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31 Worksheet (A2)

1 The flowchart below shows the components that make up an electronic sensor.

What are the names of the missing components? [2]

2 A thermistor is an example of a sensing device.

a Sketch the temperature characteristic of a negative temperature coefficient thermistor. [2]

b State the name of one other sensing device. [1]

3 a Describe the structure of a metal-wire strain gauge. [2]

b A strain gauge contains 15 cm of wire of resistivity 5.0 10

7

m. The resistance of the

strain gauge is 150 .

i Calculate the cross-sectional area of the wire in the strain gauge. [2]

ii Calculate the increase in resistance when the wire extends by 0.1 cm, assuming that

the cross-sectional area and resistivity remain constant. [1]

4 a What is meant by negative feedback? [2]

b State two advantages of negative feedback in an operational amplifier. [2]

5 The circuit shown is used to produce a graph of V

out

against V

in

by moving the slider on the

variable resistor. The supply voltage to the op-amp is + V

s

.

sensing

device

31 Worksheet

AS and A Level Physics Original material Cambridge University Press 2010 2

The graph obtained is shown.

a State the type of amplifier drawn. Explain how the graph shows that the

amplifier is of this type. [2]

b State why the graph flattens at the ends. [1]

c Suggest the value that was used for the supply voltage V

s

. [1]

d State what changes occur to the graph if:

i R

in

is halved in value but R

f

is kept unchanged [2]

ii R

f

is halved in value but R

in

is unchanged from the initial value [1]

iii the supply voltage V

s

is increased. [1]

e The variable resistor is removed and an a.c. signal of maximum voltage 1.0 V

is applied to the input of the amplifier circuit. Sketch the output voltage and

input voltage on the same graph. [2]

f Explain why the amplifier circuit produces distortion if an a.c. signal with a maximum

voltage of 3.0 V is applied to the input. [2]

6 In the circuit shown in question 5 the input voltage V

in

is 1.0 V and R

in

is 2.0 k.

a Explain why the potential at the inverting input () is almost zero. [2]

b State the value of the fall in potential across R

in

. [1]

c Calculate the current in R

in

. [1]

d Explain why the current in R

f

is the same as the current in R

in

. [1]

e Determine the value of R

f

. You will need to use the graph from question 5. [1]

7 An electrical device generates a potential of +1.0 mV at point P.

a State two properties of an ideal operational amplifier. [2]

b Assuming that the operational amplifier is ideal, calculate:

i the current in the 10 k resistor [2]

ii the potential at R [1]

iii the gain of the amplifier using your answer to b ii [1]

iv the potential difference between R and Q. [1]

31 Worksheet

AS and A Level Physics Original material Cambridge University Press 2010 3

8 The circuit shows a non-inverting amplifier with an output voltage of 8.0 V.

a State two differences between an op-amp used as an inverting amplifier and as

a non-inverting amplifier. [2]

b Calculate the gain of the amplifier shown in the circuit. [2]

c Calculate the value of the input voltage V

in

. [1]

d Calculate the value of the current in the 40 k resistor. [2]

e Determine the voltage across the 20 k resistor. [1]

9 The circuit shows an op-amp used as a comparator.

a Explain how the op-amp acts as a comparator. [2]

b State the value of V

out

when V

is larger than V

+

. [1]

c The resistors and the thermistors are all chosen to have the same resistance, as closely as can

be measured.

i Explain why the value of V

out

is uncertain. [1]

ii The temperature of thermistor X falls.

Explain what, if anything, happens to V

, V

+

and V

out

. [3]

10 A device is to be placed on the output of the circuit shown in question 9, such that when the output

voltage is +9 V green light is emitted and when the output voltage is 9 V the light emitted is red.

a Draw the circuit diagram of the device. [2]

b Explain how the device works. [2]

Total:

58

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