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EXPERIMENTS IN MAGNETISM

AMORC Laboratorium Unit Number One


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Page One
Prepared By The Rosicrucian Order, AMORC
EXPERIMENTS IN MAGNETISM
Preliminary Instructions.
You will find accompanying these instructions as a supplement, a com
plete list of all equipment supplied in this laboratorium. Included
with the supplement you will also find a list of illustrations, which
provide pictorial representations of the various items and the equip
ment. Before you commence with your experiments check over this list
and make certain that you are well acquainted with the appearance of
the various objects. This procedure will avoid later misunderstandings.
The materials supplied have been carefully checked by our laboratory
staff before they were placed into the laboratorium.
You will note that in addition to the articles supplied you, it will
be necessary for you to obtain a large glass or porcelain bowl, filled
with water, and a few other items. These materials were not included
because they are either available in your home or are easily purchased
at your local store at a very small cost. Another reason why we did
not include them is that their inclusion would have raised the price
of packing and shipping. It has been our aim to provide you with your
laboratorium at the lowest possible cost.
After you have checked your equipment and have become quite familiar
with it, read the Introduction on pages two, three, and four. This con
cise introduction will acquaint you with the fundamental laws and prin
ciples of magnetism, most of which you will be verifying in your exper
iments .
As soon as you have completed your study of the Introduction you will
be well prepared to commence with your experiments. For a workbench
select a large steady wooden table. Remove from this table all metal
lic objects which might disturb your experiments by their magnetism.
It is suggested that your working table should be absolutely empty be
fore you start. Place the items which you require upon this table.
There should be no other objects upon it aside from your materials and
these instructions. This procedure will aid you in keeping system and
order. Before you commence any experiment, first read through the en
tire text pertaining to the experiment which you intend to perform, so
that you are thoroughly familiar w^ith the procedure. Obtain a small
notebook into which you can record your observations for future refer
ence .
A.t the end of most experiments you will find a list of questions. These
questions have been added to stimulate your thinking. DO NOT SEND THE
ANSWERS TO YOUR QUESTIONS TO THE GRAND LODGE. The instructions pro
vided with this laboratorium are complete. The purchase of this lab
oratorium does not carry with it any privilege of writing for further
information. However, if you should desire such information, send such
a question to the librarian of the Rosicrucian Research Library, who
will answer you, subject to the procedure and nominal charge estab
lished for this purpose.
AMORC Laboratorium Unit Number One
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Page Two
When you have completed an experiment you will find it helpful to re
place the various objects into their envelopes, unless they are needed
in the following experiment. Remember the Rosicrucian Law: "System
and Order."
Study the various laws and principles of magnetism, as stated in your
Monographs. You will find the indexes, supplied by the Rosicrucian
Supply Bureau, of great help in locating this information. Also read
the article "The Magnet" in the Rosicrucian Manual. This will provide
additional help in your magnetic studies.
INTRODUCTION
The study of magnetic phenomena is of special importance to us as Rosi-
crucians, because they visually demonstrate in the simplest possible
manner the behavior of objects which are in a polarized condition. It
is the fact that a polarized object is able to affect the space sur
rounding it, creating what is known as a "field of force" or "aura,"
which makes such phenomena, worthy of our special attention and study.
It is for this reason that the AMORC LABORATORIUM No. 1 is devoted to
the study of magnetism.
As an introduction to the various experiments which the student is to
perform we state, with extreme brevity, the fundamental laws of magnetism.
It can be shown that certain substances such as iron, cobalt, nickel,
and some of their ores and alloys have the power of attracting other
small pieces of the same substances. This force of attraction, requir
ing apparently no material medium through which to act, is called a
"magnetic" force; and the objects which are capable of exerting such a
force are called "magnetic" objects, or simply "magnets." Substances
which can be magnetized, using proper procedures, are also called "fer
romagnetic." A ferromagnetic substance is a substance which is strong
ly attracted by a magnet. It also shows the property commonly known as
"retentivity." This is the ability of a magnetized substance to retain
its magnetism.
There are other kinds of magnetism beside ferromagnetism. But these oth
er types are too weak to be observable under ordinary conditions, and we
shall not be concerned with their properties in this brief introduction.
When a magnet is examined it is found that its magnetic properties (its
ability to attract) are concentrated at definite regions or centers of
the magnet. These regions are called the "poles" of the magnet. Every
magnet possesses at least two poles.
When a magnet is suspended by a string so that it can swing freely then
it will be observed that it moves in such a manner that the line be
tween its strongest poles is approximately parallel to the geographic
north-south direction. No matter how the magnet is moved, it will
always swing back into this alignment. That pole of the magnet which
points toward the geographic north pole is called the "north-seeking"
pole, or the "north pole," while the other pole of the magnet is called
the "south-seeking" pole or the "south pole." Due to the fact that a
magnet, when allowed to swing freely, will always align itself along
the same direction, it may be used as a compass.
