the distance
between centres of supports, or two and a half times the distance between a support and a free
edge, as appropriate.
6.5.3.4 Limits of slenderness
The slenderness ratio le/h should not exceed 30, whether the wall be braced or unbraced.
6.5.3.5 Minimum transverse eccentricity of forces
Whatever the arrangements of vertical or horizontal forces, the resultant force in every plain concrete
wall should be assumed to have a transverse eccentricity of the greater of at least h/20 or 20 mm. In
the case of a slender wall, additional eccentricity can arise as a result of deflection under load.
Procedures allowing for this are given in 6.5.3.12 and 6.5.3.13.
6.5.3.6 Eccentricity in the plane of the wall
6.5.3.6.1 In the case of a single wall inplane
Eccentricity due to forces may be calculated by statics alone.
6.5.3.6.2 In a case where a horizontal force is resisted by two or more parallel walls
The force should be assumed to be shared between the walls in proportion to their relative stiffnesses,
provided the resultant eccentricity in any individual wall does not exceed onethird of the length of that
wall.
Where the eccentricity in any individual wall is found to exceed this, the wall stiffness should be
regarded as zero and an adjustment made to the forces that are assumed to be carried by the
remaining wall(s).
6.5.3.6.3 In the case of a shear connection being assumed between vertical edges of adjacent
walls
An appropriate elastic analysis may be made, provided the shear connection is designed to resist the
design ultimate forces.
6.5.3.7 Eccentricity at right angles to the wall
6.5.3.7.1 The load transmitted to a wall by a concrete floor or roof may be assumed to act at onethird
of the depth of the bearing area from the loaded face. Where there is an insitu concrete floor on either
side of the wall, the common bearing area may be assumed to be shared equally by each floor.
159
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
6.5.3.7.2 Loads may be applied to walls at eccentricities exceeding half the thickness of the wall by
means of special fittings (e.g. joist hangers), provided that the adequacy of such fittings against local
failure is proved by testing or other means.
6.5.3.7.3 The resultant eccentricity of the total load on a braced wall at any level may be calculated
on the assumption that, immediately above a lateral support, the resultant eccentricity of all the vertical
loads above that level is zero.
6.5.3.8 Inplane and transverse eccentricity of resultant force on an unbraced wall
At any level, full allowance should be made for the eccentricity of all vertical loads and the overturning
moments produced by any lateral forces above that level.
6.5.3.9 Concentrated loads
When loads are purely local (as at beam bearings), they may be assumed to be immediately
dispersed, provided that the local design stress under the load does not exceed 0,6fcu for concrete of
grade 25 or higher, or 0,5fcu for concrete of a lower grade.
6.5.3.10 Calculation of design load per unit length
The design load per unit length nw should be assessed on the basis of a linear distribution of load along
the length of the wall, with no allowance for any tensile strength.
6.5.3.11 Maximum unit axial load for short braced plain walls
The maximum design ultimate axial load per unit length of wall due to ultimate loads, nw, should satisfy
the following equation:
nw < 0,3 (h  2ex) fcu
(20)
where
nw is the maximum design axial load per unit length of wall due to design ultimate loads;
h
ex is the resultant eccentricity of load at right angles to plane of wall (see 6.5.3.5 for minimum
value); and
fcu is the characteristic strength of concrete.
6.5.3.12 Maximum unit axial load for slender braced plain walls
At every section of a slender braced wall, the maximum design axial load nw should satisfy
equation (20) and, additionally, the following:
nw < 0,3 (h  1,2ex  2ea) fcu
(21)
where
nw, h, ex and fcu are as in 6.5.3.11; and
ea is the additional eccentricity due to deflections, which may be taken as le2/2 500 where le is the
effective height of the wall.
160
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
6.5.3.13 Maximum unit axial load for unbraced plain walls
The maximum unit axial load at every section of an unbraced plain wall should satisfy the following
two conditions:
a) nw < 0,3 (h  2ex1) fcu
b) nw < 0,3 [h  2(ex2 + ea)] fcu
where
nw, h, ea, and fcu are as in 6.5.3.11 and 6.5.3.12;
ex1 is the resultant eccentricity calculated at top of wall (see 6.5.3.7); and
ex2 is the resultant eccentricity calculated at bottom of wall (see 6.5.3.7).
6.5.3.14 Shear strength
The design shear resistance of plain walls need not be checked if one of the following conditions is
satisfied:
a) the horizontal design shear force is less than onequarter of the design vertical load; or
b) the horizontal design shear force is less than that required to produce an average design shear
stress of 0,45 MPa over the whole wall crosssection.
NOTE  For concrete of grades lower than grade 25 and for lightweight aggregate concrete, the figure of 0,30 MPa
should be used instead of 0,45 MPa.
161
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
horizontal and vertical directions; it should consist of bars of small diameter, relatively closely
spaced, with adequate cover near the exposed surface (see also 6.5.3.15);
b) in an internal wall it may only be necessary to provide reinforcement in that part of the wall where
junctions with floors and beams occur, in which case it should be equally dispersed between each
face (see also 6.5.3.15).
6.5.3.17.2 In general, it will not be necessary to provide reinforcement to counteract shrinkage and
temperature effects in walls made of nofines concrete.
