You are on page 1of 56

Basic sentence pattern

Objective:
In this lesson, you will learn the elements of a sentence. There are 5 basic
sentence patterns in English including Subject + Verb, Subject + Verb + Object, Subject +
Verb + Complement, Subject + Verb + Indirect Object + Direct Object and Subject + Verb
+ Object + Complement.

Subject + verb. The simplest of sentence patterns is composed of a subject and verb
without a direct object or subject complement. It uses an intransitive verb, that is, a verb
requiring no direct object:

Control rods remain inside the fuel assembly of the reactor.

The development of wind power practically ceased until the


early 1970s.

All amplitude-modulation (AM) receivers work in the same


way.

The cross-member exposed to abnormal stress eventually


broke.

Only two types of charge exist in nature.

Subject + linking verb + subject complement. Another simple pattern uses the linking
verb, any form of the to be verb without an action verb:

The chain reaction is the basis of nuclear power.

The debate over nuclear power has often been bitter.

Folding and faulting of the earth's surface are important


geologic processes.

Wind speed seems to be highest during the middle of the

1
day.

The silicon solar cell can be difficult and expensive to


manufacture.

Subject + verb + direct object. Another common sentence pattern uses the direct
object:

Silicon conducts electricity in an unusual way.

The anti-reflective coating on the silicon cell reduces


reflection from 32 to 22 percent.

Prestressing of the concrete increases the load-carrying


capacity of the members.

Subject + verb + indirect object + direct object. The sentence pattern with the indirect
object and direct object is similar to the preceding pattern:

We are sending you the balance of the payment in this


letter.

I am writing her about a number of problems that I have had


with my Exec comp word processor.

The supervisor mailed the applicant a description of the


job.

I am writing you about a number of problems...

Austin, Texas, has recently built its citizens a system


of bike lanes.

Subject + verb + direct object + object complement. The sentence pattern using the
[direct object] and object complement is not common but worth knowing):

2
The walls are usually painted black.

The plant shutdown left the entire area


an economic disaster.

The committee declared the new design


a breakthrough in
energy efficiency.

The low cost of the new computer made


competition much too difficult for some
of the other companies. EXERCISE 1 – Basic
sentence pattern
Identify the basic patterns around which most English sentences are built.

1. Cats are everywhere.

2. Mia sleeps.

3. Zulfadhli seems angry.

4. Mr. Jamal is the lecturer.

5. He loves his job.

6. Ahmad will arrive next week.

7. She is funny.

8. No one was there.

9. He is eating an apple.

10. The young men are doctor.

Parts of Speech
3
Nouns
Objectives:
To find out the function in the sentence as a noun

Rabbit Cat Girl Boy

Car Waterfall

What can we see in the picture?

There are some people, animals, places and things in the picture.

Each person, animal, place and thing has name.

Do you know the names?

The pictures show a rabbit, cat, girl, boy, car and waterfall.

What do we call these words?

We call them nouns

We call nouns naming-words. They are the names of people, animals, places
and things.

4
EXERCISE 2 – Nouns
Fill in the blanks with nouns.

e.g. Last Monday I wrote a …… to my family.

Last Monday I wrote a letter to my family.

1. Sister has bought some ………. from the market.

2. He went to Canada by ………

3. The ……….. is sleeping in the cradle.

4. The ……….. has caught a thief.

5. The bird flew high in the ………..

6. They swam and fished in the ………….

7. She is busy teaching in the …………

8. Mother is hanging out the ………… to dry.

9. The meat of a ………. is called beef.

10. We write with our ………..

5
EXERCISE 3 – Nouns
Pick out the nouns in these sentences and write them in the brackets.

e.g. Her little sister is a teacher. ( )

Her little sister is a teacher. (Sister, teacher)

1. My grandfather has a horse. ( )

2. Our gardener has a beautiful daughter. ( )

3. Dogs like to eat meat. ( )

4. His brother is always busy. ( )

5. The dog barked at the naughty boy. ( )

6. The hunter has killed a bear. ( )

7. The actress talked to the girl. ( )

8. My niece is a hardworking girl. ( )

9. Have you a servant? ( )

10. The fairy spoke to the princess. ( )

6
Countable and Uncountable Nouns

Trees Flowers
Look at the pictures.

Can you name the nouns which can be counted?

We can count trees and flowers.

They are called countable nouns.

Which are the nouns that cannot be counted?

We can’t count grass and water.

They are called uncountable nouns.

a book an apple a few cars many birds several ducks

some pencils any boxes plenty of food a lot of flowers

a large number of books much water a little ice a great amount of flour

a great deal of sugar

Name the words which go with countable nouns.

The words are a, an, a few, many, several, some, any, plenty of, a lot of and a large
number of.

Which are the words that go with uncountable nouns?

A little, much, some, any, plenty of, a lot of, a large amount of, and a great deal of go
with uncountable nouns.

Do you know the words which don’t go with uncountable nouns?

They are a, an, a few and many.

7
A little and much don’t go with countable nouns.

Exercise 4 – Countable and Uncountable Nouns


Choose the correct word. Then write out each sentence.

e.g. There are (much, many) trees near my house.

There are many trees near my house.

1. There isn’t (many, much) water left in the bottle.

2. Hani poured (a few, a little) tea into the cup.

3. Don’t put too (many, much) sugar in the coffee.

4. Amir stayed at his uncle’s house for (a few, a little) days.

5. Lily bought (a few, a little) eggs from the market.

6. You have to put (a little, a few) more salt in the mushroom soups.

7. Kistna saw (many, much) crabs on the rocks.

8. I have (a few, a little) sweet in my pocket.

9. (Much, Many) people came to our house.

10. We haven’t brought (many, much) money with us.

8
Proper Nouns

Dalphine Zainun Hanani


These pictures show a cat and a girl.

There are special names given to them.

What are these names?

They are ‘Dalphine’ and ‘Zainun Hanani’.

Notice that all these words begin with a capital letter.

Such words are called Proper Nouns

A is Proper Noun the special name given to a person, place, thing or an animal.

Collective Nouns

a party of friends a team of footballers


Sometimes we group certain nouns together and speak of them as a whole.

