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the Bucking of Plates

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6.1 Introduction

one dimensional members

beams and columns,

ordinary differential equations;

critical load=the failure load

two dimensional members

plates (local buckling)

partial differential equations;

failure load>the critical load;

(post-buckling)

Middle-surface

Located on the plane of half thickness, paralleled with the surface

of plate (Figure 6-1) .

the coordinate surface XOY on the middle-surface.

The axis Z obeys the corkscrew rule of right hand.

x

y

z

t/2

t/2

Middle-surface

x

y

z

Figure 6-1

x

y

z

N

x

N

x

N

xy

N

xy

N

y

N

y

N

yx

N

yx

forces distribute on the unit width

Figure 6-2

= =

= =

t N t N

t N t N

yx yx xy xy

y y x x

6.2

xy

yx

middle-surface forces

Fig 6.4 bending moments, twisting moments and

shears

x

y

z

M

x

M

x

M

y

M

y

M

xy

M

xy

M

yx

M

yx

Q

x

Q

x

dx

dy

t

xy

yx

xz

yz

Fig. the bending stress in thin plates

The relationship between the bending forces and the

bending stresses is:

= =

= =

= =

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

1 1

1 1

1 1

t

t yz y

t

t xz x

t

t yx yx

t

t xy xy

t

t y y

t

t x x

dz Q dz Q

dz z M dz z M

dz z M dz z M

(6.1)

The first denotes the plane on which it acts and the

second the direction of the stress.

For stress, if the normal line of the plane is the same

as the coordinate, the positive when the second is the

same as the coordinate. versa.

For strain, tension is positive for normal stress and

changing to smaller angle is positive for shear strain.

Thick plates

/ 1/5 t a>

Shear stresses arent negligible.

Thin plates

/ 1/5 t a

Shear stresses are negligible and

some assumptions made.

rigid plates

/ 1/5 w t

small deflection problem,

membrane strain are negligible.

no tension or compression or

shear and deformation.

Flexural plates

1/5 / 5 w a <

large deflection problem,

membrane strain arent

negligible

membranes

/ 5 w a

membrane strain

bending strain

> >

following assumptions:

The shear strains are negligible and lines normal to the middle

surface prior to bending remain straight and normal to the middle

surface during bending.

The normal stress and the corresponding strain are negligible,

and therefore the transverse deflection at any point is equal tothat of

the corresponding point(x,y,0) along the middle surface.

The transverse deflections of the plates are small compared to the

thickness of the plate. Thus middle surface stretching caused by

bending can be neglected (membrane action is negligible).

Rigid plates.

Homogeneous, isotropic, and obeys Hookeslaw.

Small deflection of uniform thickness thin plates

with rigid and flexure

z

To determine the critical loading by neutral equilibrium, it is

necessary to have the equation of equilibrium in a slight bent

configuration.

constant biaxial compression forces

Loading constant in-plane shears;

in-plane forces=externally applied loads

Two sets of forces moments and shears=transverse bending

Equilibrium of in-plane forces

y

dx

dy

x

y

a

b

c

d

w

a

b

d

c

w

dy

y

w

w

dx

x

w

x

w

y

w

N

x

x

w

N

x

dx

x

w

x x

w

) (

N

y

y

w

N

y

dy

y

w

y y

w

) (

N

xy

N

xy

N

yx

N

yx

dx

y

w

x y

w

) (

dy

x

w

y x

w

) (

x

y

z

N

x

N

x

N

xy

N

xy

N

y

N

y

N

yx

N

yx

In the Z direction the component of Nx forces :

2

2

x x

w w w

N d x d y N d y

x x x

+

or

dxdy

x

w

N

x

2

2

(a)

Similarly, in the Z direction the component of Ny:

dxdy

y

w

N

y

2

2

(b)

In the Z direction the component of Nxy forces are

equal to :

dxdy

y x

w

N

y x

w

N

yx xy

2 2

(c)

the resultant of the middle-surface forces in the Z

direction :

dxdy

y

w

N

y x

w

N

x

w

N

y xy x

2

2 2

2

2

2

(6.3)