6.5.3.18 Reinforcement around openings in plain walls
Nominal reinforcement should be considered.
6.5.3.19 Deflection of plain concrete walls
The deflection in a plain concrete wall will be within acceptable limits if the preceding provisions have
been conformed to and if, in the case of a cantilever shear wall, the total height of the wall does not
exceed ten times its length.
7 Fire resistance
7.1 General
7.1.1 When a structural concrete element is subjected to fire, it undergoes a gradual reduction in
strength and rigidity. For limit state design, therefore (as stated in 3.2.4.3), there are three conditions
to be considered:
a) retention of structural strength;
b) resistance to penetration of flames; and
c) resistance to heat transmission.
The first criterion is applicable to all structural elements while the other two criteria are applicable to
walls and floors, which perform a separating function.
7.1.2 The requirements for fire resistance for various elements in a structure are either checked by
a standard test on a specimen or satisfied by suitable choices based on the data given in this clause.
NOTE  Standard fire tests are not intended to give information on the use of an element after it has been subjected to
fire.
7.1.3 The following factors influence the fire resistance of concrete structures (some of these factors
cannot be taken into account quantitatively):
a) the size and shape of the element;
b) the type of concrete;
c) the type of reinforcement or tendon;
d) the protective concrete cover provided to reinforcement or tendons (see 7.1.9);
162
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
e) the load supported; and
f) the conditions of restraint.
7.1.4 Concretes made with siliceous aggregates have a tendency to spall when exposed to high
temperatures but this tendency can be reduced by the incorporation of supplementary reinforcement
in the concrete cover. Spalling does not generally occur with either calcareous or lightweight
aggregates. The insulation properties of concrete made from lightweight aggregates are superior to
those of concrete made from siliceous and calcareous aggregates. Other measures that may be taken
to prevent spalling from occurring are
a) a finish of plaster, vermiculite, etc., applied by hand or sprayed;
b) the provision of a false ceiling as a fire barrier; and
c) the use of sacrificial tensile steel.
7.1.5 Concrete, prestressing tendons, and reinforcement show a reduction in strength at high
temperatures. At about 400 C, tendons are likely to lose about 50 % of their strength at ambient
temperature and in the case of reinforcement, a similar reduction in strength occurs at about 550 C.
7.1.6 The fire resistance of structural elements is generally determined when the element is
supporting its service load, which is taken as the sum of all the nominal selfweight and imposed loads.
Tables 43 to 46 show the minimum dimensions for various elements when these loads are to be
supported; any reduction in load will be reflected by an increase in fire resistance, but there are not
sufficient data available to define the relationship.
7.1.7 Recent investigations have shown that the provision of end restraint against thermal expansion
can substantially increase the fire resistance of a structural element. Until this aspect is more fully
investigated, it is proposed that in beams and slabs so built into a structure that restraint against
thermal expansion caused by fire would be provided at two opposite ends, the amount of protective
cover to reinforcement and tendons be reduced to the value shown for the next lower period in tables
43 to 46. Thermal restraint can be assumed to be provided by the surrounding structure if no gaps or
combustible materials exist between the structure and the ends of the floor or beam and if the
surrounding structure is capable of withstanding the thermal stresses induced by the heated floor or
beam.
7.1.8 In tables 43 to 50 (inclusive), the "minimum dimension" and the "minimum thickness" quoted
are all recommended dimensions that are subject to the dimensional deviations given in SABS 01002.
7.1.9 Where plaster or sprayed fibre is used as an applied finish to elements other than the ones in
tables 43 to 50, it may be assumed that the thermal insulation provided is at least equivalent to the
same thickness of concrete. Such finishes can therefore be used to remedy deficiencies in cover
thickness. For selected materials, the following guidance can be given with respect to allowing the use
of additional protection not exceeding 25 mm in thickness as a means of providing effective cover to
steel reinforcing or prestressing elements. In each case, the equivalent thickness of concrete may be
replaced by the protection named.
Mortar
Gypsum plaster
Lightweight plaster
Sprayed lightweight
insulation
163
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Vermiculite slabs
(See also table 47 for the effect of soffit treatment on the fire resistance of slabs.)
7.2 Beams
7.2.1 The fire resistance of a reinforced or prestressed concrete beam depends on the amount of
protective cover, consisting of concrete with or without an insulating encasement, provided to the
reinforcement or tendons. It is also necessary that the beam have a minimum width to avoid failure
of the concrete before the reinforcement or tendons reach the critical temperature. For Ibeams, the
web thickness bw of a fully exposed beam should be at least 0,5 of the minimum width stated in tables
43 and 44 for the fire resistance of various beams.
7.2.2 Typical performances are given in table 43 for reinforced concrete beams and in table 44 for
prestressed concrete beams, both for siliceous aggregate concrete and for lowdensity aggregate
concrete.
7.2.3 The average concrete cover is determined by summing the product of the crosssectional area
of each bar or tendon and the distance from the surface of the bar to the nearest relevant exposed
face, and dividing the sum by the total area of these bars or tendons. Only those bars or tendons
provided for the purpose of resisting tension due to ultimate loads should be considered in this
calculation. When reinforcement is used in combination with tendons, its total area should be used.
