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6 The Bucking of plates

6.1 Introduction
one dimensional members
beams and columns,
ordinary differential equations;
critical load=the failure load
two dimensional members
plates (local buckling)
partial differential equations;
failure load>the critical load;
(post-buckling)
Middle-surface
Located on the plane of half thickness, paralleled with the surface
of plate (Figure 6-1) .
the coordinate surface XOY on the middle-surface.
The axis Z obeys the corkscrew rule of right hand.
x
y
z
t/2
t/2
Middle-surface
x
y
z
Figure 6-1
x
y
z
N
x
N
x
N
xy
N
xy
N
y
N
y
N
yx
N
yx
forces distribute on the unit width
Figure 6-2

= =
= =
t N t N
t N t N
yx yx xy xy
y y x x


6.2

xy

yx
middle-surface forces
Fig 6.4 bending moments, twisting moments and
shears
x
y
z
M
x
M
x
M
y
M
y
M
xy
M
xy
M
yx
M
yx
Q
x
Q
x
dx
dy
t

xy

yx

xz

yz
Fig. the bending stress in thin plates
The relationship between the bending forces and the
bending stresses is:

= =
= =
= =






2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1 1
1 1
1 1
t
t yz y
t
t xz x
t
t yx yx
t
t xy xy
t
t y y
t
t x x
dz Q dz Q
dz z M dz z M
dz z M dz z M



(6.1)
The first denotes the plane on which it acts and the
second the direction of the stress.
For stress, if the normal line of the plane is the same
as the coordinate, the positive when the second is the
same as the coordinate. versa.
For strain, tension is positive for normal stress and
changing to smaller angle is positive for shear strain.
Thick plates
/ 1/5 t a>
Shear stresses arent negligible.
Thin plates
/ 1/5 t a
Shear stresses are negligible and
some assumptions made.
rigid plates
/ 1/5 w t
small deflection problem,
membrane strain are negligible.
no tension or compression or
shear and deformation.
Flexural plates
1/5 / 5 w a <
large deflection problem,
membrane strain arent
negligible
membranes
/ 5 w a
membrane strain
bending strain
> >
following assumptions:
The shear strains are negligible and lines normal to the middle
surface prior to bending remain straight and normal to the middle
surface during bending.
The normal stress and the corresponding strain are negligible,
and therefore the transverse deflection at any point is equal tothat of
the corresponding point(x,y,0) along the middle surface.
The transverse deflections of the plates are small compared to the
thickness of the plate. Thus middle surface stretching caused by
bending can be neglected (membrane action is negligible).
Rigid plates.
Homogeneous, isotropic, and obeys Hookeslaw.
Small deflection of uniform thickness thin plates
with rigid and flexure
z

6.2 Differential equation of plate bucking


To determine the critical loading by neutral equilibrium, it is
necessary to have the equation of equilibrium in a slight bent
configuration.
constant biaxial compression forces
Loading constant in-plane shears;
in-plane forces=externally applied loads
Two sets of forces moments and shears=transverse bending
Equilibrium of in-plane forces
y
dx
dy
x
y
a
b
c
d
w
a
b
d
c
w
dy
y
w

w
dx
x
w

x
w

y
w

N
x
x
w

N
x
dx
x
w
x x
w
) (

N
y
y
w

N
y
dy
y
w
y y
w
) (

N
xy
N
xy
N
yx
N
yx
dx
y
w
x y
w
) (

dy
x
w
y x
w
) (

x
y
z
N
x
N
x
N
xy
N
xy
N
y
N
y
N
yx
N
yx
In the Z direction the component of Nx forces :
2
2
x x
w w w
N d x d y N d y
x x x

+



or
dxdy
x
w
N
x
2
2

(a)
Similarly, in the Z direction the component of Ny:
dxdy
y
w
N
y
2
2

(b)
In the Z direction the component of Nxy forces are
equal to :
dxdy
y x
w
N
y x
w
N
yx xy

2 2
(c)
the resultant of the middle-surface forces in the Z
direction :
dxdy
y
w
N
y x
w
N
x
w
N
y xy x

