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Testing Manual

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CONTENTS
I. The Software life cycle
1.1 Feasibility Study
1.2 Systems Analysis
1.3 Systems Design
1.4 Coding
1.5 Testing
1.6 Installation & Maintenane
2. Software Development ife Cycles
2.1. Code!and!"# model
2.2. $ate%&all model
2.3. '%ototy(ing model
2.4 In%emental
2.5 S(i%al model
!. Testing ife Cycle
3.1 System Study
3.2 So(e) A((%oa*) +stimation
3.3 Test 'lan Design
3.4 Test Cases Design
3.5 Test Case ,e-ie.
3.6 Test Case +#eution
3./ De&et 0andling
3.1 2a( Analysis
3.3 Deli-e%ables
" Testing #hases $ The % Mo&el
4.1 4nit Testing
4.2 Integ%ation Testing
4.3 System Testing
4.4 Ae(tane Testing
' Testing Metho&s $ ()**#SC Mo&el
5.1 Funtionality Testing
5.2 4sability Testing
5.3 ,eliability Testing
5.4 ,eg%ession Testing
5.5 'e%&o%mane Testing
5.6 Salability Testing
5./ Com(atibility Testing
+ #erformance ife Cycle
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(easi,ility Stu&y
Design
Co&ing
-nalysis
Testing
Installation .
Maintenance
6.1 What is Performance Testing
6.2 Why Performance Testing
6.3 Performance Testing
6.4 Load Testing
6.5 Stress Testing
6.6 When should we start Performance Testing
6./ 'o(ula% tools used to ondut 'e%&o%mane Testing
6.1 'e%&o%mane Test '%oess
/ ife Cycle of -utomation
/.1 $*at is Automation5
/.2 6ene"ts o& Test Automation
/.3 False 6ene"ts
/.4 $*at a%e t*e di7e%ent tools a-ailable in t*e ma%8et5
0 Testing imitations
1.1 Test Sto( C%ite%ia
1 Tester *esponsi,ilities
3.1 0o. to '%io%iti9e Tests
23 4ow can we improve the e5ciency in testing6
2. The Software life cycle
All o& t*e stages &%om sta%t to "nis* t*at ta8e (lae .*en de-elo(ing a
ne.
So&t.a%e.
T*e so&t.a%e li&e!yle is a des%i(tion o& t*e e-ents t*at ou%
bet.een t*e bi%t* and deat* o& a so&t.a%e (%o:et inlusi-ely.
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; (easi,ility Stu&y an& pro,lem -nalysis
< $*at e#atly is t*is system su((osed to do5
Dete%mine and s(ell out t*e details o& t*e (%oblem.
; Design
< 0o. .ill t*e system sol-e t*e (%oblem5
; Co&ing
< T%anslating t*e design into t*e atual system.
7 Testing
< Does t*e system sol-e t*e (%oblem5
< 0a-e t*e %e=ui%ements been satis"ed5
< Does t*e system .o%8 (%o(e%ly in all situations5
7 Maintenance
< 6ug "#es
(easi,ility Stu&y
Design
Co&ing
-nalysis
8*e9uirements:
Testing
Installation .
Maintenance
De"nes t*e on%ete st%ategy to enginee% some so&t.a%e a%ti&at
SD>C is se(a%ated into (*ases ?ste(s@ stagesA
S>DC also dete%mines t*e o%de% o& t*e (*ases@ and t*e %ite%ia &o%
t%ansitioning &%om (*ase to (*ase
2.2 (easi,ility Stu&y;
The feasi,ility report
A((liations a%eas to be onside%ed eg
Sto8 ont%ol@ (u%*asing@ Aounts et
System in-estigations &o% ea* a((liation
Cost estimates
System %e=ui%ements
Timesale &o% im(lementation
+#(eted bene"ts
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2.2 Systems -nalysis;


& System analysis and design is t*e (%oess o&CCC
& In-estigating a businessCC.
& $it* a -ie. to dete%mining *o. best to manage t*e -a%ious (%oedu%es and
in&o%mation (%oessing tas8s t*at it in-ol-es.
2.2.2 The Systems -nalyst
& 'e%&o%ms t*e in-estigationC..
& and mig*t %eommend t*e use o& a om(ute% to
im(%o-e t*e eDieny o& t*e in&o%mation system
being in-estigated.
2.2.2 Systems -nalysis
& T*e intentionCC..