7.2.4 Tables 43 and 44 give the average concrete cover required to provide the stated fire resistance,
but in no case may the nominal concrete cover to any bar or tendon be less than half this value, or less
than the value given for the halfhour period appropriate to that form of construction.
7.2.5 In addition, in certain cases where siliceous aggregate concrete is used, it will be necessary to
consider the provision of supplementary reinforcement to hold the concrete cover in position.
7.2.6 Supplementary reinforcement will be required in those cases indicated in tables 43 and 44
where the cover to all the bars and tendons under consideration exceeds 40 mm. When used,
supplementary reinforcement shall consist of expanded metal lath or a wire fabric not lighter than
0,5 kg/m2 (2 mm diameter wires at centres not exceeding 100 mm) or a continuous arrangement of
links at centres not exceeding 200 mm, incorporated in the concrete cover at a distance not exceeding
20 mm from the face.
164
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Table 43  Fire resistance of reinforced concrete beams
1
Fire resistance
h
4
1,5
0,5
*)65
280
*)55
240
*)45
180
35
140
25
110
15
80
*)50
250
40
210
30
150
20
110
15
85
15
70
*)25
170
15
145
15
115
15
85
15
60
15
60
50
250
45
200
35
160
30
130
20
100
15
80
*)Supplementary reinforcement may be necessary to hold the concrete cover in position (see
7.2.6).
**)Vermiculite/gypsum plaster should have a mix ratio in the range 1,5:1 to 2:1 by volume.
7.2.7 For Ibeams, the average concrete cover determined as in 7.2.3 is adjusted by multiplying it
by 0,6 to allow for the additional heat transfer through the upper flange face.
165
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Table 44  Fire resistance of prestressed concrete beams
Fire resistance
h
4
1,5
0,5
*)100
280
*)85
240
*)65
180
*)50
140
40
110
25
80
*) 75
210
*)60
170
*)45
125
35
100
25
70
15
70
65
180
50
140
35
100
25
70
15
60
15
60
*) 90
250
*)75
210
*)50
150
40
110
30
85
15
70
*) 75
170
*)60
145
*)45
115
30
85
25
60
15
60
*) 50
140
*)45
125
30
100
25
70
15
60
15
60
80
250
65
200
50
160
40
130
30
100
20
80
*)Supplementary reinforcement may be necessary to hold the concrete cover in position (see
7.2.6).
**)Vermiculite/gypsum plaster must have a mix ratio in the range 1,5:1 to 2:1 by volume.
166
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
25
100
175
**)55
**)55
140
150
**)55
**)30
70
150
**)55
**)30
60
150
25
125
190
**)65
**)65
150
150
**)65
**)40
75
150
**)65
**)40
70
150
d) Ribbed floors having hollow infill blocks of clay, or inverted Tsection beams with hollow infill blocks of concrete or clay. A
floor in which less than 50 % of the gross crosssection is solid
material shall be provided with a 15 mm plaster coating on
soffit
e) Upright Tsections
f)
25
40
205
25
50
230
**)45
**)25
50
100
**)45
**)25
60
125
**)45
**)45
115
125
20
90
160
20
40
180
35
20
40
100
35
20
50
125
35
35
90
125
20
80
140
20
30
155
25
15
35
75
25
15
40
100
25
25
75
100
15
70
110
15
25
130
15
10
25
65
15
10
30
90
15
15
60
90
15
50
100
15
20
105
15
20
100
15
25
110
20
30
140
20
40
160
25
40
175
25
50
190
b) Cored slabs in which the cores are circular or are higher than
they are wide. Not less than 50 % of the gross crosssection of
the floor should be solid material
15
100
0,5
15
100
1
20
125
1,5
20
125
Fire resistance
mm
25
150
25
150
a) Solid slab
Floor construction
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
167
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
50
100
175
**)85
**)85
200
150
**)85
**)45
100
150
**)85
**)45
90
150
65
125
190
**)100
**)100
250
150
**)100
**)50
125
150
**)100
**)50
110
150
d) Ribbed floors having hollow infill blocks of clay, or inverted Tsection beams with hollow infill blocks of concrete or clay. A
floor in which less than 50 % of the gross crosssection is
solid material shall be provided with a 15 mm plaster coating
on soffit
e) Upright Tsections
50
50
205
65
50
190
**)65
**)35
70
125
**)65
**)35
75
125
**)65
**)65
150
125
40
90
160
40
40
180
50
25
55
125
50
25
60
125
50
50
120
125
30
80
140
30
30
155
40
20
45
100
40
20
45
100
40
40
90
100
25
70
110
25
25
130
25
15
30
90
25
15
30
90
25
25
60
90
15
50
100
15
20
105
15
20
100
25
25
110
30
30
140
40
40
160
50
40
175
65
50
190
b) Cored slabs in which the cores are circular or are higher than
they are wide. Not less than 50 % of the gross crosssection of
the floor should be solid material
15
90
25
100
0,5
30
125
40
125
1,5
50
150
65
150
Fire resistance
mm
a) Solid slab
Floor construction
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
168
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
7.3 Floors
7.3.1 The fire resistance of a floor depends on the minimum thickness of the concrete section and
the average concrete cover to the reinforcement in the tensile zone. The performance of some typical
reinforced concrete floors is given in table 45 and the performance of some typical prestressed
concrete floors is given in table 46. The performance of floors of shapes not given may be assessed
by analogy.