2
2 2
2
2
2
(6.3)
Q
x
x
w

Q
y
y
w

Q
x
+(Q
x
/x)dx
dx
x
w
x
w
2
2

dy
y
w
y
w
2
2

Q
y
+(Q
y
/y)dy
x
y
The sum of components of Qx and Qy in the Z direction is:
dxdy
y
Q
x
Q
y
x

(6.4)
Equilibrium of bending moments, twisting moments and
shears
Addition of these terms to the Z components of the middle-
surface force, given by equation 6.3 to 6.4, leads to the
equation of equilibrium in Z direction:
0 2
2
2 2
2
2
=

y
w
N
y x
w
N
x
w
N
y
Q
x
Q
y xy x
y
x
(6.5)
The sum of the moments about the X axis must vanish.
2
dxdydy
x
Q
dxdy
x
M
dxdy
y
M
x
xy y

0 =

+ + dxdydy
y
Q
dxdy Q
y
y
Q
y
dy
y
Q
Q
y
y

+
M
x
dx
x
M
M
X
x

+
M
xy dx
x
M
M
xy
xy

+
M
yx
dy
y
M
M
yx
yx

+
M
y
dy
y
M
M
y
y

+
Q
x
dx
x
Q
Q
x
x

+
x
y
z
dx
dy
If the higher-order terms are neglected, this relation
reduces to:
Similarly, moment equilibrium about the Y axis leads to:
0 =

y
xy y
Q
x
M
y
M
6.6
0 =

x
yx
x
Q
y
M
x
M
6.7
Equation 6.56.6and6.7 are equilibrium equations
of plate bucking.
simplified to merging into one equation:
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
x
w
N
y
M
y x
M
x
M
x
y xy
x

0 2
2
2 2
=

+
y
w
N
y x
w
N
y xy
6.8
four unknown functions: Mx, My, Mxy and w.
To obtain a solution, it is necessary to have four relations.
The additional relations will have to be obtained by considering
the relationship between the force moments of Mx, My, Mxy and
deflection of the plate.
Moment-displacement relations
The relationships between the force moments of Mx, My, Mxy and
stresses are given in the equation 6.1.
(1)The stress-strain relations are:
( )
( )
( )

+
=
+

=
+

=
xy xy
x y y
y x x
E
E
E

1 2
1
1
2
2
6.10
(2)The bending strains-deflection relations

m
A
w
x
w

u
x
w

z
x
z
o

m
A
According to the hypothesis 1 and hypothesis 3, gives;
x
w
z u

=
(6.11)
2
2
x
w
z
x

= 6.13
2
2
y
w
z
y

=
6.14
y x
w
z
xy

=
2
2
6.15
(3)The bending stress-deflection relations
The equation (6.13)-(6.15) express the relationship between
the bending strains and the deflections. Substituting them into
equation (6.10), gives:

+
=

=
y x
w Ez
x
w
y
w Ez
y
w
x
w Ez
xy
y
x
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1

6.16

=
2
2
2
2
y
w
x
w
D M
x

6.17

=
2
2
2
2
x
w
y
w
D M
y
6.18
( )
y x
w
D M
xy

=
2
1
6.19
6.20
( )
2
3
1 12
=
Et
D
in which
(4)The relationship between the moments and deflections
The quantity D is the flexural rigidity per unit width
of plate, and it called the flexural rigidity of plate as well.
It corresponds to the bending stiffness EI of a beam.
Comparison of the beam rigidity with that of the plate,
indicates that a strip of plate is stiffer than a beamof
similar width and depth by a factor.
The difference in stiffness exists because the beam is free
to deform laterally, whereas the plate strip is constrained
from deforming in this manner by the adjacent material.
Differential equation of plate buckling
Substitution of (6.17)-(6.19) into equation (6.8), gives:

4
4
2 2
4
4
4
2
y
w
y x
w
x
w
D
y x
w
N
y
w
N
x
w
N
xy y x

=
2
2
2
2
2
2
6.21
The critical load for uniaxial compression, pure shear or due
to a combination of compression and shear can be determined.
A primary difference between plates and columns is the
existence of two independent variables in the former as
opposed to a single independent variable in the latter.
6.3 Critical load of a rectangular plate uniformly
compressed in one direction
a simply supported rectangular plate with sides a and b units
long.
coordinates system is shown as Figure 6-8.
The plate is acted on by a compression force per unit length,
distributed uniformly along the edges X=0 and X=a.
a
b

x
x
y
1The differential equation of plate bucking
0
1
2
2
2
4
4
2 2
4
4
4
=

x
w
t
D y
w
y x
w
x
w
x

(6.22)
t N
N N
x x
xy y
=
= = 0
The differential equation of plate bending reduces to:
2The boundary conditions
simply supported, the boundary conditions are:
when x=0aw=0M
x
=0
when y=0bw=0M
y
=0
a
b
x
y
when y=0b ,w=0
0
2
2
2
2
=

x
w
y
w

0
2
2
2
2
=

y
w
x
w

when x=0a ,w=0


x=0a
0
2
2
=

y
w
y=0b
0
2
2
=

x
w
a
b
x
y
So, the four boundary conditions can be simplified as:
x=0aw=0 6.23
y=0bw=0 6.24
0
2
2
=

x
w
0
2
2
=

y
w
The sum of deflection on each side vanish, gives:
3To determine the critical stresses by solving
the equation
Let us assume that the solution to equation ( 6.22) is of the form

=
=
1 1
sin sin
m n
mn
b
y n
a
x m
A w

a)
The coefficient that Amn is undetermined in the type , m and n
are the number of half-waves that plate buckles into in the x
and y directions, respectively.
m=123
n=123
The assumed solution already satisfies the boundary conditions
already.
Substitution (a ) into equation (6.22 ), gives:

+
1 1
2
2
2
2
2
4
m n
mn
b
n
a
m
A
0 sin sin
2
2 2
=

b
y n
a
x m
a
m
D
t
x

b)
The left-hand side of equation (b) consists of the sum of an infinite
number of independent functions, The only way such a sum can
vanish is if the coefficient of every one of the terms is equal to zero.
0
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
4
=

+
a
m
D
t a
b
n
a
m
A
x
mn

c)
1 A
mn
=0
Substituting (1) into equation (a), we get:
w=0
solve is zero .
2The term in the square brackets vanishes
0
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
4
=

+
a
m
D
t
b
n
a
m
x

2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2

+ =
b
n
a
m
t m
Da
x

or
2
2
2
2

+ =
mb
a n
a
mb
t b
D
x

d
The critical value of x is the smallest value.
The balance
curved state
the dimension,
physics properties of plate,
the number of half-waves that
the plate buckles into.
2
2
2

+ =
mb
a
a
mb
t b
D
x

(6.25)
n=1 results in a minimum value of x , that is, the plate buckles
in a single half-wave in the y direction
0 =
dm
d
x

0
2
2 2
2
=

+
bm
a
a
b
mb
a
a
mb
t b
A
from which (6.26)
Substitution (6.26into equation 6.25
b
a
m =
( )
t b
D
cr
x
2
2
4
=
(6.27)
m must be an integer. The critical load given by6.27is
thus valid only when a/b is a whole number.
For plates in this category, the bucking pattern consists of a
single half-wave in y direction and a/b half-waves in x direction.
But a/b is seldom an integer.
The more general case, where a/b is not an integer:
t b
D
k
cr
2
2

=
6.28
2

+ =
mb
a
a
mb
k
6.29
The factor k depends on the aspect ratio a/b and on m and n,
the number of half-waves that the plate buckles into.
The minimal value of k is called bulking stress coefficient.
0
2
4
6
8
k
1 2 3 4
a/b
2
6
m=1
m=2
m=3
m=4
Fig 6-9 k varies with a/b
The critical stress of the column thus depends on its length,
whereas that of the plate depends on the width of the plate and its
independent of the length.
2
2 2
12(1 )( / )
cr
k E
b t

6.51
2
2
( / )
cr
C E
l r

=
6.52
6.4 Strain energy of bending in a plate
1Strain energy of the plate in tiny bending state
In small bending state, the plate has two kinds of force:
middle-surface force and bending force. Because a tiny bending
deformation can not generate middle surface strain, so the work
done by middle surface force are negligible, the corresponding
strain energy is zero. Only bending force need to be considered.
x
y
z
N
x
N
x
N
xy
N
xy
N
y
N
y
N
yx
N
yx

xy
Bending stress:
Corresponding strain:
x

xy

xy

x
y
z
M
x
M
x
M
y
M
y
M
xy
M
xy
M
yx
M
yx
Q
x
Q
x
Q
y
Q
y
work done by bending force or strain energy of the plate
gives:
( )

