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Date: 2065/4/20 Digital control system: The rapid increase in the use of digital controller in the controlled system is due to its achievement in the optimum performance. Digital control system provides optimal performance in the form of maximum productivity, maximum profit, minimum cost or minimum energy use etc. The application of computer control has made possible the intelligent motion in industrial robots, the optimization of the fuel economy in automobiles and refinement in the operations of house hold appliances and machines such as microwave ovens, washing machine, Airconditioning. Decision making capability and flexibility in the control programs are major advantages of digital control system. The current trend towards rather then analog control system is mainly due do the availability of low cost digital computers and the advantages found in working with digital signals rather then continuous time signals. Basic Blocks of Digital control system:
+ S/H and ADC Digital Control System DAC Hold Circuit Actuator Plant or Process

Clock
Digital Control
Transducer
Figure 1 shows the basic block diagram or principle of DCS . The controller operation is performed or controlled by the clock. In Discrete times control system: Discrete time control system is such a DCS points of the systems pass signals of varying control system in which one or more variable can change only at amplitude either in continuous time or discrete time or in discrete instants of time. These instants which are denoted by KT numerical code. 1
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1. Sample and Hold ( S/H) : It is the circuit that receives an analog input signal and holds this signals at a constant value for a specified period of time. Usually the signal is electrical but it may be optical or mechanical. 2. ADC: ADC also called an encoder is a device that converts an analog signal into a digital signal, usually a numerically coded signal in binary form. Such a converter is need as an interface between an analog component and the digital component. Basically ADC involves sampling , quantizing and encoding. 3. Digital Computer: The digital computer processes the sequences of numbers by mean of an algorithm an produces an new sequences of numbers. 4. DAC: DAC also called an decoder is a device that converts a digital signal ( Numerically coded data) into an analog signal. It acts as an the interfacing device between the digital component and an analog component. The real time clock in the computer synchronizes the events. The output of the hold circuit which is continuous time signal is fed the plant either directly or through the actuator which controls the dynamics of the system ( i.e it smoothens the slope of the signal) 5. Plant or process: A plant is a physical object to be controlled. The examples are a furnace, chemical reactors and a set of machine parts functioning together to perform a particular operations such as servo system etc. 6. Transducer/sensor: A transducer is a device that converts an input signal into an output signal of a another form such as device that converts a temperature into a voltage output ( thermistor or thermocouple ), an optical signal into voltage ( phototransistor )
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or tk ( k =0, 1, 2, ………), specify the times at which some physical measurements is performed. The time interval between two discrete instants is taken to be sufficiently short that the data for the time between them can be approximated by simple interpolation. Date: 2065/4/21 Data Acquisition, Conversion and Distribution: Data Acquisition system:
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Fig.1 shows the diagram of data acquisition system. The basic parameters are explained below: 1. Physical variable: The input to the system is a physical variable such as position, velocity, acceleration, temperature, pressure etc. 2. Transducer amplifier and low pass filter: The physical variables (which are generally in nonelectrical form) is first converted into an electrical signal (a voltage or a current signal) by a suitable transducer. Amplifier then amplifies the voltage output of the transducer (i.e the signal have rises to the necessary level). The LPF follows the amplifier which attenuates the high frequency signal components such as noise signals which are random in nature. The o/p of LPF is an analog signal. The signal is then fed to an analog multiplexer. 3. Analog Multiplexer: It is a device that performs the function of time sharing and ADC among many analog channels. It is a multiple switch (usually an electronic switch) that switches sequentially among many analog input channels in some prescribed fashion. The no of channels may be 4,8,16. 4. Sample and hold circuit: A simpler in a digital system converts an analog signal into an train of amplitude modulated pulses. The hold circuit holds the value of the sampled pulse signal over a specified period of time. It is necessary in the AD converter to produce a number that accurately represents the i/p signal at the sampling instant. Assignment: 1. Draw a circuit of sample and hold and explain its basic operation. 5. ADC: The output of sample and hold is then fed to the AD converter. The o/p of the converter is the signal in digital form which is fed to the digital controller. In this way data acquisition system is held.
Data Distribution:
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1. Register: The o/p of digital controller is then stored for a certain period of time in a memory device called register. 2. Multiplexer: The demultiplexer , which is synchronized with the i/p sampling signal, separates the composite o/p signal which is in the from of digital data from the digital controller into the original channels. Each channel is connected to DAC to produce the o/p analog signal for that channel. 3. DAC: At the o/p of the digital controller, the digital must be converted to an analog signal by the process called D/A conversion. For the full range of digital i/p, there are 2n different analog values , including zero. 4. Hold: The sampling operation produces an amplitude modulated pulse signal. The function of hold operation is to reconstruct the analog signal that has been transmitted as a train of pulse samples. The purpose of hold operation is to fill the spaces between the sampling periods and thus roughly reconstruct the original analog input signal which is then fed to the actuator which smoothens the slope of signal. 5. Plant or process: A plant is a physical object to be controlled. The examples are a furnace, chemical reactors and a set of machine parts functioning together to perform a particular operations such as servo system etc. Data conversion Process: SIGNAL SAMPLING ,QUANTIZING AND ENCODING Signal sampling is the first step of transmission of analog signal over digital signal. 1. Sampling: Sampling is the process of conversion of continuous time analog signal into discrete time analog signal.
The discrete signal obtained after sampling is called sampled signal. Sampling Theorem: It states “Analog signal can be reproduce from an appropriate set of its samples taken at some fixed intervals of time.” This theorem has made possible to transmit only samples of analog signal by changing or encoding this samples into block of code words suitable for digital control systems. If fs = sampling frequency fx = maximum frequency component of the i/p signal, then the distortion less recovery of the signal fs ≥ 2fx If the signal x(t) to be sampled is band limited , then the sampled signal can be represented as: xs(t) = x(t) × g(t) Where, g(t) is the sampling function (rectangular pulse train) which be represented as shown below.
g(s)
Ts τ  τ/2 τ/2
Fig.1 Rectangular pulse train Where , Ts = Sapling period. τ = duration of sampling pulse= pulse width Sampler can be implemented as:
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x(t)
xs(t)= x(t)×g(t)
g(t)
Fig.2 Implementation of sampler Proof of sampling theorem: The gate function g(t) can be expressed interms of fourier series as
g (t ) = c o + ∑n =1 2c n cos(nω s t )
∞
Where, co = τ/ Ts = τfs Cn = fs τ sinc[nfs τ ] = co sinc[nfsτ] ωs =2 πfs The signal xs(t) can be expressed as xs = x(t)×g(t) ∞ = x(t)×[ c o + ∑n =1 2c n cos(nω s t ) ] = cox(t)+2c1x(t)cos ωnt+2c2x(t)cos2 ωst+……….+2cnx(t)cosn ωst+………… The fourier transform of above series as xs(f) =co(f)+2c1x(ffs)+2c2x(f2fs)+…………+2cn x(f+nfs)+……. The above series can be graphically represented as:
x(f)
fx
fx
It is clear from fig.4 that the spectrum of the sampled signal contains the spectrum of the sampled signal contains the spectrum of the original message signal.
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Fig.3. Message spectrum
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Date:2065/4/26 It is evident that for distortion less recovery of original message signal, from the spectrum of the sampled signal, the following condition should be met. fs ≥ fx In this case the original message signal spectra can be recovered by passing the sampled signal through low pass filter with bandwidth equaling to ± fx Distortion will occur while recovering the message spectrum if. fs ≤ fx The distortion in the above case is caused by the overlapping of side bands and message spectra.
Xs(f)
The minimum sampling rate: fs min = 2fs is called Nyquists’s sampling rate for distortion less recovery of one message spectrum. The minimum interval of the sampling for a real signal is Ts min = 1/2fx(min) Where fx(min) = maximum frequency in the message spectrum. Quantizing and Quantization error:
x(t)
2 1 (a)
o
Xs(f)
aliasign ditortion (fs<2fx)
xs(n) 1 2 3 1.8 0.9 0.9 (b) xq (n) 1 2 3
4
5 6 7 1.8 1.7 1.7
t
0.5 4 5 6 7 n
o
2 1 (c) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 n
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Fig. 1(a) continuous  continuous value signal 1(b) Discrete time  continuous value signal 1(c) Discrete time  discrete value signal. Quantization is the process of representing the analog sample values by a finite set of levels. The sampling process coverts a continuous time signal to a discrete time signal with amplitude and that can take any values from zero to maximum level and the quantization process converts continuous amplitude samples to a finite set of discrete amplitude values. The output sates of each quantized sample is then described by a numerical code. The process of representing a sampled value by a numerical code is called encoding . Thus encoding is a process of assigning a digital word to each discrete states. In uniform quantization it is assumed that the range of input sample is –xmax to xmax and the number of quantization level, known as Qlevel, N=2n. Where, n = is the number of bits per source sample , then the step size △ on length of the Q level is assumed to be, △ = 2xmax / N = 2xmax/2n = 2xmax/ 2n1 △ = xmax/2n1 The step size ‘△’ is also called ‘quantum’. Quantization error: Since the number of bits in the digital word is finite , ie the digital output can assume only a finite number of levels and therefore 7
analog number must be round off to the nearest digital level. Hence any ADC involves quantization error. It is evident that the maximum Q error could be only △/2. In uniform quantization the steps size △ is constant for the entire dynamic range of the input discrete signal level. Q error depends on the fineness of the quantization level and can be made as small as desire by making the quantization level smaller or by increasing the number of bits ‘n’. In practice there is a maximum for n and so there is always some error due to quantization. The uncertainty present in the quantization process results quantization noise. Signal to quantization noise ratio (SQNR): It is evident that the Qerror ( i.e qe) lies between – △/2 to △/2 in random manner , the average power of Qnoise is therefore given by,
Pq = 1 ∆
∆ − 2
∫q
∆ 2
2 e
dq e
= Pq =
∆2 …………………..(i) 12
It is seen form equation (1) that Qnoise is dependent on stepsize ‘△’ only. Reducing the stepsize or increasing the no of representation level, we can reduce pq and hence Qerror. From equ (1) Pq = △2/12 But, △= xmax /2n1 Pq = (xmax/2n1)/12 = xmax2/3×4n ……….(ii)
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Assume that the average signal power is x , SQNR for uniform quantization will be, SQNR = average power of signal/ average power of noise. ˆ QSNR = x 2 × 3 × 4 n ……………………(iii) Where,
ˆ x2 = x2 = Normalized signal power. x2
3
2
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, we consider only the sampled values of x(t) , i.e x(0), x(T) , x(2T),………, where ‘T’ is sampling period. The ztransform of a time function x(t) , where ‘t’ is non – negative or of a sequence of values x(kT) , where k = 0,1,2,3 … X(z) = z[x(t)] =
∑ x(kT ) z
k =0
∞
−k
…………….(i)
Or , X(z) = z[x(t)] =
Again , equation (iii) can be reproduce in dB, as
(QSNR ) dB = Px (dB) + 10 log 10 + 10 log 10 (4) n
∑
∞
k =0
x ( k ) z − 1 …………….(ii), for T=1
= Px (dB) + 4.8 + 10n log 10
Where,
ˆ Px (dB) = 10(log10 ( x 2 )dB
The ztransform defined by equation (i) and (ii) is onesided ztransform . The both sided ( or double sided) ztransform is defined by: X(z) = z[x(t)] = z[x(k)] =
Thus, (QSNR)dB = Px+4.8+6n………………….(iv) Also, SQNR(dB) = Px +4.8+20 log10N …………….(v ) [since, N= 2n] And for N>> 1 SQNR = 20 log10N …………….(vi) Which is approximated SQNR for uniform quantization interms of level of quantization “N”. Assignmet:1 1. Simple and hold ckt. Analog multiplexer and Demultiplexer.