7.3.2 Noncombustible screeds or floor finishes may be taken into account in the estimation of the
thickness of concrete.
7.3.3 The average concrete cover is determined by summing the product of the crosssectional area
of each bar or tendon and the distance from the surface of the bar to the nearest relevant exposed
face, and dividing the sum by the total area of these bars or tendons. Only those bars or tendons
provided for the purpose of resisting tension due to ultimate loads should be considered in this
calculation.
7.3.4 Tables 45 and 46 give the average concrete cover required to provide the stated fire resistance,
but in no case may the nominal concrete cover to any bar or tendon be less than half this value, or less
than the value given for the halfhour period appropriate to that form of construction.
7.3.5 In addition, in certain cases where siliceous aggregate concrete is used, it will be necessary to
consider the provision of supplementary reinforcement to hold the concrete cover in position.
7.3.6 Supplementary reinforcement will be required in those cases indicated in table 47 where no
ceiling protection is provided (see 7.4) and the cover to all the bars and tendons under consideration
exceeds 40 mm. When used, supplementary reinforcement shall consist of expanded metal lath or a
wire fabric not lighter than 0,5 kg/m 2 (2 mm diameter wires at centres not exceeding 100 mm) or a
continuous arrangement of links at centres not exceeding 200 mm, incorporated in the concrete cover
Amdt 1, Apr. 1994
at a distance not exceeding 20 mm from the face.


7.3.7 In the absence of adequate test data, lowdensity concrete floors should be treated as dense
concrete floors even though the fire resistance of the former might be expected to be somewhat
superior.
7.3.8 In the case of hollow slabs (or beams with filler blocks), the effective thickness d should be
obtained by considering the total solid material per unit width te as follows:
t e h t f
where
h
tf
169
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Table 47  Effect of soffit treatment
1
Minimum thickness of
finish
mm
Ceiling finish
a)
b)
c)
1,5
0,5
15
10
10
10
10
10
15
10
10
*)Vermiculite/gypsum plaster should have a mix ratio in the range 1,5:1 to 2:1 by
volume.
**)When suspended ceilings are used, the increased fire resistance only holds if
ducts, light fittings, etc., do not penetrate the ceiling and if services and
combustible materials are kept out of the space between the ceiling and the floor
construction above.
7.5 Columns
7.5.1 The minimum dimension of a column is a determining factor in the fire resistance it can provide.
The dimensions given in table 48 relate to columns that, when subjected to service loads, may be
exposed to fire on all faces. The use of limestone or other calcareous aggregates will, as indicated,
reduce spalling and allow a reduction in the size of the section. When siliceous aggregates are used,
the concrete cover to the main bars should not exceed 40 mm unless supplementary reinforcement
is provided. Ensure that the cover to reinforced concrete columns is the same as that given in table
43 for beams.
7.5.2 Supplementary reinforcement shall consist of either a wire fabric not lighter than 0,5 kg/m2
(2 mm diameter wires at centres not exceeding 100 mm) or a continuous arrangement of links at
centres not exceeding 200 mm, incorporated in the concrete cover at a distance not exceeding 20 mm
from the face.
7.5.3 When supplementary reinforcement as in item (b) of table 48 is used to obtain a reduced size
of column, it should be placed at midcover but not more than 20 mm from the face, and should be
in the shape of a rectangular or circular cage.
7.5.4 Columns that are built into fireresistant walls to their full height are likely to be exposed to fire
on one face only. Where fireresistant walls are required to have the same fireresistance rating as the
columns, the data given in table 49 apply to the situation where the face of the column is flush with the
170
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
wall or where that part embedded in the wall is structurally adequate to support the load, provided that
any opening in the wall is not nearer to the column than the minimum dimension specified in table 49
for that column.
Table 48  Fire resistance of concrete columns (all faces exposed)
1
Fire resistance
h
1,5
0,5
450
400
300
250
200
150
300
275
225
150
150
150
275
225
200
150
120
120
300
275
225
200
190
150
300
275
225
200
150
150
*)Vermiculite/gypsum plaster should have a mix ratio in the range 1,5:1 to 2:1 by volume.
Type of construction
1,5
0,5
300
250
200
150
100
100
200
150
120
100
90
90
*)Vermiculite/gypsum plaster should have a mix ratio in the range 1,5:1 to 2:1 by volume.
171
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
7.6 Walls
7.6.1 Concrete walls containing at least 1,0 % of vertical reinforcement
The fire resistance of concrete walls containing at least 1,0 % of vertical reinforcement is given in
table 50. The minimum thicknesses shown are for siliceous aggregate concrete. When lowdensity
aggregate concrete is used, a reduction in thickness is permissible if the fire resistance of such a wall
is confirmed by a test.
Concrete cover to the reinforcement should be at least 15 mm for a fire resistance of up to 1 h, and
at least 25 mm for a fire resistance for longer periods. Unless shown otherwise by a test, walls
containing vertical reinforcement of less than 1,0 % are regarded as plain concrete walls (see 7.6.2)
for fireresistance purposes.
Walls exposed to fire on more than one face are to be regarded as columns (see 7.5).