& to dete%mine *o. .ell a business o(es .it* its
u%%ent in&o%mation (%oessing needs@
& and .*et*e% it is (ossible to im(%o-e t*e
(%oedu%es in o%de% to ma8e it mo%e eDient o%
(%o"table.
(easi,ility Stu&y
Design
Co&ing
-nalysis
Testing
Installation .
Maintenance
(easi,ility Stu&y
Design
Co&ing
-nalysis
Testing
Installation .
Maintenance
Note: F,S ontains In(ut@ But(ut@ (%oess but no &o%mat.
4se Cases ontains use% ation and system %es(onse .it* "#ed
&o%mat.
2.! Systems Design;
& 'lanning t*e st%utu%e o& t*e in&o%mation system to be
im(lemented.
& Systems analysis dete%mines .*at t*e system should doC
& and design dete%mines *o. it should be done.
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The System -nalysis *eport
6,S?6usiness ,e=ui%ement DoumentA
F,S?Funtional ,e=ui%ement DoumentA B% Funtional s(ei"ations
4se Cases? 4se% ation and system ,es(onseA
ET*ese 3 a%e t*e 6ase douments &o% .%iting Test CasesF
Doumenting t*e %esults
systems Go. *a%ts
data Go. diag%ams
o%gani9ation *a%ts
%e(o%t
(easi,ility Stu&y
Design
Co&ing
-nalysis
Testing
Installation .
Maintenance
System Design *eport
Design Doument t*at onsist o& A%*itetu%al Design@ Database
Design@ Inte%&ae Design
2." Co&ing;
Co&ing *eport
All t*e (%og%ams@ Funtions@ ,e(o%ts t*at %elated to Coding.
2.' Testing;
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4se% inte%&ae design


Design o& out(ut %e(o%ts
In(ut s%eens
Data sto%age ie "les@
database tables
System seu%ity
6a8u(s@ -alidation@
(ass.o%ds
Test (lan
(easi,ility Stu&y
Design
Co&ing
-nalysis
Testing
Installation .
Maintenance
Program de'elo"ment
%(#i"ment ac(#isition
)raft #" #ser g#ides
2.'.2 <hat Is Software Testing6
IEEE Terminology; An e#amination o& t*e be*a-io% o& t*e
(%og%am
by e#euting on sam(le data sets.
Testing is Executing a program with an intention of fnding defects
Testing is e#euting a (%og%am .it* an indent o& "nding +%%o%)Fault and
Failu%e.
Fault is a ondition t*at auses t*e so&t.a%e to &ail to (e%&o%m its
%e=ui%ed &untion.
+%%o% %e&e%s to di7e%ene bet.een Atual But(ut and +#(eted But(ut.
Failu%e is t*e inability o& a system o% om(onent to (e%&o%m %e=ui%ed
&untion ao%ding to its s(ei"ation.
Failu%e is an e-entH &ault is a state o& t*e so&t.a%e@ aused by an e%%o%.
<hy is Software Testing6
To diso-e% de&ets.
To a-oid use% deteting (%oblems
To (%o-e t*at t*e so&t.a%e *as no &aults
To lea%n about t*e %eliability o& t*e so&t.a%e.
To ensu%e t*at (%odut .o%8s as use% e#(eted.
To stay in business
To a-oid being sued by ustome%s
To detet de&ets ea%ly@ .*i* *el(s in %eduing t*e ost o& de&et
"#ing.
COST O( DE(ECT *E#-I*
#hase = Cost
*e9uirements 3
Design 23
Co&ing 23
Testing '3
Customer Site 233
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0
20
40
60
80
100
Cost
SDLC Phase
Cost of Defect Repair
% Cost 0 10 20 50 100
Require Design Coding Testing Custom
4ow e>actly Testing is &i?erent from @-A@C
Testing is o&ten on&used .it* t*e (%oesses o& =uality ont%ol and
=uality assu%ane. Testing is t*e (%oess o& %eating@ im(lementing and
e-aluating tests.
Testing measu%es so&t.a%e =uality.
Testing an "nd &aultsH .*en t*ey a%e %emo-ed@ so&t.a%e =uality is
im(%o-ed.
IC is t*e (%oess o& Ins(etions@ $al8!t%oug*s and ,e-ie.s.
IA in-ol-es in Monito%ing and im(%o-ing t*e enti%e SD>C (%oess@
ma8ing su%e t*at any ag%eed!u(on standa%ds and (%oedu%es a%e
&ollo.ed@ and ensu%ing t*at (%oblems a%e &ound and dealt .it*.