Q

x

x

w

Q

y

y

w

Q

x

+(Q

x

/x)dx

dx

x

w

x

w

2

2

dy

y

w

y

w

2

2

Q

y

+(Q

y

/y)dy

x

y

The sum of components of Qx and Qy in the Z direction is:

dxdy

y

Q

x

Q

y

x

(6.4)

Equilibrium of bending moments, twisting moments and

shears

Addition of these terms to the Z components of the middle-

surface force, given by equation 6.3 to 6.4, leads to the

equation of equilibrium in Z direction:

0 2

2

2 2

2

2

=

y

w

N

y x

w

N

x

w

N

y

Q

x

Q

y xy x

y

x

(6.5)

The sum of the moments about the X axis must vanish.

2

dxdydy

x

Q

dxdy

x

M

dxdy

y

M

x

xy y

0 =

+ + dxdydy

y

Q

dxdy Q

y

y

Q

y

dy

y

Q

Q

y

y

+

M

x

dx

x

M

M

X

x

+

M

xy dx

x

M

M

xy

xy

+

M

yx

dy

y

M

M

yx

yx

+

M

y

dy

y

M

M

y

y

+

Q

x

dx

x

Q

Q

x

x

+

x

y

z

dx

dy

If the higher-order terms are neglected, this relation

reduces to:

Similarly, moment equilibrium about the Y axis leads to:

0 =

y

xy y

Q

x

M

y

M

6.6

0 =

x

yx

x

Q

y

M

x

M

6.7

Equation 6.56.6and6.7 are equilibrium equations

of plate bucking.

simplified to merging into one equation:

2

2

2

2 2

2

2

2

x

w

N

y

M

y x

M

x

M

x

y xy

x

0 2

2

2 2

=

+

y

w

N

y x

w

N

y xy

6.8

four unknown functions: Mx, My, Mxy and w.

To obtain a solution, it is necessary to have four relations.

The additional relations will have to be obtained by considering

the relationship between the force moments of Mx, My, Mxy and

deflection of the plate.

Moment-displacement relations

The relationships between the force moments of Mx, My, Mxy and

stresses are given in the equation 6.1.

(1)The stress-strain relations are:

( )

( )

( )

+

=

+

=

+

=

xy xy

x y y

y x x

E

E

E

1 2

1

1

2

2

6.10

(2)The bending strains-deflection relations

m

A

w

x

w

u

x

w

z

x

z

o

m

A

According to the hypothesis 1 and hypothesis 3, gives;

x

w

z u

=

(6.11)

2

2

x

w

z

x

= 6.13

2

2

y

w

z

y

=

6.14

y x

w

z

xy

=

2

2

6.15

(3)The bending stress-deflection relations

The equation (6.13)-(6.15) express the relationship between

the bending strains and the deflections. Substituting them into

equation (6.10), gives:

+

=

=

y x

w Ez

x

w

y

w Ez

y

w

x

w Ez

xy

y

x

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

1

1

1

6.16

=

2

2

2

2

y

w

x

w

D M

x

6.17

=

2

2

2

2

x

w

y

w

D M

y

6.18

( )

y x

w

D M

xy

=

2

1

6.19

6.20

( )

2

3

1 12

=

Et

D

in which

(4)The relationship between the moments and deflections

The quantity D is the flexural rigidity per unit width

of plate, and it called the flexural rigidity of plate as well.

It corresponds to the bending stiffness EI of a beam.

Comparison of the beam rigidity with that of the plate,

indicates that a strip of plate is stiffer than a beamof

similar width and depth by a factor.

The difference in stiffness exists because the beam is free

to deform laterally, whereas the plate strip is constrained

from deforming in this manner by the adjacent material.

Differential equation of plate buckling

Substitution of (6.17)-(6.19) into equation (6.8), gives:

4

4

2 2

4

4

4

2

y

w

y x

w

x

w

D

y x

w

N

y

w

N

x

w

N

xy y x

=

2

2

2

2

2

2

6.21

The critical load for uniaxial compression, pure shear or due

to a combination of compression and shear can be determined.

A primary difference between plates and columns is the

existence of two independent variables in the former as

opposed to a single independent variable in the latter.