We use special words for such nouns like the picture shows a collection of people.

Can you pick out the group names for them?

9
The group names ‘party’ and ‘team’.

They are called Collective Nouns.

The name used for a number of people, animals or things which are collected
together and taken as a whole is called a Collective Noun.
Here is a list of Collective Nouns. Learn them carefully.

People Animals
• a troupe of dancers • a flock of sheep

• a bench of magistrates • a gaggle of geese

• a mob of gangsters • a brood of chickens

• a crew of sailors • a nest of mice

• a crowd of spectators • a litter of pups

Things
• a cluster of stars

• a library of books

• a suite of furniture

• a crate of fruit

• a packet of cigarettes

10
Exercise 5 – Collective Nouns
Fill in the blanks with a suitable word.

e.g. A plague of ………………..

A plague of locusts

1. A host of ………….

2. A chest of …………

3. A hedge of …………

4. A gang of ………...

5. A tuft of …………

6. A stud of …………

7. A fleet of ……….

8. A clutch of ………..

9. A troop of ……….

10. A choir of ……….

11
Gender
Father Mother

Boy Girl

Fox Vixen

Monk Nun

Read the nouns on the left.

Of what sex are they?

They are males. They are of the Masculine Gender.

Are the nouns on the right males or females?

They are females. They are of the Female Gender.

12
Here is a list of words for you to learn:

Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine


Author Authoress Dog Bitch
Bachelor Spinster Drone Bee
Billy-goat Nanny-goat Duke Duchess
Bridegroom Bride Emperor Empress
Buck Doe Fiancé Fiancée
Bullock Heifer Gentlemen Lady
Czar Czarina God goddess
He-goat She-goat Lord Ladies
Headmaster Headmistress Male Female
Heir Heiress Manager Manageress
Hero Heroine Mayor Mayoress
Horse Mare Milkman Milkmaid
Host Hostess Millionaire Millionaires
Husband Wife Monk nun
Jack-ass Jenny-ass Nephew Niece
King Queen Peacock Peahen
Lad Lass Peregrine Falcon
Landlord Landlady Poet Poetess
Lion Lioness Prince Princess
Proprietor Proprietress Stag Hind
Ram Ewe Stallion Mare

13
Shepherd Shepherdess Sultan Sultana
Sir Madam Tom-cat Tabby-cat
Son Daughter Uncle Aunt
Widower Widow Fox Vixen
Wizard Witch Wolf She-wolf

Possession (Nouns and Pronouns)

The cat’s ice-cream the bear’s sun glasses


The words cat’s and bear’s show possession.

They are called Possessive Nouns.

They are formed from the nouns ‘cat’ and ‘bear’.

The nouns ‘cat’ and ‘bear’ is singular.

An apostrophe s (‘s) is added to it to show possession.

The front of the car.

The noun ‘car’ is not a living thing.

What is used with it to show possession?

The words ‘of the’ are used.

14
Nouns that show possession are called Possessive Nouns. We form Possessive
Nouns (1) by adding an apostrophe s (‘s) to singular nouns and plural nouns not
ending in s, (2) by adding an apostrophe (‘) to plural nouns ending in s and (3) by
using ‘of the’ with names of non-living things.

This is my violin. It’s mine. That is your heart. It’s yours.


Read the sentences in the pictures. The word ‘mine’ is used in place of ‘my violin’.

‘Yours’ replaces ‘your heart’.

Both the words ‘mine’ and ‘yours’ are pronouns.

Exercise 6 – Possessive Nouns (The Apostrophe)

Rewrite these expressions using the apostrophe.

e.g. The room of the servant

The servant’s room

1. The ball of the boy

2. The dolls of the girl

3. The basket of the woman

4. The book of the teacher

5. The bags of the pupils

6. The cat of Mr. Hamzah

7. The pipe of Uncle Zarif

15
8. The dresses of the woman

9. The trunk of the elephant

10. The eyes of the owl

Exercise 7 – Possessive Pronouns


Rewrite each sentences using a Possessive Pronoun to replace the words in bold.

e.g. This is my headphone.

This is mine.

1. That is her homework.

2. I have lost my shoes.

3. These are his cats.

4. Are those your basket?

5. That is his handkerchief.

6. Can you lend me your car?

7. That isn’t my toys.

8. We have brought our books.

9. She has put on her hat.

10. They have eaten their lunch.

16
Pronouns
Objectives:
To find out the group of verb that have been divided and their

To figure out the Pronouns have antecedents, a reference to a word they take the place of.

No, I did not meet him. He did not turn up.


Did you meet Haifa yesterday?

Zachary Iran

Zachary and Iran are talking. Pick out all the pronouns in the sentences.

The pronouns are ‘you’, ‘I’, ‘him’ and ‘he’. They are used in place of nouns in the
sentences. The sentences are called Personal Pronouns.

Pronouns like ‘I’, ‘you’ and ‘he’ are used as a subjects.

Pronouns like ‘me’, ‘his’ and ‘her’ are used as objects.

He has hurt himself.

17
The pronoun ‘he’ is the subject of the sentence.

‘Himself’ in the sentence is also a pronoun. It is the object of the sentence.

Both ‘he’ and ‘himself’ refer to the same person. Thus action done by the doer goes back
to himself.

Pronouns ‘himself’ are called Reflexive Pronouns.

They always end in ‘self’.

Exercise 8 – Personal Pronouns


Fill the blanks with suitable Personal Pronouns. Then write out the sentences.
1. The teacher punished …………… because he was lazy.

2. Shall we go? I think …………… ought to.

3. I like Michael. …………… is my best friend.

4. Aswan is here now. Give this book to ……………

5. Did you see him? No………….… didn’t.

6. They could not because …………. were busy.

7. Is she your sister? Yes ……….. is.

8. The bag was here a minute ago. …………… is not here now.

9. They are playing football. Don’t disturb ……………

10. I can’t do these sums. Will you help ………….. ?

18
Exercise 9 – Reflexive Pronouns
Write out each sentences putting in a suitable Reflexive Pronoun.
1. I will cook …………… something to eat.

