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Table of content

Pages
1.0 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................. 2

2.0 GENERAL DESCRIPTION .................................................................................................. 3
2.1 Unit Assembly ............................................................................................................ 3

3.0 INSTALLATION AND COMMISSIONING ........................................................................... 4

4.0 SUMMARY OF THEORY ..................................................................................................... 5
4.1 Pipe Flow Conditions ................................................................................................. 5
4.2 Laminar Flow ............................................................................................................. 5
4.3 Transitional Flow ........................................................................................................ 5
4.4 Turbulent Flow ........................................................................................................... 5

5.0 EXPERIMENT PROCEDURES............................................................................................ 6
5.1 Experiment A ............................................................................................................. 6
5.2 Experiment B ............................................................................................................. 6
5.3 Data sheet ................................................................................................................. 7

APPENDIX A .................................................................................................................................... 8



SOLTEQ

OSBORNE REYNOLDS DEMONSTRATION (MODEL: FM 11)





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1.0 INTRODUCTION

The SOLTEQ

Osborne Reynolds Demonstration (Model: FM 11) has been


designed for students experiment on the laminar, transition and turbulent flow. It consists of
a transparent header tank and flow visualization pipe. The header tank is provided with a
diffuser and stilling materials at the bottom to provide a constant head of water to be
discharged through a bell mouth entry to the flow visualization pipe. Flow through this pipe
is regulated using a control valve at the discharge end. The water flow rate through the
pipe can be measured using the volumetric tank (or volumetric cylinder). Velocity of the
water can therefore be determined to allow the calculation of the Reynolds Number. A dye
injection system is installed on top of the header tank so that flow pattern in the pipe can be
visualized.





























SOLTEQ

OSBORNE REYNOLDS DEMONSTRATION (MODEL: FM 11)





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2.0 GENERAL DESCRIPTION
2.1 Unit Assembly


Figure 1: Unit Assembly of Osborne Reynolds Demonstration (Model: FM11)


1. Dye reservoir 2. Dye injector
3. Head tank 4. Observation tube
5. Water inlet valve, V1 6. Bell mouth
7. Water outlet valve, V2 8. Overflow valve, V3


The Osborne Reynolds Demonstration apparatus is equipped with a visualization
tube for students to observe the flow condition. The rocks inside the stilling tank
are to calm the inflow water so that there will not be any turbulence to interfere with
the experiment. The water inlet / outlet valve and dye injector are utilized to
generate the required flow.
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SOLTEQ

OSBORNE REYNOLDS DEMONSTRATION (MODEL: FM 11)





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3.0 INSTALLATION AND COMMISSIONING

1. Assemble the Osborne Reynolds as shown in the picture.
2. Place the Osborne Reynolds apparatus on a level ground. Use a level spirit to level
the apparatus.
3. Connect hose to the apparatus outflow, inflow and overflow.
4. Fill up the dye reservoir with the provided blue ink.
5. Establish water supply by connecting the inlet hose to a water source and open the
inlet valve.
6. Fill the stilling tank with the aquarium stones that are being provided and proceed to fill
up the stilling tank with water.
7. Open the outflow valve to test the unit. Check for any leaking of water and proceed to
inject the ink.
8. The unit is now ready to use.





















SOLTEQ

OSBORNE REYNOLDS DEMONSTRATION (MODEL: FM 11)





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4.0 SUMMARY OF THEORY

The theory is named in honor of Osborne Reynolds, a British engineer who discovers
the variables that can be used as a criterion to distinguish between laminar and
turbulent flow.

The Reynolds number is widely used dimensionless parameters in fluid mechanics.

Reynolds number formula:
V
UL
R =


R = Reynolds number
U = Fluid velocity, (m/s)
L = characteristic length or diameter (m)
V = Kinematic viscosity (m
2
/s)

Reynolds number R is independent of pressure
4.1 Pipe Flow Conditions
For water flowing in pipe or circular conduits, L is the diameter of the pipe. For
Reynolds number less than 2100, the pipe flow will be laminar. For Reynolds
number from 2100 to 4000 the pipe flow will be considered a transitional flow.
Turbulent occur when Reynolds number is above 4000. The viscosity of the
fluid also determines the characteristic of the flow becoming laminar or
turbulent. Fluid with higher viscosity is easier to achieve a turbulent flow
condition. The viscosity of fluid is also dependant on the temperature.

4.2 Laminar Flow
Laminar flow denoted a steady flow condition where all streamlines follow
parallel paths, there being no interaction (mixing) between shear planes.
Under this condition the dye observed will remain as a solid, straight and
easily identifiable component of flow.

4.3 Transitional Flow
Transitional flow is a mixture of laminar and turbulent flow with turbulence in
the center of the pipe, and laminar flow near the edges. Each of these flows
behaves in different manners in terms of their frictional energy loss while
flowing, and have different equations that predict their behavior.

4.4 Turbulent Flow
Turbulent flow denotes an unsteady flow condition where streamlines interact
causing shear plane collapse and mixing of the fluid. In this condition the dye
observed will become disperse in the water and mix with the water. The
observed dye will not be identifiable at this point.