6.3 Critical load of a rectangular plate uniformly

compressed in one direction

a simply supported rectangular plate with sides a and b units

long.

coordinates system is shown as Figure 6-8.

The plate is acted on by a compression force per unit length,

distributed uniformly along the edges X=0 and X=a.

a

b

x

x

y

1The differential equation of plate bucking

0

1

2

2

2

4

4

2 2

4

4

4

=

x

w

t

D y

w

y x

w

x

w

x

(6.22)

t N

N N

x x

xy y

=

= = 0

The differential equation of plate bending reduces to:

2The boundary conditions

simply supported, the boundary conditions are:

when x=0aw=0M

x

=0

when y=0bw=0M

y

=0

a

b

x

y

when y=0b ,w=0

0

2

2

2

2

=

x

w

y

w

0

2

2

2

2

=

y

w

x

w

x=0a

0

2

2

=

y

w

y=0b

0

2

2

=

x

w

a

b

x

y

So, the four boundary conditions can be simplified as:

x=0aw=0 6.23

y=0bw=0 6.24

0

2

2

=

x

w

0

2

2

=

y

w

The sum of deflection on each side vanish, gives:

3To determine the critical stresses by solving

the equation

Let us assume that the solution to equation ( 6.22) is of the form

=

=

1 1

sin sin

m n

mn

b

y n

a

x m

A w

a)

The coefficient that Amn is undetermined in the type , m and n

are the number of half-waves that plate buckles into in the x

and y directions, respectively.

m=123

n=123

The assumed solution already satisfies the boundary conditions

already.

Substitution (a ) into equation (6.22 ), gives:

+

1 1

2

2

2

2

2

4

m n

mn

b

n

a

m

A

0 sin sin

2

2 2

=

b

y n

a

x m

a

m

D

t

x

b)

The left-hand side of equation (b) consists of the sum of an infinite

number of independent functions, The only way such a sum can

vanish is if the coefficient of every one of the terms is equal to zero.

0

2

2 2

2

2

2

2

2

4

=

+

a

m

D

t a

b

n

a

m

A

x

mn

c)

1 A

mn

=0

Substituting (1) into equation (a), we get:

w=0

solve is zero .

2The term in the square brackets vanishes

0

2

2 2

2

2

2

2

2

4

=

+

a

m

D

t

b

n

a

m

x

2

2

2

2

2

2

2 2

+ =

b

n

a

m

t m

Da

x

or

2

2

2

2

+ =

mb

a n

a

mb

t b

D

x

d

The critical value of x is the smallest value.

The balance

curved state

the dimension,

physics properties of plate,

the number of half-waves that

the plate buckles into.

2

2

2

+ =

mb

a

a

mb

t b

D

x

(6.25)

n=1 results in a minimum value of x , that is, the plate buckles

in a single half-wave in the y direction

0 =

dm

d

x

0

2

2 2

2

=

+

bm

a

a

b

mb

a

a

mb

t b

A

from which (6.26)

Substitution (6.26into equation 6.25

b

a

m =

( )

t b

D

cr

x

2

2

4

=

(6.27)

m must be an integer. The critical load given by6.27is

thus valid only when a/b is a whole number.

For plates in this category, the bucking pattern consists of a

single half-wave in y direction and a/b half-waves in x direction.

But a/b is seldom an integer.

The more general case, where a/b is not an integer:

t b

D

k

cr

2

2

=

6.28

2

+ =

mb

a

a

mb

k

6.29

The factor k depends on the aspect ratio a/b and on m and n,

the number of half-waves that the plate buckles into.

The minimal value of k is called bulking stress coefficient.

0

2

4

6

8

k

1 2 3 4

a/b

2

6

m=1

m=2

m=3

m=4

Fig 6-9 k varies with a/b

The critical stress of the column thus depends on its length,

whereas that of the plate depends on the width of the plate and its

independent of the length.