2. Our cat has hurt …………....

3. We helped ………… to the food on the table.

4. She washed …………… before breakfast.

5. My sister bought …………….. an ice-cream.

6. Nabila made …………. a new dress.

7. We warmed ………….. by the fire.

8. My father shaves …………… every morning.

9. ‘Did you behave …………. at Kamil’s house, Armand?

10. They found ………….. lost in the jungle.

19
Relative Pronouns
I know the girl Who lives in the huge house beside the jungle.

In this sentence what word does ‘who’ refer to? It refers to the noun ‘girl’ which is just
before it.

‘Who’ is called a Relative Pronoun?

Where is it placed at the beginning of the word ‘who lives in the huge house beside the
jungle’.

This clause tells us about the girl. It is an adjective clause.

e used for people; ‘which’ and ‘that’ for animals and things. ‘Whom’ is only used as the object of a sentence. ‘W

Exercise 10 – Who, Which, That, Whom, Whose


Choose the correct word. Then write out each sentence.

20
1. We meet the woman (who, whose) son is an engineer.

2. The man (that, whose) axe you borrowed is here.

3. Nora, (who, which) is my best friend, has bought a new car.

4. The girl (that, whom) we met there has two rabbits.

5. Kingfishers, (which, who) live near water, are beautiful birds.

6. Muthusammy, (who, which) is a farmer, rears many chickens.

7. The boy (whom, which) I talked yesterday lives here.

8. This is the hardest sum (who, that) I have ever done.

9. The doll (who, which) you gave me is good.

10. The book (who, that) has many pictures was given to me by my grandmother.

Forms of the Verb


Objectives:
To find out the group of verb that have been divided and their usage.

I play guitar every day.


I am playing guitar now.
I played guitar yesterday.
I have already played guitar.

Do you see any difference between the verbs in the four sentences?

All the verbs in the sentences are different in form.

The verb ‘play’ is used in the Simple Present tense.

‘Played’ is used in the Simple Past tense.

Which of the verbs end in –ing?

It is ‘playing’. This word cannot stand by itself. It is used with the ‘helping word’ or
Special Finite ‘am’. ‘Playing’ is called the Present Participle of ‘play’.

21
Like the Present Participle, the word ‘played’ needs a ‘helping word’ too. It is used with
‘have’. It is the Past Participle of ‘play’.

A verb is used in these four forms: (1) the Simple Present tense, (2) the Simple
Past tense, (3) the present Participle and (4) the Past Participle. The participle of
the verb is always used with a ‘helping word’ or Special Finite such as ‘is’, ‘are’,
‘has’ and ‘have’.

Below is a table of verbs. Read them carefully.

Present Tense Present Past Tense Past participle


Participle
Abide Abiding Abided Abided
Act Acting Acted Acted
Admit Admitting Admitted Admitted
Agree Agreeing Agreed Agreed
Aim Aiming Aimed Aimed
Appear Appearing Appeared Appeared
Arise Arising Arose Arisen
Awake Awaking Awoke Awoken
Bake Baking Baked Baked
Beat Beating Beat Beaten
Become Becoming Became Become
Begin Beginning Began Begun
Bind Binding Bound Bound
Bite Biting Bit Bitten
Blow Blowing Blew Blown
Break Breaking Broke Broken
Bring Bringing Brought Brought
Burn Burning Burnt Burnt
Carry Carrying Carried Carried
Catch Catching Caught Caught
Choose Choosing Chose Chosen
Close Closing Closed Closed
Come Coming Came Come

22
Compete Competing Competed Competed
Cut Cutting Cut Cut
Creep Creeping Crept Crept
Dance Dancing Danced Danced
Deal Dealing Dealt Dealt
Dig Digging Dug Dug
Do Doing Did Done
Drag Dragging Dragged Dragged
Draw Drawing Drew Drawn
Dream Dreaming Dreamt Dreamt
Drive Driving Drove Driven
Enjoy Enjoying Enjoyed Enjoyed
Explain Explaining Explained Explained
Fall Falling Fell Fallen
Fail Failing Failed Failed
Feed Feeding Fed Fed
Feel Feeling Felt Felt
Fight Fighting Fought Fought
Flee Fleeing Fled Fled
Fly Flying Flew Flown
Forbid Forbidding Forbade Forbidden
Forgive Forgiving Forgave Forgiven
Forsake Forsaking Forsook Forsaken
Get Getting Got Got
Go Going Went Gone
Grind Grinding Ground Ground
Grow Growing Grew Grown
Hang ( a thing ) Hanging Hung Hung
Hang ( a person ) Hanging Hanged Hanged
Have Having Had Had
Hide Hiding Hid Hidden
Hold Holding Held Held
Hurry Hurrying Hurried Hurried
Imitate Imitating Imitated Imitated
Instruct Instructing Instructed Instructed
Judge Judging Judged Judged
Keep Keeping Kept Kept
Kneel Kneeling Knelt Knelt
Know Knowing Knew Known
Laugh Laughing Laughed Laughed
Lay Laying Laid Laid
Leap Leaping Leapt Leapt
Leave Leaving Left Left
Lend Lending Lent Lent
Lie Lying Lay Lain
Lift Lifting Lifted Lifted
Make Making Made Made
Marry Marrying Married Married
Mislay Mislaying Mislaid Mislaid