k = −∞
∑ x(kT ) z
∞
−1
ztransform of Elementary function: (i) Step unit function: The unit step function defined by
⎧1 ⎪ x(t ) = ⎨ ⎪0 ⎩ for t≥0
∞
otherwise
k =0
Thus , X(z) = z[x(t)] = z[1(t)]= ∑ 1.z − k = 1 + z +z2+z3 +………. Date:2065/5/1
1 1 + z −1 1 Therefore, z[1(t)] = 1 + z −1
1
=
Review of Ztransform: mathematical tool commonly used for the analysis and synthesis of discrete time control system is the ztransform. In considering the ztransform of a time function x(t)
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Or, z[1(t)] =
z , z −1
z >1
Or, z[ak] =
1 1 − az −1
2. Unit Ramp Function: The unit ramp function is defined by
⎧t ⎪ x(t ) = ⎨ ⎪0 ⎩ for t≥0 otherwise
4. Exponential function:
⎧e at ⎪ x(t ) = ⎨ ⎪0 ⎩ for t≥0 otherwise
Or, x(KT) = KT for k = 0,1,2,3…………. Thus, X(z) = z[x(t)] = z[t] = Or, X(z) =
∑ t.z
k =0
∞
Where, x(kT) = eakT, K = 0,1,2……….. We have, X(z) = z[eat] = X(z) =
1 1− e
− aT
−k
∑e
k =0
∞
− akT
z −k
∑ ( KT ) z
k =0
∞
Or, X(z) = 1 + eaTz1+e2aTz2+e3aTz3………
−k
= k(z +2z +3z ……..) = T. X(z) =
−1
1
2
3
z
−1
=
z z − e − aT
z −1 (1 − z −1 ) 2
5. Sinusoidal Function:
⎧sin ωt for ⎪ x(t ) = ⎨ ⎪0 t<0 ⎩ t≥0
T .z (1 − z −1 ) 2
3. Polynomial Function: The polynomial function is defined by
⎧a k ⎪ x(t ) = ⎨ ⎪0 ⎩ k = 0,1,2,3....... K <0
Noting , ejwt = coswt +jsinwt ejwt = coswtjsinwt we have , Sinwt = 1/2j[ejwtejwt] & coswt = 1/2[ejwt+ejwt] We know that, Z[eat] =
1 1 − e − at z −1
Where a is constant. Then, X(z) = z[x(k)] = z[aK] = X(k) =
∑ x(k ) z
k =0
∞
−k
∑a
k =0
∞
k
z
−k
= 1 + az1 +a 2z2+ a3z3+…………… Z[ak] =
1 1 − az −1
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Z[ejwt] =
1
1 − e jwT z −1 1 Z[ejwt] = − jwT −1 1− e z
3. Multiplication by ak : If z[x(k)] = X(z) , then Z[akx(k)] = X(a1z)
∞ ∞
Therefore, z[sinwt] = z[ 1/2j(ejwtejwt)] = 1/2j[z(ejwt)z(ejwt)]
⎤ = 1/2j ⎡ ⎢1 − e jwt z −1 − 1 − e − jwt z −1 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣
1 1
Proof: Z[ akx(k)] =
∑ a k x(k ) z − k = ∑ x(k )(a −1 z ) − k
k =0
= X(a1z)
k =0
Z[sinwt] = Similarly,
z −1 sin wt 1 − 2 z −1 cos wt + z − 2
4. Shifting theorem: If x(t) = 0 for t< 0 and Z x(t) X(z) Then, z[x(tnT)] = zn X(z)
⎡ ⎣
Z[coswt] =
z −1 cos wt 1 − 2 z −1 cos wt + z − 2
……………(i)
n −1
Important properties of ztransform: 1. Multiplication by a constant: If x(t)
Z
And , z[x(t+nT)] = zn ⎢ X ( z ) − ∑ x( KT ) z − k ⎥ …………..(ii)
k =0
⎤ ⎦
X(z), then,
Where, n is zero or +ve integer. Proof: For equation (i) We know that , z[x(tnT)] = z[x(KTnT)] = z[x(kn)T] Or, z[x(tnT)] = by liner =
Z[ax(t)] = az[x(t)] = ax(z) Where ‘a’ is a constant. 2. Linearity of Ztransform: If z[f(t)] = z[f(kT)] = z[f(k)] = F(z) Z[g(t)] = z[g(kT)] = z[g(k)] = G(z) And a and b be scalers then then x(k) formed combination, x(k) = a f(k) + b g(k) Has the ztransfom X(z) = a F(z) +G(z)
∑ x(k − n).Tz
k =0 ∞ k =0 ∞
∞
−k
∑ x(k − n).T .z
k =0
−(k −n)
.z − n
= z − n .∑ x(k − n).T .z − ( k − n ) Let us define kn = m , therefore,
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Z[x(mT)] = z . ∑ x(mT ).z
−n m=−n
∞
−m
= X(eaTz) = X (zeaT)
Since ‘m’ must be zero and nonnegative integer Therefore, z[x(mT)] = znX(z) For equation (ii) Z[x(t+nT) = z[ x(KT+nT)] = z[x(K+n)T] Or, z[x(t+nT)] = =
5. Initial value Theorem: lim If x(t) has the ztransform X(z) and if z ⎯⎯→ ∞ X ( z ) exist then, the initial value x(0) of x(t) is given by ,
lim x(0) = z ⎯⎯→ ∞ X ( z )
∑ x(k + n).Tz
k =0 ∞ k =0 ∞
∞
−k
6. Final Value Theorem:
∑ x(k + n).T .z −( k + n) .z n
k =0
lim lim k ⎯⎯→ ∞ x(k ) = z ⎯⎯→ 1 (1 − z −1 ) X ( z )
[
]
= z n .∑ x(k + n).T .z − ( k + n ) Let us define, K+n = m Z[x(mT)] = z − n .∑ x(mT ).z − m
m=n m =0 ⎣m =0 n −1 ∞ ⎡ ⎤ = z n ⎢ ∑ x(mT ).z − m − ∑ x(mT ).z − m ⎥. m =0 ⎣m =0 ⎦ ∞
Assignment # 02: 1. Prove all the important properties of ztransform. Example: 01: Obtain the ztransform of x(s) = Solution: Given, x(s) =
1 s ( s + 1) A B + = s s +1 1 s ( s + 1)
= z n ⎢ ∑ x(mT ).z − m − ∑ x(mT ).z − m + ∑ x(mT ).z − m ⎥.
m=n
⎡ n −1
n −1
∞
⎤ ⎦
4. Complex translation Theorem: Z If x(t) X(z), then, at Z e x(t) X(zeaT) Proof: Z[eatx(t)] = =
Where, A =
1 .s s ( s + 1) s = 0
A=1 And, B =
1 .( s + 1) s = −1 s ( s + 1) 1 1 − s s +1
∑e
k =0 ∞ k =0
∞
− akT
x(kT ).z − k
B = 1 Therefore, x(s) =
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∑ x(kT ).(e aT z ) −k
Taking inverse Laplace Transform, we have, x(t) = 1 – et Again taking ztransform on both sides, Z[x(t)] = z [ 1 – et] = z[1] – z[et] =
1 1 − −1 1− z 1 − e −T z −1 / / 1 − e −T z −1 − 1 + z −1 = −1 (1 − z )(1 − e −T z −1 )
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Z[sinwt] =
Z −1 sin ωT = X ( z) 1 − 2 z −1 cos wT + z −1
We know that, Z[eatx(kT)] = X[zeakT] Therefore , z[eatsinwT] =
e − aT z −1 sin wt 1 − 2e − aT z −1 cos wt + e − 2 aT z − 2
=
(1 − e ) z (1 − z −1 )(1 − e −T z −1 )
⎧a k −1 k = 0,1,2,3....... ⎪ f (a) = ⎨ ⎪0 K ≤0 ⎩
−T
−1
Example 04: Consider the function y(k) , which is sum of functions x(h) where, h = 0, 1, 2 …….k , Such that y(k) =
Example: 02 Obtain the ztransform of
∑ x(h),
h=0
k
k = 0,1,2.....
