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Date: 2065/4/20 1. Sample and Hold ( S/H) : It is the circuit that receives an
analog input signal and holds this signals at a constant value
Digital control system: The rapid increase in the use of digital for a specified period of time. Usually the signal is electrical
controller in the controlled system is due to its achievement in the but it may be optical or mechanical.
optimum performance. Digital control system provides optimal 2. ADC: ADC also called an encoder is a device that converts an
performance in the form of maximum productivity, maximum analog signal into a digital signal, usually a numerically coded
profit, minimum cost or minimum energy use etc. The application signal in binary form. Such a converter is need as an interface
of computer control has made possible the intelligent motion in between an analog component and the digital component.
industrial robots, the optimization of the fuel economy in Basically ADC involves sampling , quantizing and encoding.
automobiles and refinement in the operations of house hold 3. Digital Computer: The digital computer processes the
appliances and machines such as microwave ovens, washing sequences of numbers by mean of an algorithm an produces an
machine, Air-conditioning. Decision making capability and new sequences of numbers.
flexibility in the control programs are major advantages of digital 4. DAC: DAC also called an decoder is a device that converts a
control system. digital signal ( Numerically coded data) into an analog signal.
The current trend towards rather then analog control system is It acts as an the interfacing device between the digital
mainly due do the availability of low cost digital computers and component and an analog component. The real time clock in
the advantages found in working with digital signals rather then the computer synchronizes the events. The output of the hold
continuous time signals. circuit which is continuous time signal is fed the plant either
directly or through the actuator which controls the dynamics of
Basic Blocks of Digital control system: the system ( i.e it smoothens the slope of the signal)
5. Plant or process: A plant is a physical object to be controlled.
S/H Digital
Hold Plant or
The examples are a furnace, chemical reactors and a set of
+ DAC Actuator
- and
ADC
Control
System Circuit Process
machine parts functioning together to perform a particular
operations such as servo system etc.
Clock
Digital 6. Transducer/sensor: A transducer is a device that converts an
Control
input signal into an output signal of a another form such as
Transducer device that converts a temperature into a voltage output (
thermistor or thermocouple ), an optical signal into voltage (
Figure 1 shows the basic block diagram or principle of DCS . The phototransistor )
controller operation is performed or controlled by the clock. In
such a DCS points of the systems pass signals of varying Discrete times control system: Discrete time control system is
amplitude either in continuous time or discrete time or in control system in which one or more variable can change only at
numerical code. discrete instants of time. These instants which are denoted by KT
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or tk ( k =0, 1, 2, ………), specify the times at which some
physical measurements is performed. The time interval between
two discrete instants is taken to be sufficiently short that the data
for the time between them can be approximated by simple
interpolation.

Date: 2065/4/21

Data Acquisition, Conversion and Distribution:

Data Acquisition system:

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Fig.1 shows the diagram of data acquisition system. The basic Data Distribution:
parameters are explained below:
1. Physical variable: The input to the system is a physical
variable such as position, velocity, acceleration, temperature,
pressure etc.
2. Transducer amplifier and low pass filter: The physical
variables (which are generally in non-electrical form) is first
converted into an electrical signal (a voltage or a current
signal) by a suitable transducer. Amplifier then amplifies the
voltage output of the transducer (i.e the signal have rises to the
necessary level). The LPF follows the amplifier which
attenuates the high frequency signal components such as noise
signals which are random in nature. The o/p of LPF is an
analog signal. The signal is then fed to an analog multiplexer.
3. Analog Multiplexer: It is a device that performs the function
of time sharing and ADC among many analog channels. It is a
multiple switch (usually an electronic switch) that switches
sequentially among many analog input channels in some
prescribed fashion. The no of channels may be 4,8,16.
4. Sample and hold circuit: A simpler in a digital system
converts an analog signal into an train of amplitude modulated
pulses. The hold circuit holds the value of the sampled pulse
signal over a specified period of time. It is necessary in the AD
converter to produce a number that accurately represents the
i/p signal at the sampling instant.
Assignment: 1. Draw a circuit of sample and hold and explain its
basic operation.

5. ADC: The output of sample and hold is then fed to the AD


converter. The o/p of the converter is the signal in digital form
which is fed to the digital controller.
In this way data acquisition system is held.
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1. Register: The o/p of digital controller is then stored for a The discrete signal obtained after sampling is called sampled
certain period of time in a memory device called register. signal.
2. Multiplexer: The demultiplexer , which is synchronized with Sampling Theorem: It states “Analog signal can be reproduce
the i/p sampling signal, separates the composite o/p signal from an appropriate set of its samples taken at some fixed
which is in the from of digital data from the digital controller intervals of time.” This theorem has made possible to transmit
into the original channels. Each channel is connected to DAC only samples of analog signal by changing or encoding this
to produce the o/p analog signal for that channel. samples into block of code words suitable for digital control
3. DAC: At the o/p of the digital controller, the digital must be systems.
converted to an analog signal by the process called D/A If fs = sampling frequency
conversion. For the full range of digital i/p, there are 2n fx = maximum frequency component of the i/p
different analog values , including zero. signal, then the distortion less recovery of the signal fs ≥ 2fx
4. Hold: The sampling operation produces an amplitude
modulated pulse signal. The function of hold operation is to If the signal x(t) to be sampled is band limited , then the sampled
reconstruct the analog signal that has been transmitted as a signal can be represented as:
train of pulse samples. The purpose of hold operation is to fill xs(t) = x(t) × g(t)
the spaces between the sampling periods and thus roughly Where, g(t) is the sampling function (rectangular pulse train)
reconstruct the original analog input signal which is then fed to which be represented as shown below.
the actuator which smoothens the slope of signal. g(s)
5. Plant or process: A plant is a physical object to be controlled.
The examples are a furnace, chemical reactors and a set of
machine parts functioning together to perform a particular Ts
operations such as servo system etc.
τ - τ/2 τ/2
Data conversion Process: Fig.1 Rectangular pulse train
Where ,
SIGNAL SAMPLING ,QUANTIZING AND ENCODING Ts = Sapling period.
τ = duration of sampling pulse= pulse width
Signal sampling is the first step of transmission of analog signal Sampler can be implemented as:
over digital signal.

1. Sampling: Sampling is the process of conversion of


continuous time analog signal into discrete time analog signal.
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x(t) xs(t)= x(t)×g(t)

g(t)
Fig.2 Implementation of sampler
Proof of sampling theorem: The gate function g(t) can be
expressed interms of fourier series as
g (t ) = c o + ∑n =1 2c n cos(nω s t )

Where, co = τ/ Ts = τfs
Cn = fs τ sinc[nfs τ ]
= co sinc[nfsτ]
ωs =2 πfs
The signal xs(t) can be expressed as
xs = x(t)×g(t)
= x(t)×[ c o + ∑n =1 2c n cos(nω s t ) ]

= cox(t)+2c1x(t)cos ωnt+2c2x(t)cos2 ωst+……….+2cnx(t)cosn


ωst+…………
The fourier transform of above series as
xs(f) =co(f)+2c1x(f-fs)+2c2x(f-2fs)+…………+2cn x(f+nfs)+…….
The above series can be graphically represented as:

x(f)

It is clear from fig.4 that the spectrum of the sampled signal


contains the spectrum of the sampled signal contains the spectrum
-fx fx of the original message signal.
Fig.3. Message spectrum 5
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Date:2065/4/26 The minimum sampling rate: fs min = 2fs is called Nyquists’s
It is evident that for distortion less recovery of original message sampling rate for distortion less recovery of one message
signal, from the spectrum of the sampled signal, the following spectrum.
condition should be met. The minimum interval of the sampling for a real signal is
fs ≥ fx Ts min = 1/2fx(min)
In this case the original message signal spectra can be recovered
by passing the sampled signal through low pass filter with Where
bandwidth equaling to ± fx fx(min) = maximum frequency in the message spectrum.
Distortion will occur while recovering the message spectrum if.
fs ≤ fx
The distortion in the above case is caused by the overlapping of Quantizing and Quantization error:
side bands and message spectra.
x(t)
Xs(f)

2
1

(a)
o
t
Xs(f) xs(n) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
aliasign ditortion
(fs<2fx)
1.8 1.8
0.9 1.7
0.9 1.7

(b) 0.5
n
4
xq (n) 1 2 3 5 6 7
o

1
(c)
n
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

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analog number must be round off to the nearest digital level.
Fig. 1(a) continuous Hence any ADC involves quantization error. It is evident that the
- continuous value signal maximum Q error could be only △/2. In uniform quantization the
1(b) Discrete time
- continuous value signal steps size △ is constant for the entire dynamic range of the input
1(c) Discrete time discrete signal level. Q error depends on the fineness of the
- discrete value signal. quantization level and can be made as small as desire by making
the quantization level smaller or by increasing the number of bits
‘n’. In practice there is a maximum for n and so there is always
Quantization is the process of representing the analog sample some error due to quantization.
values by a finite set of levels. The sampling process coverts a The uncertainty present in the quantization process results
continuous time signal to a discrete time signal with amplitude quantization noise.
and that can take any values from zero to maximum level and the
quantization process converts continuous amplitude samples to a Signal to quantization noise ratio (SQNR): It is evident that the
finite set of discrete amplitude values. Q-error ( i.e qe) lies between – △/2 to △/2 in random manner , the
The output sates of each quantized sample is then described by a average power of Q-noise is therefore given by,
numerical code. The process of representing a sampled value by a ∆
2
numerical code is called encoding . Thus encoding is a process of 1
∫q
2
Pq = dq e

e
assigning a digital word to each discrete states. −

2
In uniform quantization it is assumed that the range of input
sample is –xmax to xmax and the number of quantization level,
known as Q-level, N=2n. Where, ∆2
= Pq = …………………..(i)
n = is the number of bits per source sample , then the step 12
It is seen form equation (1) that Q-noise is dependent on step-size
size △ on length of the Q level is assumed to be,
‘△’ only. Reducing the step-size or increasing the no of
△ = 2xmax / N = 2xmax/2n = 2xmax/ 2n-1 representation level, we can reduce pq and hence Q-error.
△ = xmax/2n-1 From equ (1)
Pq = △2/12
The step size ‘△’ is also called ‘quantum’. But,
△= xmax /2n-1
Quantization error: Pq = (xmax/2n-1)/12 = xmax2/3×4n ……….(ii)
Since the number of bits in the digital word is finite , ie the digital
output can assume only a finite number of levels and therefore 7
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2
Assume that the average signal power is x , SQNR for uniform , we consider only the sampled values of x(t) , i.e x(0), x(T) ,
quantization will be, x(2T),………, where ‘T’ is sampling period.
The z-transform of a time function x(t) , where ‘t’ is non –
SQNR = average power of signal/ average power of noise. negative or of a sequence of values x(kT) , where k = 0,1,2,3 …
QSNR = xˆ 2 × 3 × 4 n ……………………(iii) ∞