23
Mistake Mistaking Mistook Mistaken
Occur Occurring Occurred Occurred
Open Opening Opened Opened
Owe Owing Owed Owed
Own Owning Owned Owned
Pay Paying Paid Paid
Peel Peeling Peeled Peeled
Point Pointing Pointed Pointed
Pray Praying Prayed Prayed
Promise Promising Promised Promised
Prove Proving Proved Proved
Quit Quitting Quit Quit
Reject Rejecting Rejected Rejected
Relive Relieving Relieved Relieved
Reply Replying Replied Replied
Ride Riding Rode Ridden
Ring Ringing Rang Rung
Rise Rising Rose Risen
Run Running Ran Run
Sag Sagging Sagged Sagged
Say Saying Said Said
See Seeing Saw Seen
Seek Seeking Sought Sought
Sell Selling Sold Sold
Send Sending Sent Sent
Sew Sewing Sewed Sewn
Shake Shaking Shook Shaken
Shine Shining Shone Shone
Shrink Shrinking Shrank Shrunk
Sleep Sleeping Slept Slept
Sing Singing Sang Sung
Sink Sinking Sank Sunk
Smell Smelling Smelt Smelt
Sow Sowing Sowed Sown
Speak Speaking Spoke Spoken
Spell Spelling Spelt Spelt
Spend Spending Spent Spent
Spring Springing Sprang Sprung
Stand Standing Stood Stood
Stink Stinking Stank Stunk
Strive Striving Strove Striven
Take Taking Took Taken
Teach Teaching Taught Taught
Tear Tearing Tore Torn
Tell Telling Told Told
Thank Thanking Thanked Thanked
Think Thinking Thought Thought
Throw Throwing Threw Thrown
Tie Tying Tied Tied

24
Understand Understanding Understood Understood
Use Using Used Used
Wake Waking Woke Woken
Wait Waiting Waited Waited
Watch Watching Watched Watched
Wave Waving Waved Waved
Wear Wearing Wore Worn
Weep Weeping Wept Wept
Weigh Weighing Weighed Weighed
Withdraw Withdrawing Withdrew Withdrawn
Withhold Withholding Withheld Withheld
Wipe Wiping Wiped Wiped
Win Winning Won Won
Wish Wishing Wished Wished
Work Working Worked Worked
Worry Worrying Worried Worried
Write Writing Wrote Written

Exercise 11 – Forms of the Verb


Complete the table below. The first one has been done for you.
No. Every day Now Yesterday Already
1. He runs He is running He ran He has run
2. I choose
3. They make
4. She drives
5. They hit
6. We begin
7. He hears
8. I beat
9. We leave
10. You cry

25
Present Continuous Tense

What are the boys doing now?

Ismail

Can you answer Ismail’s question?

The boys are running now. What does the verb ‘are running’ show?

It shows a verb an action that is going on now.

This verb is used in the Present Continuous tense.

Exercise 12 – Present Continuous Tense


Use the Present Continuous tense of the verbs in brackets.
1. It ……….. (rain) very heavily now. Let’s run for shelter.

2. That’s Alice. He ………. (swim) in the pool.

3. Your father ………….. (sleep) now. You mustn’t make a noise.

4. Look at the squirrel. It ……….. (climb) up the tree.

5. Listen! The dogs ………... (bark) now.

6. We ………. (wait) for Fatima.

7. She ……… (cry) again. Can’t you stop her?

8. Don’t turn now. He ……… (look) at you.

26
9. Can you see what I ………. (hold) in my hand?

10. They have gone to bed. They ……….. (sleep) soundly now.

Simple Present Tense


Do birds fly? Yes, birds fly.

Nicole Dianna

What are Nicole and Dianna talking about?

They are talking of a fact about birds.

What tense is used for such sentences? The Simple Present tense is used.

She goes to the market every day.

The verb in the above sentence is ‘goes’.

It is used in the Simple Present tense.

What action does it show? It shows an action is done every day.

Actions which we do every day, always, often or sometimes called habits.

27
Exercise 13 – Simple Present tense
Fill in blanks with the Simple Present tense of the verbs in bracket.

1. He ……… (not live) here. He …….. (live) in that little hut in front of my house.

2. This diamond is real. It ………… (shine) and …………. (glitter).

3. She usually ………... (keep) quiet and ………. (do) her work.

4. Every day I ………… (leave) the house at seven and ……….. (return) at five ion
evening from my school.

5. She ……….. (think) that she ………. (be) clever.

6. How do you ………... (like) you’re new dress? I ………. (not like) it at all.

7. You mustn’t ……….. (eat) and ………. (talk) at the same moment.

8. My little brother ……….. (have) a fever. He ……… (be) often ill.

9. I know Fahim. He ………. (be) friendly and he ………. (speak) well.

10. Please …………. (help) me to find my necklace. It ………. (have) a diamond.

28
Present Perfect Tense

I have already finished my homework.


I have not finished my work yet.

Nyssa Farina

Nyssa and Farina tell us what they have already done. Do they tell us the exact time of
their actions?

No, they don’t. They only use words like ‘already’ and ‘yet’ to show the time. Nyssa and
Farina use the verb ‘have finished’ in their sentence.

This verb is used in the Present Perfect tense.

Exercise 14 – Present Perfect tense


Fill in the blanks with the Present Perfect tense of the verbs in brackets.
1. We ……….. (not go) there since September.

2. Aida ………… (work) here since last year.

3. They ………. (take) it for a month.

4. She ………... (wait) for half an hour.

5. We ………… (live) in Kuantan since 1991.

6. This beggar ………… (not eat) for three days.

7. Rudy ………. (stay) with his aunt since last month.

29
8. It …………. (not rain) for five days.

9. Fahri ………. (be) here since six o’clock.

10. You ……… (not do) your work for a week.

Simple Past Tense

I drew this beautiful picture two weeks Iago.


bought this book yesterday.

The sentence above is talking about their past actions.

Are we told when the actions took place?

Yes, the actions took place ‘two weeks ago’ and ‘yesterday’.

What tense is used in these sentences?

The Simple Past tense is used.

Exercise 15 – Simple Past Tense


Write out the sentences putting the Simple Past tense of the verbs in brackets.
1. A long time ago, men ………….. (live) in caves.

2. Aswan …………. (not play) football last Wednesday.

3. My brother …………... (not cut) down the tree yesterday.

4. She …………. (find) her handbag under the table yesterday.

5. I ………… (write) to Qhumaira last week.

6. Hani ………….. (break) the glass ten minutes ago.

30
7. We …………. (shut) all the windows just now.

8. They …………… (not do) their homework yesterday.

9. He ………… (wait) until 7 o’clock two days ago.

10. Lilly ………… (not come) to my house last evening.

Past Continuous Tense

While they were playing a football yesterday, they saw a swarm of bees.

The sentence above shows two past actions. Did these two actions happen at the same
time?

No, they didn’t. One action was going on first when another action happened.

Which verb shows the first action?