<hy shoul& we nee& an approach for testing6
Jes@ $e de"nitely need an a((%oa* &o% testing.
To o-e% ome &ollo.ing (%oblems@ .e need a &o%mal a((%oa* &o% Testing.
Incomplete functional coverage; Com(leteness o& testing is diDult
tas8 &o% Testing team .it* out a &o%mal a((%oa*. Team .ill not be in a
(osition to announe t*e (e%entage o& testing om(leted.
No risB management !! t*is is no .ay to measu%e o-e%all %is8 issues
%ega%ding ode o-e%age and =uality met%is. +7eti-e =uality assu%ane
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measu%es =uality o-e% time and sta%ting &%om a 8no.n base o&
e-aluation.
Too little emphasis on user tasBs !! beause teste%s .ill &ous on
ideal (at*s instead o& %eal (at*s. $it* no time to (%e(a%e@ ideal (at*s
a%e de"ned ao%ding to best guesses o% de-elo(e% &eedba8 %at*e% t*an
by a%e&ul onside%ation o& *o. use%s .ill unde%stand t*e system o% *o.
use%s unde%stand %eal!.o%ld analogues to t*e a((liation tas8s. $it* no
time to (%e(a%e@ teste%s .ill be using a -e%y %est%ited set in(ut data@
%at*e% t*an using %eal data ?&%om use% ati-ity logs@ &%om logial
sena%ios@ &%om a%e&ul onside%ation o& t*e one(t domainA.
Ine5cient over the long term !! =uality assu%ane in-ol-es a %ange o&
tas8s. +7eti-e =uality assu%ane (%og%ams e#(and t*ei% base o&
doumentation on t*e (%odut and on t*e testing (%oess o-e% time@
in%easing t*e o-e%age and g%anula%ity o& tests o-e% time. 2%eat testing
%e=ui%es good test setu( and (%e(a%ation@ but suess .it* t*e 8ind Test
(lan!less a((%oa* des%ibed in t*is essay may %ein&o%e bad (%o:et and
test met*odologies. A ontinued (atte%n o& =ui8!and!di%ty testing li8e
t*is is a sign t*at t*e (%odut o% a((liation is unsustainable in t*e long
%un.
-reas of Testing;
ClacB Co> Testing
6la8 bo# testing is also alled as Funtionality Testing. In t*is testing
use% .ill be as8ed to test t*e o%%etness o& t*e &untionality .it* t*e
*el( o& In(uts and But(uts. 4se% doesnKt %e=ui%e t*e 8no.ledge o&
so&t.a%e ode.
-pproach;
E@)I%-ENCE C-SS;
; Fo% ea* (iee o& t*e s(ei"ation@ gene%ate one o% mo%e
e=ui-alene Class
; >abel t*e lasses as LMalidN o% LIn-alidN
; 2ene%ate one test ase &o% ea* In-alid +=ui-alene lass
; 2ene%ate a test ase t*at Co-e%s as many
Malid +=ui-alene Classes as (ossible
Coun&ary %alue -nalysis
; 2ene%ate test ases &o% t*e bounda%y -alues.
; Minimum Malue @ Minimum Malue O 1@ Minimum Malue !1
; Ma#imum Malue@ Ma#imum Malue O 1@ Ma#imum Malue ! 1
Page ,
Error Duessing.
-Generating test cases against to the specification.
White Box Testing
$*ite bo# testing is also alled as St%utu%al testing. 4se% does %e=ui%e
t*e 8no.ledge o& so&t.a%e ode.
St%utu%e P 1 +nt%y O 1 +#it .it* e%tain Const%aints@ Conditions and
>oo(s.
$*y do .*ite bo# testing .*en .*ite bo# testing is used to test
on&o%mane to %e=ui%ementsQ
>ogi +%%o%s and ino%%et assum(tions most a%e li8ely to be made .*ile
oding &o% Ls(eial asesN. Reed to ensu%e t*ese e#eution (at*s a%e
tested.
May "nd assum(tions about e#eution (at*s ino%%et@ and so ma8e
design e%%o%s.
Ty(og%a(*ial e%%o%s a%e %andom. Sust as li8ely to be on an obsu%e
logial (at* as on a mainst%eam (at*.