The north and south poles of a magnet are of equal strength. When any
magnet is broken into two pieces, then each part becomes a complete mag
net, having a north pole and a south pole. No one has ever been able
to discover or produce a magnet with only a single pole. This fact has
led to the theory that each of the molecules, of which a ferromagnetic
substance is composed, may be considered as being a very small elemen
tary magnet. When a ferromagnetic substance is in an unmagnetized
state, all these elementary magnets are oriented at random, thus neu
tralizing their effects, while in a magnetized object these elementary
magnets are all oriented along the same direction; that is, all north
poles are pointing together, and similarly for the south poles.
It has been mentioned above that every magnet possesses two distinct
polarities: a north pole and a south pole. Usually these poles are
located near the ends of the magnet, but that is not always necessary.
The magnetic poles obey the fundamental law of polarities, which is:
Unlike polarities attract; like polarities repel one another. Using
this law the polarities of an unknown magnet may be tested and deter
mined by observing the attractions or repulsions which occur when this
unknown magnet is brought into the neighborhood of a second magnet, the
polarities of which are known.
There are three methods by means of which an unmagnetized ferromagnetic
substance may be magnetized. These methods are (1) by frictional con
tact (see experiment 4), (2) by the method of magnetic induction (see
experiment 14), (3) by means of an electric current (see experiment H8).
For a description of these methods consult the experiment indicated
within the brackets. In each of these methods a magnet is created
which possesses two distinct poles.
Iron and steel are the only two common substances which are ferromag
netic and thus attracted by a magnet. Certain kinds of ferromagnetic
substances are able to retain their magnetism and become permanent mag
nets. The ability of a substance to retain its magnetism is called the
"retentivity." Soft iron has a low retentivity; steel possesses a high
retentivity.
A magnetic force is able to act through many substances, such as paper,
cardboard, or glass. However, iron acts as an effective magnetic
screen if it completely encloses the substance which is to be screened.
Each magnet is able to affect the space surrounding it and subject any
other ferromagnetic substance to its influence. Thus a magnet creates
what is called a magnetic "field" or an "aura." When iron filings are
sprinkled around a magnet these filings align themselves under the ac
tion of the magnetic field, affording in this manner a very clear ob
jective picture of the magnetic field. Various combinations of magnets
will produce different types of fields. Pictures of such fields are
provided In this manual and also in the Rosicrucian Manual. They also
afford interesting pictures, showing how the aura due to one magnet may
be modified by the presence of a second magnet.
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AMORC Laboratorium Unit Number One Page Three
There are three ways in which the magnetism of an object may be de
stroyed: (1) extreme heat, (2) great mechanical strains and jars, and
(3) the application of an alternating current. It is the last method
which is commercially used in demagnetizing objects.
This concludes the brief introduction into the laws and principles of
magnetism. For further study the student should consult any textbook
on general physics, where he will find much additional information
which will be of interest to him in his Rosicrucian studies.
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AMORC Laboratorium Unit Number One Page Pour
OUTLINE OF EXPERIMENTS
Experiment No. 1
It Is the purpose of this experiment to demonstrate that (a) a lode-
stone has the power to attract small pieces of iron, (b) the magnetic
force is concentrated at certain definite regions of the lodestone,
called the "poles."
Materials: Large sheet of paper. Iron filings. Lodestone. (See A,
B, and C on pictorial list for illustrations of equipment.)
Procedure: Place a large sheet of paper upon the table. Open the
bottle which contains the iron filings and spread two tea
spoonfuls of the filings upon the sheet of paper. Now take
the lodestone and immerse it completely within the iron
filings, so that all of its sides are touched and nearly
covered with the filings. Remove the lodestone and inspect
it carefully.
Results: You will note that the iron filings stick to the lodestone,
demonstrating that such a stone has the property to attract
small pieces of iron. At the same time you will observe
that the filings cling more densely to certain spots of the
stone than to others. This demonstrates that this force of
attraction, or "magnetic" force, is concentrated at defi
nite regions. These regions are called the "poles" of the
magne t.
Questions: 1. How many poles does your lodestone possess?
2. What are the directions in which the various particles
of iron point? Do these various directions provide ad
ditional clues as to the nature of the magnetic force?
Note :
s/iy Experiment
When you have completed this experiment scrape the iron
filings from the lodestone and pour all the iron filings
back into the bottle, to be used in future experiments.