Where y(k) = 0 for k < 0 . Obtained the ztransform of y(k). Solution: Given, y(k) =
Z[f(a)] =
∑
k =0
∞
f (a).z
−k
∑ x (h)
h=0
k
1 Here, z[x(k)] = z[ak] = = X (k ) 1 − az −1
Then, z[x(k1)] = z[ak1] = z1.X(z) Therefore, z[ak1] = z1 ⎢1 − az −1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Z[ak1] =
z −1 1 − az −1
or, y(k) = x(0) + x(1) + x(2) + x(3)+………….+ x(k)(i) similarly, y(k1) = x(0)+ x(2)+ x(3)+ ……….+x(k1) (ii) Now from (i) and (ii) gives. y(k) – y(k1) = x(k) Now taking ztransform on both sides, Z[y(k) – y(k1)] = z[x(k)] Y(z) – z1Y(z) = X(z) Y(z) [1z1] = X(z) Date:2065/5/3 Therefore, Y(z) = X(z)/ ( 1z1) Ans. Example 05: Obtained the ztransform of t.eat. Given,
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⎡
1
⎤
Example:03 obtained the ztrasform [i] eat sinωt [ii] eat cosωt [i] eatsinωt We know that
x(t) = t e x(kT) = kT eat We know z –transform of t is given by, z[t] = Tz1/(1z1)2 Using complex translational theorem, Z[eat.t] = Teat.z1/(1eatz1)2 Example 06: Determine the initial value x(0) if, X(z) = (1eT)/(1z1)(1eTz1) Solution: Given, X(z) = (1eT)/(1z1)(1eTz1) We know initial value theorem is given by , lim X(0) = z ⎯⎯→ ∞X ( z )
(1 − e −T ) z −1 = z ⎯⎯→ ∞ (1 − z −1 )(1 − e −T z −1 )
lim
at
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The inverse ztransform: (1) Direct division method: Example 01: Find x(k) for k = 0, 1,3,4. When X(z) is given by , X(z) = (10z+5)/(z1)(z0.2) Solution: X(z) = (10z+5)/(z1)(z0.2) = (10z+5)/(z2 1.2z+0.2) = (10z1+ 5z2)/(11.2z1+0.2z2)
10 z −1 + 5 z −2 10 z −1 − 12 z − 2 + 2 z −3 17 z − 2 − 2 z −3 17 z − 2 − 20.4 z −3 + 3.4 z − 4 +18.4 z −3 + 3.4 z − 4 18.4 z −3 − 22.08 z − 4 + 3.68 z −5 18.68 z − 4 − 3.68 z −5 18.68 z − 4 − 22.416 z −5 + 3.7362 z − 6 18.736 z −5 − 3.7362 z − 6
= 0 Ans. Example 07: Determine the final value x(∞) of X(z) =
1 1 − −1 − aT −1 1− z 1− e z
a>0
Solution: From final value theorem, lim x(∞) = z ⎯⎯→1[(1 − z −1 ) X ( z )]
1 1 ⎤⎤ − ⎥ −1 1 − e aT z −1 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣1 − z ⎦ ⎣ ⎡ 1 − z −1 ⎤ lim = z ⎯⎯→1⎢1 − − aT −1 ⎥ ⎣ 1− e z ⎦ ⎡ z −1 ⎤ lim = z ⎯⎯→ 1⎢1 − − aT ⎥ ⎣ z−e ⎦
lim = z ⎯⎯→1⎢(1 − z −1 )⎡ ⎢
⎡
Quotient of the x(z) gives the inverse ztransform is given by X(0) = 0 X(1) = 10 X(2) = 17 X(3) = 18. 4 X(4) = 18.68 Example 02: Find x(k) when X(z) is given by X(z) = 1/(z+1)
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= 10 = 1 Ans.
Example 03: Obtained x(k) for X(z) = z / (1 az ) X(z) = z1/(1az1) = z1[X(z)] Where, Y(z) = 1/(1az1) The inverse ztransform of Y(z) is z1[Y(z)] = ak So, the inverse ztransform of (z) = z1[Y(z)] z1[X(z)] = ak1 = y(k1) Therefore, x(k) = y(k1) = ak1 2. partial fraction method: We use the following formula for the function written in the form
an a1 a2 X ( z) = = + ............ Z z − p1 z − p 2 z − pn
1
1
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Example 01: Given X(z) =
1 − e − aT .z ( z − 1)( z − e − aT )
Where ‘a’ is a
1 ⎤ = z ⎢ −1 ⎥ ⎣1 − az ⎦
1 ⎡
constant and T is the sampling period. Determine the inverse ztransform x(KT) by the use of partial fraction expansion method. Solution: X(z) =
(1 − e − aT ) Z ( z − 1)( z − e − aT )
X ( z) 1 − e − aT = Z ( z − 1)( z − e − aT )
X ( z) A B = + Z z − 1 z − e − aT X ( z) 1 − e − aT = ( z − 1) A = (z1) Z z =1 ( z − 1)( z − e − aT ) z = 1
=
(i)
ai = (zpi)
X ( z) Z z = pi
1 − e − aT =1 1 − e − aT
Threfore, A = 1. Similarly B = =
X ( z) 1 − e − aT = ( z − e − aT ) Z z = e − aT ( z − 1)( z − e − aT ) z = e − aT
Again if,
C1 C2 X ( z) = + Then, Z ( z − p1 ) ( z − p 2 ) X ( z) C1 = (zp1) Z z = p1
2
1 − e − aT (e − aT − 1)
And , C2 =
⎧d ⎡ 2 X ( z) ⎤⎫ ⎨ ⎢( z − p1 ) ⎬ z ⎥ ⎭ Z = P1 ⎦ ⎩ dz ⎣
1 ⎧ d n −1 (n − 1)! ⎨ dz n −1 ⎩
B = 1
X ( z) 1 1 = − Z z − 1 z − e − aT z z − X ( z) = z − 1 z − e − aT 1 1 X ( z) = − −1 − aT −1 1− z 1− e z
In general , if there are n multiplication roots then, Cn =
⎡ n X ( z) ⎤⎫ ⎬ ⎢( z − p1 ) z ⎥⎭ Z =P ⎣ ⎦ n
Therefore, z1 [X(z)] = 1eaT= 1keakT
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Therefore, x(t) = 1 – e
k
akT
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ans.
z2 + z + 2 ( z − 1)( z 2 − z + 1)
Example 02: Obtained the ztransform of X ( z ) = by partial fractional expression method. Solution:
X ( z) = z +z+2 A Bz + c = + 2 2 ( z − 1)( z − z + 1) ( z − 1) z − z + 1
2
⎡ 3 −1 ⎤ z ⎢ ⎥ ⎤ 1 −1 1 ⎤ −1 ⎡ −1 ⎡ 1 − 0.5 z 2 ⎥ + − 3z ⎢ z ⎢ X ( z) = 4z ⎢ −1 −2 −1 ⎥ −1 −2 ⎥ ⎢1 − z + z ⎥ ⎣1 − z ⎦ 3 ⎣1 − z + z ⎦ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦
−1
We know that
1 ⎤ k =1 −1 ⎥ ⎣1 − z ⎦ −1 ⎤ π 1 ⎡ 1 − 0.5 z z ⎢ = cos k −1 −2 ⎥ 3 ⎣1 − z + z ⎦ ⎡ 3 ⎤ −1 ⎥ ⎢ z . π 2 ⎥ = sin k z1 ⎢ −1 −2 3 ⎢1 − z + z ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣
z1 ⎡ ⎢
A( z 2 − z + 1) + ( Bz + C )( Z − 1) z2 + z + 2 = ( z − 1)( z 2 − z + 1) ( z − 1)( z 2 − z + 1)
Z2 + z +2 = (A+B)z2 (A+BC)z +(AC) Comparing the coefficient of z2 , z and z0 we get, B+A = 1 (A+BC) = 1 AC = 2 Solving the above equation we get, A = 4 , B = 3, C = 2 Thus , X ( z ) =
A Bz + c + 2 ( z − 1) z − z + 1 4 − 3z + 1 X ( z) = + 2 ( z − 1) z − z + 1 X ( z) =
Therefore, z1 = [X(z)] = x(k) = 4.1k1 – 3 cos(k1) π/3 + 1/√3 . sin(k1) π/3
Date: 2065/5/10 3. Inverse Integral method: The inversion integral for the ztransform X(z) is given by z1[x(z)] = x[kT] = x(k) =
1 k −1 ∫ x( z ) z dz ………(i) 2πj
4 z −1 − 3z −1 + 2 z −2 + (1 − z −1 ) 1 − z −1 + z − 2
−1 ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎤ −1 ⎡ 1 − 0.5 z = 4 z −1 ⎢ − 3z ⎢ X ( z) −1 ⎥ −1 −2 ⎥ ⎣1 − z ⎦ ⎣1 − z + z ⎦
⎡ 1 − 0.5 z −1 ⎤ ⎡ 1 / 6.z −1 ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎤ + 3z −1 ⎢ − 3z −1 ⎢ X ( z ) = 4 z −1 ⎢ −1 ⎥ −1 −2 ⎥ −1 −2 ⎥ ⎣1 − z ⎦ ⎣1 − z + z ⎦ ⎣1 − z + z ⎦
Where ‘c’ is a circle with its centre at the origin of the zplane such that all poles of x(z)z1 are inside it. The equation for giving the inverse ztransform in terms of residues can be derived by using the theory of complex variables. It can be obtained as follows. X(kT) = x1 + x2 + ……….+xn denotes the residues of x(z)zk1 at poles z1, z2 ……..zm respectively.
