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PERSONALITY - It comes from the Latin word persona which means mask sed !" the actors to chan#e
their appearance$
- It is the constant pattern of thinkin#% fee&in#% and actin#$ '(acionis)
- The tota&it" of sentiments% attitdes% idea% ha!its% ski&&s and !eha*iors of an indi*ida&$ 'O#!rn
and Nimko+)
- It is the prodct of socia& interaction in #rop &ife that *ar" from societ" to societ" which ma" !e
#ood% !ad% impressi*e or nimpressi*e$ The" ha*e di+erent t"pes of persona&ities !ecase
indi*ida&s are not a&ike$
EXTROVERT PERSONALITY - Those indi*ida&s are hi#h&" socia&i.ed and ha*e contact with otside
peop&e in societ"$
INTROVERT PERSONALITY - Those peop&e are a&wa"s a&one in their rooms and do not want to #o
AMBIVERT PERSONALITY - /an &i*e as an e0tro*ert or an intro*ert t"pe
P2YSI/AL EN3IRON(ENT - (an comes to form ideas and attitdes accordin# to the ph"sica&
en*ironment he &i*es in$
2ERE1ITY - E*er" hman #rop inherits the same #enera& set of !io&o#ica& needs and capacities$
These common needs and capacities e0p&ain some of or simi&arities in persona&it"$
/4LT4RE - Accordin# to some socio&o#ists persona&it" is the s!5ecti*e aspect of c&tre$ Each
c&tre prodces its specia& t"pe or t"pes of persona&it"$
E6PERIEN/ES - The peop&e "o meet e*er"da" that in7ences "o$ Persona&it" traits tend to !e
speci8c responses to partic&ar sitations rather than #enera& !eha*ior patterns$
- The process of &earnin# one:s c&tre and how to &i*e within it that !e#ins short&" after !irth$
- ;e are NOT !orn with c&tre a&read"$ ;e are socia&i.ed !" or PARENTS% TEA/2ERS% SO/IETY
=$) Lan#a#e of c&tre
>$) Norms ? !eha*ior that the societ" sets
Res&ts of a sccessf& socia&i.ation<
- @ids are socia&i.ed !" e0p&orin#% p&a"in# and disco*erin# somethin#$ The" were a&so socia&i.ed
thro#h imitatin# the peop&e that srronds them$
- @ids were ta#ht !" someone speci8ca&&" !" teachers and parents$
> ;a"s in Socia&
=) POSITI3E SO/IALI9ATION -p&easra!&e and e0citin# e0periences
>) NEAATI3E SO/IALI9ATION -harsh pnishments to tr" to teach a &esson
Socia&i.ation a#ents are the sorces from which we &earn a!ot societ" and orse&*es$
Peop&e and #rops that in7ence or se&f-concept% emotions% attitdes% and !eha*ior are ca&&ed a#ents of
socia&i.ation$ Peop&e who ser*e as socia& a#ents inc&de fami&" mem!ers% friends% nei#h!ors% the
po&ice% the emp&o"ers% teachers% po&itica& &eaders% !siness &eaders% re&i#ios &eaders% sports stars% and
entertainers$ Socia&i.ation a#ents a&so can !e 8ctiona& characters that we read a!ot or see on te&e*ision
or in the mo*ies$
Family - The fami&" has the #reatest impact on socia&i.ation$ Infants are tota&&" dependent on others% and
the responsi!i&it" to &ook after the "on# ones t"pica&&" fa&&s on parents and other fami&" mem!ers$ It is a
matter of chi&d sr*i*a&$
Sc!!l - Schoo&in# en&ar#es chi&drenBs socia& wor&d to inc&de peop&e with !ack#ronds di+erent from their
own$ Thro#h di+erent acti*ities Schoo&s he&p in inc&catin# *a&es of patriotism% democrac"% 5stice%
honest"% and competition$ E+orts are made to introdce correct attitdes a!ot economic s"stem or
po&itica& s"stem$
P""# $#!%&' - Peer #rop is the one whose mem!ers ha*e interest% socia& position% and a#e in common$