No. 2
It is the purpose of this second experiment to demonstrate that when a
lodestone is suspended freely then it will rotate into such a position
that its strongest poles will line themselves up along the geographic
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Page Five
Experiment No. 2 (Continued)
north-south direction. The lodestone thus serves as a "leading stone"
or a magnetic compass.
Materials: Lodestone. Sheet of paper with iron filings. String.
White sheet of paper. Pen and ink. (See A, B, C, F on
pictorial illustration sheet for pictures of the equipment.)
Procedure: Draw a straight line upon a sheet of paper--about four
inches long. Mark one end of the line "North" and the
other end "South."
Determine the geographic north-south direction in your
room. Then place the sheet of paper which you have pre
pared so that the line drawn upon it coincides with the
geographic north-south direction.
Next dip the lodestone into the iron filings. This will
provide you with a clear indication of the location of its
poles. (See experiment 1)
Fasten a string around the lodestone. The string should be
so tied around the stone that the strongest poles are hori
zontal and remain so. (See figure 1, Experiment Illustra
tions) Hold the free end of the string with your hand,
about half way up. Let the stone hang freely from the
string above the north-south line which you have just drawn.
Make certain that the stone does not touch any object and
also be sure that no other magnetic objects are located in
the vicinity of the stone.
Results: You will observe that the stone will line itself up along
a definite direction. Note the location of the strongest
poles. Turn the stone slightly and observe that it will
swing back into its former position.
Questions: 1. How does the direction of your north-south line on the
paper agree with the position of the strongest poles?
2. Where are the weak poles located?
3. How could you construct a compass, using this arrange
ment?
Note :
When you have completed this experiment scrape the iron
filings from the lodestone and pour all iron filings back
into the bottle.
Experiment No. 3
The purpose of this experiment is to find the poles and the neutral
region of a horseshoe magnet.
Materials: Sheet of paper. Iron filings. Horseshoe magnet. (See D,
B, C on pictorial list of equipment.)
Experiment No. _3 (Continued)
Procedure: Place a sheet of paper upon the table. Open the bottle
containing the iron filings and spread the filing upon the
pape r.
Remove the horseshoe magnet from its wrapper. Remove the
small cross bar (also called the "keeper"), which protects
its ends.
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AMORC Laboratorium Unit Number One Page Six
Immerse the magnet completely--all sides and ends--in the
ixon filings.
Pick up the magnet with the filings clinging to it and in
spect it carefully.
Results: You will observe that the filings cling firmly to the two
ends of the magnet. These are the two centers of magnetic
attraction of the magnet and are called the "poles." You
will also note that practically no filings cling around the
curved part of the magnet. This region is called the "neu
tral region" of the magnet.
This experiment demonstrates that the poles of a horseshoe
magnet are located at its ends and that there is no magnet
ic force of attraction at the center of the magnet.
Question 1. How could you use the horseshoe magnet as a compass?
2. Why is it not practical to use it as a compass?
Note:
'/Experiment
When you have completed the experiment, remove the filings
from the magnet and return them to the bottle.
No. 4
The purpose of this experiment is to show how an unmagnetized object,
made of steel, may be magnetized by frictional contact.
Materials: Paper with iron filings. Horseshoe magnet. One unmagne
tized steel needle. (See C, B, D, E on illustration sheet
of equipment.)
Procedure: Remove the steel needle from the package, and immerse its
full length into the iron filings. Observe that the fil
ings will not cling to the needle, demonstrating that it is
not magnetized.
Now place the needle upon the table. Take the horseshoe
magnet (remove the keeper) and, holding it in your hand,
place one of the poles upon the end of the needle. (See
figure 2, of experiment illustrations) Nrv rub the pole
along the needle until you reach the needle*s other end.
Make certain that only one pole of the horseshoe magnet
touches the needle.
Experiment No. 4 (Continued)
Remove the horseshoe magnet from the needle, and place the
pole back where you first touched the needle. Rub the
needle once more. Repeat this procedure, rubbing the steel
needle with the same pole of the horseshoe magnet and
always rubbing in the same direction. Do NOT,rub the
needle back and forth.
Repeat this procedure for approximately ten minutes. Now
cover the steel needle with the iron filings. Remove the
needle and inspect it carefully.
You will observe that the filings cling to the two ends of
the needle. This demonstrates that the needle has become
magnetized and that it now possesses two poles, one at each
end. You will also observe that there is a neutral region
between the two poles.
What would occur if the needle were rubbed with both poles
of the magnet touching it simultaneously?
Upon completion of the experiment, remove the iron filings
from the needle.
Experiment No. 5
The purpose of this experiment is to locate the North and South poles
of a magnet.
Materials: Magnetized steel needle of experiment 4.. Wooden block.