Table 50  Fire resistance of siliceous aggregate concrete walls
containing at least 1,0 % of vertical reinforcement and exposed to
fire on one face only
1
Fire resistance
h
None . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cement or gypsum plaster on exposed face
Vermiculite/gypsum plaster*) or sprayed
asbestos, 15 mm thick, on exposed face . .
1,5
0,5
180
180
150
150
100
100
100
100
75
75
75
75
125
100
75
75
65
65
*)Vermiculite/gypsum plaster should have a mix ratio in the range 1,5:1 to 2:1 by volume.
172
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Annex A
(informative)
estimates of the restraints provided by supports are based on simplified and often inaccurate
assumptions;
b)
the precise loading, or the part of it that is of long duration, is unknown; the selfweight, which is
known to within quite close limits, is the major factor determining the deflections, since this largely
173
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
governs the longterm effects; lack of knowledge of the precise imposed load is not likely to be
a major cause of error in deflection calculations; for the proportion of imposed loading that may
be considered to be permanent and that will influence the longterm behaviour, see 3.3.4.1;
c)
lightly reinforced elements may well have a working load that is close to the cracking load for the
element; considerable differences will occur in the deflections, depending on whether the element
has or has not cracked;
d)
the effects of finishes and partitions on deflection are difficult to assess and are often ignored;
if a partition is built on top of a beam where there is no wall built up to the underside of the beam,
the longterm deflection will cause the beam to creep away from the partition; the partition may
be left spanning as a deep beam that will apply significant loads at its ends only to the supporting
beam; thus, if a partition wall is built over the whole span of a beam with no major openings near
its centre, its mass may be ignored in the calculation of longterm deflections of the supporting
beam; the suitable approach for assessing the magnitude of this effect is to calculate a likely
maximum and minimum deflection and to take the average.
A.2.1.2 Any method of calculation that can be demonstrated to yield results of acceptable accuracy
can be used, provided that points such as those listed in A.2.1.1 have been correctly accounted for,
and may be logically applied over a wide range of problems. The approach used in the method of
calculation given in A.2.3 is to assess the curvatures of sections under the appropriate moments (as
in A.2.2) and then calculate the deflections from the curvatures. The method of calculation given in
A.2.4 is an alternative to the method given in A.2.3 and deals additionally with the deflection of fully
and partially prestressed concrete elements. Shrinkage deflection may be calculated as in A.2.5.
174
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
A.2.2.3 Set of assumptions B (section not cracked)
The concrete and the steel are both considered to be fully elastic in tension and in compression. The
modulus of elasticity of the steel may be taken as 200 GPa and that of the concrete as specified in
A.2.2.2.3, both in compression and in tension.
175
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
NOTE h
d
x
fc
fs
As
Ec
Es
calculate the instantaneous curvatures under the total load and under the permanent load;
b)
c)
to the longterm curvature under the permanent load, add the difference between the
instantaneous curvatures under the total and permanent loads; and
176
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
d)
to this curvature, add the shrinkage curvature calculated from the following formula:
S
1
cs e s
I
rcs
where
1
rcs
cs
e
Es
Es
Eeff
Eeff is the effective modulus of elasticity of concrete (which can be taken as Ec /(1 + ));
Ec
is the second moment of area of either cracked or gross section, depending on whether
curvature due to loading is derived from set of assumptions A or set of assumptions B; and
Ss
is the first moment of area of reinforcement about centroid of cracked or gross section,
whichever is appropriate.
where
1
rx
is the deflection at x.
Deflections may be calculated directly from this equation by calculation of the curvatures at successive
sections along the element and the use of a numerical integration technique such as that proposed by
Newmark. Alternatively, the following simplified approach may be used:
The deflection is calculated from the equation
= Kl2
1
rb
177
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
where
is the effective span of element;
l
1
rb
K
is a coefficient that depends on shape of the bending moment diagram. (See figure A.2.)
As the calculation method does not describe an elastic relationship between moment and curvature,
deflections under complex loads cannot be obtained by summation of the deflections obtained by
separate calculation for the constituent simpler loads. A value of K appropriate to the complete load
should be used.
If figure A.2 is used to assess the value of K by superposition, it may be assumed that the maximum
deflection of a beam occurs at midspan, without serious errors being introduced.
The calculation of the deflection of cantilevers requires very careful consideration whether the
cantilever is rigidly fixed and is therefore horizontal at the root, or whether the root of the cantilever
is caused to rotate owing to the loadings on the cantilever itself, or on other elements to which the
cantilever is connected. If this root rotation is , the deflection of the tip of the cantilever will be
decreased or increased by an amount l. In general it is recommended that the effective span of the
cantilever (as defined in 4.3.1.4) be used.
Deflection of slabs is probably best dealt with by using the ratios of span to effective depth. However,
if the calculation of the deflections of a slab is essential, it is suggested that the following procedure
be adopted:
A strip of slab of unit width is chosen such that the maximum moment along it is the maximum
moment of the slab, i.e. in a rectangular slab, a strip spanning across the shorter dimension of the slab
connecting the centres of the longer sides. The bending moments along this strip should preferably
be obtained from an elastic analysis of the slab, but may be assessed approximately by taking 70 %
of the moments used for the collapse design. The deflection of the strip is then calculated as though
the strip were a beam. This method will be slightly conservative.