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In evaluating residues, if the denominator of x(z)z contains a simple pole at z = zi , then the corresponding residue x is given by, lim k i = z 0 ⎯⎯→ z1 [( z − z i )X ( z ) z k −1 ] …………….(ii) k1 If X(z) z contains a multiple pole zi or order q, then the residue k is given by ,
k1
lim = z ⎯⎯→ e − aT ⎢
Therefore , k2 =  eakT
⎡ ( z − e − aT ) z k (1 − e − aT ) ⎤ ⎥ − aT ⎣ ( z − 1)( z − e ) ⎦ ⎡ e − akT (1 − e − aT ) ⎤ = ⎢ ⎥ − aT −1 ⎦ ⎣ e
ki =
dq −1 1 lim (z − z i )q X ( z ) z k −1 .z ⎯⎯→ 2 j −1 (q − 1)! dzq z (1 − e ) ( z − 1)( z − e − aT )
− aT
[
]
………..(iii) inversion integral
Example: 01 Obtained x(kT) by using the method when, X ( z ) = Solution:
z (1 − e − aT ) X ( z) = ( z − 1)( z − e − aT ) X ( z ) z k −1 = X ( z ) z k −1 = z kT z (1 − e − aT ) ( z − 1)( z − e − aT ) z k (1 − e − aT ) ( z − 1)( z − e − aT )
X(kT) = x(k) = x1 + x2 = 1eakT which is required inverse ztrasnform. Example 02: Obtained the inverse ztransform of x(z) =
z2 by using the inverse integral method. ( z − 1) 2 ( z − e − aT ) z2 ( z − 1) 2 ( z − e − aT ) z k +1 ( z − 1) 2 ( z − e − aT )
Solution: X(z) =
X(z)zk1 =
For k = 0,1,2……….x(z)zk1 has simple poles at z1 = 1and z2= eaT Hence, x(kT) = x(k) =
lim
∑ residue of x(z)z
i =1
2
k1
at pole z = zi
X(z) zk1 has simple pole at z = z1 = eaT and double pole at z = z2 =1 ( i.e q = 2) The inverse ztransform is therefore given by, x(kT) = k1 +k2 lim Where, k1 = z ⎯⎯→ e − aT [(z − e − aT )X ( z ) z k −1 ]
lim = z ⎯⎯→ e − aT ⎢
Where k1 = z ⎯⎯→ z1 [(z − z i )X ( z ) z k −1 ]
lim = z ⎯⎯→ z1 ⎢(z − 1)
= k1 + k 2
⎡
⎡ ( z − e − aT ) z k +1 ⎤ 2 − aT ⎥ ⎣ ( z − 1) ( z − e ) ⎦
=
K1 = 1
1 (1 − e ( z − e − aT )
k
− aT
⎣ )
z (1 − e ) ⎤ ⎥ ( z − 1)( z − e − aT ) ⎦
k − aT
= ⎢ − aT ⎥ − 1) 2 ⎦ ⎣ (e And for K2 , k2 =
⎤ 1 d ⎡ z k +1 lim .z ⎯⎯→ 1 .⎢( z − 1) 2 2 − aT ⎥ (2 − 1)! dz ⎣ ( z − 1) ( z − e ) ⎦ d ⎡ z k +1 ⎤ .⎢ ⎥ dz ⎣ ( z − e − aT ) ⎦
⎡ e − a ( k +1)T ⎤
lim = z ⎯⎯→ 1
For K2 , lim K2 = z ⎯⎯→ z 2 [(z − z 2 )X ( z ) z k −1 ]
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Downloaded from www.jayaram.com.np Z2x(z)z2x(0)zx(1) + 3[zx(z)zx(0)] +2x(z) = 0 ⎡ ( z − e )(k + 1) z − z ⎤ lim = z ⎯⎯→ 1⎢ ⎥ X(z) [z2+3z+2] – (z2 +2)x(0) – zx(1) – zx(1) = 0 ( z − e − aT ) 2 ⎣ ⎦ But, x(0) = 0 and x(1) = 1 (k + 1)k k (1 − e − aT ) − 1k +1 (k + 1)(1 − e − aT ) − 1 = = Therefore, x(z) [z2+3z+2] – z = 0 − aT 2 − aT 2 (z − e ) (1 − e ) z z A B − aT − aT = = + X(z) = 2 (k − ke −e ( z + 3z + 2) ( z + 1)( z + 2) z + 1 z + 2 = (1 − e − aT ) 2 x( z ) 1 A B = = + − a ( k +1)T − aT − aT e k − ke −e z ( z + 1)( z + 2) z + 1 z + 2 + Therefore, x(kT) k1 + k2 = − aT 2 − aT 2 (e − 1) (1 − e ) x( z ) A = ( z + 1) − a ( k +1)T − aT − aT e + k − ke −e z z = −1 X(kT) = − aT 2 (1 − e ) A = 1.
− aT k k +1
Example 03: Obtain the inverse ztransform of x(z) = Where k1 =
⎤ 1 d ⎡ 3 z. z lim .z ⎯⎯→ 1. 2 ⎢( z − 1) 3 ⎥ 2! ( z − 1) ⎦ dz ⎣ 1 d2 = . 2 zk z =1 2! dz
2 k −1
z −2 (1 − z −1 ) 3
Similarly, B = 1,
x( z ) 1 1 = − z z +1 z + 2 z z − x( z ) = z +1 z + 2 1 1 x( z ) = − −1 1+ z 1 + 2 z −1 1 1 x( z ) = − −1 1 − (−1) z 1 − (−2) z −1
[ ]
= =
1 d . kz k −1 z =1 2 dz
[
]
Therefore, z (x(z)) = x(kT) = k(k1)/2 Solution of difference equation by ztransform method: Example 01: Solve the following difference equation by use of ztransform method of x(K+2)+ 3x(k+1)+2x(k) = 0 Taking ztransform on both the sides , we have, Z[x(k+2)]+3z[x(k+1)]+3z[x(k+1)] +2z[x(k)] = 0
1
1 . k (k − 1) z k − 2 z =1 2 k (k − 1) = 2
[
]
The inverse ztransform of x(z) is X(z) = (1)k – (2)k, k = 0,1,2……….. Example 02: Obtained the solution of the following difference equation in terms of x(0) and x(1). X(K+2) + (a+b)x(k+1) + ab x(k) = 0 Z2x(z) – z2x(0) – zx(1) + (a+b) [z x(z) – z x(0)] + ab x(z) = 0 X(z) [z2 + (a+b)z+ab] = [z2 + (a+b)z] x(0) + z x(1)
[ z 2 + (a + b) z ]x(0) + zx(1) z 2 + (a + b) z + ab [ z + a + b]x(0) + x(1) A B = + X(z) = ( z + a)( z + b) z+a z+b
X(z) =
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Where, A =
bx(0) + x(1) and (b − a) bx(0) + x(1) ax(0) + x(1) x( z ) (b − a ) ( a − b) = + z ( z + a) ( z + b) bx(0) + x(1) ax(0) + x(1) (b − a ) ( a − b) x( z ) = + −1 1 − (−a) z 1 − (−b) z −1
B=
ax(0) + x(1) ( a − b)
Downloaded from www.jayaram.com.np i −1 1 ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ k ⎤ x ( h) ⎥ = X ( z ) − ∑ x ( h) z − h ⎥ ⎢∑ −1 ⎢ h=0 ⎦ ⎦ (1 − z ) ⎣ ⎣ h =i Where 1 ≤ i ≤ (k1)
3.Obtained the ztransform of Figure: 4. Obtained the ztransform of (a) x( z ) =
(c ) 2z 3 + 2 ( z − 2) 2 ( z − 1) 10 x( z ) = ( z − 2)( z − 1) ( z + 2) ( z − 2).z 2 z ( z + 2) x( z ) = ( z − 1) 2
⎡ bx(0) + x(1) ⎤ ⎡ ax(0) + x(1) ⎤ k k X ( z) = ⎢ ⎥ (−a ) + ⎢ (a − b) ⎥ (−b) [ for the case a ≠ b] ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ (b − a ) ⎦
(b) (d)
x( z ) =
Now for a = b,
( z + 2az ) x(0) + zx(1) z 2 + 2az + a 2 x( z ) ( z + 2a ) x(0) + x(1) = z ( z + a) 2 x( z ) A B = + z ( z + a) ( z + a) 2 zx(0) ax(0) + x(1) + We get , x(z) = x( z ) = −1 (1 + az ) (1 + az −1 ) 2
X(z) =
2
(e) x( z ) = (f) x( z ) =
1 + 6 z −2 + z −3 (1 − z −1 )(1 − 0.2 z −1 )
1 + z −1 + z −2 1− z −1
5. Solve the following difference equations: a. 2x(k) – 2x(k1) +x(k2) = u(k) Where x(k) = 0 for k< 0 And u(k) = ⎪ ⎨ for case a = b
⎧1, ⎪0, ⎩ k = 0,1,2..... k <0
Therefore, x(k) = x(0)(a)k + [ ax(0)+x(1)][(a)k1] Assignment: 1. Obtained the ztransform of (a) k2 (b) k ak1
1 ⎡ k ⎤ z ⎢ ∑ x ( h) ⎥ = x( z ) −1 ⎣ n =0 ⎦ 1− z 2. Show that z −1 ⎡ k −1 ⎤ z ⎢ ∑ x ( h) ⎥ = x( z ) −1 ⎣ n =0 ⎦ 1− z
And ,
∑ x(k ) = z ⎯⎯→1X ( z )
lim
∞
k =0
b. x(k+2) –x(k+1) + 0.25x(k) = u(k+2) where, x(0) = 1, x(1) = 2 u(k) = 1 for k ≥ 0. c. x(k2) – x(k1) + 0.25 x(k) = u(k2) x(0) =1 x(k) = 0, for k<0. u(k) = 1 for k ≥ 0 (6) Consider the difference equation . X(k+2) = x(k+1) +x(k) Where x(0) = 0 and x(1) = 1. Note that x(2) = 1 , x(3) = 2, x(4) = 3.