It is ‘were playing’. This verb is used in the Past Continuous tense.

I was reading a ghost story book all yesterday afternoon.

The verb in the sentence above also used in the Past Continuous tense.

What actions do these verbs show?

They show actions that were going on in the past. The actual period or point of time like
‘all yesterday afternoon’ is given.

31
Exercise 16 – Past Continuous Tense
Fill in the blanks with the Past Continuous tense of the verbs in brackets.
1. While he ……….. (run) down the stairs, he fell.

2. Kistna heard a loud scream when she ………. (leave) the room.

3. As Ronald ………….. (rush) for the taxi, someone called him.

4. While I …………… (have) my bath, Ameba knocked at my door.

5. While we …………. (wait) to him, the bus came.

6. When his sister came in, he …………… (sleep).

7. The light went out while they ………….. (eat) their dinner.

8. As they …………. (dress) up, the telephone rang.

9. When we entered the room, they ………….. (write).

10. While we …………. (walk) along the road, we met Hanne.

32
Past Perfect Tense
7.00 am:-
-eat some bread
-drink a glass of milk

The time table show the two things which Amir did this morning.

Can you tell what he did? First he ate some bread. Then he drank a glass of milk.

Can you describe the two actions in one sentence? This is the sentence:

When Amir hat eaten some bread, he drank a glass of milk.

We use ‘when’ in this sentence. The verb ‘had eaten’ shows the first action. It is used in
the Past Perfect tense. The second action is in the Simple Past tense.

The Past Perfect tense is also used in the Indirect or Reported Speech.

33
Exercise 17 – Past Perfect Tense
Put the following sentences into Indirect Speech beginning with the expressions given.
Use the Past Perfect tense.

e.g. “I have eaten my dinner”. He said that ………………..


He said that he had eaten his dinner.

1. “Khairul have not locked the door.” He said that ……………

2. “I have seen the film.” She said that ……………

3. “We went there by bus.” They said that …………..

4. “I have read the poem.” He said that ……………

5. “We have cleaned the car.” They said that ……………

6. “I have picked some flower.” She said that ………….

7. “I have rung the bell.” He said that ……………

8. “Hasbi cut the tree.” He said that …………..

9. “I saw Sierra in the school library.” She said that ……………

10. “My sister has gone out.” She said that ………….

34
Simple Future & ‘Going To’ Form

I shall come again tomorrow.

We shall meet you there tonight.

He will finish the work in half an hour.

They will sing in the concert next week.

All the sentences above tell us about future actions. In these sentences the time
expressions ‘tomorrow’, ‘tonight’, ‘in half an hour’ and ‘next week’ refer to the future.

Can you name the verbs used? They are ‘shall come’, ‘shall meet’, ‘will finish’ and ‘will
sing’. These verbs are used in the Simple Future tense.

Notice that ‘shall’ is used with ‘I’ and ‘we’, and ‘will’ is used with other nouns and pronouns.

We do not only use ‘will’ and ‘shall’ for future action. There are other ways of showing
future actions too.

The ‘going to’ form may be used for future action, especially when a plan has been made.

35
The ‘going to’ form is also used to show that something is certain to happen.

Exercise 18 – Simple Future Tense


Fill in the blanks with ‘shall’ or ‘will’. Then write out each sentence.
1. When ……… you be in Switzerland again?

2. There ………… be a holiday next Monday.

3. …………. we all play tennis this evening?

4. I think it …………. rain in the morning.

5. We ………….. tell him the bad news tomorrow morning.

6. The shops ………… open at eight o’clock.

7. The baby ………… be three months old next week.

8. Mariah ………. be in Primary Five next year.

9. He …………. be seventy years old next July.

10. They ………… wait at the cinema for us.

36
Adjectives
Objectives:
To figure out what is an adjective provides a detail about a noun.

A B
A box A square box
A cat A Siamese cat
A knife A sharp knife
A girl A tall girl

What is the difference between the words in A and those in B?

In B we know more about the nouns ‘box’, ‘cat’, ‘knife’ and ‘girl’. The word square,
Siamese, sharp and tall tell us something about these nouns.

Such words are called Adjectives.

Exercise 19 – Adjectives
Put suitable Adjectives in the blanks.

37
1. Izzard is …………… because he has won a prize.

2. My mother need a …………….. knife to cut the meats.

3. He was bitten by a ………….. snake.

4. Grass is …………..

5. He burnt his fingers on the …………… stove.

6. Nurul has …………… hair and …………… eyes.

7. I felt very ………….. so I switched off the fan.

8. They helped the ……………. man to cross the road.

9. Most clocks have ………….. faces.

10. We can’t do these sums. They are too …………….

Comparison of Adjectives
I am as fat as you. I am fatter than you. I am the fattest of all.

Khairul Shazwan Muaz Fiqri

The boys are making comparisons among themselves.

Khairul and Shazwan are equally fat. What words does Khairul use to compare himself
with Shazwan? He use ‘as fat as’. ‘Fat’ is called the Positive degree.

Who else is comparing himself with Shazwan? Muaz is. What does Muaz add to ‘fat’ in his
sentence? He adds ‘-er’. ‘Fatter’ is the Comparative degree of ‘fat’.

Fiqri is comparing himself with the other three boys. He uses the Superlative degree
‘fattest’ in his sentence. He has added ‘-est’ to ‘fat’.

as valuable as more valuable than most valuable


as talkative as ………………….. most talkative
as luxurious as ………………….. most luxurious
as friendly as more friendly than ……………….

38
as helpful as more helpful than ……………….

Can you complete the comparison of the adjectives by following the same pattern ? You
can see that the comparison of these adjectives is different from the one you have just
learnt. The Comparative and Superlative of these adjectives are formed by adding ‘more’
and ‘most’. Adjectives which are formed in this way usually have three or more
syllables, or they end in ‘-ful’.

as good as better than the best


as many as more than the most
as far as farther than the farthest

What is the difference between this type of comparison and those you have learnt? That
comparison of these adjectives is not regular. Such a comparison is called an irregular
comparison.