178
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
179
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
A.2.4 Calculation of deflection (an alternative to the method given in A.2.3)
A.2.4.1 Reinforced concrete elements
A.2.4.1.1 In the absence of more reliable information, it is recommended that the immediate deflection
i at the midspan of the member due to applied characteristic load be calculated as:
i = KMs
l2
E c e
where
Ms
is the max. moment of permanent load at support for cantilevers, elsewhere at midspan;
Ec
Ie
is the deflection coefficient that depends on the shape of the bending moment diagram.
Note that for twoway slabs, all relevant parameters/notation refer to the short span.
Bending moments in the element should be determined by moment distribution, computer methods
or any other suitable method in accordance with A.1.2.
The second moment of area Ie should incorporate the degree of cracking in the element and can be
approximated by the following formula, which also accounts for tension stiffening of the concrete:
Ie
Mcr 3
Ma
Ig + [1 
Mcr 3
Ma
] Icr
(22)
180
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
where
Mcr is the cracking moment of element, such that:
Mcr =
fr
g
yt
and
fr
= 0,65 f cu
fr
= 0,30 f cu
occur;
Ma is the maximum moment in the element corresponding with the deflection situation under
consideration;
Icr
Ig
yt
is the distance from centroidal axis of concrete section (ignoring reinforcement), to extreme
fibre in tension.
For continuous elements, the effective moment of inertia may be taken as the average of the Ie values
for the critical positive moment and negative moment sections. For prismatic elements, the effective
moment of inertia may be taken as Ie obtained at midspan for simple and continuous spans, and at
support for cantilevers.
A.2.4.1.2 Longterm creep deflection shall be calculated by multiplying the immediate deflection
by a factor , such that:
(23)
where
is 1 + xi ;
xi
is the ratio of neutral axis depth to effective depth of cracked element; and
is the creep strain divided by the initial strain; is the creep factor considering age of
concrete at loading, humidity, surfacetovolume ratio, etc.
181
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
A.2.4.1.3 Where compression reinforcement is present,
shall be substituted by
where
p
2
; and
A.2.4.1.4 The permanent loads to consider for longterm deflections shall be in accordance with
SABS 0160.
xi
Mcr 2,5
M1
xg 1
(Mcr)2,5
M1
xcr
where
xi
is the ratio of neutral axis depth to effective depth of partially prestressed element;
xg
xcr
is the ratio of neutral axis depth to fully cracked element depth, at the section where
deflection is under consideration;
182
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
A.2.5 Calculation of shrinkage deflection
The shrinkage deflection may be calculated as follows:
s
s l 2
= kskcs
where
ks
s
is the free shrinkage strain of concrete, for instance from figure C.2;
kcs
is
(1 )
)
0,7
with
[1 0,11(3 )2 ]
kcs
is
100As




< 3,
bd
100As
bd
< 1,
As

Amdt 1, Apr. 1994


183
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
a) the proximity of reinforcing bars perpendicular to the cracks to the particular point being considered;
b) the proximity of the neutral axis to the particular point being considered; and
c) the average surface strain at the particular point being considered.
A.3.1.3 The formula in A.3.2 gives a relationship between crack width and these three principal
variables, which gives acceptably accurate results in most normal design circumstances. However,
use the formula with caution in elements subjected dominantly to an axial tension.
A.3.1.4 Remember that cracking is a semirandom phenomenon and that an absolute maximum
crack width cannot be predicted. The formula is so designed that an acceptably small number of cracks
in a structure will exceed the predicted width. Do not, therefore, regard an occasional crack slightly
larger than the predicted width as cause for concern. However, should a significant number of the
cracks in a structure exceed the predicted width, seek reasons other than the statistical nature of the
phenomenon to explain their presence.
w= 1 % 2
where
w
acr
is the distance from the point being considered to the surface of the nearest longitudinal bar;
is the average steel strain at the level where cracking is being considered, calculated
allowing for stiffening effect of concrete in tension zone, and obtained from equation (24);
cmin
is the depth of neutral axis found from analysis to determine 1 (see below).
The average steel strain m may be calculated on the basis of the assumptions given in A.2.2.
Alternatively, as an approximation, it will normally be satisfactory to calculate the steel stress on the
basis of a cracked section, and then to reduce this by an amount equal to the tensile force generated
by the stress distribution (defined in A.2.2.2.4) acting over the tension zone divided by the steel area.
For a rectangular tension zone, this gives:
184
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Jm
J1
bt (h x) (a ) x)
3 Es As (d x)
(24)
where
m is the average steel strain;
1
is the strain at the level being considered, calculated ignoring stiffening effect of concrete in
tension zone;
bt
a is the distance from compression face to point at which crack width is being calculated.
When the whole section is in tension, an effective value of (h  x) can be estimated by interpolation
between the following limiting conditions:
a) where the neutral axis is at the least compressed face, ( h  x) = h (i.e. x = 0); and
b) for axial tension (h  x) = 2h.
A negative value for m indicates that the section is uncracked.
A.3.2.2 In the assessment of the strains, the modulus of elasticity of the concrete should be taken
as half the instantaneous value.
A.3.2.3 Where it is expected that the concrete may be subject to abnormally high shrinkage strains
(>0,0006), increase m by adding 50 % of the expected shrinkage strain.