Also show that,
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The series 0,1,2,3,5,8,13,………is known as Fibonacci series. Obtained in general solution x(k) in closed form. Show that the liming value of x(k+1)/ x(k) as k ⎯ ∞ is (1+√5)/2 or approx ⎯→ 1.6180. Date: 2065/5/15 Example 05: (c ) x(k2) –x(k1) + 0.25x(k) = 4 (k2) X(0 ) = 1 X(k) = 0 for, K < 0 and u(k) = 1 for k ≥ 0 Solution: X(k2)  x(l1) + 0.25x(k) = u(k2) Z[x(k2)] – z[x(k1)] + 0.25 z [ x(k0] = z [ u(k1)] Or, z2 x(z) – z1 x(z) + 0.25 x(z) = z2 u(z) Or, x(z) [z2 –z1 + 0.25] = z2 . 1/(1z1) X(z) = z2/(1z1)(z2z1 +0.25) Or x(z) = z.z2 /z2 ( z1)(1z+0.25) = 4z/(z1)(z2)2 X(z)/z = 4/(z1) (z2)2 = A/(z1) + B/(z2) + C/(z2)2 By partial fraction method we get, A = 4, B = 4, C =4. Therefore, X(z)/z = 4 [ 1/(z1) – 1/(z2) + 1 (z2)2 ] X(z) = 4 [1/(1z1) – 1/12z1 + z1/(12z1)2 Or, X(z) = 4 [ z/z1 – z/(z2) + z/(z2)2 ] Taking inverse z transform on both sides x(k) = 4[1k – 2k + 2k1.k] , k = 0, 1, 2……. = 4 – 2k+2 + k.2k+1 Example: 06 Given, x(k+2) = x(k+1) + x(k) , x(0) = 0 and x(1) = 1 To get x(k) And to prove,
Lim k ∞ x(k+1) /x(k) = (1+ √5)/2 = 1.6180 We have , X(k+2) = x(k+1) + x(k) Z[x(k+2)= z[z(k+1) +x(k) ] Z2x(z) – z2 x(0) – 2x(1) = z x(z) – 2x(0) + x(z) Or, z2x(z) – 2x(z) – x(z) = z2x(0) + 2x(1) – 2x(0) Or, x(z) =
z z − z −1
2
Now, the roots of z2z 1 are = = =
− b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a − 1 ± 1 − 4.1(−1) 2 .1
x( z ) z = 2 z z − z −1
1± 5 2 1+ 5 = 2 1− 5 = 2 x( z ) z 1 = 2 = z z − z − 1 ⎡ ⎛ 1 + 5 ⎞⎤ ⎡ ⎛ 1 − 5 ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ ⎢ z − ⎜ ⎟⎥ ⎢z − ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢ ⎝ 2 ⎠⎥ ⎢ ⎝ 2 ⎠⎥ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦
=
A
⎡ ⎛ 1 + 5 ⎞⎤ ⎟ ⎢z − ⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎟⎥ ⎢ ⎝ ⎠⎥ ⎣ ⎦
+
B
⎡ ⎛ 1 − 5 ⎞⎤ ⎟ ⎢z − ⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎟⎥ ⎢ ⎝ ⎠⎥ ⎣ ⎦
We get, A = 1/√5 , B = 1/√5
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⎡ ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ x( z ) 1 ⎢ 1 1 − = ⎢ ⎥ z 5 ⎢ ⎡ ⎛ 1 + 5 ⎞⎤ ⎡ ⎛ 1 − 5 ⎞⎤ ⎥ ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎢ ⎢ z − ⎜ 2 ⎟⎥ ⎢ z − ⎜ 2 ⎟⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎝ ⎠⎥ ⎦ ⎠⎥ ⎢ ⎝ ⎦ ⎦ ⎣ ⎣⎣ ⎡ ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ 1 ⎢ 1 1 x( z ) = − ⎢ ⎥ 5 ⎢ ⎡ ⎛ 1 + 5 ⎞ −1 ⎤ ⎡ ⎛ 1 − 5 ⎞ −1 ⎤ ⎥ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎢ ⎢1 − ⎜ 2 ⎟ z ⎥ ⎢1 − ⎜ 2 ⎟ z ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎝ ⎠ ⎥⎦ ⎠ ⎥ ⎢ ⎝ ⎦ ⎦ ⎣ ⎣⎣
k
∞ , Thus the equation (iii) become,
k +1
⎛1 + 5 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ x(k + 1) ⎝ 2 ⎟ ⎠ = lim k → ∞ k x(k ) ⎛1 + 5 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠
=
1+ 5 = 1.6180 proved 2
Taking inverse ztransform we get,
k k ⎛1 − 5 ⎞ ⎤ 1 ⎡⎛ 1 + 5 ⎞ ⎟ −⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎢⎜ x(k ) = ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎥ 5 ⎢⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎦ ⎣⎝
…………….(i)
Impulse Sampling: Let us consider an ideal sampler commonly called an impulse sampler. We assume x(t ) = 0 for t< 0. The sampler o/p is equal to the product of the continuous time i/p x(t) and train of unit impulse δT(t) which means the sampler may be considered as a modular with x(t) as the modulating signal and δT(t) as the carrier as shown in fig1 below.
Modulator x(t) x*(t)=x(t)×δΤ(t)
Similarly we can write,
k +1 k +1 ⎛1 − 5 ⎞ ⎤ 1 ⎡⎛ 1 + 5 ⎞ ⎟ −⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎢⎜ x(k + 1) = ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎥ 5 ⎢⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎦ ⎣⎝
……….(ii)
From (i) and (ii)
x(k + 1) = x( k ) ⎡⎛ 1 + 5 ⎞ k +1 ⎛ 1 − 5 ⎞ k +1 ⎤ ⎟ −⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎢⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎥ ⎢⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎦ ⎣⎝ ⎛1 + 5 ⎞ ⎛1 − 5 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ −⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
k k
δΤ(t)
Figure:1 Let us consider x*(t) to represent the impulse sampled o/p. The sampled signal x*(t), a train of impulses, can thus be represented by the infinite summation, i.e x*(t) =
*
k +1
Here,
1− 5 < 1 when k 2
k
∞
Lim k
⎛1 − 5 ⎞ ⎟ ∞⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎟ →0 ⎝ ⎠
k
∑ x(kT )δ (t − kT ) ……..(i)
k =0
∞
⎛1 − 5 ⎞ ⎟ The terms ⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎟ and ⎝ ⎠
⎛1 − 5 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠
can be neglected when
x (t) = x(0)δ (t ) + x(T )δ (t − T ) + x(2T )δ (t − 2T ) + ........ Here, we are defining ,
δ T (t ) = ∑ δ (t − kT )
k =0 ∞
 (ii)
………….(iii)
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Now taking the laplace transform of equation (iii) we get ℒ[x*(t)] = x*(s) = x(0) ℒ[δ(t)]+x(T)ℒ[δ(tT)]+ x(2T)ℒ[δ(t2T)]+….. X*(s) = x(0).1+x(T).eTs + x(2T).e2Ts +……. X*(s) = Data hold is a process of generating a continuous time signal h(t) from a discrete time sequence x(k). A hold ckt covert the sampled signal into a continuous time signal. A hold ckt hold the amplitude of the sampled from one sampling instant to the next. Such a data hold is called zero order hold or clamper or stair case generator. The o/p of the zero order hold is a staircase function. Assuming x(t) = 0 for t<0, The ZOH circuit smoothens the sampled signal to produce the signal h(t) , which is constant for the last sampled value until the next sample is available, i.e , h1(t+kT) = x(kT) for 0 ≤ t ≤ T …………..(i) The o/p h1(t) may be assumed as h1(t) = x(0) [ 1(t) 1(t1)]+x(T) [ 1(t1)1(t2T)] + x(2t)[1(T2t) 1(t3T)]+ …………. h1(t) =
x(t) x(kT) zero order hold (ZOH) h1(t)
∑ x(kT )e
k =0
∞
− kTS
…………….(iv)
We define esT = z ……….(v) Then equation (iv ) can be rewritten as X*(s) =
∑ x(kT ) z
k =0
∞
−k
= X(z) ……………(vi)
i.e X * ( s)
s=
= X ( z) 1 . ln z T
Data hold:
∑ x(kT )[1(t − kT ) − 1(t − (k + 1)T )]
k =0
∞
…………..(ii)
We know that ℒ[1(tkT)] = ekTs/s Therefore , the laplcae transform of equation (ii) be written as: ℒ[h1(t)] = H1(s) =
∑ x(kT ) ℒ [1(tkT) 1(t(k+1)T)]
k =0 − ( k +1)TS
∞
Fig 2(a): Sampler and a zero order hold.
x(t)
X*(s) δΤX*(s)
=
h2(t) H2(s)
∑ x(kT )
k =0
∞
e e
− kTS
s
− kTS
− −e s
∞ k =0
e
S
− ( k +1)TS
=
∑ x(kT )
k =0
∞
Gho(s)
H1(s) =
1 − e −TS s
∑ x(kT ).e
− KTS
………..(iii)
Fig 2(b): Mathematical Model that consist of a sampler and a Transfer function Gho(s) for ZOH.