Copper staple. String. Two small paper squares, one blue,
the other red. Pen and ink. Nail. Sheet of paper, with
a pencil line, marked "North-South," prepared in experiment
2. (See E, G-, H, F, I, J, K, C of pictorial list of equip
ment .)
Procedure: With pen and ink mark the blue paper square on both sides
with the capital letter "N" and also mark the red square
with the capital letter "S." Pierce two small holes
through the top of the squares so that they may be attached
to the steel needle. (See figure 3)
Take the copper staple and push it firmly into the top of
the wooden block. (See figure 4)
Again determine the geographic north-south direction in
your room. Place the sheet of paper upon which you have
drawn the pencil line (See experiment 2) upon the table in
such a manner that the line drawn upon the paper coincides
with the geographic north-south direction.
Now pierce the magnetized needle lengthwise through the
wooden block until the block is situated at the center of
the needle. Fasten a string to the staple and hold this
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AMORC Laboratorium Unit Number One Page Seven
Results:
Question:
Note :
Experiment No. 4 (Continued)
Remove the horseshoe magnet from the needle, and place the
pole back where you first touched the needle. Rub the
needle once more. Repeat this procedure, rubbing the steel
needle with the same pole of the horseshoe magnet and
always rubbing in the same direction. Do NOT,rub the
needle back and forth.
Repeat this procedure for approximately ten minutes. Now
cover the steel needle with the iron filings. Remove the
needle and inspect it carefully.
You will observe that the filings cling to the two ends of
the needle. This demonstrates that the needle has become
magnetized and that it now possesses two poles, one at each
end. You will also observe that there is a neutral region
between the two poles.
What would occur if the needle were rubbed with both poles
of the magnet touching it simultaneously?
Upon completion of the experiment, remove the iron filings
from the needle.
Experiment No.
The purpose of this experiment is to locate the North and South poles
of a magnet.
Materials: Magnetized steel needle of experiment 4. Wooden block.
Copper staple. String. Two small paper squares, one blue,
the other red. Pen and ink. Nail. Sheet of paper, with
a pencil line, marked "North-South," prepared in experiment
2. (See E, G-, H, F, I, J, K, C of pictorial list of equip
ment .)
Procedure: With pen and ink mark the blue paper square on both sides
with the capital letter "N" and also mark the red square
with the capital letter "S." Pierce two small holes
through the top of the squares so that they may be attached
to the steel needle. (See figure 3)
Take the copper staple and push it firmly into the top of
the wooden block. (See figure 4.)
Again determine the geographic north-south direction in
your room. Place the sheet of paper upon which you have
drawn the pencil line (See experiment 2) upon the table in
such a manner that the line drawn upon the paper coincides
with the geographic north-south direction.
Now pierce the magnetized needle lengthwise through the
wooden block until the block is situated at the center of
the needle. Fasten a string to the staple and hold this
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AMORC Laboratorium Unit Number One Page Seven
Results:
Question:
Note :
Experiment No. J2 (Continued)
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string in such a manner that the needle may move freely in
space. Push the needle back and forth in the block until
the needle swings horizontally. Hold the string in your
hand and let the needle swing freely in space.
Results; You will observe that the needle lines itself up along the
geographic north-south direction. The pole which is point
ing toward the geographic north is called the "north-seek
ing ," or north pole. The pole which is pointing toward the
geographic south is called the "south-seeking," or south
pole. Attach the blue square, marked "N" to the north pole
of the needle, and attach the red label, marked "s" to the
south pole of the needle. (See figure 5)
Questions; 1. What is the magnetic polarity of the geographic north
pole?
2. Does the geographic north pole coincide with the cor
responding magnetic pole? (Hint; use the law of
polarity, experiment 7.)
Note: After the experiment has been completed remove the string
from the staple.
Experiment No. 6
The purpose of this experiment is to demonstrate that the north and
south poles of a magnet are of equal strength.
Materials; Large bowl with water. Use the same magnetized steel
needle, with labels and cork, just used in experiment 5.
Procedure: Remove the string from the staple. Float the magnetized
needle with its wooden block in a nonmetallic (glass or
porcelain, rubber) bowl of water. Make certain that the
needle does not touch the edges of the container. Use a
container large enough for needle to turn in. Have a depth
of water of at least two inches.
Results: Observe that the needle lines itself up along the geograph
ic north-south direction. Thus, in this arrangement the
needle serves as a simple magnetic compass.
Also observe that the needle, once it has assumed the
north-south direction remains perfectly quiet. This proves
that the magnetic force which acts upon the north pole
is equal to the magnetic force acting upon the south pole.
The needle is perfectly balanced. Hence it follows that
the north pole and the south pole of a magnet are equal in
strength.
Questions; <1. What would occur if, for some reason, the north pole of
the needle were stronger than its south pole?