185
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Annex B
(informative)
Movement joints
B.1 General
Many factors influence the tendency of concrete to crack, and the limitation of such cracking is also
influenced by many factors, probably the most important of which is the proper provision of adequate
reinforcement. However, there are cases where the most appropriate or indeed the only control
measure is a movement joint.
B.2.2 Some indication of the possible magnitude of the movements to be dealt with in a concrete
structure may be gained from the examples given below.
B.2.2.1 The average coefficient of thermal expansion of concrete is about 105/1 C; thus a 33 C
change in temperature could cause a difference in length of approximately 10 mm in a concrete
element of length 30 m. If this change in length were to be prevented by complete restraint of the
element, it would cause a stress of about 7 MPa in an unreinforced concrete element having a
modulus of elasticity of 20 GPa. If such stress were tensile, and superimposed upon other already
existing tensile stresses, cracking would occur. (If, however, the concrete were to be reinforced, the
distribution of the cracking would be controlled by the amount, form and distribution of the
reinforcement, which might even reduce the crack width and spacing to the extent that no harmful
consequence would be caused.)
B.2.2.2 Drying shrinkage strains may be roughly 500 x 106. In thin reinforced sections, this
represents an unrestrained shrinkage of about 1,5 mm per 3 m length of a concrete element. If this
change in length were to be prevented, a tensile stress of about 10 MPa would occur. (See also
annex C.3.)
B.2.2.3 Creep of concrete under stress tends to reduce the maximum stresses arising from the
restraint of movements of the types referred to in B.2.2.1 and B.2.2.2, the degree of reduction
depending on, among other factors, the rate of change of the stresses. Creep is a longterm process
and if the stresses change rapidly, e.g. because the crosssection of the element is small enough to
permit its temperature change or shrinkage to occur in a relatively short time, it has a negligible effect
on reducing the stresses.
186
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
B.2.3 However, creep of the concrete can itself create strains that could lead to harmful and
unsightly effects if no movement joints were to be provided. For example, creep of the concrete can
cause deflections of beams to increase over a long period under sustained loading. Unless suitable
movement joints are provided between floors or roofs and partitions, these deflections can lead to
heavy loads being imposed upon the partitions, which, if of a nonloadbearing type, may then suffer
severe cracking. (See also annex C.2.)
187
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
B.4.2 Cracking can be minimized by reducing the restraints on the free movement of the structure,
and the control of cracking normally requires the subdivision of a structure into suitable lengths
separated by the appropriate movement joints.
B.4.3 The effectiveness of movement joints in controlling cracking in a structure will also depend
upon their precise location; this is frequently a matter of experience, and the location of movement
joints may be characterized as the places where cracks would otherwise most probably develop, e.g.
at abrupt changes of crosssection.
B.4.4 The location of all movement joints should be clearly indicated on the drawings, both for
individual elements and for the structure as a whole. In general, movement joints in the structure
should pass through the whole structure in one plane.
188
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Annex C
(informative)
C.1.2 If a more accurate figure is required for particular materials and a particular mix, tests should
be carried out. Concrete made from a few particular sources of aggregate may have a modulus of
elasticity substantially outside the range given in table C.1. The use of these materials may be
permitted, provided that the appropriate value for elastic modulus obtained from tests is used in design
calculations.
fcu,28
Ko
The modulus of elasticity of concrete Ec at an age t may be derived from the following equation:
Ec,t = Ec,28 (0,4 + 0,6 fcu,t/fcu,28)
(25)
where
t
> 3 d;
Ec,28
fcu
189
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Values of fcu,t/fcu,28 for use in equation (24) can be obtained from table 2. This table shows that, on
average, there is likely to be a gain of strength beyond 28 d (this will lead to a more realistic
assessment of the modulus of elasticity). It should be noted that there is a difference here from the
main body of this part of SABS 0100 where no increase in strength beyond 28 d is permitted in
satisfying limit state requirements. A smaller increase in strength will occur with small structural
members that are exposed to a dry environment after initial curing.
Where calculations of deflection or deformation are to be made, the reliability of the estimate of the
static modulus of elasticity will depend on the precision required from the calculation. Where
deflections are of great importance, tests should be carried out on concrete made with the aggregate
to be used in the structure. In other cases, experience with a particular aggregate, backed by general
data, will often provide a reliable value for Ko, and hence for Ec,28, but with unknown aggregates, it
would be advisable at the design stage to consider a range of values for Ec,28, as given in table C.1.
In the case of lowdensity aggregate concrete, the values of the static modulus in table C.1 should be
multiplied by (w/2400)2 where w is the density of lowdensity aggregate concrete (in kilograms per
cubic metre). It may be more convenient to use the dynamic modulus method of test to obtain an
estimated value for the static modulus of elasticity, using the formula
Ec = 1,25 Ecq  19
where Ecq is the dynamic modulus of elasticity obtainable from table C.1.
Such an estimated value will generally be correct to within 5 GPa.