But from fig (ii) b,
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ℒ[h2(t)] = H2(s) = H1(s) Thus, H2(s) =
1 − e −TS s
The above integral is equal to the sum of residues of X(p) in the closed container i.e
X ( p) ⎤ ⎡ X * ( s ) = ∑ ⎢residue of at poles of X ( p)⎥ −T ( s − p ) 1− e ⎣ ⎦
∑ x(kT ).e − KTS ……….(iv)
k =0
∞
From fig (ii)b, we can write , H2(s) = Gho(s) × X*(s) ………(v) But we know X*(s) =
But we know that eTs = z X*(s) = X(z)
X ( p) z ⎡ ⎤ at poles of X ( p)⎥ X ( z ) = ∑ ⎢residue of Tp z−e ⎣ ⎦
∑ x(kT ).e − KTS
k =0 −TS
∞
Thus from equation (iv) become,
1− e X*(s) s 1 − e −TS Gho(s) = ………..(vi) s
By changing the complex variable rotation from p to s obtained
X ( s) z ⎡ ⎤ at poles of X ( s )⎥ X ( z ) = ∑ ⎢residue of z − es ⎣ ⎦
H2(s) =
Assume that X(s) has poles S1 , s0 ……sm. If a pole at s = sj is a simple pole , then residue.
X ( s) z ⎤ ⎡ lim k j = s ⎯⎯→ s j ⎢( s − s j ). z − e TS ⎥ ⎣ ⎦
Date: 2065/5/17 ztransform by convolution integral method: The convolution integral is defined by
1 1 X * ( s) = ∫j∞X ( p) 1 − e −T ( s − p ) dp ……….(i) 2πj c −
c + j∞
If a pole at s = si is a multiple pole of order ni , then the residue ki =
d 1 lim s ⎯⎯→ s i ni −1 (ni − 1)! ds ni −1 ⎡ n X ( s) z ⎤ ⎢( s − s j ) . z − e Ts ⎥ ⎣ ⎦
Example:01: Obtained the ztransform of X(s) = use of convolution integral method. Solution:
1 s ( s + 1) X ( s) z z = 2 TS z−e s ( s + 1)( z − e TS )
1 by the s ( s + 1)
2
Where, the integration is along the line from cj∞ to c+j∞ and this line is parallel to imaginary axis in the pplane and separate the poles of X(P) from those of
1 [1 − e
−T ( s − p )
X(s) =
2
]
Equation (i) also be written as
X ( p) 1 X * (s) = ∫ 1 − e −T ( s − p ) dp 2πj
Thus by convolution integral method,
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⎡ ⎤ z X ( z ) = ∑ ⎢residue of 2 at poles of X ( s )⎥ TS s ( s + 1)( z − e ) ⎣ ⎦
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= k1 + k 2
lim Where, k1 = s ⎯⎯→ −1⎢.( s + 1).
⎡ ⎣
⎤ z TS ⎥ s ( s + 1)( z − e ) ⎦
2
G(s) ⎤ ⎥ ⎣ s ⎦ X(s) = (1 − e TS ).G1 ( s)
X(s) = (1 − e −TS ) ⎡ ⎢
= K1 = K2 =
z ( z − e −T )
z 1 − ( z − e −T )
X(s) = G1 ( s) − e − TS .G1 ( s) X(s) = G1 ( s) − X 1 ( s) Where X1(s) = eTS.G1(s) ℒ 1[X1(s)] = ℒ 1[eTSG1(s)] = ℒ 1[eTS]*ℒ 1[G1(s)] ℒ 1[X1(s)] = g0(t) * g1(t) x1(t) = ∫ g 0 (t − τ ) * g 1 (τ )dτ
0
t
d ⎡ 2 ⎤ 1 z lim s ⎯⎯→ 0 ⎢s . 2 −Ts ⎥ (2 − 1)! ds ⎣ s ( s + 1)( z − e ) ⎦ d ⎡ ⎤ z lim = s ⎯⎯→ 0 ⎢. 2 Ts ⎥ ds ⎣ s ( s + 1)( z − e ) ⎦
=
− z 2 + z + zT ( z − 1) 2 z − z 2 + z + zT + = ( z − 1) 2 ( z − e −T )
But, ℒ 1[eTS] = δ (tT) Thus , x1(t) = ∫ δ (t − T − τ ).g 1 (τ )dτ
0
t
Thus X(z) = k1 +k2
=
−1+ z + z T 1 + −1 −T 1− z e (1 − z −1 ) 2
−1
−1
Example:02:
Given
1 − e −TS X ( s) = .G ( s) s
.
Prove
that
⎡ G ( s) ⎤ X ( z ) = (1 − z −1 ) z ⎢ ⎥ OR consider the zero order Hold circuit ⎣ s ⎦
succeeded by the plant with transfer function G(s). Explain how would you determine the ztransform of such combined system. Soluotion: Suppose the transfer function G(s) follows the zoH. Then, the product of the transfer function of ZOH and G(s) becomes:
X ( s) = 1 − e −TS .G ( s) s
= g1(tT) Hence by writing z[g1(t)] = G1(z) Thus, Z[x1(t) ] = z[g1(tT)] X1(z) = zT.G1(z) Thus , X(s) = G1 (s) –X1(s) Or, X(z) = z[g1(t)]z[X1(t)] = G1(z) –z—T.G1(z) = G1(z)[1zT] = [1zT].z[G(s)/s] [G1(s) = z[(G(s))/s] ∴ X(z) = (1zT) z.(G(s)/s) For T = 1, X(z) = (1z1).z [G(s)/s] proved Criteria For stability in Zdomain:
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Example: 01: consider the closed loop control system shown in fig (i) below. Determine the stability of system when k = 1. Fig.
G(s) = k. G(s) =
1 − e −s 1 . s s ( s + 1)
1 − e −s . s 2 ( s + 1)
[since k = 1]
G(z) = Z[G(s)]
⎡ 1 − e −s ⎤ ⎥ 2 ⎣ s ( s + 1) ⎦ 0.3679 z + 0.2642 = ( z − 0.3679)( z − 1)
= z⎢
The jury stability test: Assume, P(z) = anzn+ an1zn1+ an2zn2 + ……. a1z+a0 ……..(i) Where, An > 0 , then for stable system the following condition should be specificed. 1. a0> an 2. P(z) z =1 > 0 3. p(z) z =1 > 0 if n = even < 0 if n = odd 4. bn1 >bo cn2 > co . . q2 > qo Where, bk = ⎢ n ⎣a 0 ck = ⎢ n −1 ⎣ b0 . .
⎡p ⎡b ⎡a a n −1− k ⎤ a k +1 ⎥ ⎦ a n −2− k ⎤ bk +1 ⎥ ⎦
Now the closed loop transfer function of G(z) is C(z)/R(z) = G(z)/[1+G(z)] Therefore , the characteristics equation is given by , 1+G(z) = 0 1+
0.3679 z + 0.264 z ( z − 0.3679)( z − 1)
k = 0,1,2…….n1 k = 0,1,2…….n2
Or (z0.3679)(z1) + 0.3679z+0.2642 Z2z+0.6321 = 0 From which we get, Z2 –z+0.6321 = 0 Form which we get, Z1 = 0.5+j0.6181 Z2 = 0.5 – j0.6181 ∴ z = z1 = z2 = √ (0.52 + (0.6181)2) = 0.7950 Since the z < 1 , the system is stable.