Where,
X(z) = z[x(t)] = ∑ x(kT ) z
k =0
−k
…………….(i)
x2 ∞
xˆ 2 =
x2
= Normalized signal power.
Or , X(z) = z[x(t)] = ∑
k =0
x ( k ) z − 1 …………….(ii), for T=1
Again , equation (iii) can be reproduce in dB, as
3
(QSNR ) dB = Px (dB) + 10 log 10 + 10 log 10 (4) n
The z-transform defined by equation (i) and (ii) is one-sided z-
= Px (dB) + 4.8 + 10n log 10
transform .
Where, The both sided ( or double sided) z-transform is defined by:
Px (dB) = 10(log10 ( xˆ 2 )dB
Thus, ∞

(QSNR)dB = Px+4.8+6n………………….(iv)
X(z) = z[x(t)] = z[x(k)] = ∑ x(kT ) z
k = −∞
−1

Also,
SQNR(dB) = Px +4.8+20 log10N …………….(v ) [since, N= 2n]
And for N>> 1 z-transform of Elementary function:
SQNR = 20 log10N …………….(vi)
Which is approximated SQNR for uniform quantization interms of (i) Step unit function: The unit step function defined by
level of quantization “N”. ⎧⎪1 for t≥0
x(t ) = ⎨
Assignmet:1 ⎪⎩0 otherwise

1. Simple and hold ckt. Thus , X(z) = z[x(t)] = z[1(t)]= ∑ 1.z − k
Analog multiplexer and Demultiplexer. k =0

= 1 + z +z-2+z-3 +……….
-1

1
=
Date:2065/5/1 1 + z −1
1
Therefore, z[1(t)] =
Review of Z-transform: mathematical tool commonly used for 1 + z −1
the analysis and synthesis of discrete time control system is the z-
transform. In considering the z-transform of a time function x(t)
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z 1
Or, z[1(t)] = , z >1 Or, z[ak] =
z −1 1 − az −1

2. Unit Ramp Function: The unit ramp function is defined by 4. Exponential function:
⎧⎪t for t≥0 ⎧⎪e at for t≥0
x(t ) = ⎨ x(t ) = ⎨
⎪⎩0 otherwise ⎪⎩0 otherwise
Or, x(KT) = KT for k = 0,1,2,3…………. Where, x(kT) = e-akT, K = 0,1,2………..
Thus, We have,
∞ ∞
X(z) = z[x(t)] = z[t] = ∑ t.z
k =0
−k
X(z) = z[e-at] = ∑e − akT
z −k
k =0

Or, X(z) = 1 + e-aTz-1+e-2aTz-2+e-3aTz-3………



1
Or, X(z) = ∑ ( KT ) z
k =0
−k
X(z) =
1− e − aT
z −1
=
z
z − e − aT
-1 -2 -3
= k(z +2z +3z ……..)
z −1 5. Sinusoidal Function:
= T.
(1 − z −1 ) 2 ⎧⎪sin ωt for t≥0
−1 x(t ) = ⎨
T .z ⎪⎩0 t<0
X(z) =
(1 − z −1 ) 2
Noting , ejwt = coswt +jsinwt
3. Polynomial Function: The polynomial function is defined by e-jwt = coswt-jsinwt
⎧⎪a k k = 0,1,2,3.......
x(t ) = ⎨
⎪⎩0 K <0 we have ,
Where a is constant.
Sinwt = 1/2j[ejwt-e-jwt]
∞ & coswt = 1/2[ejwt+e-jwt]
Then, X(z) = z[x(k)] = z[aK] = ∑ x(k ) z
k =0
−k

∞ We know that,
X(k) = ∑a k
z −k

k =0
1
= 1 + az-1 +a 2z-2+ a3z-3+…………… Z[e-at] =
1 − e − at z −1
1
Z[ak] =
1 − az −1 9
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Z[ejwt] =
1 3. Multiplication by ak :
1 − e jwT z −1 If z[x(k)] = X(z) , then
Z[e-jwt] =
1 Z[akx(k)] = X(a-1z)
− jwT −1
1− e z
Therefore, z[sinwt] = z[ 1/2j(ejwt-e-jwt)] Proof:
= 1/2j[z(ejwt)-z(e-jwt)] ∞ ∞
Z[ akx(k)] = ∑ a k x(k ) z − k = ∑ x(k )(a −1 z ) − k
= 1/2j ⎡⎢ ⎤
1 1
− − jwt −1 ⎥
k =0 k =0
jwt −1
⎣1 − e z 1− e z ⎦ = X(a-1z)
z −1 sin wt
Z[sinwt] =
1 − 2 z −1 cos wt + z − 2 4. Shifting theorem:
If x(t) = 0 for t< 0 and
x(t) Z X(z)
Similarly,
z −1 cos wt
Z[coswt] = Then, z[x(t-nT)] = z-n X(z) ……………(i)
1 − 2 z −1 cos wt + z − 2

Important properties of z-transform:


⎡ n −1

And , z[x(t+nT)] = zn ⎢ X ( z ) − ∑ x( KT ) z − k ⎥ …………..(ii)
1. Multiplication by a constant: ⎣ k =0 ⎦

Z
If x(t) X(z), then, Where, n is zero or +ve integer.

Z[ax(t)] = az[x(t)] = ax(z) Proof:


For equation (i)
Where ‘a’ is a constant. We know that , z[x(t-nT)] = z[x(KT-nT)]
= z[x(k-n)T]
2. Linearity of Z-transform: ∞

If z[f(t)] = z[f(kT)] = z[f(k)] = F(z)


Or, z[x(t-nT)] = ∑ x(k − n).Tz
k =0
−k

Z[g(t)] = z[g(kT)] = z[g(k)] = G(z) ∞

And a and b be scalers then then x(k) formed by liner = ∑ x(k − n).T .z
k =0
−(k −n)
.z − n
combination, ∞

x(k) = a f(k) + b g(k) = z − n .∑ x(k − n).T .z − ( k − n )


k =0
Has the z-transfom Let us define k-n = m , therefore,
X(z) = a F(z) +G(z) 10
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= X(eaTz)
Z[x(mT)] = z . ∑ x(mT ).z
−n −m

m=−n = X (zeaT)
Since ‘m’ must be zero and non-negative integer
Therefore, z[x(mT)] = z-nX(z) 5. Initial value Theorem:
If x(t) has the z-transform X(z) and if z ⎯⎯→ lim
∞ X ( z ) exist
For equation (ii) then, the initial value x(0) of x(t) is given by ,

Z[x(t+nT) = z[ x(KT+nT)] x(0) = z ⎯⎯→


lim
∞ X ( z)
= z[x(K+n)T]

Or, z[x(t+nT)] = ∑ x(k + n).Tz
k =0
−k

6. Final Value Theorem:


=

∑ x(k + n).T .z −( k + n) .z n
k ⎯⎯→
lim
∞ x(k ) = z ⎯⎯→
lim
[
1 (1 − z −1 ) X ( z ) ]
k =0

= z n .∑ x(k + n).T .z − ( k + n )
k =0 Assignment # 02:
Let us define, K+n = m 1. Prove all the important properties of z-transform.

Z[x(mT)] = z − n .∑ x(mT ).z − m 1
m=n Example: 01: Obtain the z-transform of x(s) =
⎡ n −1 n −1 ∞
⎤ s ( s + 1)
= z n ⎢ ∑ x(mT ).z − m − ∑ x(mT ).z − m + ∑ x(mT ).z − m ⎥. Solution:
⎣m =0 m =0 m=n ⎦
1
⎡ ∞ n −1
⎤ Given, x(s) =
= z n ⎢ ∑ x(mT ).z − m − ∑ x(mT ).z − m ⎥. s ( s + 1)
⎣m =0 m =0 ⎦
A B
= +
s s +1
4. Complex translation Theorem:
Z 1
If x(t) X(z), then, Where, A = .s
-at s ( s + 1) s = 0
e x(t) Z X(zeaT)
Proof: A=1
1
And, B = .( s + 1)
∞ s ( s + 1) s = −1
Z[e-atx(t)] = ∑e
k =0
− akT
x(kT ).z − k
B = -1
∞ 1 1
= ∑ x(kT ).(e aT z ) −k Therefore, x(s) = −
s s +1
k =0 11
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Taking inverse Laplace Transform, we have, x(t) = 1 – e-t Z −1 sin ωT
Z[sinwt] = = X ( z)
Again taking z-transform on both sides, 1 − 2 z −1 cos wT + z −1
Z[x(t)] = z [ 1 – e-t] We know that,
= z[1] – z[e-t] Z[e-atx(kT)] = X[zeakT]
1 1 e − aT z −1 sin wt
= −1
− Therefore , z[e-atsinwT] =
1− z 1 − e −T z −1 1 − 2e − aT z −1 cos wt + e − 2 aT z − 2
1/ − e −T z −1 − 1/ + z −1
=
(1 − z −1 )(1 − e −T z −1 ) Example 04: Consider the function y(k) , which is sum of
(1 − e ) z −T −1
functions x(h) where, h = 0, 1, 2 …….k , Such that
=
(1 − z −1 )(1 − e −T z −1 )
k
y(k) = ∑ x(h), k = 0,1,2.....
Example: 02 Obtain the z-transform of h=0

⎧⎪a k −1 k = 0,1,2,3....... Where y(k) = 0 for k < 0 . Obtained the z-transform of y(k).
f (a) = ⎨
⎪⎩0 K ≤0 Solution: Given,


k

∑ x (h)
−k
Z[f(a)] = f (a).z y(k) =
k =0 h=0

or, y(k) = x(0) + x(1) + x(2) + x(3)+………….+ x(k)---------(i)


1 similarly,
Here, z[x(k)] = z[ak] = = X (k )
1 − az −1 y(k-1) = x(0)+ x(2)+ x(3)+ ……….+x(k-1) -------------(ii)
Then, z[x(k-1)] = z[ak-1] = z-1.X(z)
⎡ 1 ⎤
Therefore, z[ak-1] = z-1 ⎢⎣1 − az −1 ⎥⎦ Now from (i) and (ii) gives.
y(k) – y(k-1) = x(k)
z −1
Z[ak-1] =
1 − az −1 Now taking z-transform on both sides,
Z[y(k) – y(k-1)] = z[x(k)]
Example:03 obtained the z-trasform Y(z) – z-1Y(z) = X(z)
[i] e-at sinωt [ii] e-at cosωt Y(z) [1-z-1] = X(z)

Date:2065/5/3 Therefore, Y(z) = X(z)/ ( 1-z-1) Ans.