Experiment No. 6 (Continued)
2. Bring the end of the steel needle near the wall of the
bowl. Do you observe an attraction between bowl and
needle? Is this attraction due to cohesion, or is it
due to adhesion?
Note: This arrangement of the needle floating in the bowl of
water will serve as an indicator of magnetism in future
experiments. Such an arrangement is also called a "Mag
netoscope." This arrangement will be used in experiments
7, 8, 10, l6, and 17.
Experiment No. 7
The purpose of this experiment is to verify the fundamental law of po
larity: Like polarities repel; unlike polarities attract one another.
Materials: Magnetoscope of experiment 6. (Magnetized needle with
labelled polarities, floating within a bowl of water.) Un
magnetized steel needle (E). Two paper squares (I, J), one
blue, the other red. Wooden block (G). Copper staple (H).
Pen and ink. String (F). (The capital letters placed in
parenthesis refer to the pictorial list of illustrations.)
Procedure: Magnetize the second steel needle, using the method of
experiment 4.
Pierce the needle through the wooden block to which a
staple has been attached and determine the needles north
and south poles, following the procedure of experiment 5*
Attach a label, marked "N" and another marked "S" to the
proper poles of the needle. Follow the method outlined in
experiment 5. Remove the string and the staple. You now
possess two magnetized steel needles, the polarities of
which have been determined.
Approach the south pole of the floating magnetic needle
with the north pole of the other steel needle. Note the
result. (See figure 6.)
Approach the north pole of the floating magnet with the
north pole of the steel needle. Note the result.
Results: Observe that when the south pole of the floating magnet is
approached by the north pole of the steel needle there mani
fests an attraction between the two poles. This demon
strates the first law of polarity: Unlike polarities at
tract one another.
Also observe that when the north pole of the floating
magnet is approached by the north pole of the steel needle,
then the two poles tend to move apart. This proves
the second law of polarity: Like polarities repel one an
other .
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Page Ten
Experiment No. 7 (Continued)
Questions: 1. What should occur if the north pole of the floating
magnet is approached by the south pole of the other
steel needle?
2. Verify your conclusion by the proper experiment.
Experiment No, 8
The purpose of this experiment is to find the north and the south pole
of the horseshoe magnet, using the law of polarities.
Materials: Magnetized steel needle, properly labelled, floating within
a bowl of water (Magnetoscope of experiment 6). Horseshoe
magnet (D). Pen and ink.
Procedure: Set up the magnetoscope, as described in experiment 6.
Take the horseshoe magnet and approach the north pole of
the floating magnet with one of the poles of the horseshoe
magnet.
Observe whether an attraction occurs, or whether there
manifests a repulsion.
Pierce the needle through the wooden block to which a
staple has been attached and determine the needle's north
and south poles, following the procedure of experiment 5.
Attach a label, marked "N" and another marked "S" to the
proper poles of the needle. Follow the method outlined in
experiment 5* Remove the string and the staple. You now
possess two magnetized steel needles, the polarities of
which have been determined.
Approach the south pole of the floating magnetic needle
with the north pole of the other steel needle. Note the
result. (See figure 6.)
Approach the north pole of the floating magnet with the
north pole of the steel needle. Note the result.
Results: Observe that when the south pole of the floating magnet is
approached by the north pole of the steel needle there
manifests an attraction between the two poles. This dem
onstrates the first law of polarity: Unlike polarities at
tract one another.
Also observe that when the north pole of the floating mag
net is approached by the north pole of the steel needle,
then the two poles tend to move apart. This proves the
second law of polarity: Like polarities repel one another.
Questions: 1. What should occur if the north pole of the floating
magnet is approached by the south pole of the other
steel needle?
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Page Eleven
Experiment No. 8 (Continued)
2. Verify your conclusion by the proper experiment.
Experiment No. 9
The purpose of this experiment is to find the north and the south pole
of the horseshoe magnet, using the law of polarities.
Materials: Magnetized steel needle, properly labelled, floating within
a bowl of water (Magnetoscope of experiment 6). Horseshoe
magnet (D). Pen and ink.
Procedure: Set up the magnetoscope, as described in experiment 6.
Take the horseshoe magnet and approach the north pole of
the floating magnet with one of the poles of the horseshoe
magnet.
Observe whether an attraction occurs, or whether there
manifests a repulsion.
Results: If there occurs an attraction, then the pole of the horse
shoe magnet under consideration is a south pole. If a
repulsion occurs then the pole of the horseshoe magnet is
a north pole. Write the name of the proper polarity with
ink upon each pole of the horseshoe magnet.
Repeat the experiment, using the other pole of the horse
shoe magnet.
Experiment No. 10
To show that when a magnet is broken into two parts, then each part be
comes a complete magnet, having two opposite poles.