+ + dxdydz
xy xy y y x x

2
1
[

+ =
2
2
0 0
2 2
2
2
1
l
l
b a
y x y x
E
U
( ) ]dxdydz
xy
2
1 2 + +
6.32
substituting the relationship between bending stress and
curvature given by ( 6.16) :
( )
( )

=

b a
l
l
x
w
z
E
U
0 0
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1 2

( ) +

+ 1 2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
y
w
x
w
y
w
dxdydz
y x
w

2
2
Carrying out the integration to z and amalgamating
similar term
2
2
2
2
2
0 0
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 y
w
x
w
y
w
x
w D
U
b a

=

( ) dxdy
y x
w

+
2
2
1 2 6.33
or
( )

=
b a
y
w
x
w
y
w
x
w D
U
0 0
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1 2
2

dxdy
y x
w

2
2
6.34
2. The potential energy of external load
The load acted on the plate is the middle surface
load. Nx , Ny , Nxy . Base on tiny deformation
hypothesis, the changes of middle surface load
produced by bending deformation are neglected.
when it buckles, the slab bends and the end A has a
translation along the X axis, it has been assumed that the
middle surface can not deform, so the length of AB is always
the same.
a

A A
B
N
x
N
x
dx
dx
ds
w
dx
x
w

B A B A

=
(a)
2
2

+ = dx
x
w
dx ds
dx
x
w
ds

+ =
2
2
1
1
(b)


+ = =
B
A
B
A
B
A
dx
x
w
dx ds
2
2
1
AB
(c)

=
B
A
dx
x
w
B A
2
2
1
Substitutioncintoagives:

= dx
x
w
2
2
1
(6.35)
dx
ds
w
dx
x
w

Take out a right-angle AOB (Fig 6-12) from middle-


surface of the plate along x and y direction, after
bending AOB turn intoA
1
O
1
B
1
, and the shear
strain
xy
is:
1 1 1
2
B O A
xy
=

o
1
w
dx
x
w

dy
y
w

o
A
B
dx
dy
A
1
B
1
dx
dy
x
y
z
is a minimso
)
2
(
1 1 1
B O A

)
2
sin(
1 1 1
B O A
xy
=

Fig 612
1 1 1
cos B O A =
And l
1
m
1
n
1
cosine in three axes of lineO
1
A
1
l
2
m
2
n
2
cosine in three axes of lineO
1
B
I
from Fig6-12
2 1 2 1 2 1
n n m m l l
xy
+ + = a

=
=

=
y
w
n
y
w
m
l
x
w
dx
dx
x
w
n
m
x
w
dx
dx
x
w
dx
l
2
2
2
1
1
2
2
1
2
1
1
0
0
2
1
1
b
substitutionbintoagives
During bendingthe work done by in-plane force in
strip AB is
y
w
x
w
xy

=
6.36

= dxdy
x
w
dy N dy N
x x
2
2
1
For the entire platethe work done by in-plane force N
x
is

= dxdy
x
w
N T
x
2
1
2
1
Similarly, for the entire plate, the work done by in-
plane force N
y
is

= dxdy
y
w
N T
y
2
2
2
1
For the entire plate the work done by in-plane force Nxy is

= dxdy
y
w
x
w
N T
xy 3

=
2
2
2
1
y
w
N
x
w
N V
y x
dxdy
y
w
x
w
N
xy

+ 2
6.37
The total potential energy for the bending plate under the
action of Nx , Ny , Nxy are:
6.5 Critical load of uniaxially compressed plate, fixed
along all edges, by the energy method
1boundary condition
when x=0a
when y=0a
0 = w
0 =

x
w
0 = w 0 =

y
w
In accordance with these conditions the plate is prevented from
moving in the z direction or rotating at the boundaries. The edges
of the plate are however, free to move in the xy plane.
a
a
x
y
z
2Boundary conditions are satisfied if w is assumed
to be of the form