[i] e-atsinωt Example 05: Obtained the z-transform of t.e-at.
We know that
Given,
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-at
x(t) = t e The inverse z-transform:
x(kT) = kT e-at (1) Direct division method:
We know z –transform of t is given by, z[t] = Tz-1/(1-z-1)2
Using complex translational theorem, Example 01: Find x(k) for k = 0, 1,3,4. When X(z) is given by ,
Z[e-at.t] = Te-at.z-1/(1-e-atz-1)2 X(z) = (10z+5)/(z-1)(z-0.2)

Example 06: Determine the initial value x(0) if, Solution:


X(z) = (1-e-T)/(1-z-1)(1-e-Tz-1) X(z) = (10z+5)/(z-1)(z-0.2)
Solution: = (10z+5)/(z2- 1.2z+0.2)
Given, X(z) = (1-e-T)/(1-z-1)(1-e-Tz-1) = (10z-1+ 5z-2)/(1-1.2z-1+0.2z-2)
We know initial value theorem is given by ,
X(0) = z ⎯⎯→
lim
∞X ( z ) 10 z −1 + 5 z −2
(1 − e −T ) z −1 10 z −1 − 12 z − 2 + 2 z −3
= z ⎯⎯→ ∞
lim

(1 − z −1 )(1 − e −T z −1 )
17 z − 2 − 2 z −3
= 0 Ans.
17 z − 2 − 20.4 z −3 + 3.4 z − 4
Example 07: Determine the final value x(∞) of X(z) = +18.4 z −3 + 3.4 z − 4
1 1
−1
− − aT −1
a>0 18.4 z −3 − 22.08 z − 4 + 3.68 z −5
1− z 1− e z
18.68 z − 4 − 3.68 z −5
Solution: 18.68 z − 4 − 22.416 z −5 + 3.7362 z − 6
From final value theorem,
x(∞) = z ⎯⎯→
lim
1[(1 − z −1 ) X ( z )] 18.736 z −5 − 3.7362 z − 6
⎡ ⎤⎤
1⎢(1 − z −1 )⎢
⎡ 1 1
= z ⎯⎯→
lim
− ⎥
⎣ ⎣1 − z
−1
1 − e aT z −1 ⎥⎦ ⎦ Quotient of the x(z) gives the inverse z-transform is given by
⎡ 1 − z −1 ⎤
X(0) = 0
= z ⎯⎯→1⎢1 −
lim
− aT −1 ⎥ X(1) = 10
⎣ 1− e z ⎦
X(2) = 17
⎡ z −1 ⎤ X(3) = 18. 4
= z ⎯⎯→
lim
1⎢1 − − aT ⎥
⎣ z−e ⎦ X(4) = 18.68
= 1-0
= 1 Ans. Example 02: Find x(k) when X(z) is given by X(z) = 1/(z+1)
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-1 -1
Example 03: Obtained x(k) for X(z) = z / (1- az ) 1 − e − aT .z
Example 01: Given X(z) = Where ‘a’ is a
( z − 1)( z − e − aT )
X(z) = z-1/(1-az-1) constant and T is the sampling period. Determine the inverse z-
-1 ⎡1 ⎤ transform x(KT) by the use of partial fraction expansion method.
= z ⎢ −1 ⎥
⎣1 − az ⎦ Solution:
= z-1[X(z)] (1 − e − aT ) Z
Where, Y(z) = 1/(1-az-1) X(z) =
( z − 1)( z − e − aT )
The inverse z-transform of Y(z) is z-1[Y(z)] = ak X ( z) 1 − e − aT
So, the inverse z-transform of (z) = z-1[Y(z)] =
Z ( z − 1)( z − e − aT )
z-1[X(z)] = ak-1 = y(k-1)
Therefore, x(k) = y(k-1) = ak-1
X ( z) A B
= +
Z z − 1 z − e − aT
2. partial fraction method: We use the following formula for
X ( z) 1 − e − aT
the function written in the form A = (z-1) = ( z − 1)
X ( z) a1 a2 an Z z =1 ( z − 1)( z − e − aT ) z = 1
= = + ............
Z z − p1 z − p 2 z − pn 1 − e − aT
= =1
X ( z) 1 − e − aT
(i) ai = (z-pi) Threfore, A = 1.
Z z = pi
Again if,
X ( z) 1 − e − aT
X ( z) C1 C2 Similarly B = = ( z − e − aT
)
= + Then, Z z = e − aT ( z − 1)( z − e − aT ) z = e − aT
Z ( z − p1 ) ( z − p 2 )
1 − e − aT
X ( z)
2 =
C1 = (z-p1) (e − aT − 1)
Z z = p1
B = -1
And , C2 = ⎧d ⎡ 2 X ( z) ⎤⎫
⎨ ⎢( z − p1 ) ⎬
⎩ dz ⎣ z ⎥⎦ ⎭ Z = P1 X ( z) 1 1
= −
In general , if there are n- multiplication roots then, Z z − 1 z − e − aT
1 ⎧ d n −1 z z
Cn = ⎡ n X ( z) ⎤⎫ X ( z) = −
(n − 1)! ⎨⎩ dz n −1 ⎢( z − p1 ) ⎬
z ⎥⎦ ⎭ Z = P z − 1 z − e − aT
⎣ n
1 1
X ( z) = −1
− − aT −1
1− z 1− e z
Therefore, z-1 [X(z)] = 1-e-aT= 1k-e-akT
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k -akT
Therefore, x(t) = 1 – e ans. ⎡ 3 −1 ⎤
⎢ z ⎥
−1 ⎡ 1 − 0.5 z ⎤ 1 −1
−1
−1 ⎡ 1 ⎤ 2
X ( z) = 4z ⎢ −1 ⎥
− 3 z ⎢ −2 ⎥
+ z ⎢ ⎥
z2 + z + 2 ⎣1 − z ⎦
−1
⎣1 − z + z ⎦ 3
−1 −2
⎢1 − z + z ⎥
Example 02: Obtained the z-transform of X ( z ) = ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦
( z − 1)( z 2 − z + 1)
by partial fractional expression method. We know that

Solution: z-1 ⎡⎢
1 ⎤ k
=1
−1 ⎥
z +z+2
2
A Bz + c ⎣1 − z ⎦
X ( z) = = + 2
( z − 1)( z − z + 1) ( z − 1) z − z + 1
2
-1 ⎡ 1 − 0.5 z
−1
⎤ π
z ⎢ −1 −2 ⎥
= cos k
z2 + z + 2 A( z 2 − z + 1) + ( Bz + C )( Z − 1) ⎣1 − z + z ⎦ 3
=
( z − 1)( z 2 − z + 1) ( z − 1)( z 2 − z + 1) ⎡ 3 ⎤
⎢ z −1 . ⎥
Z2 + z +2 = (A+B)z2- (A+B-C)z +(A-C) 2 π
z-1 ⎢ ⎥ = sin k
Comparing the coefficient of z2 , z and z0 we get, −1
⎢1 − z + z ⎥
−2
3
B+A = 1 ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦
-(A+B-C) = 1 Therefore, z-1 = [X(z)] = x(k)
A-C = 2 = 4.1k-1 – 3 cos(k-1) π/3 + 1/√3 . sin(k-1) π/3
Solving the above equation we get,
A = 4 , B = -3, C = 2
A Bz + c
Thus , X ( z ) = + 2
( z − 1) z − z + 1 Date: 2065/5/10
4 − 3z + 1 3. Inverse Integral method:
X ( z) = + 2
( z − 1) z − z + 1 The inversion integral for the z-transform X(z) is
4 z −1 − 3z −1 + 2 z −2 1
X ( z) = + given by z-1[x(z)] = x[kT] = x(k) = ∫ x( z ) z k −1 dz ………(i)
(1 − z −1 ) 1 − z −1 + z − 2 2πj