4n&ike the fami&" and the schoo&% the peer #rop &ets chi&dren escape the direct sper*ision of ad&ts$
Amon# the peers% /hi&dren &earn how to form re&ationships on their own$ Peer #rops a&so o+er the chance
to discss interests that ad&ts ma" not share with their chi&dren 'sch as c&othin# or other acti*ities)$
Ma'' M"(ia - The mass media are impersonal communication aimed at a vast audience. Mass media
arise as commnication techno&o#" '8rst the newspapers and then radio% te&e*ision% 8&ms% and the
Internet) spreads information on a mass sca&e$ The mass media ha*e an enormos e+ect on or attitdes
and !eha*ior% and on shapin# peop&eBs opinions a!ot isses as we&& as what the" !"$
R"li)i!* - Re&i#ion p&a"s si#ni8cant ro&e in the socia&i.ation$ It in7ences mora&it"% !ecomin# a ke"
component in peop&eBs ideas of ri#ht and wron#$ The in7ence of re&i#ion e0tends to man" areas of or
&i*es$ -or e0amp&e participation in re&i#ios ceremonies not on&" teaches s !e&iefs a!ot the here after !t
a&so ideas a!ot dress and manners appropriate for forma& occasions$
Bi!l!)ical T"!#i"' - Cio&o#ica& approaches s##est that #enetics are responsi!&e for persona&it"$
Research on herita!i&it" s##ests that there is a &ink !etween #enetics and persona&it" traits$
B"a+i!#al T"!#i"' - Ceha*iora& theories s##est that persona&it" is a res&t of interaction !etween the
indi*ida& and the en*ironment$ Ceha*iora& theorists std" o!ser*a!&e and measra!&e !eha*iors% re5ectin#
theories that take interna& tho#hts and fee&in#s into accont$
P'yc!(y*amic T"!#i"' - Ps"chod"namic theories of persona&it" emphasi.e the in7ence of the
nconscios mind and chi&dhood e0periences on persona&it"$
--red !e&ie*ed the three components of persona&it" were the id% the e#o% and the spere#o$ The id is
responsi!&e for a&& needs and r#es% whi&e the spere#o for idea&s and mora&$ The e#o moderates !etween
the demands of the id% the spere#o% and rea&it"$
,%ma*i'- T"!#i"' - 2manist theories emphasi.e the importance of free wi&& and indi*ida& e0perience
in the de*e&opment of persona&it"$ 2manist theorists emphasi.ed the concept of se&f-acta&i.ation% which
is an innate need for persona& #rowth that moti*ates !eha*ior$
T#ai- T"!#i"' - The trait theor" approach is one of the &ar#est areas within persona&it" ps"cho&o#"$
Accordin# to this theor"% persona&it" is made p of a nm!er of !road traits$ A trait is !asica&&" a re&ati*e&"
sta!&e characteristic that cases an indi*ida& to !eha*e in certain wa"s$
The or#ani.ationa& socia&i.ation process is (y*amic. i*-"#ac-i+" and c!mm%*ica-i+"% and it
nfo&ds o*er time$ In this comp&e0it" &ies the cha&&en#e of e*a&atin# socia&i.ation e+orts$ Two !road
approaches to measrin# socia&i.ation ha*e !een proposed$ One approach consists of the '-a)"
m!("l' !/ '!ciali0a-i!* $ These mode&s portra" socia&i.ation as a m&tista#e transition process
with ke" *aria!&es at each of the sta#es$ Another approach hi#h&i#hts the +a#i!%' '!ciali0a-i!*
-ac-ic' that or#ani.ations se to he&p newcomers !ecome insiders$
;ith !oth approaches% it is contended that there are certain otcomes that mark sccessf&
socia&i.ation$ These otcomes inc&de &"#/!#ma*c"% 1!2 'a-i'/ac-i!*% !#)a*i0a-i!*al
c!mmi-m"*-% 1!2 i*+!l+"m"*- and i*-"*- -! #"mai* 3i- -" !#)a*i0a-i!*$ If socia&i.ation is