qk = ⎢ 3 2 − k ⎥ ⎣ P0 Pk +1 ⎦
P
⎤
k = 0,1,2
Date: 2065/5/22 The jury stability Test: P(z) = a0zn+ a1zn1+ a2zn2 + ……. An1z+an ……..(i) Where,
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a0 > 0 then, for a stable system the following conditions should be fulfilled. 1. an > a0 2. p(z)z =1 > 0 3. P(z)z= 1 > 0 n = even < 0 n = odd 4. bn1 > b0 Cn2 > c0 q2 > qo Example:01: construct the Jury stability table for the following equation. P(z) = a0z4+ a1z3+ a2z3 +a3z+a4 ,Where a0 > 0. Write the stability conditions since n = 4 the stability conditions are: (i) a4 > a0 (ii) p(z)z =1 = a0+ a1+ a2 +a3+a4 (iii) P(z)z= 1 = a0 a1+ a2 a3+a4 > 0 [since n = 4 = even ] (iv) b3 > b0 C3 > c0 The Jury stability table can be constructed for n = 4 as follows: Row z0 Z1 Z2 Z3 Z4 a4 a0 = b3 a3 a4 a4 a1 = b2 a0 a3 a4 a2 = b1 a0 a2 a4 a3 = b0 a0 a1 b3 b0 = c2 b0 b1 b3 b1 = c1 b0 b2 b3 b2 = c0 b0 b1
Example:02: Examine the stability of following characteristics equation. P(z) = z41.2z3+ 0.07z3 +0.3z  0.08 = 0 Use Jury stability test. Solution: P(z) = z4 1.2z3+ 0.07z3 +0.3z  0.08 = 0 Here, a0 = 1 , a1 = 1.2 , a2 = 0.07 a3 = 0.3 , a4 = 0.08 The conditions for stability in Jury tests are as follows. 1. a4 > a0 0.08 < 1 (which is true) 2. p(z)z =1 = 14 1.2×13+ 0.07×12+0.3×1 0.08 = 0.09 > 0 (which is true) 3. Since n = 4 = even , p(z)z =1 = 1+ 1.2+ 0.07 0.3 0.08 = 1.89> 0 (true) 4. b3 > b0 c3 > c0 Row z0 0.08 1 0.08 1 0.08 1 0.08 1 0.9936 0.204 0.9936 0.204 0.9936 Z1 Z2 Z3 1.2 0.3 0.07 0.07 0.3 1.2 0.204 0.0756 0.0756 1.176 1.176 Z4 1 = 0.993 0.08 = 1.176 = 0.0756 = 0.204 = 0.9456 = 1.1838 = 0.315
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0.204
0.0756
b3 > b0 i.e 0.9936 > 0.0204 0.09936 > 0.204 (true) Again c2 > c0 0.9456 > 0.3150 (ture)
Example: 03: A control system has the following characteristics equation P(z) = z3 – 1.3z2 – 0.08z + 0.24 = 0 Determine the stability of the system by jury stability test. Example:04: Examine the stability of the characteristics equation given by : P(z) = z3 – 1.1z2 – 0.1z + 0.2 = 0 . Use jury method. Example: 05: Consider the discrete time unity feed back control system whose open loop transfer function is given G(z) =
K (0.3679 z + 0.2642) ( z − 0.3679)( z − 1)
a1 = (0.3679k – 1.379) a2 = 0.3679 + 0.2642k For the system to be stable the conditions are : (i) a2 < a0 i.e  0.3679+0.2642K< 1 0.2642K < 0.632 K < 2.3925 (ii) p(z)z =1 = 1+ 0.3679k 1.3679 + 0.3679+ 0.262K K>0 (iii) p(z)z =1 = (1 0.3679k+ 1.3679 + 0.3679+ 0.262K ) > 0 = 2.7358 – 0.1037k > 0 2.7358 > 0.1037k K < (2.7358)/(0.1037) K < 26.3818 Combining (i) (ii) and (iii) conditions K < 2.3925 K>0 0 < K < 2.3925 Stability Analysis by use of the Bilinear transformation and Routh stability: The bilinear Transformation is defined by:
w +1 w −1 z +1 w= z −1 z=
Determine the range of k for
stability by the use of Jury method. Solution: G(z) =
K (0.3679 z + 0.2642) ( z − 0.3679)( z − 1)
The close loop transfer function is T(z) = G(z)/ 1+G(z) of whose characteristics equation is given by 1+G(z) = 0 Or, 1+
K (0.3679 z + 0.2642) =0 ( z − 0.3679)( z − 1)
We choose ‘w’ so that W = σ +jω Example:01: Consider the following characteristics equations P(z) = z3 – 1.3z2 – 0.08z +0.24 = 0 Determine the stability of the system using Bilinear transformation and Routh stability criterion
P(z) = z + ( 0.3679k – 1.3679)z + 0.3679+0.2642k = 0 Here , a0 = 1
2
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Solution: Here, P(z) = z3 – 1.3z2 – 0.08z +0.24 = 0 Using Bilinear Transformation , i.e
z= w +1 , we get P(z) as, w −1
For which the characteristics equation is Z4 – 0.6z3 – 0.81z2 + 0.6z – 0.12 = 0
Date: 2065/6/5
3 2
P(z)z=(w+1)/(w1) = P(w) = [(w+1)/(w1)] – 1.3 [(w+1)/(w1)] – 0.08[(w+1)/(w1)] + 0.24 = 0 Or w3 – 7.571w2 – 36.43w – 14.14 = 0 The Routh stability criteria is checked by routh arrow as follows: W3 W2 W1 W0 1 7.75 38.30 14.14 36.43 14.14 0
Splane to zplane mapping: Mapping of the left half of splane into zplane: We know z and s are related by the equation, Z = eTS ………….(i) This means that a pole in splane can be located in the zplane through transformation Z = eTS , Also we know that , S = σ +jω ………….(ii) Thus equation (i) become , Z = eT(σ +jω) = eσ T. ejωT Or in general, Z = eTσ . e(Tw + 2 π k) ……….(iii) We see that the poles and zeroes in splane , where frequencies differ in integral multiple of the sampling frequency 2 π /T are mapped into the some locations in the zplane . This means that there are infinite may values of s for each value of z. Since σ is –ve in the left half of the splane , the left arm of the splane corresponds to z = eT(‐σ ) = eT σ < 1 The jw axis in the splane corresponding to z = 1 (∴ σ =0) i.e the imaginary axis in the splane (the line σ =0) corresponding to
The above equation and array show that there is a sign change in the following system is not stable. It indicates that there is a pole in the right half of w plane which in turn indicates that there is a pole outside the unit circle in zplane. Example: 02: Consider y(k) = 0.6y(k1) – 0.81y(k2)+0.6y(k3) – 0.12y(k4) = x(k) where, x(k) is the input and y(k) is the output of the system. Check the stability of the system using Jury stability method. Solution: Y(z) 0.6z1y(z) – 0.81z2 y(z) + 0.6z3y(z) 0.12z4 y(z) = X(z)
Y ( z) 1 = −1 −2 X ( z ) 1 − 0.6 z − 0.81z + 0.6 z −3 − 0.12 z − 4 z4 z 4 − 0.6 z 3 − 0.81z 2 + 0.6 z − 0.12
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the unit circle in the zplane and interior of the unit circle corresponds to the left half of the splane.
jw im
jw
im
1
Complementary strip 3 Re Re
σ1
Re
Primary strip Complementary strip
splane zplane
(ii)
zplane
splane
Mapping of constant frequency Loci: A constant frequency loci w = w1 , in the splane is mapped into a radial line of constant angle Tw1 ( in radian) in the zplane as shown in the fig. below.
jw w1 w2 σ w1 w2T w1T Re im
Mapping of constant –attenuation loci: A constant attenuation line ( a line plotted as σ = constant) is the splane maps into a circle of radius z = eT σ centered at the origin in the zplane as shown below.
jw im
(i)
w1T
eT σ2
s plane
z plane
σ1
0
σ2
σ
1
Re
(iii) Mapping of constant damping ratio. (ξ ) A constant damping ratio line (a radial line) in the splane is mapped into a spiral in the zplane as shown in figure below.
eT σ1 splane zplane
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jw
ξ = ξ1
jw1
e−σ1Τ e−σ2Τ
(2π −w2T) w1T
Re
1
s plane
z plane
jw2 σ=−σ2 σ=−σ1
In splane a constant damping ratio is related to it by the equation . s =  ξ wn + jwn √ (1+ξ2) =  ξ wn + jwd Where, Wn = natural frequency (rad/sec) Wd = damped frequency (rad/sec) = wn√ (1ξ2) Thus , Z = eTS = eT(ξwn+jwd) = e(ξ Twn+jTwd)
d Z = exp. ⎢ + j 2π d ⎥ 2 ws ⎦ ⎣1 − ξ ws Hence ,
2065/6/5 Reconstruction of original signal from samples: Instantaneous sampling (i.e when the duration of the sampling pulse τs –0 or delta function )is referred to as ideal sampling . In this case the sampling function is the train of impulses, i.e Sδ (t) = ∑ ∞ k=  ∞ δ (t kTs ) Therefore , the sampled signal for ideal sampling can be written as Xδ(t) = x(t) x sδ (t) = x(t) x ∑ ∞ k= ∞ δ (tkTs) The fourier transform of the above expression is the convolution Of the fourier transformation of x(t) and sδ (t) , i.e xδ’(f) = x(f) *sδ (f) where, Xδ’(f) = f[sδ (t)] = fs ∑ ∞ n= ∞ δ (fnfs) ∴ xδ(f) = x(f) *fs ∑ ∞ n= ∞ δ (fnfs) ∴ xδ(f) = fs ∑ ∞ n= ∞ δ (fnfs) Xδ (f) = fsX(f) assuming the condition fs ≥ 2fx is satisfied , let us
⎡ 2π
w
w ⎤
z = exp ⎢ ∠z =
⎡ − 2πξ w d 2 w ⎢ 1−ξ s ⎣ w 2π d ws
⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦
Example:01: For a given region in splane draw the corresponding region in z – plane.