-pproach
6asi 'at* TestingQ
Cylomati Com(le#ity and M Cabe Met*od
St%utu%e TestingQ
Condition Testing@ Data Flo. Testing and >oo( Testing
Drey Co> Testing.
2%ey bo# Testing is t*e ne. te%m@ .*i* e-ol-ed due to t*e di7e%ent
be*a-io%s o& t*e system. T*is is :ust a ombination o& bot* 6la8 bo# &
.*ite bo# testing. Teste% s*ould *a-e t*e 8no.ledge o& bot* t*e
inte%nals and e#te%nals o& t*e &untion.
+-en t*oug* you (%obably donTt *a-e &ull 8no.ledge o& t*e inte%nals
o& t*e (%odut you test@ a test st%ategy based (a%tly on inte%nals is a
(o.e%&ul idea. $e all t*is g%ay bo# testing. T*e one(t is sim(leQ I& you
8no. somet*ing about *o. t*e (%odut .o%8s on t*e inside@ you an
test it bette% &%om t*e outside. T*is is not to be on&used .it* .*ite bo#
testing@ .*i* attem(ts to o-e% t*e inte%nals o& t*e (%odut in detail. In
g%ay bo# mode@ you a%e testing &%om t*e outside o& t*e (%odut@ :ust as
you do .it* bla8 bo#@ but you% testing *oies a%e in&o%med by you%
8no.ledge o& *o. t*e unde%lying om(onents o(e%ate and inte%at.
Page 1-
(easi,ility Stu&y
Design
Co&ing
-nalysis
Testing
Installation .
Maintenance
2%ay bo# testing is es(eially im(o%tant .it* $eb and Inte%net
a((liations@ beause t*e Inte%net is built a%ound loosely integ%ated
om(onents t*at onnet -ia %elati-ely .ell!de"ned inte%&aes. 4nless
you unde%stand t*e a%*itetu%e o& t*e Ret@ you% testing .ill be s8in
dee(. 0ung RguyenTs Testing A((liations on t*e $eb ?2UUUA is a good
e#am(le o& g%ay bo# test st%ategy a((lied to t*e $eb.
1.6 Installation & Maintenance:
Installation;
File on-e%sion
System testing
System *angeo-e%
Re. system beomes o(e%ational
Sta7 t%aining
MaintenanceQ
o%%eti-e maintenane
(e%&eti-e maintenane
ada(ti-e maintenane
Ta,le format of all the phases in SDC;
#4-SE IN#)T O)T#)T
Analysis 6,S S,S
Design S,S Design Do
Coding Design .e#e File)A((liation)
$ebsite
Page 11
Testing All t*e abo-e DoKs De&et ,e(o%t
2. Software Development ife Cycles
>i&e yleQ +nti%e du%ation o& a (%o:et@ &%om ine(tion to
te%mination
Di7e%ent li&e yle modelsQ
2.2. Co&eEan&EF> mo&el;
V +a%liest so&t.a%e de-elo(ment a((%oa* ?135UsA
V Ite%ati-e@ (%og%amme%sT a((%oa*
V T.o (*asesQ 1. oding@ 2. "#ing t*e ode
Ro (%o-ision &o%Q
V '%o:et (lanning
V Analysis
V Design
V testing
V Maintenane
'%oblems .it* ode!and!"# modelQ
1. A&te% se-e%al ite%ations@ ode beame -e%y (oo%ly st%utu%edH
subse=uent "#es beame -e%y e#(ensi-e
2. +-en .ell!designed so&t.a%e o&ten -e%y (oo%ly mat*ed use%sK
%e=ui%ementsQ .e%e %e:eted o% needed to be %ede-elo(ed
?e#(ensi-elyWA
3. C*anges to ode .e%e e#(ensi-e@ beause o& (oo% testing and
maintenane (%aties
SolutionsQ
1. Design be&o%e oding
2. Requirements analysis be&o%e design
3. Se(a%ate testing and maintenance (*ases a&te% oding
2.2. <aterfall mo&el;
V Also alled t*e classic life cycle
V Int%odued in 1356 to o-e%ome limitations o& ode!and!"#
model
V Me%y st%utu%ed@ o%gani9ed a((%oa*@ suitable &o% (lanning
Main (*asesQ
1. Feasibility study
2. Analysis
3. Design ?o-e%all design & detailed designA
4. Coding
5. Testing ?unit test@ integ%ation test@ ae(tane testA
6. Maintenane
Page 12
+%%o%Q ,e&e%ene sou%e not &ound
V $ate%&all model is a linear a((%oa*@ =uite inGe#ible
V At ea* (*ase@ &eedba8 to (%e-ious (*ases is (ossible ?but is
disou%aged in (%atieA
V Still is t*e most widespread model today
'%oblems .it* $ate%&all ModelQ
It doesnKt *a((en? ,e=ui%ements a%e &%i99edA
,eal (%o:ets tend not to &ollo. a se=uential Go.