a stress moderator% then distress s"mptoms 'speci8ca&&"% &ow &e*e&s of distress s"mptoms) sho&d
!e inc&ded as an indicator of sccessf& socia&i.ation$
2ea&th Otcomes of Socia&i.ation
Cecase the re&ationship !etween socia&i.ation and stress has on&" recent&" recei*ed attention% few
stdies ha*e inc&ded hea&th otcomes$ The e*idence indicates% howe*er% that the socia&i.ation
process is &inked to distress s"mptoms$ Newcomers who fond interactions with their sper*isors
and other newcomers he&pf& reported &ower &e*e&s of ps"cho&o#ica& distress s"mptoms sch as
("&#"''i!* a*( i*a2ili-y -! c!*c"*-#a-"4 -rther% newcomers with more accrate e0pectations
of the stressors in their new 5o!s reported &ower &e*e&s of !oth ps"cho&o#ica& s"mptoms 'e$#$%
irrita!i&it") and ph"sio&o#ica& s"mptoms 'e$#$% nasea and headaches)$
Cecase socia&i.ation is a stressf& e0perience% hea&th otcomes are appropriate *aria!&es to std"$
Stdies are needed that focs on a !road ran#e of hea&th otcomes and that com!ine se&f-reports of
distress s"mptoms with o!5ecti*e hea&th measres$
Na-%#" !/ S!cial I*-"#ac-i!*
S-#%c-%#"( '!cial i*-"#ac-i!* -guided by previously established defnitions and expectations, owing
either to familiarity with the other as a person% or to knowledge of the others formal position.
U*'-#%c-%#"( '!cial i*-"#ac-i!* - lack prior expectations and must be defned as required in the
course of action.
Intimacy e.g. Family, friends, lovers
Time increases the intimacy and informality of a relationship.
waitress and trck-dri*er
after man" &nches
warm friendship
S!cial P#!c"''"' - repetitive forms of behaviour which are commonly found in social life.
Ty&"' !# M!("' !/ I*-"#ac-i!* !# '!cial &#!c"''"'
Co-operation when men work to#ether for common #oa&s$
Accommodation - the ad5stment of hosti&e indi*ida&s or #rops$
Assimilation - indi*ida&s or #rops once dissimi&ar !ecome simi&ar$
Competition - occrs whene*er there is an insDcient spp&" of an"thin# that hman !ein#s desire
insDcient in the sense that a&& cannot ha*e as mch of it as the" wish$
Confict - when there is a shift in interest from the o!5ects of competition to the competitors themse&*es$
Di5"#"*c" 2"-3""* c!m&"-i-i!* 6 c!*7ic-
=$ /ompetition is the continos process and it is ne*er endin#$
>$ It is impersona&
,$ It is nconscios and the indi*ida&s and #rops are not aware of it$
E$ It encora#es hard work$
F$ It is !ased on non-*io&ence$
=$ It is not continos process$ At some sta#e it mst come to an end$
>$ It is persona&$
,$ it is conscios and the indi*ida& and #rops are aware and know each other$
E$ It discora#es hard work for &aw in con7ict$
F$ 3io&ent methods ma" !e sed in con7ict$
RACE refers to a personBs ph"sica& appearance% sch as skin co&or% e"e co&or% hair co&or% !oneG5aw strctre
ET,NICITY% on the other hand% re&ates to c&tra& factors sch as nationa&it"% c&tre% ancestr"% &an#a#e
and !e&iefs$
- a socia&&" constrcted cate#or"
- a #rop that is treated as distinct in societ" !ased on certain characteristics
- often sin#&ed ot for di+erentia& and nfair treatment
E-*ic $#!%&'
- a socia& cate#or" of peop&e who share a common c&tre$
- ha*e a consciosness of their common c&tra& !ond
Ma1!# S!ci!l!)ical T"!#i"' !/ Rac" a*( E-*ici-y