2

2 2

12(1 )( / )

cr

k E

b t

6.51

2

2

( / )

cr

C E

l r

=

6.52

6.4 Strain energy of bending in a plate

1Strain energy of the plate in tiny bending state

In small bending state, the plate has two kinds of force:

middle-surface force and bending force. Because a tiny bending

deformation can not generate middle surface strain, so the work

done by middle surface force are negligible, the corresponding

strain energy is zero. Only bending force need to be considered.

x

y

z

N

x

N

x

N

xy

N

xy

N

y

N

y

N

yx

N

yx

xy

Bending stress:

Corresponding strain:

x

xy

xy

x

y

z

M

x

M

x

M

y

M

y

M

xy

M

xy

M

yx

M

yx

Q

x

Q

x

Q

y

Q

y

work done by bending force or strain energy of the plate

gives:

( )

+ + dxdydz

xy xy y y x x

2

1

[

+ =

2

2

0 0

2 2

2

2

1

l

l

b a

y x y x

E

U

( ) ]dxdydz

xy

2

1 2 + +

6.32

substituting the relationship between bending stress and

curvature given by ( 6.16) :

( )

( )

=

b a

l

l

x

w

z

E

U

0 0

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

1

1 2

( ) +

+ 1 2 2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

y

w

x

w

y

w

dxdydz

y x

w

2

2

Carrying out the integration to z and amalgamating

similar term

2

2

2

2

2

0 0

2

2

2

2

2

2

2 y

w

x

w

y

w

x

w D

U

b a

=

( ) dxdy

y x

w

+

2

2

1 2 6.33

or

( )

=

b a

y

w

x

w

y

w

x

w D

U

0 0

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

1 2

2

dxdy

y x

w

2

2

6.34

2. The potential energy of external load

The load acted on the plate is the middle surface

load. Nx , Ny , Nxy . Base on tiny deformation

hypothesis, the changes of middle surface load

produced by bending deformation are neglected.

when it buckles, the slab bends and the end A has a

translation along the X axis, it has been assumed that the

middle surface can not deform, so the length of AB is always

the same.

a

A A

B

N

x

N

x

dx

dx

ds

w

dx

x

w

B A B A

=

(a)

2

2

+ = dx

x

w

dx ds

dx

x

w

ds

+ =

2

2

1

1

(b)

+ = =

B

A

B

A

B

A

dx

x

w

dx ds

2

2

1

AB

(c)

=

B

A

dx

x

w

B A

2

2

1

Substitutioncintoagives:

= dx

x

w

2

2

1

(6.35)

dx

ds

w

dx

x

w

surface of the plate along x and y direction, after

bending AOB turn intoA

1

O

1

B

1

, and the shear

strain

xy

is:

1 1 1

2

B O A

xy

=

o

1

w

dx

x

w

dy

y

w

o

A

B

dx

dy

A

1

B

1

dx

dy

x

y

z

is a minimso

)

2

(

1 1 1

B O A

)

2

sin(

1 1 1

B O A

xy

=

Fig 612

1 1 1

cos B O A =

And l

1

m

1

n

1

cosine in three axes of lineO

1

A

1

l

2

m

2

n

2

cosine in three axes of lineO

1

B

I

from Fig6-12

2 1 2 1 2 1

n n m m l l

xy

+ + = a

=

=

=

y

w

n

y

w

m

l

x

w

dx

dx

x

w

n

m

x

w

dx

dx

x

w

dx

l

2

2

2

1

1

2

2

1

2

1

1

0

0

2

1

1

b

substitutionbintoagives

During bendingthe work done by in-plane force in

strip AB is

y

w

x

w

xy

=

6.36

= dxdy

x

w

dy N dy N

x x

2

2

1

For the entire platethe work done by in-plane force N

x

is

= dxdy

x

w

N T

x

2

1

2

1

Similarly, for the entire plate, the work done by in-

plane force N

y

is

= dxdy

y

w

N T

y

2

2

2

1

For the entire plate the work done by in-plane force Nxy is

= dxdy

y

w

x

w

N T

xy 3

=

2

2

2

1

y

w

N

x

w

N V

y x

dxdy

y

w

x

w

N

xy

+ 2

6.37

The total potential energy for the bending plate under the

action of Nx , Ny , Nxy are:

6.5 Critical load of uniaxially compressed plate, fixed

along all edges, by the energy method

1boundary condition

when x=0a

when y=0a

0 = w

0 =

x

w

0 = w 0 =

y

w

In accordance with these conditions the plate is prevented from

moving in the z direction or rotating at the boundaries. The edges

of the plate are however, free to move in the xy plane.

a

a

x

y

z

2Boundary conditions are satisfied if w is assumed

to be of the form

=

a

y

a

x

A w

2

cos 1

2

cos 1

6.39

It is easy to proveformula6.39can satisfy all the

boundary conditions .