−1 ⎡ 1 ⎤ −1 ⎡ 1 − 0.5 z
−1
⎤ Where ‘c’ is a circle with its centre at the origin of the z-plane
=
X ( z) 4z ⎢ −1 ⎥
− 3 z ⎢ −1 −2 ⎥ such that all poles of x(z)z-1 are inside it.
⎣1 − z ⎦ ⎣1 − z + z ⎦
The equation for giving the inverse z-transform
−1 ⎡ 1 − 0.5 z ⎤ −1 ⎡ 1 / 6.z −1 ⎤
−1
⎡ 1 ⎤ in terms of residues can be derived by using the theory of complex
X ( z ) = 4 z −1 ⎢ −1 ⎥
− 3 z ⎢ −1 −2 ⎥
+ 3 z ⎢ −1 −2 ⎥
⎣1 − z ⎦ ⎣1 − z + z ⎦ ⎣1 − z + z ⎦ variables. It can be obtained as follows.
X(kT) = x1 + x2 + ……….+xn denotes the residues of x(z)zk-1 at
poles z1, z2 ……..zm respectively.
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In evaluating residues, if the denominator of ⎡ ( z − e − aT ) z k (1 − e − aT ) ⎤
k-1 = z ⎯⎯→
lim
e − aT ⎢ ⎥
x(z)z contains a simple pole at z = zi , then the corresponding ⎣ ( z − 1)( z − e ) ⎦
− aT

residue x is given by, ⎡ e − akT (1 − e − aT ) ⎤


k i = z 0 ⎯⎯→
lim
z1 [( z − z i )X ( z ) z k −1 ] …………….(ii) = ⎢ − aT ⎥
k-1 ⎣ e −1 ⎦
If X(z) z contains a multiple pole zi or order q, then the residue
Therefore , k2 = - e-akT
k is given by ,
ki =
1
(q − 1)!
.z ⎯⎯→
lim
2j
dq −1
dzq −1
[
(z − z i )q X ( z ) z k −1 ] ………..(iii) X(kT) = x(k) = x1 + x2 = 1-e-akT which is required inverse z-
trasnform.
Example: 01 Obtained x(kT) by using the inversion integral
− aT
z (1 − e ) Example 02: Obtained the inverse z-transform of
method when, X ( z ) =
( z − 1)( z − e − aT ) z2
x(z) = by using the inverse integral method.
( z − 1) 2 ( z − e − aT )
Solution: Solution:
z (1 − e − aT ) z2
X ( z) = X(z) =
( z − 1)( z − e − aT ) ( z − 1) 2 ( z − e − aT )
z kT z (1 − e − aT ) z k +1
X ( z ) z k −1 = X(z)zk-1 =
( z − 1)( z − e − aT ) ( z − 1) 2 ( z − e − aT )
z k (1 − e − aT ) X(z) zk-1 has simple pole at z = z1 = e-aT and double pole at z = z2
X ( z ) z k −1 =
( z − 1)( z − e − aT ) =1 ( i.e q = 2)
For k = 0,1,2……….x(z)zk-1 has simple poles at z1 = 1and z2= e-aT The inverse z-transform is therefore given by, x(kT) = k1 +k2
e − aT [(z − e − aT )X ( z ) z k −1 ]
2
Where, k1 = z ⎯⎯→lim

∑ residue of x(z)z
k-1
Hence, x(kT) = x(k) = at pole z = zi
i =1 ⎡ ( z − e − aT ) z k +1 ⎤
= k1 + k 2 = z ⎯⎯→
lim
e − aT ⎢ − aT ⎥
⎣ ( z − 1) ( z − e ) ⎦
2

Where k1 = z ⎯⎯→ z1 [(z − z i )X ( z ) z k −1 ]


lim
⎡ e − a ( k +1)T ⎤
⎡ z (1 − e ) ⎤
k − aT = ⎢ − aT ⎥
= z ⎯⎯→
lim
z1 ⎢( z − 1) ⎥ ⎣ (e − 1) 2 ⎦
⎣ ( z − 1)( z − e − aT ) ⎦
1 d ⎡ z k +1 ⎤
1 (1 − e
k − aT
) And for K2 , k2 = .z ⎯⎯→
lim
1 .⎢( z − 1) 2 − aT ⎥
= (2 − 1)! dz ⎣ ( z − 1) ( z − e ) ⎦
2

( z − e − aT )
d ⎡ z k +1 ⎤
K1 = 1 = z ⎯⎯→
lim
1 .⎢ ⎥
dz ⎣ ( z − e − aT ) ⎦
For K2 ,
K2 = z ⎯⎯→
lim
z 2 [( z − z 2 )X ( z ) z k −1 ] 16
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⎡ ( z − e )(k + 1) z − z ⎤
− aT k k +1
Z2x(z)-z2x(0)-zx(1) + 3[zx(z)-zx(0)] +2x(z) = 0
= z ⎯⎯→ 1⎢ lim

⎣ ( z − e − aT ) 2 ⎦ X(z) [z2+3z+2] – (z2 +2)x(0) – zx(1) – zx(1) = 0
(k + 1)k k (1 − e − aT ) − 1k +1 (k + 1)(1 − e − aT ) − 1
But, x(0) = 0 and x(1) = 1
= − aT 2
= − aT 2 Therefore, x(z) [z2+3z+2] – z = 0
(z − e ) (1 − e )
z z A B
(k − ke − aT
−e − aT X(z) = 2 = = +
= ( z + 3z + 2) ( z + 1)( z + 2) z + 1 z + 2
(1 − e − aT ) 2 x( z ) 1 A B
− a ( k +1)T
k − ke − aT
−e − aT = = +
Therefore, x(kT) k1 + k2 = − aT
e
+ z ( z + 1)( z + 2) z + 1 z + 2
− aT 2
(e − 1) 2
(1 − e ) x( z )
− a ( k +1)T
+ k − ke − aT
−e − aT A = ( z + 1)
X(kT) =
e z z = −1
− aT 2
(1 − e ) A = 1.
z −2 Similarly, B = -1,
Example 03: Obtain the inverse z-transform of x(z) =
(1 − z −1 ) 3 x( z ) 1 1
= −
1 d ⎡2
3 z. z ⎤
k −1 z z +1 z + 2
Where k1 = .z ⎯⎯→
lim
1. 2 ⎢( z − 1) 3 ⎥ z z
2! dz ⎣ ( z − 1) ⎦ x( z ) = −
z +1 z + 2
1 d2
= . 2 zk
2! dz
[ ]
z =1 x( z ) =
1
−1

1
1+ z 1 + 2 z −1
=
1 d
.
2 dz
[
kz k −1 ]
z =1
x( z ) =
1
1 − (−1) z −1

1
1 − (−2) z −1
The inverse z-transform of x(z) is
=
1
2
[ ]
. k (k − 1) z k − 2
z =1 X(z) = -(1)k – (-2)k, k = 0,1,2………..
k (k − 1)
= Example 02: Obtained the solution of the following difference
2
-1
Therefore, z (x(z)) = x(kT) = k(k-1)/2 equation in terms of x(0) and x(1).
X(K+2) + (a+b)x(k+1) + ab x(k) = 0
Solution of difference equation by z-transform method: Z2x(z) – z2x(0) – zx(1) + (a+b) [z x(z) – z x(0)] + ab x(z) = 0
X(z) [z2 + (a+b)z+ab] = [z2 + (a+b)z] x(0) + z x(1)
Example 01: Solve the following difference equation by use of z- [ z 2 + (a + b) z ]x(0) + zx(1)
X(z) =
transform method of x(K+2)+ 3x(k+1)+2x(k) = 0 z 2 + (a + b) z + ab
Taking z-transform on both the sides , we have, [ z + a + b]x(0) + x(1) A B
X(z) = = +
Z[x(k+2)]+3z[x(k+1)]+3z[x(k+1)] +2z[x(k)] = 0 ( z + a)( z + b) z+a z+b
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bx(0) + x(1) ax(0) + x(1) ⎡ k ⎤ 1 ⎡ i −1

Where, A =
(b − a)
and B=
( a − b) ⎢∑ x ( h ) =
⎥ (1 − z −1 ) ⎢ X ( z ) − ∑ x ( h) z − h ⎥
⎣ h =i ⎦ ⎣ h=0 ⎦
bx(0) + x(1) ax(0) + x(1) Where 1 ≤ i ≤ (k-1)
x( z ) (b − a ) ( a − b)
= + 3.Obtained the z-transform of
z ( z + a) ( z + b)
bx(0) + x(1) ax(0) + x(1) Figure:
(b − a ) ( a − b)
x( z ) = −1
+ 4. Obtained the z-transform of
1 − (−a) z 1 − (−b) z −1
2z 3 + 2 ( z + 2)
⎡ bx(0) + x(1) ⎤ ⎡ ax(0) + x(1) ⎤ (a) x( z ) = (b) x( z ) =
X ( z) = ⎢ ⎥ (−a ) k + ⎢ ⎥ (−b) k [ for the case a ≠ b] ( z − 2) 2 ( z − 1) ( z − 2).z 2
⎣ (b − a ) ⎦ ⎣ ( a − b) ⎦ 10 z ( z + 2)
(c ) x( z ) = (d) x( z ) =
( z − 2)( z − 1) ( z − 1) 2
Now for a = b, 1 + 6 z −2 + z −3
( z + 2az ) x(0) + zx(1)
2 (e) x( z ) =
X(z) = (1 − z −1 )(1 − 0.2 z −1 )
z 2 + 2az + a 2
1 + z −1 + z −2
x( z ) ( z + 2a ) x(0) + x(1) (f) x( z ) =
= 1− z −1
z ( z + a) 2
5. Solve the following difference equations:
x( z ) A B
= + a. 2x(k) – 2x(k-1) +x(k-2) = u(k)
z ( z + a) ( z + a) 2
Where x(k) = 0 for k< 0
zx(0) ax(0) + x(1)
We get , x(z) = x( z ) = + ⎧1, k = 0,1,2.....
(1 + az ) (1 + az −1 ) 2
−1
And u(k) = ⎪⎨
⎪⎩0, k <0
Therefore, x(k) = x(0)(-a)k + [ ax(0)+x(1)][(-a)k-1] for case a = b
b. x(k+2) –x(k+1) + 0.25x(k) = u(k+2)
Assignment: where, x(0) = 1, x(1) = 2
1. Obtained the z-transform of (a) k2 (b) k ak-1 u(k) = 1 for k ≥ 0.
⎡ k ⎤ 1
c. x(k-2) – x(k-1) + 0.25 x(k) = u(k-2)
z ⎢ ∑ x ( h) ⎥ = −1
x( z ) x(0) =1 x(k) = 0, for k<0.
⎣ n =0 ⎦ 1− z
2. Show that u(k) = 1 for k ≥ 0
⎡ k −1 ⎤ z −1
z ⎢ ∑ x ( h) ⎥ = −1
x( z ) (6) Consider the difference equation .
⎣ n =0 ⎦ 1− z X(k+2) = x(k+1) +x(k)

Where x(0) = 0 and x(1) = 1.
And , ∑ x(k ) = z ⎯⎯→1X ( z )
k =0
lim

Note that x(2) = 1 , x(3) = 2, x(4) = 3.