Materials: Unmagnetized steel needle (e ). Paper with iron filings (B).
Horseshoe magnet (D). Floating magnet of experiment 6.
'(Magnetoscope).
Procedure: Magnetize the steel needle by the method of frictional con
tact of experiment 4.
Locate its north and south poles by means of the method of
experiment 9.
Verify that it possesses a neutral region in the center by
dipping it into the iron filings on the paper. Iron fil
ings will be found to cling to the ends of the needle but
not to the middle.
Now carefully break the needle into two parts. Place both
halves of the needle into the iron filings and note that
each half now possesses two poles.
Determine the nature of each of the four poles by means of
the method of experiment 9.
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Experiment No. 10 (Continued)
Result: It is seen that when a magnet is broken into two parts each
part becomes a complete magnet, having a north pole and a
south pole. No one has ever been able to construct a mag
net with only a single pole.
Questions: 1. What would occur if each of the two new magnets were
broken into two parts? Perform this experiment.
2. Imagine that this process of breaking a magnet into two
parts is repeated over and over' again. If this were
done we would finally arrive at the smallest magnetic
unit of which any magnetic substance is composed. You
might visualize it as being a polarized molecule, hav
ing a north and a south pole. When a magnetic substance
is magnetized, all the north poles of the molecular
magnets point in the same direction, while all south
poles point in the opposite direction. Draw a picture
of a magnetized steel bar and show why the magnetic
force is apparently concentrated at the ends of the
magnet, and why there is a neutral region in the center.
Experiment No. 11
The purpose of this experiment is to demonstrate that extreme heat de
stroys the magnetic force.
Materials: Magnetizes steel needle (E). Paper with iron filings (C
and B) . Needle holder (L). Wire frame (M). Gas burner
(or any device producing a hot flame).
Procedure: Remove the colored labels from the magnetized steel needle
prepared in experiment 7 Also remove the wooden block.
Place this needle into the needle holder so that the holder
is at the center of the needle. Using the holder, heat the
needle in a gas flame until the entire needle becomes red
hot. (See figure 7A). (Be EXTREMELY careful not to burn
yourself or your clothes!!). As soon as the needle becomes
red hot on one side, turn the needle around until the other
side becomes red hot. It is not necessary that the entire
needle is red hot at any one time. Remove the needle from
the flame and place the needle with its holder upon the
wire frame. (See figure 7B). Allow the needle to cool for
at least 15 minutes.
After the needle has completely cooled, place It into the
iron filings and see whether they cling to either pole.
If the needle still exhibits any residual magnetism it
shows that the needle was not heated long enough.
Results: It will be observed that the magnetism of the steel
needle has completely disappeared. Thus it follows that
the application of heat is one method used to demagnetize
an object.
Experiment No. 3_1 (Continued)
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AMORC Laboratorium Unit Number One Page Thirteen
Question: What are some of the other methods commonly used to demag
netize objects?
Experiment No. 12
The purpose of this experiment is to show that iron and steel are the
only two common materials that are attracted by a magnet.
Materials: Horseshoe magnet (D). Small pieces of iron, steel, copper,
wood, and glass (N).
Procedure: Place the pieces listed above in a row upon the table. Ap
proach each piece in turn with one of the poles of the
horseshoe magnet, after having removed the keeper. Observe
whether any attractions are produced.
Results: The only two objects which are attracted by the magnet are
steel and iron. The others are not magnetic.
Experiment No. 13
The purpose of this experiment is to demonstrate that a magnetic force
is able to act through many substances.
Materials: Horseshoe magnet (D). Paper with iron filings (B and C).
Sheets of paper (C) and of cardboard (0). Thin glass plate (P).
Procedure: Sprinkle some iron filings upon a sheet of paper. Next cut
a small sheet of paper about 2 inches square and place it
over the poles of the horseshoe magnet after removing its
keeper. Hold this combination of magnet and paper over the
iron filings so that the paper lies between the iron fil
ings and the poles of the magnet. The paper must touch the
poles and be close to the filings. Look beneath the top
paper and observe that the filings cling to the paper at
the regions of the magnetic poles.
Repeat this experiment, using the sheet of cardboard and
also the thin glass plate.
Results: It is observed that the magnetic force is able to penetrate
the sheet of paper, cardboard and the thin glass plate.
Ques tion: What would occur if a thin sheet of iron were used instead
of the paper? Try it.
Experiment No. 14
The purpose of this experiment is to demonstrate that an unmagnetized
piece of iron or steel, when placed into contact with a magnet, will
itself become a magnet.
Materials: Horseshoe magnet (D). Three small nails (q ). Paper with
iron filings (C and B). Large nail (K).