3Calculate the strain energy due to bending and the

potential energy of the external loads

=

a a

y

w

x

w

y

w

x

w D

U

0 0

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

( ) dxdy

y x

w

+

2

2

1 2

6.40

To evaluate this expression, the following derivatives of w are

needed:

a

y

a

x

a

A

y x

w

a

x

a

y

a

A

y

w

a

y

a

x

a

A

x

w

a

x

a

y

a

A

y

w

a

y

a

x

a

A

x

w

2

sin

2

sin

4

2

cos 1

2

cos

4

2

cos 1

2

cos

4

2

cos 1

2

sin

2

2

cos 1

2

sin

2

2

2 2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

a

Substitutionainto6.40gives:

=

a a

a

y

a

x

a

A D

U

0 0

2

4

2 4

2

cos 2 1

2

cos

16

2

( )

dxdy

a

y

a

x

a

y

a

y

a

x

a

x

a

x

a

x

a

y

a

y

2

sin

2

sin

1 2

2

cos

2

cos

2

cos

2

cos 2

2

cos

2

cos 2 1

2

cos

2

cos

2 2

2

2 2

2 2

b

Making use of the following definite integrals

=

=

=

a

a

a

dx

a

x

a

dx

a

x

a

dx

a

x

0

0

2

0

2

0

2

cos

2

2

cos

2

2

sin

c

Equationbreduces into

+ +

+ =

2 2 2 2

8

4

2 4

a

a

a a

a

a

a

A D

U

( )

+

4

1 2

4

2

2 2

a a

substitution intoa==>

The strain energy of the bending plate is equals

to

2

2 4

16

a

A D

U

=

6.41

The potential energy of the external loads derive

from6.37

=

a a

x

dxdy

x

w N

V

0 0

2

2

a

x

w

=

a a

x

a

y

a

x

a

N A

V

0 0

2

2

2 2

2

cos 2 1

2

sin

2

4

dxdy

a

y

+

2

cos

2

+ =

2 2

2

2

2 2

a

a

a

a

N A

V

x

6.42

or

2

3

2 2

x

N A

V

=

The total potential energy of the system is obtained by adding

the expressions in 6.41and6.42

2

3 16

2 2

2

2 4

x

N A

a

A D

V U

= +

6.43

( )

( ) 0 3

32

0

2

2

4

=

=

+

cr

x

N A

a

A D

dA

V U d

finding the slightly bent configuration for which the total

potential energy has a stationary value.

( )

2

2

2

2

67 . 10

3

32

a

D

a

D

N

cr

x

= = 6.44

Critical stress

( )

( )

t a

D

t

N

cr

x

cr

x

2

2

67 . 10

= =

6.45

Exact solution :

( )

2

2

07 . 10

a

D

N

cr

x

=

Critical load:

6.7 CRITICAL STRESSS OF A RECTANGULAR

PLATE IN SHEAR

This shows for bucking to take place, it is not necessary

that a member be loaded in axial compression. All that is

necessary is that compression stresses exist in some part of

the member.

x

y

a

a

xy

We solve this problem with Galerkin method introducing of 2.4.

1, the brief introduction of Galerkin equation

Consulting 2.4, general form of Galerkin equation is

( ) ( )

=

a a

i

dxdy x g w Q

0 0

0

6.59

Q (w ) is the right type of the differential equation about flexion

g

i

(x) is nember i function of flexion modal

( )

y x

w

N

y

w

y x

w

x

w

w Q

xy

+

+

=

2

4

2

2 2

4

4

4

2 2

6.60

To determine critical loading and critical stress by solving the

Galerkin equation

2Calculate critical shearing stress

Choosing an expression for the deflected shape of the member

that satisfies the boundary conditions

in Galerkin equation

i=12

a

y

a

x

A

a

y

a

x

A w

2

sin

2

sin sin sin

2 1

+ =

6.58

( )