Also show that, 18
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The series 0,1,2,3,5,8,13,………is known as Fibonacci series. Lim k ∞ x(k+1) /x(k) = (1+ √5)/2 = 1.6180
Obtained in general solution x(k) in closed form. Show that the We have ,
liming value of x(k+1)/ x(k) as k ⎯⎯→ ∞ is (1+√5)/2 or approx X(k+2) = x(k+1) + x(k)
1.6180. Z[x(k+2)= z[z(k+1) +x(k) ]
Z2x(z) – z2 x(0) – 2x(1) = z x(z) – 2x(0) + x(z)
Date: 2065/5/15 Or, z2x(z) – 2x(z) – x(z) = z2x(0) + 2x(1) – 2x(0)
Example 05: (c ) x(k-2) –x(k-1) + 0.25x(k) = 4 (k-2) Or, x(z) =
z
X(0 ) = 1 z − z −1
2

X(k) = 0 for, K < 0 and u(k) = 1 for k ≥ 0 x( z ) z


= 2
Solution: z z − z −1
Now, the roots of z2-z -1 are
X(k-2) - x(l-1) + 0.25x(k) = u(k-2) − b ± b 2 − 4ac
=
Z[x(k-2)] – z[x(k-1)] + 0.25 z [ x(k0] = z [ u(k-1)] 2a
− 1 ± 1 − 4.1(−1)
Or, z-2 x(z) – z-1 x(z) + 0.25 x(z) = z-2 u(z) =
2 .1
Or, x(z) [z-2 –z-1 + 0.25] = z-2 . 1/(1-z-1) 1± 5
X(z) = z-2/(1-z-1)(z-2-z-1 +0.25) =
2
Or x(z) = z.z2 /z2 ( z-1)(1-z+0.25) 1+ 5
= 4z/(z-1)(z-2)2 =
2
X(z)/z = 4/(z-1) (z-2)2 = A/(z-1) + B/(z-2) + C/(z-2)2
1− 5
By partial fraction method we get, =
2
A = 4, B = -4, C =4.
Therefore, X(z)/z = 4 [ 1/(z-1) – 1/(z-2) + 1 (z-2)2 ] x( z ) z 1
X(z) = 4 [1/(1-z-1) – 1/1-2z-1 + z-1/(1-2z-1)2 = 2 =
z z − z − 1 ⎡ ⎛ 1 + 5 ⎞⎤ ⎡ ⎛ 1 − 5 ⎞⎤
Or, X(z) = 4 [ z/z-1 – z/(z-2) + z/(z-2)2 ] ⎢ z − ⎜⎜ ⎟⎥ ⎢ z − ⎜ ⎟⎥
⎟ ⎜ ⎟
Taking inverse z transform on both sides ⎢⎣ ⎝ 2 ⎠⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ ⎝ 2 ⎠⎥⎦
x(k) = 4[1k – 2k + 2k-1.k] , k = 0, 1, 2…….
= 4 – 2k+2 + k.2k+1 A B
= +
⎡ ⎛ 1 + 5 ⎞⎤ ⎡ ⎛ 1 − 5 ⎞⎤
Example: 06 ⎢ z − ⎜⎜ ⎟⎥
⎟ ⎢ z − ⎜⎜ ⎟⎥

⎣⎢ ⎝ 2 ⎠⎥⎦ ⎣⎢ ⎝ 2 ⎠⎥⎦
Given, x(k+2) = x(k+1) + x(k) , x(0) = 0 and x(1) = 1
To get x(k) We get,
And to prove, A = 1/√5 , B = -1/√5
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⎡ ⎤ k ∞ , Thus the equation (iii) become,
⎢ ⎥ k +1
x( z ) 1 ⎢ 1 1 ⎥ ⎛1 + 5 ⎞
= − ⎜ ⎟
x(k + 1) ⎝ 2 ⎟⎠
⎢ ⎥ ⎜
z 5 ⎢ ⎡ ⎛ 1 + 5 ⎞⎤ ⎡ ⎛ 1 − 5 ⎞⎤ ⎥ 1+ 5
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ lim k → ∞ = = = 1.6180 proved
⎢ ⎢ z − ⎜ 2 ⎟⎥ ⎢ z − ⎜ 2 ⎟⎥ ⎥ x(k ) ⎛1 + 5 ⎞
k
2
⎣⎣ ⎢ ⎝ ⎠ ⎥
⎦ ⎣ ⎢ ⎝ ⎠⎥⎦ ⎦ ⎜ ⎟
⎜ 2 ⎟
⎡ ⎤ ⎝ ⎠
⎢ ⎥
1 ⎢ 1 1 ⎥
x( z ) = ⎢ − ⎥ Impulse Sampling:
5 ⎢ ⎡ ⎛ 1 + 5 ⎞ −1 ⎤ ⎡ ⎛ 1 − 5 ⎞ −1 ⎤ ⎥ Let us consider an ideal sampler commonly called an impulse
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
⎢ ⎢1 − ⎜ 2 ⎟ z ⎥ ⎢1 − ⎜ 2 ⎟ z ⎥ ⎥
⎣⎣⎢ ⎝ ⎠ ⎥
⎦ ⎣ ⎢ ⎝ ⎠ ⎥⎦ ⎦ sampler. We assume x(t ) = 0 for t< 0. The sampler o/p is equal
Taking inverse z-transform we get, to the product of the continuous time i/p x(t) and train of unit
impulse δT(t) which means the sampler may be considered as a
1 ⎡⎛ 1 + 5 ⎞ ⎛1 − 5 ⎞ ⎤
k k

x(k ) = ⎢⎜ ⎟ −⎜ ⎟ ⎥ …………….(i) modular with x(t) as the modulating signal and δT(t) as the
5 ⎢⎣⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎥
⎝ ⎠ ⎦ carrier as shown in fig1 below.
Similarly we can write,
1 ⎡⎛ 1 + 5 ⎞ ⎛1 − 5 ⎞ ⎤
k +1 k +1
Modulator
x(k + 1) = ⎢⎜ ⎟ −⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ……….(ii)
5 ⎢⎣⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎥ x(t)
x*(t)=x(t)×δΤ(t)
⎝ ⎠ ⎦
From (i) and (ii)
⎡⎛ 1 + 5 ⎞ k +1 ⎛ 1 − 5 ⎞ k +1 ⎤ δΤ(t)

⎢⎜ ⎟ −⎜ ⎟ ⎥
x(k + 1) ⎢⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎥
⎝ ⎠ ⎦

=
x( k ) ⎛1 + 5 ⎞
k
⎛1 − 5 ⎞
k

⎜ ⎟ −⎜ ⎟ Figure:1
⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
Here, Let us consider x*(t) to represent the impulse sampled o/p. The
1− 5
< 1 when k ∞ sampled signal x*(t), a train of impulses, can thus be represented
2 ∞

⎛1 − 5 ⎞
k by the infinite summation, i.e x*(t) = ∑ x(kT )δ (t − kT ) ……..(i)
k =0
Lim k ∞ ⎜⎜ ⎟ →0
⎟ *
⎝ 2 ⎠ x (t) = x(0)δ (t ) + x(T )δ (t − T ) + x(2T )δ (t − 2T ) + ........ ------- (ii)
⎛1 − 5 ⎞
k
⎛1 − 5 ⎞
k +1 Here, we are defining ,
The terms ⎜⎜ ⎟ and ⎜ ⎟ can be neglected when ∞

⎝ 2 ⎠
⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟
⎝ ⎠ δ T (t ) = ∑ δ (t − kT ) ………….(iii)
20 k =0

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Now taking the laplace transform of equation (iii) we get
ℒ[x*(t)] = x*(s) = x(0) ℒ[δ(t)]+x(T)ℒ[δ(t-T)]+ x(2T)ℒ[δ(t-
2T)]+…..
X*(s) = x(0).1+x(T).e-Ts + x(2T).e-2Ts +……. Data hold is a process of generating a continuous time signal h(t)
∞ from a discrete time sequence x(k). A hold ckt covert the sampled
X*(s) = ∑ x(kT )e
k =0
− kTS
…………….(iv) signal into a continuous time signal. A hold ckt hold the
amplitude of the sampled from one sampling instant to the next.
We define esT = z ……….(v)
Such a data hold is called zero order hold or clamper or stair case
Then equation (iv ) can be rewritten as
∞ generator. The o/p of the zero order hold is a staircase function.
X*(s) = ∑ x(kT ) z
k =0
−k
= X(z) Assuming x(t) = 0 for t<0,
The ZOH circuit smoothens the sampled signal to produce the
signal h(t) , which is constant for the last sampled value until the
i.e X * ( s) 1 = X ( z) ……………(vi)
s= . ln z next sample is available, i.e ,
T h1(t+kT) = x(kT) for 0 ≤ t ≤ T …………..(i)
The o/p h1(t) may be assumed as
h1(t) = x(0) [ 1(t) -1(t-1)]+x(T) [ 1(t-1)-1(t-2T)] + x(2t)[1(T-2t)
Data hold: -1(t-3T)]+ ………….

h1(t) = ∑ x(kT )[1(t − kT ) − 1(t − (k + 1)T )]
k =0
…………..(ii)
zero order hold
x(t) x(kT) (ZOH) h1(t) We know that
ℒ[1(t-kT)] = e-kTs/s
Therefore , the laplcae transform of equation (ii) be written as:

ℒ[h1(t)] = H1(s) = ∑ x(kT ) ℒ [1(t-kT) -1(t-(k+1)T)]
k =0
∞ − kTS − ( k +1)TS
e e
Fig 2(a): Sampler and a zero order hold.
= ∑ x(kT )
k =0 s

S
− kTS − ( k +1)TS

e −e
x(t) X*(s) h2(t)
= ∑ x(kT )
k =0 s
Gho(s)
δΤX*(s) H2(s) 1 − e −TS ∞
H1(s) =
s
∑ x(kT ).e
k =0
− KTS
………..(iii)

Fig 2(b): Mathematical Model that consist of a sampler and a But from fig (ii) b,
Transfer function Gho(s) for ZOH. 21
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ℒ[h2(t)] = H2(s) = H1(s) The above integral is equal to the sum of residues of X(p) in the
Thus, closed container i.e
⎡ X ( p) ⎤
1 − e −TS X * ( s ) = ∑ ⎢residue of

at poles of X ( p)⎥
H2(s) =
s
∑ x(kT ).e − KTS ……….(iv)
k =0
⎣ 1− e −T ( s − p )

