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# AS and A Level Physics Original material Cambridge University Press 2010 1

31 Worksheet (A2)
1 The flowchart below shows the components that make up an electronic sensor.

What are the names of the missing components? [2]
2 A thermistor is an example of a sensing device.
a Sketch the temperature characteristic of a negative temperature coefficient thermistor. [2]
b State the name of one other sensing device. [1]
3 a Describe the structure of a metal-wire strain gauge. [2]
b A strain gauge contains 15 cm of wire of resistivity 5.0 10
7
m. The resistance of the
strain gauge is 150 .
i Calculate the cross-sectional area of the wire in the strain gauge. [2]
ii Calculate the increase in resistance when the wire extends by 0.1 cm, assuming that
the cross-sectional area and resistivity remain constant. [1]
4 a What is meant by negative feedback? [2]
b State two advantages of negative feedback in an operational amplifier. [2]
5 The circuit shown is used to produce a graph of V
out
against V
in
by moving the slider on the
variable resistor. The supply voltage to the op-amp is + V
s
.

sensing
device
31 Worksheet
AS and A Level Physics Original material Cambridge University Press 2010 2
The graph obtained is shown.

a State the type of amplifier drawn. Explain how the graph shows that the
amplifier is of this type. [2]
b State why the graph flattens at the ends. [1]
c Suggest the value that was used for the supply voltage V
s
. [1]
d State what changes occur to the graph if:
i R
in
is halved in value but R
f
is kept unchanged [2]
ii R
f
is halved in value but R
in
is unchanged from the initial value [1]
iii the supply voltage V
s
is increased. [1]
e The variable resistor is removed and an a.c. signal of maximum voltage 1.0 V
is applied to the input of the amplifier circuit. Sketch the output voltage and
input voltage on the same graph. [2]
f Explain why the amplifier circuit produces distortion if an a.c. signal with a maximum
voltage of 3.0 V is applied to the input. [2]
6 In the circuit shown in question 5 the input voltage V
in
is 1.0 V and R
in
is 2.0 k.
a Explain why the potential at the inverting input () is almost zero. [2]
b State the value of the fall in potential across R
in
. [1]
c Calculate the current in R
in
. [1]
d Explain why the current in R
f
is the same as the current in R
in
. [1]
e Determine the value of R
f
. You will need to use the graph from question 5. [1]
7 An electrical device generates a potential of +1.0 mV at point P.

a State two properties of an ideal operational amplifier. [2]
b Assuming that the operational amplifier is ideal, calculate:
i the current in the 10 k resistor [2]
ii the potential at R [1]
iii the gain of the amplifier using your answer to b ii [1]
iv the potential difference between R and Q. [1]
31 Worksheet
AS and A Level Physics Original material Cambridge University Press 2010 3
8 The circuit shows a non-inverting amplifier with an output voltage of 8.0 V.

a State two differences between an op-amp used as an inverting amplifier and as
a non-inverting amplifier. [2]
b Calculate the gain of the amplifier shown in the circuit. [2]
c Calculate the value of the input voltage V
in
. [1]
d Calculate the value of the current in the 40 k resistor. [2]
e Determine the voltage across the 20 k resistor. [1]
9 The circuit shows an op-amp used as a comparator.

a Explain how the op-amp acts as a comparator. [2]
b State the value of V
out
when V

is larger than V
+
. [1]
c The resistors and the thermistors are all chosen to have the same resistance, as closely as can
be measured.
i Explain why the value of V
out
is uncertain. [1]
ii The temperature of thermistor X falls.
Explain what, if anything, happens to V

, V
+
and V
out
. [3]
10 A device is to be placed on the output of the circuit shown in question 9, such that when the output
voltage is +9 V green light is emitted and when the output voltage is 9 V the light emitted is red.
a Draw the circuit diagram of the device. [2]
b Explain how the device works. [2]

Total:
58
Score: %