F%*c-i!*ali'-' T"!#i'-' - In order for race and ethnic re&ations to !e fnctiona& and contri!te to the
harmonios condct and sta!i&it" of societ"% racia& and ethnic minorities mst assimi&ate into that societ"$
Sym2!lic I*-"#ac-i!* T"!#i'-' - Looks at two isses in re&ation to race and ethnicit"$ -irst% the" &ook at
the ro&e of socia& interaction and how it redces racia& and ethnic hosti&it"$ Second% the" &ook at how race
and ethnicit" are socia&&" constrcted$
C!*7ic- T"!#i'-' - The !asic ar#ment made is that c&ass-!ased con7ict is an inherent and
fndamenta& part of societ"$ These theorists ths ar#e that racia& and ethnic con7ict is tied to c&ass
con7ict and that in order to redce racia& and ethnic con7ict% c&ass con7ict mst 8rst !e redced$
Patterns of Racia& and Ethnic Arop Interactions
A''imila-i!* - this represents the e0treme of comp&ete to&erance !ecase this is the process in which
former&" distinct and separate #rops mer#e% !ecome inte#rated as one and create a common c&tre$
It ma" in*o&*e the constrction of a who&&" new c&tre$
T3! Ty&"' !/ A''imila-i!*8
P#ima#y A''imila-i!* - occrs when mem!ers of di+erent #rops are inte#rated in persona&%
intimate associations$
S"c!*(a#y A''imila-i!* - occrs when di+erent #rops !ecome inte#rated in p!&ic areas and in
socia& instittions$
S")#")a-i!* - in*o&*es the ph"sica& separation of two ethnic or racia& #rops in residence% workp&ace
and socia& fnctions within a societ"$ It ma" !e de 5re '!" Law) or de facto 'in fact)
Sla+"#y - the &e#a& ownership of one #rop !" the other$ The #rop with ownership contro&s e*er"
aspect of the ens&a*ed indi*ida&sB &i*es< reprodction% t"pe of emp&o"ment% and so forth$ S&a*er" is
t"pica&&" app&ied to a minorit" #rop for 8nancia& #ain of the ma5orit"$
E9&%l'i!* - a&so known as Pop&ation Transfer% is the forced remo*a& of the pop&ation that occpies a
territor" !" another #rop that &a"s c&aim to that territor"$ The remo*a& ma" !e to a se#re#ated portion
of the state or comp&ete&" otside the state$
$"*!ci(" - is the e0treme manifestation of into&erance !ecase it in*o&*es the s"stematic ki&&in# of a
minorit" pop&ation !" the &eadership of the ma5orit" pop&ation$ It is t"pica&&" state-sponsored% with
the ma5orit" ca&&in# for the destrction of the minorit" de to their perception of the ma5orit" c&tre as
inferior or dan#eros in some wa"$
C!l!*ia*i'm - this is the po&ic" or practice that occrs when a racia& or ethnic #rop from one societ"
takes o*er and dominates the racia& or ethnic #rop's) of another societ"$
Acc%l-%#a-i!* - refers to &earnin# the c&tre of a #rop di+erent from the one in which a person was
ori#ina&&" raised$ Acc&tration ma" in*o&*e &earnin# the dominate &an#a#e% adoptin# new *a&es and
!eha*iors% and chan#in# the spe&&in# of the fami&" name$ In some instances% acc&tration ma" !e
Pl%#ali'm - these are states in which racia& and ethnic #rops maintain their distinctness or distinct
c&tra& herita#e and #rop identit" in an atmosphere of mta& respect and eHa&it" or eHa& access to
socia& resorces $
Amal)ama-i!* - a&so known as ma#i-al a''imila-i!*% occrs when di+erent ethnic or racia& #rops
!ecome married or pair-!onded and prodce chi&dren$ Ct in most societies% the norm
of "*(!)amy in7ences indi*ida&s to marr" within their socia& #rops$