From fig (ii)b, we can write , But we know that
H2(s) = Gho(s) × X*(s) ………(v) eTs = z
But we know X*(s) = X(z)
∞ ⎡ X ( p) z ⎤
X*(s) = ∑ x(kT ).e − KTS X ( z ) = ∑ ⎢residue of at poles of X ( p)⎥
k =0 ⎣ z−e Tp

Thus from equation (iv) become, By changing the complex variable rotation from p to s obtained
−TS
1− e ⎡ X ( s) z ⎤
H2(s) = X*(s) X ( z ) = ∑ ⎢residue of at poles of X ( s )⎥
s ⎣ z − es ⎦
1 − e −TS Assume that X(s) has poles S1 , s0 ……sm. If a pole at s = sj is a
Gho(s) = ………..(vi)
s simple pole , then residue.
⎡ X ( s) z ⎤
k j = s ⎯⎯→
lim
s j ⎢( s − s j ).
⎣ z − e TS ⎥⎦
Date: 2065/5/17 If a pole at s = si is a multiple pole of order ni , then the residue ki
1 d ⎡ n X ( s) z ⎤
z-transform by convolution integral method: = s ⎯⎯→
lim
s i ni −1 ⎢( s − s j ) . z − e Ts ⎥
(ni − 1)! ds ni −1 ⎣ ⎦

The convolution integral is defined by 1


1
c + j∞
1 Example:01: Obtained the z-transform of X(s) = by the
s ( s + 1)

2
X * ( s) = X ( p) dp ……….(i)
2πj c − j∞ 1− e −T ( s − p )
use of convolution integral method.
Where, the integration is along the line from c-j∞ to c+j∞ and this Solution:
line is parallel to imaginary axis in the p-plane and separate the 1
1
X(s) =
poles of X(P) from those of s ( s + 1)
2
−T ( s − p )
[1 − e ] X ( s) z z
= 2
Equation (i) also be written as z−e TS
s ( s + 1)( z − e TS )
Thus by convolution integral method,
1 X ( p)
X * (s) = ∫
2πj 1 − e −T ( s − p )
dp ⎡
X ( z ) = ∑ ⎢residue of 2
z ⎤
at poles of X ( s )⎥
⎣ s ( s + 1)( z − e )
TS

22
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= k1 + k 2
X(s) = (1 − e −TS ) ⎡⎢
G(s) ⎤
⎡ ⎤ ⎥
z ⎣ s ⎦
Where, k1 = s ⎯⎯→
lim
−1⎢.( s + 1). TS ⎥
⎣ s ( s + 1)( z − e ) ⎦
2
X(s) = (1 − e TS ).G1 ( s)
z X(s) = G1 ( s) − e − TS .G1 ( s)
=
1 − ( z − e −T ) X(s) = G1 ( s) − X 1 ( s)
K1 =
z Where X1(s) = e-TS.G1(s)
( z − e −T ) ℒ -1[X1(s)] = ℒ -1[e-TSG1(s)]
1 d ⎡ 2 z ⎤
K2 = s ⎯⎯→
lim
0 ⎢s . 2 −Ts ⎥
= ℒ -1[e-TS]*ℒ -1[G1(s)]
(2 − 1)! ds ⎣ s ( s + 1)( z − e ) ⎦
d ⎡
ℒ -1[X1(s)] = g0(t) * g1(t)
z ⎤
= s ⎯⎯→ lim
0 ⎢. 2 Ts ⎥
t

ds ⎣ s ( s + 1)( z − e ) ⎦ x1(t) = ∫ g 0 (t − τ ) * g 1 (τ )dτ


0
− z 2 + z + zT
= But,
( z − 1) 2
Thus X(z) = k1 +k2 ℒ -1[e-TS] = δ (t-T)
t
z − z 2 + z + zT Thus , x1(t) = ∫ δ (t − T − τ ).g 1 (τ )dτ
= +
( z − e −T ) ( z − 1) 2 0

1 −1+ z + z T−1 −1 = g1(t-T)


= −1 −T
+ Hence by writing z[g1(t)] = G1(z)
1− z e (1 − z −1 ) 2
Thus,
Z[x1(t) ] = z[g1(t-T)]
1 − e −TS
Example:02: Given X ( s) = .G ( s) . Prove that X1(z) = z-T.G1(z)
s
Thus , X(s) = G1 (s) –X1(s)
⎡ G ( s) ⎤
X ( z ) = (1 − z −1 ) z ⎢ ⎥ OR consider the zero order Hold circuit Or, X(z) = z[g1(t)]-z[X1(t)]
⎣ s ⎦ = G1(z) –z—T.G1(z)
succeeded by the plant with transfer function G(s). Explain how = G1(z)[1-z-T]
would you determine the z-transform of such combined system. = [1-z-T].z[G(s)/s] [G1(s) = z[(G(s))/s]
Soluotion:
∴ X(z) = (1-z-T) z.(G(s)/s)
Suppose the transfer function G(s) follows the zoH. Then, the For T = 1,
product of the transfer function of ZOH and G(s) becomes: X(z) = (1-z-1).z [G(s)/s] proved
1 − e −TS
X ( s) = .G ( s) Criteria For stability in Z-domain:
s 23
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Example: 01: consider the closed loop control system shown in The jury stability test:
fig (i) below. Determine the stability of system when k = 1. Assume,
P(z) = anzn+ an-1zn-1+ an-2zn-2 + ……. a1z+a0 ……..(i)
Fig. Where,
An > 0 , then for stable system the following condition should be
specificed.
1. |a0|> an
1 − e −s 1 2. P(z) |z =1 > 0
G(s) = k. .
s s ( s + 1) 3. p(z) |z =-1 > 0 if n = even
1 − e −s < 0 if n = odd
G(s) = . [since k = 1] 4. |bn-1| >|bo|
s 2 ( s + 1)
|cn-2| > |co|
G(z) = Z[G(s)]
.
⎡ 1 − e −s ⎤
= z⎢ ⎥ .
⎣ s ( s + 1) ⎦
2
|q2| > |qo|
0.3679 z + 0.2642
=
( z − 0.3679)( z − 1) Where,
Now the closed loop transfer function of G(z) is ⎡a a n −1− k ⎤
bk = ⎢ n k = 0,1,2…….n-1
C(z)/R(z) = G(z)/[1+G(z)] ⎣a 0 a k +1 ⎥⎦
Therefore , the characteristics equation is given by ,
⎡b a n −2− k ⎤
1+G(z) = 0 ck = ⎢ n −1 k = 0,1,2…….n-2
0.3679 z + 0.264 z ⎣ b0 bk +1 ⎥⎦
1+ .
( z − 0.3679)( z − 1)
Or (z-0.3679)(z-1) + 0.3679z+0.2642 .
Z2-z+0.6321 = 0 ⎡p P ⎤
qk = ⎢ 3 2 − k ⎥ k = 0,1,2
From which we get, ⎣ P0 Pk +1 ⎦
Z2 –z+0.6321 = 0
Form which we get,
Z1 = 0.5+j0.6181 Date: 2065/5/22
Z2 = 0.5 – j0.6181 The jury stability Test:
∴ |z| = |z1| = |z2| = √ (0.52 + (0.6181)2) = 0.7950 P(z) = a0zn+ a1zn-1+ a2zn-2 + ……. An-1z+an ……..(i)
Since the |z| < 1 , the system is stable. Where,
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a0 > 0 then, for a stable system the following conditions should
be fulfilled. Example:02: Examine the stability of following characteristics
1. |an| > a0 equation. P(z) = z4-1.2z3+ 0.07z3 +0.3z - 0.08 = 0
2. p|(z)|z =1 > 0 Use Jury stability test.
3. P(z)|z= -1 > 0 n = even Solution:
< 0 n = odd P(z) = z4- 1.2z3+ 0.07z3 +0.3z - 0.08 = 0
4. |bn-1| > |b0| Here,
|Cn-2| > |c0| a0 = 1 , a1 = -1.2 , a2 = 0.07 a3 = 0.3 , a4 = -0.08
|q2| > |qo| The conditions for stability in Jury tests are as follows.
Example:01: construct the Jury stability table for the following 1. |a4| > a0
equation. P(z) = a0z4+ a1z3+ a2z3 +a3z+a4 ,Where a0 > 0. Write the |-0.08| < 1 (which is true)
stability conditions since n = 4 the stability conditions are: 2. p|(z)|z =1 = 14- 1.2×13+ 0.07×12+0.3×1- 0.08
(i) |a4| > a0 = 0.09 > 0 (which is true)
(ii) p|(z)|z =1 = a0+ a1+ a2 +a3+a4 3. Since n = 4 = even ,
(iii) P(z)|z= -1 = a0- a1+ a2 -a3+a4 > 0 [since n = 4 = even ] p|(z)|z =-1 = 1-+ 1.2+ 0.07- 0.3- 0.08 = 1.89> 0 (true)
(iv) |b3| > |b0|
|C3| > |c0| 4. |b3| > |b0|
The Jury stability table can be constructed for n = 4 as follows: |c3| > |c0|
Row z0 Z1 Z2 Z3 Z4
a4 a0 = b3 Row z0 Z1 Z2 Z3 Z4
a3 a4 -0.08 1 = -0.993
a4 a1 = b2 1 -0.08
a0 a3 -0.08 -1.2 = 1.176
a4 a2 = b1 1 0.3
a0 a2 -0.08 0.07 = -0.0756
a4 a3 = b0 1 0.07
a0 a1 -0.08 0.3 = -0.204
b3 b0 = c2 1 -1.2
b0 b1 -0.9936 -0.204 = 0.9456
b3 b1 = c1 -0.204 -0.0756
b0 b2 -0.9936 -0.0756 = -1.1838
b3 b2 = c0 -0.204 -1.176
b0 b1 -0.9936 1.176 = 0.315
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-0.204 -0.0756 a1 = (0.3679k – 1.379)
a2 = 0.3679 + 0.2642k
|b3| > |b0| For the system to be stable the conditions are :
i.e |-0.9936| > |-0.0204| (i) |a2| < a0
0.09936 > 0.204 (true) i.e | 0.3679+0.2642K|< 1
0.2642K < 0.632
Again |c2| > |c0| K < 2.3925
|0.9456| > |0.3150| (ture) (ii) p|(z)|z =1 = 1+ 0.3679k- 1.3679 + 0.3679+ 0.262K
K>0
Example: 03: A control system has the following (iii) p|(z)|z =-1 = (1- 0.3679k+ 1.3679 + 0.3679+ 0.262K ) > 0
characteristics equation P(z) = z3 – 1.3z2 – 0.08z + 0.24 = 0 = 2.7358 – 0.1037k > 0
Determine the stability of the system by jury stability test. 2.7358 > 0.1037k
K < (2.7358)/(0.1037)
Example:04: Examine the stability of the characteristics equation K < 26.3818
given by : P(z) = z3 – 1.1z2 – 0.1z + 0.2 = 0 . Use jury method. Combining (i) (ii) and (iii) conditions
K < 2.3925
Example: 05: Consider the discrete time unity feed back control K>0
system whose open loop transfer function is given 0 < K < 2.3925
K (0.3679 z + 0.2642)
G(z) = Determine the range of k for
( z − 0.3679)( z − 1) Stability Analysis by use of the Bilinear transformation and
stability by the use of Jury method. Routh stability:
Solution: The bilinear Transformation is defined by:
K (0.3679 z + 0.2642) w +1
G(z) = z=
( z − 0.3679)( z − 1) w −1
z +1
The close loop transfer function is w=
T(z) = G(z)/ 1+G(z) of whose characteristics equation is given z −1
by We choose ‘w’ so that
1+G(z) = 0 W = σ +jω
K (0.3679 z + 0.2642)
Or, 1+ =0 Example:01: Consider the following characteristics equations
( z − 0.3679)( z − 1)
2
P(z) = z + ( 0.3679k – 1.3679)z + 0.3679+0.2642k = 0 P(z) = z3 – 1.3z2 – 0.08z +0.24 = 0
Here , Determine the stability of the system using Bilinear
a0 = 1 transformation and Routh stability criterion
26
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Solution: For which the characteristics equation is
Here, Z4 – 0.6z3 – 0.81z2 + 0.6z – 0.12 = 0
P(z) = z3 – 1.3z2 – 0.08z +0.24 = 0
Using Bilinear Transformation , i.e
w +1 Date: 2065/6/5
z= , we get P(z) as,
w −1 S-plane to z-plane mapping:
3 2
P(z)|z=(w+1)/(w-1) = P(w) = [(w+1)/(w-1)] – 1.3 [(w+1)/(w-1)] –
0.08[(w+1)/(w-1)] + 0.24 = 0 Mapping of the left half of s-plane into z-plane:
We know z and s are related by the equation,
Or w3 – 7.571w2 – 36.43w – 14.14 = 0 Z = eTS ………….(i)
The Routh stability criteria is checked by routh arrow as follows: This means that a pole in s-plane can be located in the z-plane
through transformation
W3 1 -36.43 Z = eTS ,
W2 -7.75 -14.14 Also we know that ,
W1 -38.30 0 S = σ +jω ………….(ii)
W0 -14.14 Thus equation (i) become ,
Z = eT(σ +jω)
The above equation and array show that there is a sign change in
= eσ T. ejωT
the following system is not stable. It indicates that there is a pole
in the right half of w plane which in turn indicates that there is a Or in general,
pole outside the unit circle in z-plane. Z = eTσ . e(Tw + 2 π k) ……….(iii)