Comparison of Adjectives

Positive Comparative Superlative


Acceptable More acceptable Most acceptable
Attractive More attractive Most attractive
Bad Worse Worst
Beautiful More beautiful Most beautiful
Big Bigger Biggest
Careful More careful Most careful
Choosy More choosy Most choosy
Clever More clever Most clever
Comfortable More comfortable Most comfortable
Cold Colder Coldest
Courageous More courageous Most courageous
Dangerous More dangerous Most dangerous
Dark Darker Darkest
Disastrous More disastrous Most disastrous
Distant More distant Most distant
Easy Easier Easiest
Energetic More energetic Most energetic
Enjoyable More enjoyable Most enjoyable
Famous More famous Most famous
Far ( distance/time ) Further Furthest
Far ( distance ) Farther Farthest
Favorable More favorable Most favorable
Forgetful More forgetful Most forgetful
Fortunate More fortunate Most fortunate
Friendly More friendly Most friendly

39
Gentle Gentler Gentlest
Glorious More glorious Most glorious
Good Better Best
Harmful More harmful Most harmful
Healthy More healthy Most healthy
Helpful More helpful Most helpful
Hot Hotter Hottest
Interesting More interesting Most interesting
Kind Kinder Kindest
Large Larger Largest
Little Less Least
Long Longer Longest
Lovable More lovable Most lovable
Luxurious More luxurious Most luxurious
Many/much More Most
Marvelous More marvelous Most marvelous
Mischievous More mischievous Most mischievous
Natural More natural Most natural
Noisy More noisy Most noisy
Obedient More obedient Most obedient
Old ( people, things ) Older Oldest
Old ( people ) Elder Eldest
Patient More patient Most patient
Pleasant More pleasant Most pleasant
Pretty Prettier Prettiest
Proud Prouder Proudest
Reasonable More reasonable Most reasonable
Rich Richer Richest
Sensible More sensible Most sensible
Shady Shadier Shadiest
Small Smaller Smallest
Strong Stronger Strongest
Studious More studious Most studious
Successful More successful Most successful
Talkative More talkative Most talkative
Tall Taller Tallest
Thoughtful More thoughtful Most thoughtful
United More united Most united
Useful More useful Most useful
Valuable More valuable Most valuable
Wise Wiser Wisest
Young Younger Youngest

Exercise 20 – Comparison of Adjectives


Use each word to make three different phrases. Make any necessary changes to the
word.

40
1. Harmful

2. Quick

3. Ripe

4. Smooth

5. Sweet

6. Narrow

7. Deep

8. Lovable

9. Bad

10. Cheerfully

Adverb
Objectives:

To find out what is an adverb provides more information about a verb, adjective, or another
adverb; that is, it "qualifies" the verb, adjective, or adverb.

• Adverbs add more to the meaning of a verb, an adjective or another


adverb. Adverbs of manner answer the question ‘HOW?’ We usually put
an Adverb of Manner just after the verb.

41
• An Adverb of Time answers the question ‘WHEN?’ It is either placed at
the beginning or at the end of a sentence.

• An Adverb of Frequency or Mid-position Adverb answers the question


‘HOW OFTEN?’ It is usually placed before the verb.

• An Adverb of Place answer the question ‘WHERE?’ It is placed after the


verb.

• An Adverb of Degree answers the question ‘TO WHAT DEGREE?’ It is


usually placed before the adjective and the adverb, except ‘enough’ which
is placed after them.

Exercise 21 – Adverbs
Put the adverb correctly in each sentence.

e.g. (often) They swim in that swimming pool.

They often swim in that swimming pool.

42
1. (still) The baby is crying.

2. (never) We have met Ariff before.

3. (enough) Delilah was not tall, so she could not reach the shelf.

4. (seldom) I write to him.

5. (usually ) The boys wait for their school bus there.

6. (already) The workmen have left.

7. (ever) Have you been to Korea?

8. (always) I keep my dictionary on this shelf.

9. (sometimes) Our teacher tells us a story.

10. (often) We play netball with them.

Comparison of Adverbs
Can you remember how adjectives are compared? The comparison of adverbs is quite
similar to the comparison of adjectives.

Like adjectives, adverbs have three degrees of comparison – the Positive, the
Comparative and the Superlative.

43
Look at the comparison of the adverbs below.

Brightly More brightly Most brightly


Noisily More noisily Most noisily
Easily More easily Most easily

What similarity can you see between the three adverbs ‘brightly’, ‘noisily’ and ‘easily’?
They all end in ‘-ly’.

‘More’ and ‘most’ are added to these adverbs to form the Comparative and the
Superlative.

Look at this comparison:

as fast as faster than the fastest


as badly as worse than the worst

How many syllables are there in the adverbs ‘fast’ and ‘badly’? They are one-syllable
adverbs.

How the Comparative and the Superlative of these adverbs formed? They are formed by
adding ‘-er’ and ‘-est’.

Like some adjectives, some adverbs also form the Comparative and the Superlative
irregularly.

Look at the irregular comparisons below and study how they are formed.

Little Less than The least


Much More than The most
Badly Worse than The worst

Here are some examples of the comparison of adverbs.

Positive Comparative Superlative


As angrily as More angrily than The most angrily
As brightly as More brightly than The most brightly
As carefully as More carefully than The most carefully
As clearly as More clearly than The most clearly
As happily as More happily than The most happily
As kindly as More kindly than The most kindly
As loudly as More loudly than The most loudly
As quietly as More quietly than The most quietly
As slowly as More slowly than The most slowly

44
As fast as Faster than The fastest
As hard as Harder than The hardest
As late as Later than The latest
As long as Longer than The longest
As near as Nearer than The nearest
As soon as Sooner than The soonest
As badly as Worse than The worst
As early as Earlier than The earliest
As far as Farther than The farthest
As little as Less than The least
As much as More than The most
As well as Better than The best

Exercise 22 – Comparison of Adverbs


Give the comparative and the superlative of these adverbs
1. Well

2. Cleverly

3. Freely

4. Sweetly

5. Patiently

6. Terribly

7. Little

8. Hard

9. Bravely

45
10. Lazily

Sentence Structure
Objective:

Remember that every clause is, in a sense, a miniature sentence. Simple sentences
contain only a single clause, while a compound sentence, a complex sentence, or a
compound-complex sentence contains at least two clauses.