AMORC Laboratorium Unit Number One
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Page Fourteen
Experiment No. 14 (Continued)
Part 1
Procedure: Attach the large nail to the horseshoe magnet in the manner
indicated in figure 8a. Pour some iron filings upon a
sheet of paper and dip the tip of the nail (still attached
to the magnet) into the filings.
Results: You will observe that the filings cling to the tip of the
nail. (See figure 8b). Shake the nail and magnet (togeth
er) vigorously and note that the filings continue to cling
to the nail. Now remove the nail from the magnet. Shake
the nail. You will observe that the filings now drop to the
ground, demonstrating the nail now has lost its magnetism.
Part 2
Procedure: Test the three small nails by dipping them into the iron
filings, to make certain that they are not magnetized,. Then
place the three small nail3 in a row so that the tip of one
nail touches the head of the succeeding nail. Place one pole
of the horseshoe magnet in contact with the head end of the
row. Slide the horseshoe magnet backward. (See figure 9)
Results: Observe that the magnet is able to pull the entire row of
nails, like a locomotive pulling a train. Lift the magnet
from the table and note that the nails still cling to the
magnet, forming a hanging chain. Shake the magnet slightly
and observe that the chain will persist. This shows that
the nails have become magnetic under the influence of the
horseshoe magnet.
Note: This method of magnetization is also called "magnetization
by induction." A very strong magnet is required for a suc
cessful experiment.
It will also be observed that some of the nails will retain
some of their magnetism when the horseshoe magnet has been
removed. This property of a substance to retain some of
its magnetism is called its "retentivity." Soft iron pos
sesses only a small retentivity while steel possesses a
large retentivity.
Questions: 1. How could you determine the polarity of the nails?
2. What would be the magnetic polarity of the head and of
the tip of each nail?
Experiment No. 15
It is the purpose of this experiment to demonstrate that a magnet is
able to affect the space surrounding it, creating what is known as a
magnetic "field" or a magnetic "aura."
Materials: Horseshoe magnet (D). Iron filings (B). Sheet of paper (C).
Experiment No. 15 (Continued)
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AMORC Laboratorium Unit Number One Page Fifteen
Procedure: Place the horseshoe magnet on the table upon a flat sheet
of paper. (Remove the keeper). Now, very carefully,
sprinkle the iron filings upon the sheet of paper close to
and around the entire magnet. Note the pattern which is
produced by the filings, as they are aligned under the in
fluence of the magnetic force. Tap the paper slightly with
your fingers to make the pattern more distinct. (See
figure 10)
Results: The illustration, as provided in figure 10, shows the
characteristic pattern which the iron filings form. This
shows that a magnet is able to affect the empty space sur
rounding it.
Question: Would there be any change in the pattern formed if the
poles of the horseshoe magnet were reversed? Why not?
Experiment No. 1$
It is the purpose of this experiment to determine the magnetic field or
aura of a small bar magnet.
Materials: Small steel bar (R). Horseshoe magnet (D). Iron filings
(B). Sheet of paper (C). Magnetoscope of experiment 6.
Pen and ink.
Procedure: Magnetize the small steel bar by means of the method of
frictional contact of experiment k, using the horseshoe
magnet. Set up the Magnetoscope, described in experiment
6, and determine the polarities of the ends of the small
steel bar, using the method of experiment 8. Write the
name of the proper polarity upon each end of the steel bar,
using ink.
Now place the magnetized bar upon the table and proceed
exactly in the same manner as in experiment 14. Place the
bar upon a sheet of paper and very carefully sprinkle the
iron filings upon the sheet, covering the entire region
around the bar magnet. Tap the paper with your fingers and
note the pattern which is being formed by the iron filings
which surround the magnet.
Results: The pattern which is produced will be similar to that il
lustrated by the dotted lines in figure 11.
Question: How will the direction of the earths magnetic field influ
ence the pattern which is produced by the magnet alone?
Experiment No. 17
The purpose of this experiment is to study the various types of magnet
ic fields (auras) produced by the combination of two magnetized steel
bars .
AMORC Laboratoriura Unit Number One
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Page Sixteen
Experiment No. 17 (Continued)
Materials: Same as in experiment 16. In addition, another small steel
bar (R) will be required.
Procedure: Magnetize the second small steel bar and determine its
polarities by the same methods used in experiment 16.
Write the name of the proper polarity upon each end of the
steel bar. Now look at figures 12a to 12g. On these dia
grams you will note seven combinations in which the two
small steel bars may be placed upon the sheet of paper.
For each of these seven cases place the magnets upon a
sheet of paper in their proper positions (observe the cor
rect polarities). Sprinkle the iron filings carefully upon
the sheet of paper in the space surrounding the magnets.