Example: 02: Consider y(k) = 0.6y(k-1) – 0.81y(k-2)+0.6y(k-3) We see that the poles and zeroes in s-plane , where frequencies
– 0.12y(k-4) = x(k) where, x(k) is the input and y(k) is the output differ in integral multiple of the sampling frequency 2 π /T are
of the system. Check the stability of the system using Jury mapped into the some locations in the z-plane . This means that
stability method. there are infinite may values of s for each value of z.
Since σ is –ve in the left half of the s-plane , the left arm of
Solution: the s-plane corresponds to |z| = eT(‐σ ) = e-T σ < 1
Y(z) -0.6z-1y(z) – 0.81z-2 y(z) + 0.6z-3y(z)- 0.12z-4 y(z) = X(z)
Y ( z) 1
= The jw- axis in the s-plane corresponding to |z| = 1 (∴ σ =0) i.e
X ( z ) 1 − 0.6 z − 0.81z + 0.6 z −3 − 0.12 z − 4
−1 −2

the imaginary axis in the s-plane (the line σ =0) corresponding to


z4
z 4 − 0.6 z 3 − 0.81z 2 + 0.6 z − 0.12 27
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the unit circle in the z-plane and interior of the unit circle jw im

corresponds to the left half of the s-plane.

jw im

1
Re
Complementary -σ1
strip

3
Primary s-plane
strip Re Re
z-plane

Complementary (ii) Mapping of constant frequency Loci: A constant


strip
frequency loci w = w1 , in the s-plane is mapped into a
z-plane
radial line of constant angle Tw1 ( in radian) in the z-plane
s-plane
as shown in the fig. below.
(i) Mapping of constant –attenuation loci: jw im
A constant attenuation line ( a line plotted as σ =
constant) is the splane maps into a circle of radius z = eT σ w1

centered at the origin in the z-plane as shown below. w2 w2T


w1T
σ Re
jw im w1T
-w1

eT σ2 s -plane z -plane

σ
1 (iii) Mapping of constant damping ratio. (ξ ) A constant
Re
-σ1 0 σ2 damping ratio line (a radial line) in the s-plane is mapped into a
spiral in the z-plane as shown in figure below.
e-T σ1

s-plane z-plane

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jw

jw1
ξ = ξ1 e−σ1Τ
e−σ2Τ
Re
(2π −w2T) w1T
1

s -plane
z -plane -jw2
σ=−σ2 σ=−σ1

In s-plane a constant damping ratio is related to it by the equation


. s = - ξ wn + jwn √ (1+ξ2)
2065/6/5
= - ξ wn + jwd
Where,
Reconstruction of original signal from samples:
Wn = natural frequency (rad/sec)
Instantaneous sampling (i.e when the duration of the sampling
Wd = damped frequency (rad/sec)
pulse τs –0 or delta function )is referred to as ideal sampling . In
= wn√ (1-ξ2)
this case the sampling function is the train of impulses, i.e
Thus ,
Sδ (t) = ∑ ∞ k= - ∞ δ (t- kTs )
Z = eTS = eT(-ξwn+jwd) = e(-ξ Twn+jTwd)
Therefore , the sampled signal for ideal sampling can be written
⎡ 2π w w ⎤
Z = exp. ⎢ d
+ j 2π d ⎥ as
⎣1 − ξ ws
2
ws ⎦ Xδ(t) = x(t) x sδ (t)
Hence , = x(t) x ∑ ∞ k=- ∞ δ (t-kTs)
⎡ − 2πξ w ⎤ The fourier transform of the above expression is the convolution
|z| = exp ⎢ d

Of the fourier transformation of x(t) and sδ (t) , i.e
⎢⎣ 1 − ξ 2 w
s ⎥⎦
xδ’(f) = x(f) *sδ (f)
w
∠z = 2π d where,
ws
Xδ’(f) = f[sδ (t)] = fs ∑ ∞ n=- ∞ δ (f-nfs)
Example:01: For a given region in s-plane draw the
corresponding region in z – plane. ∴ xδ(f) = x(f) *fs ∑ ∞ n=- ∞ δ (f-nfs)
∴ xδ(f) = fs ∑ ∞ n=- ∞ δ (f-nfs)

Xδ (f) = fsX(f) assuming the condition fs ≥ 2fx is satisfied , let us


29
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Pass the sampled signal through ideal LPF with the following Can be reconstructed from its sampled values x(kTs) if the
parameters sampling is done at Ts ≤ 1/2fx
HLPF (f) = K for fx ≤ f ≤ fs –fx
= 0 , otherwise Chapter: 3

At the output of LPF , we ge , Analysis of control system:


Xδ(f) HLPF (f) = [ fs ∑ ∞ n= - ∞ x(f- nfs)] HLPF(f)
Xδ (f) HLPF(f) = X(f) …………….(i) The pulse Transfer Function:

As HLPF(f) = 0 for the frequency components higher then fx , the X(z)


G(z)
Y(z)

spectrum at the output of LPF for


K = 1/fs will be x(f) , the spectrum of the message signal .
Which is shown in equation (i) The transfer function for the continuous time system relates the
In time domain Laplace Transform of the continuous time output to that of
X(t) = f-1[x(f)] = f-1[xδ(f) HLPF(f)] continuous time input while the pulse transfer function relates the
z-transform of the output at the sampling instants to that of the
∴ x(t) = xδ (t) * hLPF(t) sampled input.
Where hLPF(t) is the impulse response of ideal LPF which is The pulse transfer function is defined by
expressed as. G(z) = Y(z)/X(z) …………..(i)
hLPF (t) = 2BTs sinc [ 2Bt] Of the discrete time system As seen from the above equation we
Where, write,
Ts = 1/fs Y(z) = G(z) x(z) ……..(ii)
B = fx , the higher frequency component. Equation (ii) may also be written as,
Thus signal at the output of low pass filter for Y*(s) = G*(s) x*(s) ……………..(iii)

Xδ(t) = x(kTs) ∑ x(kTs) δ(t- kTs) at t = kTs
n = −∞ General procedure for obtaining Pulse transfer function:
Will be, x*(t)
y(t)
∞ G(s)
x(t) = x(kTs) ∑
n = −∞
x(kTs) δ(t- kTs)*2BTs sinc [2Bt] x(t) δΤ X*(z)
δΤ
y*(t)
Y(z)

x(t) = 2BTs ∑ x(kTs) sinc [2B(t-kTs)] ……….(ii) Figure (ii) (a)
n = −∞ x(t) y(t)
G(s)
X(s) Y(s)
The above equation (ii) shows that the original message signal Figure (ii) (b)
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x(t) x*(t) y(t) y*(t)
G(s) H(s)
The pulse transfer function for the figure (ii) (a) will ve , δΤ