=
a
y
a
x
A w
2
cos 1
2
cos 1
6.39
It is easy to proveformula6.39can satisfy all the
boundary conditions .
3Calculate the strain energy due to bending and the
potential energy of the external loads

=
a a
y
w
x
w
y
w
x
w D
U
0 0
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

( ) dxdy
y x
w

+
2
2
1 2
6.40
To evaluate this expression, the following derivatives of w are
needed:

a
y
a
x
a
A
y x
w
a
x
a
y
a
A
y
w
a
y
a
x
a
A
x
w
a
x
a
y
a
A
y
w
a
y
a
x
a
A
x
w





2
sin
2
sin
4
2
cos 1
2
cos
4
2
cos 1
2
cos
4
2
cos 1
2
sin
2
2
cos 1
2
sin
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
a
Substitutionainto6.40gives:

=
a a
a
y
a
x
a
A D
U
0 0
2
4
2 4
2
cos 2 1
2
cos
16
2

( )
dxdy
a
y
a
x
a
y
a
y
a
x
a
x
a
x
a
x
a
y
a
y


2
sin
2
sin
1 2
2
cos
2
cos
2
cos
2
cos 2
2
cos
2
cos 2 1
2
cos
2
cos
2 2
2
2 2
2 2
b
Making use of the following definite integrals

=
=
=

a
a
a
dx
a
x
a
dx
a
x
a
dx
a
x
0
0
2
0
2
0
2
cos
2
2
cos
2
2
sin

c
Equationbreduces into

+ +

+ =
2 2 2 2
8
4
2 4
a
a
a a
a
a
a
A D
U

( )

+
4
1 2
4
2
2 2
a a

substitution intoa==>
The strain energy of the bending plate is equals
to
2
2 4
16
a
A D
U

=
6.41
The potential energy of the external loads derive
from6.37

=
a a
x
dxdy
x
w N
V
0 0
2
2
a
x
w

=
a a
x
a
y
a
x
a
N A
V
0 0
2
2
2 2
2
cos 2 1
2
sin
2
4
dxdy
a
y

+
2
cos
2

+ =
2 2
2
2
2 2
a
a
a
a
N A
V
x

6.42
or
2
3
2 2
x
N A
V

=
The total potential energy of the system is obtained by adding
the expressions in 6.41and6.42
2
3 16
2 2
2
2 4
x
N A
a
A D
V U

= +
6.43
( )
( ) 0 3
32
0
2
2
4
=
=
+
cr
x
N A
a
A D
dA
V U d

The critical loading and critical stress can be determined by


finding the slightly bent configuration for which the total
potential energy has a stationary value.
( )
2
2
2
2
67 . 10
3
32
a
D
a
D
N
cr
x

= = 6.44

Critical stress
( )
( )
t a
D
t
N
cr
x
cr
x
2
2
67 . 10

= =
6.45
Exact solution :
( )
2
2
07 . 10
a
D
N
cr
x

=
Critical load:
6.7 CRITICAL STRESSS OF A RECTANGULAR
PLATE IN SHEAR
This shows for bucking to take place, it is not necessary
that a member be loaded in axial compression. All that is
necessary is that compression stresses exist in some part of
the member.
x
y
a
a

xy
We solve this problem with Galerkin method introducing of 2.4.
1, the brief introduction of Galerkin equation
Consulting 2.4, general form of Galerkin equation is
( ) ( )

=
a a
i
dxdy x g w Q
0 0
0
6.59
Q (w ) is the right type of the differential equation about flexion
g
i
(x) is nember i function of flexion modal
( )
y x
w
N
y
w
y x
w
x
w
w Q
xy

+


+

=
2
4
2
2 2
4
4
4
2 2
6.60
To determine critical loading and critical stress by solving the
Galerkin equation
2Calculate critical shearing stress
Choosing an expression for the deflected shape of the member
that satisfies the boundary conditions
in Galerkin equation
i=12
a
y
a
x
A
a
y
a
x
A w
2
sin
2
sin sin sin
2 1
+ =
6.58
( )
a
y
a
x
x g

sin sin
1
= 6.61
( )
a
y
a
x
x g
2
sin
2
sin
2
=
6.62
Substitution 6.58into6.60and according to i=1
and i=2, using6.61and6.62separately get two
Galerkin equations