Tap the paper with your finger and observe the patterns
which are produced. Make a pencil sketch of each of the
magnetic fields.
Results: A few of the various patterns which are formed are indi
cated in figure 12 by the dotted lines. They indicate how
the space surrounding the magnets is affected by the aura
of the magnets.
Ques tion: How do your pencil sketches compare with the illustrations
provided in the Rosicrucian Manual? (Look up the chapter
dealing with "The Magnet"). Carefully note any difference
between your sketches and these illustrations. If any dif
ferences do occur then they are due to the fact that the
poles of your magnets have different strengths than the mag
nets used in the illustrations. Another factor influencing
the patterns is the distance between the two magnets. Place
the magnets at different distances from one another and
observe the changes which are produced in the patterns,
although the basic designs will remain the same.
Experiment No. 18
The object of this experiment is to demonstrate the fundamental princi
ples of electromagnetism.
Materials: 1 l/2 volt dry cell. Wire (S). Nail (K). Paper with iron
filings (C and B). 3 pieces or cardboard (T).
Part 1
Object: The object of this experiment is to show that an electric
current generates a magnetic field.
Procedure : Test the nail, to make certain that it is not magnetized,
by dipping it into the iron filings. Wrap the wire around
the nail so that the coils formed by the wire cover approx
imately 3/4 of the nail. Remove the insulation from the
two ends of the wire. Now connect the ends of the wire to
AMORC Laboratorium Unit Number One
Experiment
Result:
Part 2
Object:
Procedure:
Result:
Part 3
Object:
Procedure:
Results:
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Page Seventeen
No. _18 (Continued)
the two poles of the 1 1/2 volt dry cell. Dip the tip of
the nail into the iron filings. (See figure 13.)
It is observed that the iron filings now cling to the tip
of the nail, showing that the nail has become an electro
magnet. Note also that the wire becomes hot. Be careful
not to burn your fingers! Disconnect the wire from the
nail. Observe that the nail possesses retentivity.
The object of this experiment is to obtain a picture of the
magnetic field produced by an electric current when flowing
through a straight piece of wire.
Unwrap the wire from the nail. Straighten the wire. Using
the nail, puncture a hole through the center of a piece of
cardboard and pierce the straight wire through this hole.
Connect the ends of the wire to the two poles of the dry
cell. (See figure 14.) Make sure that the wire forms a
large rectangle, the longest side of which passes through
the cardboard. Place a sheet of paper upon the table,
underneath the piece of cardboard. Holding the piece of
cardboard half way up, sprinkle a very thin layer of iron
filings upon the piece of cardboard. Tap the cardboard
with your fingers and observe the pattern which is formed
around the wire.
It is observed that the iron filings arrange themselves in
circles, with the wire located at their common centers.
The object of this experiment is to determine the magnetic
field which is obtained when an electric current flows
through a circular loop.
Pierce the wire through two points of a piece of cardboard,
(about one inch apart). Arrange the wire so that it forms
a circle, half of which is located above the cardboard, the
other half being located below. (See figure 15) Place a
sheet of paper upon the table, underneath your magnet. Conr
nect the ends of the wire to the poles of the dry cell.
Sprinkle iron filings upon the cardboard, proceeding as in
part 2. Observe the pattern which is formed by the filings.
The pattern which is formed is indicated by the dotted
lines in figure 15 It is seen that an electric current
flowing through a circular coil produces a magnetic field
which is the same as that produced by a single bar magnet,
one of the poles being located on the right side of the
coil, the other pole being located on the left side of the
coil. In other words the magnetic field due to an electric
AMORC Laboratorium Unit Number One
Experiment
Question:
Part 4
Object:
Procedure:
Result:
Question:
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Page Eighteen
No. 18 (Continued)
current flowing through a circular coil is identical with
that of a bar magnet placed at the center of the coil, its
axis being perpendicular to the coil.
By what method could you determine the polarities of the
right side and the left side of the coil? Try it.
The object of this experiment is to find the magnetic field
produced by an electric current flowing through a solenoid.
(Note: A solenoid is an extended coil, consisting of sev
eral windings, equally spaced. See figure 16.)
Consider figure 16. Puncture eight holes into the piece
of cardboard, in two rows of four holes each. Thread the
wire through these holes in such a manner that the wire
forms an extended coil, the windings being spaced at equal
distances from one another. Such an extended coil is
called as "solenoid." Repeat the procedure of part 3* us~
ing this coil.
The pattern formed by the iron filings is indicated by the
dotted lines in figure Id . It follows that a solenoid is
equivalent in its effects to a bar magnet, one pole being
located at one end of the solenoid, while the other pole Is
located at the opposite end of the magnet.
How could you determine the magnetic polarities of each end
of the solenoid? Try this experiment.
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