G(z) = Y(z)/X(z) Fig. 3(b)


Also , the transfer function for the system shown in fig (ii) (b) will
be , G(s) = Y(s)/X(s) Consider the system shown in fig (iii) (a) we can write that
The important fact to be noted is that the pulse transfer G(s) = G(s).X*(s) ……………..(i)
function for the system in fig (ii) (b) is not z-transfer of z[G(s)], Y(s) = H(s).U(*(s) ……….(ii)
because of the absence of the instant sampler. Now taking starred laplace transform of equation (i) and (ii)
The presence or absence of the input sampler is crucial in U*(s) = G*(s).X*(s) …………(iii)
determining the pulse transfer function of the system. This Y*(s) = H*(s) U*(s) …………….(iv)
difference is explained below. From equation (ii)
Consider the case as shown in fig (ii) (a) Y*(s) = H*(s)U*(s)
= H*(s).G*(s).X*(s)
ℒ [y(t)] = Y(s) = G(s) X*(s) Or, Y*(s)/X*(s) = G*(s). H*(s)
Taking starred Laplace transform on both sides, we get,
Taking z-transform of the above equation.
Y*(s) = G*(s) X*(s) Y*(z)/X*(z) = G(z).H(z) …………….(v)
Or, Y(z) = G(z) X(z) ……………(i) Which is the pulse transfer function between i/p x*(t) and o/p
Now let us consider the case for fig (ii) (b) ,
y*(t)
ℒ [y(t)] = Y(s) = G(s) X(s) Now consider the cascaded system shown in fig (iii) (b)
Taking Starred LT on both sides, Y(s) = G(s)H(s).X*(s)
Y*(s) = [G(s)X(s)]* Or Y(s) = GH(s).X*(s)
Y*(s) = [GX(s)]* Now taking the starred laplace transform of the above equation ,
Where, GX(s) = G(s)X(s) we get ,
Or Y(z) = z[GX(s)] …………………(ii) Y*(s) = [GH(s).X*(s)]*
Thus equation (i) and (ii) clearly describe the presence and Y*(s) = GH*(s).X*(s)
absence of instant sampler. Or Y*(s)/X*(s) = GH*(s)
Now taking z-transform on both sides we get,
Date:2065/6/12 Y(z)/X(z) = GH(z) …………………….(vi)
Which is the required PTF for fig (iii) (b)
Pulse Transfer function of cascaded elements: From equation (v) and (vi) , it is to be noted that,
x*(t) G(s)
u(t) u*(t)
H(s)
y(t) y*(t)
G(z)H(z) ≠ GH(z)
x(t) δΤ δΤ δΤ
Fig. 3(a)
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Example:01: Consider the system shown in figs (iii) a & b From fig. (iv)
obtained the pulse transfer function (PTF) Y(z)/X(z) for each of E(s) =R(s) – C(s)H(s) ………….(i)
these tow systems. Where,
G(s) = 1/(s+a) C(s) = G(s) E*(s) ……….(ii)
H(s) = 1/(s+b) Thus equation (i) become
Y(z)/X(z) = G(z)H(z) E(s) = R(s) –G(s)H(s)E*(s) …………….(iii)
= z[G(s)] z[H(s) ] Taking starred Laplace transform
= Z[1/(s+a)] z[1/(s+b)] E*(s) = R*(s) – [ G(s)H(s) E*(s)]*
Y(z)/x(z) = 1/(1-e-aTz-1). 1/(1-e-bTz-1) for fig (iii) (a) E*(s) = R*(s) – GH*(s)E*(s) ……………..(iv)
For fig (iii) (b) Or, E*(s)[1+GH*(s)] = R*(s) ………..(v)
Y(z)/X(z) = GH(z) E*(s) = R*(s)/(1+GH*(s)) ………….(vi)
= z[GH(s)] Now taking Starred laplace transform of equation (ii) ,
=z[G(s)H(s)] C*(s) = G*(s) E*(s)
=z[1/(s+a).1/(s+b)] = G*(s).R*(s)/(1+GH*(s))
C*(s)/R*(s) = G*(s)/1+GH*(s) …………..(vii)
= z ⎡⎢
A B ⎤
+ ⎥
⎣s + a s + b⎦ Now taking z-transform of equation of (vii) we get,
⎡1 −1 ⎤
=z ⎢ b − a + b − a ⎥ C(z)/R(z) = G(z) / (1+GH(z)) …………..(viii)
⎢ s+a s+b ⎥
⎣ ⎦ which is the required PTF
⎡ 1 ⎡ 1 1 ⎤⎤ for closed loop system.
=z ⎢ .⎢ − ⎥⎥
⎣ b − a ⎣ s + a s + b ⎦⎦
⎡ 1 ⎡ 1 1 ⎤⎤
Assignment # 3:
Y(z)/X(z) = ⎢ .⎢ − − BT −1 ⎥ ⎥
for fig (iii) (b)
⎣ b − a ⎣1 − e z
− AT −1
1 − e z ⎦⎦
(1) Prove the given PTF for the closed loop system shown in
Thus we conclude that G(z).H(z) is not equal to function GH(z). Table 3.2 (page 112) form k. Ogata book .
PTF of a closed loop system:
R(s) E(s) E*(s) C(s)
+- δΤ
G(s)
Closed Loop PTF of a digital control system:

R(s) E(s) E*(s) m*(s) -TS U(s) C(s)


G*(s) 1-e Gp(s)
H(s) D
+- δΤ s

Fig(iv) closed loop system.


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m (kT) = kp
Fig. (v) ⎡ 1 ⎡ e(0) + e(T ) e(T ) + e(2T ) e(k − 1) + e(kT ) ⎤ ⎤
From fig (v) , let , ⎢e( KT ) + T T ⎢ 2
+
2
+ ...... + ........
2 ⎥⎥
⎢ i ⎣ ⎦⎥
1-e-Ts/s. Gp(s) = G(s) ……..(i) ⎢ e(kT ) − e(k − 1)T ⎥
Also, ⎢ + Td . ⎥
⎣ 2 ⎦
C(s) = G(s) GD*(s) E*(s)
Or C(s) = G*(s) GD*(s) E*(s) ………(ii) ⎡ ⎤
T k e((h − 1)T ) + e(hT ) Td
In term of z-transform, equation (iii) can be written as: =kp ⎢e( KT ) + .∑ + [e(kT ) − e(k − 1)T ]⎥ ….(ii)
⎣ Ti h =1 2 Ti ⎦
C(z) = R(z) – C(z) ………(iv)
Thus , equation (iii) becomes Let,
e((h − 1)T ) + e(hT )
C(z) = G(z) GD(z)[R(z)-C(z)] = f (hT ) where, f(o) = 0
C(z) = [ 1+G(z)GD(s)] = G(z) GD(z) R(z) 2
k
e(h − 1)T + e(hT ) k
Or C(z)/R(z) = G(z)GD(z) / 1+G(Z)GD(z) ∑ 2
=∑ f (hT ) ………(iii)
C(z)/R(z) = GD(z)G(z)/1+GD(z)G(z) ………(v) h =1 h =1

Which the required closed loop PTF of a Digital control system.


The z-transform of equation (iii) will be,
PTF of a digital PID controller:
The PID control action in analog controller is ⎡ k
e((h − 1)T ) + e(hT ) ⎤
= z ⎢.∑ ⎥
⎡ 1
t
de(t ) ⎤ ⎣ h =1 2 ⎦
m(t) = kp ⎢e(t ) + ∫ e(t )dt + Td ⎥ ………….(i) ⎡ k

⎣ Ti 0 dt ⎦ = z ⎢.∑ f (hT )⎥
where e(t) is the i/p to the controller , m(t) is the o/p of the ⎣ h =1 ⎦
-1
controller, k is the proportionality gain , Ti is the integral time and = 1/(1-z ). [F(z)-f(0)]
Td is the derivative time. = 1/(1-z-1). F(z) …….(v)
To obtain the PTF for the digital PID controller , we
first discritise equation (i) . Then , by approximating the integral Also ,
e((h − 1)T ) + e(hT ) ⎤
term by the Trapezoidal summation rule and the derivative term F(z) =z[f(hT)]= z ⎡⎢ ⎥
by two-point difference formula. Thus equation (i) becomes at t = ⎣ 2 ⎦
-1
kT , F(z) = (1-z )/2.E(z)
Thus from equation (iv) becomes,
⎡ k
e((h − 1)T ) + e(hT ) ⎤ 1 + z −1
z ⎢.∑ ⎥ 2(1 − z −1 ) E ( z ) ……….(V)
=
⎣ h =1 2 ⎦
Hence equation (ii) becomes by taking z-transform on both sides,
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⎡ T 1− z −1
Td ⎤
M(z) = z[m(kT)] = Kp ⎢ E ( z ) + . E ( z ) + (1 − z −1
) E ( z ) ⎥
⎣⎢ Ti 2(1 − z −1 ) T ⎦⎥
M(z) = kp [1+T/2Ti +(1+z-1)/(1-z-1)+Td/T .(1-z-1)].E(z)
⎡ T T 1 T ⎤
M(z) = kp ⎢1 − + . −1
+ d .(1 − z −1 )⎥ E ( z )
⎣ 2Ti Ti 1 − z T ⎦
⎡ Ki ⎤
M(z) = ⎢kp'+ −1
+ k D .(1 − z −1 )⎥ E ( z ) ……….(vi)
⎣ 1− z ⎦
⎛ T ⎞
Where, kp’ = k p ⎜⎜1 − ⎟ = proportional gain
⎝ 2T ⎟ i ⎠
⎛T

Ki = k p ⎜⎜⎟⎟ = Integral gain
⎝ Ti

⎛T ⎞
Kd = k p ⎜ d ⎟ = Derivative gain
⎝T ⎠
Form equation (vi) we can write that
⎡ K ⎤
GD(z) = M(z)/E(z) = ⎢kp'+ i
+ k D .(1 − z −1 )⎥ ………(vii)
1 − z −1
⎣ ⎦
Where, GD(z) is the closed loop PIF for digital PID controller
equation (vii) is also know as the proportional form of PID
control scheme.

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