Simple Sentences
A simple sentence has the most basic elements that make it a sentence: a subject, a
verb, and a completed thought.

Examples of simple sentences include the following:

1. Haikal waited for the taxi.


"Haikal" = subject, "waited" = verb

46
2. The taxi was late.
"The taxi" = subject, "was" = verb

3. Daleela and Natalia took the taxi.


"Daleela and Natalia" = compound subject, "took" = verb

4. I looked for Daleela and Natalia at the taxi station.


"I" = subject, "looked" = verb

5. Daleela and Natalia arrived at the taxi station before noon and left on the taxi before
I arrived.
" Daleela and Natalia " = compound subject, "arrived" and "left" = compound verb

Tip: If you use many simple sentences in an essay, you should consider revising some of
the sentences into compound or complex sentences (explained below).

The use of compound subjects, compound verbs, prepositional phrases (such as "at the
taxi station"), and other elements help lengthen simple sentences, but simple sentences
often are short. The use of too many simple sentences can make writing "choppy" and can
prevent the writing from flowing smoothly.

A simple sentence can also be referred to as an independent clause. It is referred to as


"independent" because, while it might be part of a compound or complex sentence, it can
also stand by itself as a complete sentence.

Compound Sentences
A compound sentence refers to a sentence made up of two independent clauses (or
complete sentences) connected to one another with a coordinating conjunction.
Coordinating conjunctions are easy to remember if you think of the words "FAN BOYS":

• For

• And

• Nor

• But

• Or

• Yet

• So

47
Examples of compound sentences include the following:

1. Angelina waited for the bus, but the bus was late.

2. I looked for Britney and Kelly at the bus station, but they arrived at the station
before noon and left on the bus before I arrived.

3. Britney and Kelly arrived at the bus station before noon, and they left on the bus
before I arrived.

4. Britney and Kelly left on the bus before I arrived, so I did not see them at the bus
station.

Tip: If you rely heavily on compound sentences in an essay, you should consider revising
some of them into complex sentences (explained below).

Coordinating conjunctions are useful for connecting sentences, but compound sentences
often are overused. While coordinating conjunctions can indicate some type of relationship
between the two independent clauses in the sentence, they sometimes do not indicate
much of a relationship. The word "and," for example, only adds one independent clause to
another, without indicating how the two parts of a sentence are logically related. Too many
compound sentences that use "and" can weaken writing.

Clearer and more specific relationships can be established through the use of complex
sentences.

Complex Sentences
A complex sentence is made up of an independent clause and one or more dependent
clauses connected to it. A dependent clause is similar to an independent clause, or
complete sentence, but it lacks one of the elements that would make it a complete
sentence.

Examples of dependent clauses include the following:

• because Lionel and John arrived at the bus station before noon

• while he waited at the train station

• after they left on the bus

Dependent clauses such as those above cannot stand alone as a sentence, but they can
be added to an independent clause to form a complex sentence.

48
Dependent clauses begin with subordinating conjunctions. Below are some of the most
common subordinating conjunctions:

• after

• although

• as

• because

• before

• even though

• if

• since

• though

• unless

• until

• when

• whenever

• whereas

• wherever

• while

A complex sentence joins an independent clause with one or more dependent clauses.

The dependent clauses can go first in the sentence, followed by the independent clause,
as in the following:

Tip: When the dependent clause comes first, a comma should be used to separate the two
clauses.

1. Because Lionel and John arrived at the bus station before noon, I did not see them
at the station.

2. While he waited at the train station, Joe realized that the train was late.

3. After they left on the bus, Lionel and John realized that Joe was waiting at the train
station.

49
Conversely, the independent clauses can go first in the sentence, followed by the
dependent clause, as in the following:

Tip: When the independent clause comes first, a comma should not be used to separate
the two clauses.

1. I did not see them at the station because Mary and Samantha arrived at the bus
station before noon.

2. Joe realized that the train was late while he waited at the train station.

3. Mary and Samantha realized that Joe was waiting at the train station after they left
on the bus.

Complex sentences are often more effective than compound sentences because a
complex sentence indicates clearer and more specific relationships between the main
parts of the sentence. The word "before," for instance, tells readers that one thing occurs
before another. A word such as "although" conveys a more complex relationship than a
word such as "and" conveys.

The term periodic sentence is used to refer to a complex sentence beginning with a
dependent clause and ending with an independent clause, as in "While he waited at the
train station, Joe realized that the train was late."

Periodic sentences can be especially effective because the completed thought occurs at
the end of it, so the first part of the sentence can build up to the meaning that comes at the
end.

Exercise 23 – Comparison of Adverbs

Identify a simple sentence, compound sentence, complex sentence, or a compound-


complex sentence.

1. Kuala Lumpur is the capital of Malaysia, but Seoul is the capital of Korea.

a) Simple Sentence

b) Compound Sentence

c) Complex Sentence

d) Compound-Complex Sentence

50
2. Democracy is a noble goal; it is important, however, to protect the minority from the
tyranny of the majority.

a) Simple Sentence

b) Compound Sentence

c) Complex Sentence

d) Compound-Complex Sentence

3. I do not own a Sony Ericsson headphone.

a) Simple Sentence

b) Compound Sentence

c) Complex Sentence

d) Compound-Complex Sentence

4. Call your lovely grandparents as soon as you arrive in Kota Bharu.

a) Simple Sentence

b) Compound Sentence

c) Complex Sentence

d) Compound-Complex Sentence

5. I ate the chicken rice and left the restaurant.

a) Simple Sentence

b) Compound Sentence

c) Complex Sentence

d) Compound-Complex Sentence

6. Unless my cousin postpones her visit from Hungary, I will not have time to study for
my test.

a) Simple Sentence

b) Compound Sentence

c) Complex Sentence

d) Compound-Complex Sentence

51
7. Hannah wanted to be here, but she cannot come because her gorgeous car is in the
shop.