Ati-ities a%e done o((o%tunistially du%ing all L(*asesN
Deli-e%y only at t*e end ?long .aitA
2.!. #rototyping mo&el;
V Int%odued to o-e%ome s*o%tomings o& .ate%&all model
V Suitable to o-e%ome (%oblem o& %e=ui%ements de"nition
V '%ototy(ing builds an operational model o& t*e (lanned
system@ .*i* t*e ustome% an e-aluate
Main (*asesQ
1. ,e=ui%ements gat*e%ing
2. Iui8 design
3. 6uild (%ototy(e
4. Custome% e-aluation o& (%ototy(e
Page 13
5. ,e"ne (%ototy(e
Ite%ate ste(s 4. and 5. to XtuneX t*e (%ototy(e
6. +nginee% (%odut
+%%o%Q ,e&e%ene sou%e not &ound
Mostly@ t*e (%ototy(e is disa%ded a&te% ste( 5. and t*e atual
system is built &%om s%at* in ste( 6. ?throw-away prototyping)
'ossible (%oblemsQ
V Custome% may ob:et to (%ototy(e being t*%o.n a.ay and may
demand Xa &e. *angesX to ma8e it .o%8ing ?%esults in (oo%
so&t.a%e =uality and maintainabilityA
V In&e%io%@ tem(o%a%y design solutions may beome (e%manent
a&te% a .*ile@ .*en t*e de-elo(e% *as &o%gotten t*at t*ey .e%e
only intended to be tem(o%a%y ?%esults in (oo% so&t.a%e =ualityA
2." Incremental;
Du%ing t*e "%st one!mont* (*ase@ t*e de-elo(ment team .o%8ed
&%om stati -isual designs to ode a (%ototy(e. In &ous g%ou(
meetings@ t*e team disussed use%sK needs and t*e (otential
&eatu%es o& t*e (%odut and t*en s*o.ed a demonst%ation o& its
(%ototy(e. T*e e#ellent &eedba8 &%om t*ese &ous g%ou(s *ad a
la%ge im(at on t*e =uality o& t*e (%odut.
Main (*asesQ
1. De"ne outline %e= ui%ements
2. Assign %e=ui%ements to in%ements
3. Design system a%*itetu%e
4. De-elo(
5. Integ%ate
Page 14
6. Malidate
+%%o%Q ,e&e%ene sou%e not &ound
A&te% t*e seond g%ou( o& &ous g%ou(s@ t*e &eatu%e set .as
&%o9en and t*e (%odut de"nition om(lete. Im(lementation
onsisted o& &ou%!to!si#!.ee8 yles@ .it* so&t.a%e deli-e%ed &o%
beta use at t*e end o& ea* yle. T*e enti%e %elease too8 1U
mont*s &%om de"nition to manu&atu%ing %elease. Im(lementation
lasted 4.5 mont*s. T*e %esult .as a .o%ld!lass (%odut t*at *as
.on many a.a%ds and *as been easy to su((o%t.