a

y

a

x

x g

sin sin

1

= 6.61

( )

a

y

a

x

x g

2

sin

2

sin

2

=

6.62

Substitution 6.58into6.60and according to i=1

and i=2, using6.61and6.62separately get two

Galerkin equations

+

a a

a

y

a

x

a

A

0 0

2 2

4

4

1

sin sin

4

a

y

a

x

a

x

a

A

a

y

a

y

a

x

a

x

a

A

D

N

a

y

a

y

a

x

a

x

a

A

xy

2

cos sin

2

cos

4

sin

cos sin cos

2

sin

2

sin sin

2

sin

64

2

2

2

2

2

1

4

4

2

+

+

0 sin =

dxdy

a

y

6.63

a a

a

y

a

y

a

x

a

x

a

A

0 0

4

4

1

2

sin sin

2

sin sin

4

a

x

a

x

a

A

a

y

a

y

A

x

a

x

a

A

D

N

a

x

a

x

a

A

xy

2

sin

2

cos

4 2

sin cos

2

sin cos

2

2

sin

2

sin

64

2

2

2

2

2

1

2 2

4

4

2

+

+

+

0

2

sin

2

cos =

dxdy

a

y

a

y

6.64

The definite integrals appearing in 6.64and6.64have

the following value

=

a

a

dx

a

x

0

2

2

sin

=

=

a

a

dx

a

x

a

x

dx

a

x

a

x

0

0

0 sin cos

0 sin

2

sin

=

=

a

a

a

dx

a

x

a

x

a

dx

a

x

a

x

0

0

3

4

cos

2

sin

3

2

sin

2

cos

Hence the equation (6.63) and (6.64) can be reduced to

0

3

4

2

2

64

0

3

2 4

2

2

4

2

2

2

1

2

4

4

2

2

2

2

2

2

4

4

1

=

a

a

A

D

N

a

a

A

a

a

A

D

N

a

a

A

xy

xy

After simplifying ,gives

= +

= +

0

16

9

32

0

9

32

2

2

4

1

2 1

2

4

A

a

A

D

N

A

D

N

A

a

xy

xy

6.65

The indifferent equilibrium can become possible , only

and isnt zero completely So, the coefficient

determinant of the equation (6.65 ) must be zero.

0

16

9

32

9

32

2

4

2

4

=

a D

N

D

N

a

xy

xy

6.66

1

A

2

A

( )

2

2

1 . 11

a

D

N

cr

xy

=

Critical shear stress

( )

t a

D

cr

xy

2

2

1 . 11

=

Bending bucking coefficient k =11.1

using double trigonometric series with energy law to

have former 18 terms , obtained an exacter solution

k =9.34

Standardize formulae in Germany's steel construction

6.67

2

4

5.34 k

= +

1

a

b

=

6.68

2

5.34

4 k

= +

result in fig

6-3

Germany

standardizes

formulae

1

k

5.34

9.34

1.0

Fig. bending bucking coefficients varies with

1

a

b

= <

rectangular plate uniformly compressed in one direction can be

expressed by the formula (6.28 ), the formula of daily bucking

stress coefficients are arranged in Fig 6-19.

6.9 plate-buckling coefficients for various cases

2

2 2

12(1 )( / )

cr

k E

b t

6.102

Fig 6-19

6.10 Inelastic bucking of plates

A theory of the inelastic behavior is extremely complex and

beyond the scope of this book.

However, the conclusions that have been drawn from inelastic

plate-buckling studies are simple and straightforward and will

be briefly considered here.

Young modulus is replaced by a reduced modulus.

( )

2

2

2

2

2

1 12

= =

b

t E

k

t b

D

k

cr

6.92

Where is a plasticity reduction factor. .

No generally applicable expression, like the tangent modulus in the

columns, therefore exists for the reduced modulus of a plate.

1 <

the type of loading,

the length-to-width ratio of the plate,

the boundary conditions

E

E

t

=

The advantage of this relation is that it leads to conservative results

for any long plate, regardless of the boundary conditions, and that it

can be used for shear as well as axial compression.