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Pass the sampled signal through ideal LPF with the following parameters HLPF (f) = K for fx ≤ f ≤ fs –fx = 0 , otherwise At the output of LPF , we ge , Xδ(f) HLPF (f) = [ fs ∑ ∞ n=  ∞ x(f nfs)] HLPF(f) Xδ (f) HLPF(f) = X(f) …………….(i) As HLPF(f) = 0 for the frequency components higher then fx , the spectrum at the output of LPF for K = 1/fs will be x(f) , the spectrum of the message signal . Which is shown in equation (i) In time domain X(t) = f1[x(f)] = f1[xδ(f) HLPF(f)] ∴ x(t) = xδ (t) * hLPF(t) Where hLPF(t) is the impulse response of ideal LPF which is expressed as. hLPF (t) = 2BTs sinc [ 2Bt] Where, Ts = 1/fs B = fx , the higher frequency component. Thus signal at the output of low pass filter for Xδ(t) = x(kTs) Will be, x(t) = x(kTs) x(t) = 2BTs
n = −∞ ∞ n = −∞
Can be reconstructed from its sampled values x(kTs) if the sampling is done at Ts ≤ 1/2fx Chapter: 3 Analysis of control system: The pulse Transfer Function:
X(z) G(z) Y(z)
∑
∞
The transfer function for the continuous time system relates the Laplace Transform of the continuous time output to that of continuous time input while the pulse transfer function relates the ztransform of the output at the sampling instants to that of the sampled input. The pulse transfer function is defined by G(z) = Y(z)/X(z) …………..(i) Of the discrete time system As seen from the above equation we write, Y(z) = G(z) x(z) ……..(ii) Equation (ii) may also be written as, Y*(s) = G*(s) x*(s) ……………..(iii) General procedure for obtaining Pulse transfer function:
x*(t) x(t) δΤ X*(z) G(s) δΤ y(t) y*(t) Y(z)
x(kTs) δ(t kTs) at t = kTs x(kTs) δ(t kTs)*2BTs sinc [2Bt]
∑
∞
n = −∞
∑
x(kTs) sinc [2B(tkTs)] ……….(ii)
Figure (ii) (a)
x(t) X(s) G(s) y(t) Y(s)
The above equation (ii) shows that the original message signal
Figure (ii) (b)
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x(t) x*(t) δΤ
The pulse transfer function for the figure (ii) (a) will ve , G(z) = Y(z)/X(z) Also , the transfer function for the system shown in fig (ii) (b) will be , G(s) = Y(s)/X(s) The important fact to be noted is that the pulse transfer function for the system in fig (ii) (b) is not ztransfer of z[G(s)], because of the absence of the instant sampler. The presence or absence of the input sampler is crucial in determining the pulse transfer function of the system. This difference is explained below. Consider the case as shown in fig (ii) (a) ℒ [y(t)] = Y(s) = G(s) X*(s) Taking starred Laplace transform on both sides, we get, Y*(s) = G*(s) X*(s) Or, Y(z) = G(z) X(z) ……………(i) Now let us consider the case for fig (ii) (b) , ℒ [y(t)] = Y(s) = G(s) X(s) Taking Starred LT on both sides, Y*(s) = [G(s)X(s)]* Y*(s) = [GX(s)]* Where, GX(s) = G(s)X(s) Or Y(z) = z[GX(s)] …………………(ii) Thus equation (i) and (ii) clearly describe the presence and absence of instant sampler. Date:2065/6/12 Pulse Transfer function of cascaded elements:
x*(t) x(t) δΤ G(s) u(t) δΤ u*(t) H(s) y(t) δΤ y*(t)
G(s)
H(s)
y(t)
y*(t)
Fig. 3(b) Consider the system shown in fig (iii) (a) we can write that G(s) = G(s).X*(s) ……………..(i) Y(s) = H(s).U(*(s) ……….(ii) Now taking starred laplace transform of equation (i) and (ii) U*(s) = G*(s).X*(s) …………(iii) Y*(s) = H*(s) U*(s) …………….(iv) From equation (ii) Y*(s) = H*(s)U*(s) = H*(s).G*(s).X*(s) Or, Y*(s)/X*(s) = G*(s). H*(s) Taking ztransform of the above equation. Y*(z)/X*(z) = G(z).H(z) …………….(v) Which is the pulse transfer function between i/p x*(t) and o/p y*(t) Now consider the cascaded system shown in fig (iii) (b) Y(s) = G(s)H(s).X*(s) Or Y(s) = GH(s).X*(s) Now taking the starred laplace transform of the above equation , we get , Y*(s) = [GH(s).X*(s)]* Y*(s) = GH*(s).X*(s) Or Y*(s)/X*(s) = GH*(s) Now taking ztransform on both sides we get, Y(z)/X(z) = GH(z) …………………….(vi) Which is the required PTF for fig (iii) (b) From equation (v) and (vi) , it is to be noted that, G(z)H(z) ≠ GH(z)
Fig. 3(a)
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Example:01: Consider the system shown in figs (iii) a & b obtained the pulse transfer function (PTF) Y(z)/X(z) for each of these tow systems. G(s) = 1/(s+a) H(s) = 1/(s+b) Y(z)/X(z) = G(z)H(z) = z[G(s)] z[H(s) ] = Z[1/(s+a)] z[1/(s+b)] Y(z)/x(z) = 1/(1eaTz1). 1/(1ebTz1) for fig (iii) (a) For fig (iii) (b) Y(z)/X(z) = GH(z) = z[GH(s)] =z[G(s)H(s)] =z[1/(s+a).1/(s+b)]
A B ⎤ + ⎥ ⎣s + a s + b⎦ −1 ⎡1 ⎤ =z ⎢ b − a + b − a ⎥ ⎢ s+a s+b ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 1 ⎡ 1 1 ⎤⎤ =z ⎢ .⎢ − ⎥⎥ ⎣ b − a ⎣ s + a s + b ⎦⎦ ⎡ 1 ⎡ 1 1 ⎤⎤ Y(z)/X(z) = ⎢ for fig (iii) (b) .⎢ − − AT −1 − BT −1 ⎥ ⎥ 1 − e z ⎦⎦ ⎣ b − a ⎣1 − e z
= z⎡ ⎢
From fig. (iv) E(s) =R(s) – C(s)H(s) ………….(i) Where, C(s) = G(s) E*(s) ……….(ii) Thus equation (i) become E(s) = R(s) –G(s)H(s)E*(s) …………….(iii) Taking starred Laplace transform E*(s) = R*(s) – [ G(s)H(s) E*(s)]* E*(s) = R*(s) – GH*(s)E*(s) ……………..(iv) Or, E*(s)[1+GH*(s)] = R*(s) ………..(v) E*(s) = R*(s)/(1+GH*(s)) ………….(vi) Now taking Starred laplace transform of equation (ii) , C*(s) = G*(s) E*(s) = G*(s).R*(s)/(1+GH*(s)) C*(s)/R*(s) = G*(s)/1+GH*(s) …………..(vii) Now taking ztransform of equation of (vii) we get, C(z)/R(z) = G(z) / (1+GH(z)) …………..(viii) which is the required PTF for closed loop system. Assignment # 3: (1) Prove the given PTF for the closed loop system shown in Table 3.2 (page 112) form k. Ogata book . Closed Loop PTF of a digital control system:
R(s) E(s) E*(s) δΤ
Thus we conclude that G(z).H(z) is not equal to function GH(z). PTF of a closed loop system:
R(s) E(s) E*(s) δΤ C(s)
+
G(s)
H(s)
Fig(iv) closed loop system.
+
G*(s) D
m*(s)
TS 1e s
U(s)
Gp(s)
C(s)
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Fig. (v) From fig (v) , let , 1eTs/s. Gp(s) = G(s) ……..(i) Also, C(s) = G(s) GD*(s) E*(s) Or C(s) = G*(s) GD*(s) E*(s) ………(ii) In term of ztransform, equation (iii) can be written as: C(z) = R(z) – C(z) ………(iv) Thus , equation (iii) becomes C(z) = G(z) GD(z)[R(z)C(z)] C(z) = [ 1+G(z)GD(s)] = G(z) GD(z) R(z) Or C(z)/R(z) = G(z)GD(z) / 1+G(Z)GD(z) C(z)/R(z) = GD(z)G(z)/1+GD(z)G(z) ………(v) Which the required closed loop PTF of a Digital control system. PTF of a digital PID controller: The PID control action in analog controller is
t ⎡ de(t ) ⎤ 1 m(t) = kp ⎢e(t ) + ∫ e(t )dt + Td ⎥ ………….(i) Ti 0 dt ⎦ ⎣
m (kT) = kp
⎡ e(k − 1) + e(kT ) ⎤ ⎤ 1 ⎡ e(0) + e(T ) e(T ) + e(2T ) + + ...... + ........ ⎢e( KT ) + T T ⎢ ⎥⎥ 2 2 2 ⎣ ⎦⎥ i ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ e(kT ) − e(k − 1)T ⎥ ⎢ + Td . 2 ⎦ ⎣
=kp ⎢e( KT ) +
⎣
⎡
⎤ T k e((h − 1)T ) + e(hT ) Td [e(kT ) − e(k − 1)T ]⎥ ….(ii) + .∑ Ti h =1 2 Ti ⎦
Let,
e((h − 1)T ) + e(hT ) = f (hT ) where, f(o) = 0 2 k e(h − 1)T + e(hT ) k =∑ f (hT ) ………(iii) ∑ 2 h =1 h =1
The ztransform of equation (iii) will be, = z ⎢.∑
⎡
k
e((h − 1)T ) + e(hT ) ⎤ ⎥ 2 ⎣ h =1 ⎦ ⎡
k
where e(t) is the i/p to the controller , m(t) is the o/p of the controller, k is the proportionality gain , Ti is the integral time and Td is the derivative time. To obtain the PTF for the digital PID controller , we first discritise equation (i) . Then , by approximating the integral term by the Trapezoidal summation rule and the derivative term by twopoint difference formula. Thus equation (i) becomes at t = kT ,
= z ⎢.∑ f (hT )⎥
⎣ h =1
1
⎤ ⎦
= 1/(1z ). [F(z)f(0)] = 1/(1z1). F(z) …….(v) Also ,
e((h − 1)T ) + e(hT ) ⎤ F(z) =z[f(hT)]= z ⎡ ⎢ ⎥
F(z) = (1z )/2.E(z) Thus from equation (iv) becomes, z ⎢.∑
e((h − 1)T ) + e(hT ) ⎤ 1 + z −1 = ⎥ 2(1 − z −1 ) E ( z ) ……….(V) 2 ⎣ h =1 ⎦ ⎡
k
1
⎣
2
⎦
Hence equation (ii) becomes by taking ztransform on both sides,
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Downloaded from www.jayaram.com.np ⎡ ⎤ T T 1− z M(z) = z[m(kT)] = Kp ⎢ E ( z ) + . E ( z ) + d (1 − z −1 ) E ( z )⎥ T Ti 2(1 − z −1 ) ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦
−1
M(z) = kp [1+T/2Ti +(1+z1)/(1z1)+Td/T .(1z1)].E(z) M(z) = kp ⎢1 −
⎣ ⎡ ⎤ T T T 1 + . + d .(1 − z −1 )⎥ E ( z ) −1 T 2Ti Ti 1 − z ⎦
M(z) = ⎢kp'+
⎣
⎡
Ki ⎤ + k D .(1 − z −1 )⎥ E ( z ) ……….(vi) −1 1− z ⎦
⎛ ⎞ ⎠
T ⎟ = proportional gain Where, kp’ = k p ⎜1 − ⎜ 2T ⎟ ⎝ ⎛T Ki = k p ⎜ ⎜T ⎝ i
i
⎞ ⎟ = Integral gain ⎟ ⎠ ⎛T ⎞ Kd = k p ⎜ d ⎟ = Derivative gain ⎝T ⎠
Form equation (vi) we can write that
i + k D .(1 − z −1 )⎥ ………(vii) GD(z) = M(z)/E(z) = ⎢kp'+ 1 − z −1
⎡ ⎣
K
⎤ ⎦
Where, GD(z) is the closed loop PIF for digital PID controller equation (vii) is also know as the proportional form of PID control scheme.
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