+
a a
a
y
a
x
a
A
0 0
2 2
4
4
1
sin sin
4
a
y
a
x
a
x
a
A
a
y
a
y
a
x
a
x
a
A
D
N
a
y
a
y
a
x
a
x
a
A
xy



2
cos sin
2
cos
4
sin
cos sin cos
2
sin
2
sin sin
2
sin
64
2
2
2
2
2
1
4
4
2
+

+
0 sin =

dxdy
a
y
6.63

a a
a
y
a
y
a
x
a
x
a
A
0 0
4
4
1
2
sin sin
2
sin sin
4
a
x
a
x
a
A
a
y
a
y
A
x
a
x
a
A
D
N
a
x
a
x
a
A
xy



2
sin
2
cos
4 2
sin cos
2
sin cos
2
2
sin
2
sin
64
2
2
2
2
2
1
2 2
4
4
2
+

+
+
0
2
sin
2
cos =

dxdy
a
y
a
y
6.64
The definite integrals appearing in 6.64and6.64have
the following value

=
a
a
dx
a
x
0
2
2
sin

=
=
a
a
dx
a
x
a
x
dx
a
x
a
x
0
0
0 sin cos
0 sin
2
sin

=
=
a
a
a
dx
a
x
a
x
a
dx
a
x
a
x
0
0
3
4
cos
2
sin
3
2
sin
2
cos




Hence the equation (6.63) and (6.64) can be reduced to
0
3
4
2
2
64
0
3
2 4
2
2
4
2
2
2
1
2
4
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
4
4
1
=




a
a
A
D
N
a
a
A
a
a
A
D
N
a
a
A
xy
xy
After simplifying ,gives

= +
= +
0
16
9
32
0
9
32
2
2
4
1
2 1
2
4
A
a
A
D
N
A
D
N
A
a
xy
xy

6.65
The indifferent equilibrium can become possible , only
and isnt zero completely So, the coefficient
determinant of the equation (6.65 ) must be zero.
0
16
9
32
9
32
2
4
2
4
=

a D
N
D
N
a
xy
xy

6.66
1
A
2
A
( )
2
2
1 . 11
a
D
N
cr
xy

=
Critical shear stress
( )
t a
D
cr
xy
2
2
1 . 11

=
Bending bucking coefficient k =11.1
using double trigonometric series with energy law to
have former 18 terms , obtained an exacter solution
k =9.34
Standardize formulae in Germany's steel construction
6.67
2
4
5.34 k

= +
1
a
b
=
6.68
2
5.34
4 k

= +
result in fig
6-3
Germany
standardizes
formulae

1
k
5.34
9.34
1.0
Fig. bending bucking coefficients varies with
1
a
b
= <

Under various kinds of supporting conditions, critical stress of


rectangular plate uniformly compressed in one direction can be
expressed by the formula (6.28 ), the formula of daily bucking
stress coefficients are arranged in Fig 6-19.
6.9 plate-buckling coefficients for various cases
2
2 2
12(1 )( / )
cr
k E
b t

6.102
Fig 6-19
6.10 Inelastic bucking of plates
A theory of the inelastic behavior is extremely complex and
beyond the scope of this book.
However, the conclusions that have been drawn from inelastic
plate-buckling studies are simple and straightforward and will
be briefly considered here.
Young modulus is replaced by a reduced modulus.
( )
2
2
2
2
2
1 12

= =
b
t E
k
t b
D
k
cr

6.92
Where is a plasticity reduction factor. .
No generally applicable expression, like the tangent modulus in the
columns, therefore exists for the reduced modulus of a plate.