2.' Spiral mo&el;
V Bb:eti-eQ o-e%ome (%oblems o& ot*e% models@ .*ile
ombining t*ei% ad-antages
V Yey om(onentQ %is8 management ?beause t%aditional models
o&ten &ail .*en %is8 is negletedA
V De-elo(ment is done incrementally@ in se-e%al cycles V Cyle as
o&ten as neessa%y to "nis*
Main (*asesQ
1. Dete%mine ob:eti-es@ alte%nati-es &o% de-elo(ment@ and
onst%aints &o% t*e (o%tion o& t*e .*ole system to be
de-elo(ed in t*e u%%ent yle
2. +-aluate alte%nati-es@ onside%ing ob:eti-es and
onst%aintsH identi&y and %esol-e %is8s
3. De-elo( t*e u%%ent yleTs (a%t o& t*e system@ using
e-olutiona%y o% on-entional de-elo(ment met*ods
?de(ending on %emaining %is8sAH (e%&o%m -alidation at
t*e end
4. '%e(a%e (lans &o% subse=uent (*ases
+%%o%Q ,e&e%ene sou%e not &ound
Page 15
Ad-antages o& s(i%al modelQ
V Most %ealisti a((%oa* &o% large systems en-elo(ment
V Allo.s identi"ation and %esolution o& %is8s early in t*e
de-elo(ment
'%oblems .it* s(i%al modelQ
V DiDult to on-ine ustome% t*at t*is a((%oa* is ont%ollable
V ,e=ui%es signi"ant %is8 assessment e#(e%tise to sueed
V Rot yet .idely usedQ eDay not yet (%o-en
!. Testing ife Cycle
Page 16
Test #lan Design
Test Case *eview
Test Case E>ecution
Test Case Design
Defect 4an&ling
Dap -nalysis
System Stu&y
ScopeA -pproachA EstimationGs
Delivera,les
!.2 System Stu&y;
Ma8ing douments o&
2. Domain Hnowle&ge ;E 4sed to 8no. about t*e lient business
6an8ing ) Finane ) Insu%ane ) ,eal!estates ) +,' ) C,M ) Bt*e%s

2. Software ; E
F%ont +nd ?24IA C6 ) SAMA) FB,MS ) 6%o.se%
'%oess >anguage .it* .e .ant to .%ite (%og%ammes
6a8 +nd Database li8e B%ale@ SI> Se%-e% et.
!. 4ar&ware; E Inte%net) Int%anet) Se%-e%s .*i* you .ant to install.
". (unctional #oints; E Ten >ines B& Code ?>BCA P 1 Funtional
'oint.
'. Num,er of #ages; E T*e doument .*i* you .ant to (%e(a%e.
Page 1*
+. Num,er of *esources ; E>i8e '%og%amme%s@ Designe%s@ and
Manage%s.
/. Num,er of Days; E Fo% atual om(letion o& t*e '%o:et.
0. Num,ers of Mo&ules
1. #riority;E 0ig*) Medium) >o. im(o%tane &o% Modules
!.2 ScopeA -pproachA Estimation;
Scope;E $*at to be tested
$*at not to test
-pproach;E Testing >i&e Cyle
Estimation;E ?Fo%mula P >BC) F'),esou%esA
1UUU P 1UU F' ?1U >BC P 1 F'A
1UU Z 3 P 3UU ?F' Z 3 T+C0. P T+ST CAS+SA T0+ 3 T+C0 A,+
1. +I4IMA>+RC+ C>ASSQ
2. 6ounda%y Malue Analysis
3. +%%o% 2uessing.
3U TC 'a% Day P[ 3UU)3U P 1U Days to Design Test Cases
Test Case ,e-ie. P[ \ o& Test Case Design ?5 DaysA
Test Case +#eution P 1 \ o& Test Case Design?15 DaysA
De&et 0eadlining P Test Case Design ?5 DaysA
Test 'lan P 5 days ? 1 .ee8 A
6u7e% Time P 25] o& +stimation
!.! Test #lan Design;
T*e Test 'lan Design doument *el(s in test e#eution it ontain
1. About t*e lient and om(any
2. ,e&e%ene doument ?6,S@ F,S and 4I et.A
3. So(e ?$*at to be tested and .*at not to be A
4. B-e%-ie. o& A((liation
5. Testing a((%oa* ?Testing st%ategyA
6. Fo% ea* testing
De"nition
Taoni
Sta%t %ite%ia
Sto( %ite%ia
/. ,esou%es and t*e%e ,oles and ,es(onsibilities
1. De&et de"nition
3. ,is8 ) Contingeny ) Mitigation 'lan
1U. T%aining ,e=ui%ed
11. S*edules
12. Deli-e%ables
!." Test Cases Design;
<hat is a test case6
Page 1+
Test ase is a des%i(tion o& .*at to be tested@ .*at data to be
gi-en and .*at ations to be done to *e8 t*e atual %esult
against t*e e#(eted %esult.
<4-T -*E T4E ITEMS O( TEST C-SE6
Test ase items a%eQ
Test Case Rumbe%
'%e!Condition
Des%i(tion
+#(eted ,esult
Atual ,esult
Status ?'ass)FailA
,ema%8s.
Can this test cases reusa,le6
Jes@ Test ases an be %eusable.
Test ases de-elo(ed &o% &untionality testing an be used &o%
Integ%ation)System),eg%ession testing and (e%&o%mane testing
.it* &e. modi"ations.