SOLTEQ

OSBORNE REYNOLDS DEMONSTRATION (MODEL: FM 11)





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5.0 EXPERIMENT PROCEDURES
5.1 Experiment A

Experiment objectives:
To compute Reynolds number (R).
To observe the laminar, transitional and turbulent flow.

1. Lower the dye injector until it is seen in the glass tube.
2. Open the inlet valve, V1 and allow water to enter stilling tank.
3. Ensure a small overflow spillage through the over flow tube to maintain a
constant level.
4. Allow water to settle for a few minutes.
5. Open the flow control valve fractionally to let water flow through the
visualizing tube.
6. Slowly adjust the dye control needle valve until a slow flow with dye
injection is achieved.
7. Regulate the water inlet valve, V1 and outlet valve, V2 until a straight
identifiable dye line is achieved. The flow will be laminar.
8. Measure the flow rate using volumetric method.
9. Repeat the experiment by regulating water inlet valve, V1 and outlet valve,
V2 to produce transitional and turbulent flow.


5.2 Experiment B

Experiment objectives:
To determine the Reynolds number (R)
To determine the upper and lower critical velocities at transitional
flow.


1. Lower the dye injector until it is seen in the glass tube.
2. Open the inlet valve, V1 and allow water to enter stilling tank.
3. Ensure a small overflow spillage through the over flow tube to maintain a
constant level.
4. Allow water to settle for a few minutes.
5. Open the flow control valve fractionally to let water flow through the
visualizing tube.
6. Slowly adjust the dye control needle valve until a slow flow with dye
injection is achieved.
7. By repeating the procedures to create a laminar flow, slowly increase the
flow rate until the laminar flow produce small disturbance or eddies. This
will be lower critical velocity.
8. Determine the flow rate by using a volumetric result.
9. Repeat the experiment by first introducing a turbulent flow and slowly
decrease flow rate till the flow become transitional. This will be upper
critical velocity
SOLTEQ

OSBORNE REYNOLDS DEMONSTRATION (MODEL: FM 11)





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5.3 Data sheet

Reynolds number Re (non-dimensional)
Friction Factor (non-dimensional)
Kinematics viscosity v mm
2
/sec
Pipe diameter D mm
Mean velocity U mm/sec
Higher Critical velocity U
crit
mm/sec
Lower Critical velocity U
crit
mm/sec
Flow rate Q L/s

Volume (L) Time (s) Flow rate, Q
(L/s)
Flow rate, Q
(m
3
/s)
Reynolds
Number





































SOLTEQ

OSBORNE REYNOLDS DEMONSTRATION (MODEL: FM 11)





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APPENDIX A
Typical Experimental Result






























SOLTEQ

OSBORNE REYNOLDS DEMONSTRATION (MODEL: FM 11)





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A.1 Experiment 1

Laminar Flow






Transitional Flow

Volume
(L)
Time
(S)
Flow rate, Q
(L/s)
Flow rate, Q
(m
3
/s)
Reynolds
Number
0.15 6.0 0.0250 2.50000E-05 2294.2526


Turbulent Flow

Volume
(L)
Time
(S)
Flow rate, Q
(L/s)
Flow rate, Q
(m
3
/s)
Reynolds
Number
0.15 2.5 0.0600 6.00000E-05 5506.2062


A.2 Experiment 2

Lower Critical Flow (from laminar changing to transitional flow)

Volume
(L)
Time
(S)
Flow rate, Q
(L/s)
Flow rate, Q
(m
3
/s)
Reynolds
Number
0.15 6.5 0.02308 2.31E-05 2117.772


Upper Critical Flow (Changing from turbulent flow to transitional flow)

Volume
(L)
Time
(S)
Flow rate, Q
(L/s)
Flow rate, Q
(m
3
/s)
Reynolds
Number
0.15 3.5 0.04286 4.29E-05 3933.004











Volume
(L)
Time
(S)
Flow rate, Q
(L/s)
Flow rate, Q
(m
3
/s)
Reynolds
Number
0.25 60.0 0.0042 4.16667E-06 382.3754
SOLTEQ

OSBORNE REYNOLDS DEMONSTRATION (MODEL: FM 11)





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If Re < 2100 is laminar flow
If 2100 < Re < 4000 is transitional flow
If Re > 4000 is turbulent flow

Kinematics viscosity for 25C water = 0.89 x 10
-6
m/s


= Re

Thus
V
D U
= Re


A
Q
U = Glass tube diameter (D) = 0.0156 m, Area (A) = 1.91x10
-4
m
2

Thus,
V A
D Q

= Re

For laminar flow,
06 89 . 0 04 91 . 1
0156 . 0 06 16667 . 4
Re


=
E E
E


= 382.3754



























Mean velocity, U Glass tube diameter, D
Kinematic viscosity, V
SOLTEQ

OSBORNE REYNOLDS DEMONSTRATION (MODEL: FM 11)





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Typical visual test result



Laminar flow Transitional flow



Turbulent flow