But remember: k should be decided by

4

=

A relation for considerably more suited for design purposes has

been derived by Bleich. Using an approximate theory, he obtained

the simple expression:

Plates, unlike columns, do not collapse when the critical load is

reach.it is thus obvious that the postbuckling behavior should be

considered in formulating design criteria for plates. However, if one

desires to study the behavior of the member, it is necessary to

consider deformations of finite magnitude.

If a plate is bent into a nondevelopablesurfaceor if its edges are

restrainedfrom approaching one another during bending, membrane

strains will be induced in the middle surface of the plate.once the

transverse deflections become of the order of magnitude of the plate

thickness, stretching of the middle surface is no longer negligible.

The main difference between that in this article and the

infinitesimal deformation theory is that middle-surface strains due

to bending that were neglected previously will now be considered.

Derivation of equations

Equilibrium

No change occurs. On the other hand there are in-plane forces due to

membrane action in addition to the forces applied along the edges of the

plate when large deflections are considered.

Forces in the x direction of in-plane to zero:

For the y direction of in-plane

In the z direction::

0 =

y

N

x

N

xy

x

0 =

x

N

y

N

xy y

4

4

2 2

4

4

4

2

y

w

y x

w

x

w

D

y x

w

N

y

w

N

x

w

N

xy y x

=

2

2

2

2

2

2

6.113

Compatibility

The displacements u and v of a point in the plate consist of twoparts:

(1)The displacement in the middle plane

(2)the bending displacements

2

) (

2

1

x

w

x

u

o

xo

=

y

w

x

w

x

v

y

u

o o

xyo

=

2

) (

2

1

y

w

y

v

o

yo

=

) (

1

y x xo

N N

Eh

=

) (

1

x y yo

N N

Eh

=

xy xyo

N

Eh

) 1 ( 2

+

=

Relationship

To reduce the number of equations that must be solved

simultaneously, a stress function is introduced.

2

2

y

F

h N

x

=

2

2

x

F

h N

y

=

y x

F

h N

xy

=

2

Von Karmanlarge deflection plate equations:

] ) [(

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

4

4

2 2

4

4

4

y

w

x

w

y x

w

E

y

F

y x

F

x

F

+

+

) 2 (

2

2 2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

4

4

2 2

4

4

4

y x

w

y x

F

y

w

x

F

x

w

y

F

D

h

y

w

y x

w

x

w

+

+

Simply supported square plate subjected to a uniaxial compression

force:

2

)

2

cos

2

(cos

32

2 2

y

a

y

a

x Ef

F

xa

+ =

2

2 2

8a

f E

cr xa

+ =

a

y

cr xa xa x

2

cos ) ( + =

a

x

cr xa y

2

cos ) ( =

Conclusions:

1.plates can continue to carry increasing load

subsequent to reaching the critical stress; this is, they

exhibit postbucklingstrength.

2.transverse tensile stresses that arise subsequent to the

start of buckling are primarily responsible for the

presence of postbucklingstrength in plates.

3. The material near the longitudinal edges of the plate

resists most of the increase in load that occurs in the

postbucklingrange.

Where is the average longitudinal stress at failure.

6.13 ultimate strength of axially compressed plates

) 1

/

1

(

2

1

+ =

y cr cr

fa

fa

y e u

t b P =

For simply supported plates:

y

cr

e

b b

=

Based on extensive test results and accounting for initial

imperfections:

)

/

475 . 0

1 ( 90 . 1

2

y y

y u

E

t b

E

t P

=

6.14 design provisions for local buckling

In designing, it is common to proportion the member so that

overall failure occurs prior to local buckling.

y cr

F F >

For I section axial column, web:

flange:

y

f

t

b

/ 235 ) 1 . 0 10 ( +

y

w

o

f

t

h

/ 235 ) 5 . 0 25 ( +

For I section eccentric column, web:

flange:

y

f

t

b

/ 235 15

1

y o

w

o

f

t

h

/ 235 ) 25 5 . 0 16 ( + +

y o

w

o

f

t

h

/ 235 ) 2 . 26 5 . 0 48 ( +

For beam, it is the most complex in this class.

Disadvantages:

1. Elastic analysis;

2. No postbucklingis calculated but considered by using

high buckling stress coefficient k, no initial

imperfections.

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