Table C.1  Modulus of elasticity of normaldensity concrete
1
Characteristic
strength fcu,
MPa
GPa
GPa
Mean value
Typical range
Mean value
Typical range
20
25
30
25
26
28
2129
2230
2333
35
36
38
3139
3240
3343
40
50
60
31
34
36
2636
2840
3042
40
42
44
3545
3648
3850
stress
Et
where
Et
190
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
191
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Figure C.2 relates to concrete of normal workability made without waterreducing admixtures; such
concrete will have an original water content of about 190 elm3.Where concrete is known to have a
different water content, shrinkage may be regarded as proportional to water content within the range
10 y e a r
ihrinkaqe x106
i month
zhrinkage x10'
Effective
section
thickness ")
mm
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Ambient r e l a t i v e hum~dity, %
41
See C.2
The shrinkage of plain concrete is primarily dependent on the relative humidity of the air surrounding
the concrete, on the surface area from which moisture can be lost relative to the volume of concrete,
and on the mix proportions. It is increased slightly by carbonation and selfdesiccation and is reduced
by prolonged curing.
In general, all factors that influence creep will apply equally to shrinkage.
It should be noted that where detailed calculations are being made, stresses and relative humidities
may vary considerably during the lifetime of the structure, and appropriate judgements should be
made.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Annex D
(informative)
193
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
D.2.2 Equivalent truss analogy (analysis by admissible stress fields)
If a stress field is chosen which satisfies the equilibrium conditions, a lower bound solution of limit
analysis is considered. For the structure and its loads, an equivalent truss may be investigated,
consisting of concrete struts and arches as compressive members and of steel ties formed by the
reinforcement as tensile elements and their connections (nodes). Any equilibrium model may be
applied for verifying the ULS and also for the SLS, provided that the evaluated stress distribution is
close to the results of the linear analysis (see figures D.1 and D.2). A similar approach is also valid for
continuous beams.
The equilibrium model should preferably be based on the dominating load pattern but where point
loads and distributed loads have similar influences or dominate at various times, a more complex
model being a combination of the extreme patterns is required (see figure D.3).
The abovementioned nodes are defined as the volumes of concrete contained within the intersections
between compression fields of struts, in combination with anchorage forces or external compressive
forces (imposed loads or support reactions) or both. The nodes should be so dimensioned that all
forces are anchored and balanced safely.
194
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
195
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
196
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
197
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
The geometry of the node region and the arrangement of reinforcement in it should be consistent with
the model on which the design of the structure is based and with the applied forces. Thereby the
equilibrium conditions should be fulfilled.
Nodes should be verified accordingly by:
 verification of the stresses from the compressive struts in the node in accordance with D.2.4 ; and
 verification of the anchorages of ties.
The anchorage of bars should comply with 4.11.6. The anchorage length will be assumed to begin at
the section where the transverse compressive stress trajectories of a strut meet the anchored bar and
are deviated. The anchorage bar should extend at least over the whole length of the compression field
which is deviated by it.
Transverse tensile forces from bond actions and minor nonuniformities of applied strut stresses should
normally be covered by structural reinforcement (e.g. stirrups) arranged near the surfaces.
c =
F2 H2
< fb1
Fa1a2
198
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
1 b1 a1
b1
4
199
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.
The standard must reside on an internal network or intranet and may only be used for reference purposes in compliance with SABS
copyright rules. The standard or parts thereof may not be distributed in any form without permission from the SABS.
SABS 01001
Ed. 2.2
Annex E
(informative)
Bibliography
The information contained in this part of SABS 0100 is considered adequate for the design of the
majority of buildings. For buildings, structures or elements that are not adequately covered or where
special conditions apply or where additional information is desired by the designer, the following
publications should be consulted:
a) Alexander, MG. Prediction of elastic modulus for design of concrete structures. The Civil Engineer
in South Africa, June 1985, vol. 27, No. 6, p. 313324.
b) Alexander, MG and Davis, DE. Properties of aggregates in concrete, Part 1. Hippo Quarries
Technical Publication, 1989. 44p.
c) Alexander, MG and Davis, DE. Properties of aggregates in concrete, Part 2. Hippo Quarries
Technical Publication, 1992. 48p.
d) Alexander, MG and Davis, DE. The influence of aggregates on the compressive strength and elastic
modulus of concrete. The Civil Engineer in South Africa, May 1992, Vol. 34, No. 5, p. 161170.
e) Chana, PS. Some aspects of modelling the behaviour of reinforced concrete under shear loading.
Cement and Concrete Association Technical Report 543, July 1981.
f) Cross, MG. A proposed parametric design model for shear in reinforced concrete. The Civil
Engineer in South Africa, April 1987, vol. 29, No. 4, p. 127134.
g) Goldstein, AE. Prestressed concrete flat slabs. (In course of publishing.)
h) Kani, Huggins and Wittkopp (ed.). Kani on shear in reinforced concrete. Department of Civil
Engineering, University of Toronto, 1979.
i) Kemp, AR, Milford, RV and Laurie, JAP. Proposals for a comprehensive limit states formulation for
South African structural codes. The Civil Engineer in South Africa, September 1987, vol. 29, No. 9,
p. 351360.
j) Scholz, H. Proposed design provisions for reinforced concrete columns. The Civil Engineer in South
Africa, May 1988, vol. 30, No. 5, p. 229238.
k) BS 8007, Design of concrete structures for retaining aqueous liquids.
sabs pta
(pdf)
200
SABS. This nonprintable standard is exclusively for approved users of the SABS Complete Collection of Standards and Related Documents.