1 <

the shape of the stress-strain curve,


the type of loading,
the length-to-width ratio of the plate,
the boundary conditions
E
E
t
=
The advantage of this relation is that it leads to conservative results
for any long plate, regardless of the boundary conditions, and that it
can be used for shear as well as axial compression.
But remember: k should be decided by
4

=
A relation for considerably more suited for design purposes has
been derived by Bleich. Using an approximate theory, he obtained
the simple expression:

6.11 finite deflection theory of plates


Plates, unlike columns, do not collapse when the critical load is
reach.it is thus obvious that the postbuckling behavior should be
considered in formulating design criteria for plates. However, if one
desires to study the behavior of the member, it is necessary to
consider deformations of finite magnitude.
If a plate is bent into a nondevelopablesurfaceor if its edges are
restrainedfrom approaching one another during bending, membrane
strains will be induced in the middle surface of the plate.once the
transverse deflections become of the order of magnitude of the plate
thickness, stretching of the middle surface is no longer negligible.
The main difference between that in this article and the
infinitesimal deformation theory is that middle-surface strains due
to bending that were neglected previously will now be considered.
Derivation of equations
Equilibrium
No change occurs. On the other hand there are in-plane forces due to
membrane action in addition to the forces applied along the edges of the
plate when large deflections are considered.
Forces in the x direction of in-plane to zero:
For the y direction of in-plane
In the z direction::
0 =

y
N
x
N
xy
x
0 =

x
N
y
N
xy y

4
4
2 2
4
4
4
2
y
w
y x
w
x
w
D
y x
w
N
y
w
N
x
w
N
xy y x

=
2
2
2
2
2
2
6.113
Compatibility
The displacements u and v of a point in the plate consist of twoparts:
(1)The displacement in the middle plane
(2)the bending displacements
2
) (
2
1
x
w
x
u
o
xo

=
y
w
x
w
x
v
y
u
o o
xyo

=
2
) (
2
1
y
w
y
v
o
yo

=
) (
1
y x xo
N N
Eh
=
) (
1
x y yo
N N
Eh
=
xy xyo
N
Eh
) 1 ( 2

+
=
Relationship
To reduce the number of equations that must be solved
simultaneously, a stress function is introduced.
2
2
y
F
h N
x

=
2
2
x
F
h N
y

=
y x
F
h N
xy

=
2
Von Karmanlarge deflection plate equations:
] ) [(
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
4
4
2 2
4
4
4
y
w
x
w
y x
w
E
y
F
y x
F
x
F

+


+

) 2 (
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
4
4
2 2
4
4
4
y x
w
y x
F
y
w
x
F
x
w
y
F
D
h
y
w
y x
w
x
w

+


+

6.12 postbucklingbehavior of axially compressed plates


Simply supported square plate subjected to a uniaxial compression
force:
2
)
2
cos
2
(cos
32
2 2
y
a
y
a
x Ef
F
xa

+ =
2
2 2
8a
f E
cr xa

+ =
a
y
cr xa xa x


2
cos ) ( + =
a
x
cr xa y


2
cos ) ( =
Conclusions:
1.plates can continue to carry increasing load
subsequent to reaching the critical stress; this is, they
exhibit postbucklingstrength.
2.transverse tensile stresses that arise subsequent to the
start of buckling are primarily responsible for the
presence of postbucklingstrength in plates.
3. The material near the longitudinal edges of the plate
resists most of the increase in load that occurs in the
postbucklingrange.
Where is the average longitudinal stress at failure.
6.13 ultimate strength of axially compressed plates
) 1
/
1
(
2
1
+ =
y cr cr
fa

fa

y e u
t b P =
For simply supported plates:
y
cr
e
b b

=
Based on extensive test results and accounting for initial
imperfections:
)
/
475 . 0
1 ( 90 . 1
2
y y
y u
E
t b
E
t P

=
6.14 design provisions for local buckling
In designing, it is common to proportion the member so that
overall failure occurs prior to local buckling.
y cr
F F >
For I section axial column, web:
flange:
y
f
t
b
/ 235 ) 1 . 0 10 ( +
y
w
o
f
t
h
/ 235 ) 5 . 0 25 ( +
For I section eccentric column, web:
flange:
y
f
t
b
/ 235 15
1

y o
w
o
f
t
h
/ 235 ) 25 5 . 0 16 ( + +
y o
w
o
f
t
h
/ 235 ) 2 . 26 5 . 0 48 ( +
For beam, it is the most complex in this class.
Disadvantages:
1. Elastic analysis;
2. No postbucklingis calculated but considered by using
high buckling stress coefficient k, no initial
imperfections.