a) Simple Sentence

b) Compound Sentence

c) Complex Sentence

d) Compound-Complex Sentence

8. The softball game was cancelled because it was raining.

a) Simple Sentence

b) Compound Sentence

c) Complex Sentence

d) Compound-Complex Sentence

9. The football game was cancelled because of the rain.

a) Simple Sentence

b) Compound Sentence

c) Complex Sentence

d) Compound-Complex Sentence

10. When the train arrives and if Ms. Langlois is on it, she will be served with a subpoena.

a) Simple Sentence

b) Compound Sentence

c) Complex Sentence

d) Compound-Complex Sentence

Answer: 5. Subject-Verb-Object
Exercise 1: 6. Subject-Verb
7. Subject-Verb-Adjective
1. Subject-Verb-Adverb 8. Subject-Verb-Adverb
2. Subject-Verb 9. Subject-Verb-Object
3. Subject-Verb-Adjective 10. Subject-Verb-Noun
4. Subject-Verb-Noun

52
Exercise 2: 5. Grass
6. Horses
1. Fruit 7. Motorcars
2. Airplane 8. Eggs
3. Baby 9. Monkeys
4. Sky 10. Singers
5. Policeman
6. River Exercise 6:
7. Classroom
8. Clothes 1. The boy’s ball
9. Cow 2. The girl’s doll
10. pencils 3. The woman’s basket
4. The teacher’s book
Exercise 3: 5. The pupil’s bags
6. The Mr. Hamzah’s cat
1. (grandfather, horse) 7. The uncle Zarif’s pipe
2. (gardener, daughter) 8. The woman dresses
3. (dogs, meat) 9. The elephant trunk
4. (brother) 10. The owl’s eye
5. (dog, boy)
6. (hunter, bear) Exercise 7:
7. (actress, girl)
8. (niece, girl) 1. Hers
9. (servant) 2. Mine
10. (fairy, princess) 3. His
4. Yours
Exercise 4: 5. His
6. Yours
1. Much 7. Mine
2. A little 8. Ours
3. Much 9. Hers
4. A few 10. Theirs
5. A few
6. A little Exercise 8:
7. Many
8. A few 1. Him
9. Many 2. We
10. Much 3. He
4. Him
Exercise 5: 5. I
6. They
1. Angels 7. She
2. Drawers 8. It
3. Bushes 9. Them
4. Labourers 10. Me

Exercise 9: 4. Herself
5. Herself
1. Myself 6. Herself
2. Itself 7. Ourselves
3. Ourselves 8. Himself

53
9. Yourself 5. Which
10. Themselves 6. Who
7. Whom
Exercise 10: 8. That
9. Which
1. Whose 10. That
2. That
3. Who
4. Whom
Exercise 11:

No. Every day Now Yesterday Already


1. He runs He is running He ran He has run
2. I choose I am choosing I chose I have chosen
3. They make They are making They made They have made
4. She drives She is driving She drove She has driven
5. They hit They are hitting They hit They have it
6. We begin We are beginning We began We have begun
7. He hears He is hearing He heard He has heard
8. I beat I am beating I beat I have beaten
9. We leave We are leaving We left We have left
10. You cry You are crying You cried You have cried

Exercise 12: 1. Have not gone


2. Have worked
1. Is raining 3. Have taken
2. Is swimming 4. Has waited
3. Is sleeping 5. Have lived
4. Is climbing 6. Has not eaten
5. Are barking 7. Has stayed
6. Are waiting 8. Has not rained
7. Is crying 9. Has been
8. Is looking 10. Have not done
9. Am holding
10. Are sleeping Exercise 15:
1. Lived
Exercise 13: 2. Not played
3. Not cut
1. Does not live, lives 4. Found
2. Shine, glitters 5. Wrote
3. Keeps, does 6. Broke
4. Leave, return 7. Shut
5. Thinks, is 8. Not done
6. Like, do not like 9. Waited
7. Eat, talk 10. Not came
8. Has, is
9. Is speaks Exercise 16:
10. Help, has
1. Was running
Exercise 14: 2. Was leaving

54
3. Was rushing 7. Cold
4. Was having 8. Old
5. Were waiting 9. Smiling
6. Was sleeping 10. Difficult
7. Were eating
8. Were dressing Exercise 20:
9. Were writing
10. Were walking Positive Comparativ Superlative
e
Exercise 17: Harmful More Most
harmful harmful
1. He said that he had not locked the Quick Quicker Quickest
door. Ripe Riper Ripest
2. She said that she had seen the Smooth Smoother Smoothest
film. Sweet Sweeter Sweetest
3. They said that they had gone there Narrow Narrower Narrowest
by bus. Deep Deeper Deepest
4. He said that he had read the Lovable More Most
poem. lovable lovable
5. They said that they had cleaned Bad Worse Worst
the car. Cheerful More Most
6. She said that she had picked some cheerful cheerful
flowers.
7. He said that he had rung the bell. Exercise 21:
8. He said that he had cut the tree.
9. She said that she had seen Sierra 1. The baby is still crying.
in the library. 2. We have never met Ariff before.
10. She said that her sister had gone 3. Delilah was not tall enough, so she
out. could not reach the shelf.
4. I seldom write to him.
Exercise 18: 5. The boys usually wait for their
school bus there.
1. Will 6. The workmen have already left.
2. Will 7. Have you ever been to Korea?
3. Shall 8. I always keep my dictionary on this
4. Will shelf.
5. Shall 9. Our teacher sometimes tells us a
6. Will story.
7. Will 10. We often play netball with them.
8. Will
9. Will
10. Will

Exercise 19:

1. Champion
2. Sharp
3. Poisonous
4. Green
5. Hot
6. Black, beautiful Exercise 22:

55
bravely bravely
Positive Comparativ Superlative Lazily More lazily Most lazily
e
Well Better Best Exercise 23:
Cleverly More Most
cleverly cleverly 1. B
Freely More freely Most freely 2. C
Sweetly More Most 3. A
sweetly sweetly 4. C
Patiently More Most 5. B
patiently patiently 6. C
Terribly More Most 7. B
terribly terribly 8. C
Little Less Least 9. C
Hard Harder Hardest 10. D
Bravely More Most

56