<hat are the characteristics of goo& test case6
A good test ase s*ould *a-e t*e &ollo.ingQ
TC s*ould sta%t .it* L.*at you a%e testingN.
TC s*ould be inde(endent.
TC s*ould not ontain LI&N statements.
TC s*ould be uni&o%m.
+g. ^Ation 6uttons[ @ L>in8sNC
-re there any issues to ,e consi&ere&6
Ies there are few Issues;
All t*e TCKs s*ould be t%aeable.
T*e%e s*ould not be too many du(liate test ases.
But dated test ases s*ould be lea%ed o7.
All t*e test ases s*ould be e#eutable.

TC ID #reE
Con&ition
Description E>pecte&
*esult
-ctual
*esult
Stat
us
*emarBs
4ni=ue
TestCase
numbe%
Condition
to
satis"ed
1. $*at to
be tested
2. .*at data
to
(%o-ided
3. .*at
ation to
be done
As (ea%
FS,
System
%es(ons
e
'as
s o%
Fail
I& any
Ja*oo!
UU1
Ja*oo
.eb (age
s*ould
1. C*e8
inbo# is
dis(layed
System
s*ould
mail bo#
System
%es(ons
e
Page 1,
Do through the )se cases . (unctional Spec
Su,mit the *eview *eport
Try to Fn& the gap ,etween TC . )se cases
TaBe checBlist
TaBe a &emo of functionally
dis(layed 2. 4se%
ID)'$
3. Cli8 on
Submit
!.' Test Case *eview;
'ee% to (ee% ,e-ie.s
Team >ead ,e-ie.
Team Manage% ,e-ie.
*eview #rocess
*eview (ormat
*eviewEID Origin Description Statu
s
#riority
4ni=ue ID 6i%t* (lae
F%om .*e%e
it sta%ts
De&et
des%i(tion
B(en)
Close
Ma:o%
Medium
Mino%
Page 2-
ChecB the availa,ility of application
Implement the Test Cases
TaBe the Test Case &ocument
!.+ Test Case E>ecution;
E#eution and e#eution %esults (lays a -ital %ole in t*e
testing. +a* and e-e%y ati-ity s*ould *a-e (%oo&.
T*e &ollo.ing ati-ities s*ould be ta8en a%eQ
1. Rumbe% o& test ases e#euted.
2. Rumbe% o& de&ets &ound
3. S%een s*oots o& suess&ul and &ailu%e e#eutions
s*ould be ta8en in .o%d doument.
4. Time ta8en to e#eute.
5. Time .asted due to t*e una-ailability o& t*e system.
Test Case E>ecution #rocess;
Inputs
!Test Cases
!System A-ailability
!Data A-ailability
#rocess
!Test it.
Output
!,aise t*e De&ets
!Ta8e s%een s*oot & sa-e it
!./ Defect 4an&ling
<hat is Defect6
In om(ute% te*nology@ a De&et is a oding e%%o% in a om(ute%
(%og%am. It is de"ned by saying t*at LA so&t.a%e e%%o% is (%esent
.*en t*e (%og%am does not do .*at its end use% %easonably
e#(ets it to doN.
<ho can report a Defect
Anyone .*o *as in-ol-ed in so&t.a%e de-elo(ment li&e
yle and .*o is using t*e so&t.a%e an %e(o%t a De&et. In most
o& t*e ases de&ets a%e %e(o%ted by Testing Team.
A s*o%t list o& (eo(le e#(eted to %e(o%t bugsQ
Teste%s ) IA +nginee%s
Page 21
De-elo(e%s
Te*nial Su((o%t
+nd 4se%s
Sales and Ma%8eting +nginee%s
Defect Life Cycle
De&et >i&e Cyle *el(s in *andling de&ets eDiently. T*is D>C
.ill *el( t*e use%s to 8no. t*e status o& t*e de&et.
Page 22
Defect Closer
Defect -ccepte&
Defect *aise&
Defect (i>e&
Internal Defect
*eview
Defect Su,mitte& to
Dev Team

%-I
D
Defect
*eJecte&
Defect
*eJecte&
Ro
Types of Defects
Cosmeti Ga.
Data o%%u(tion
Data loss
Doumentation Issue
Ino%%et B(e%ation
Installation '%oblem
Missing Featu%e
Slo. 'e%&o%mane
System C%as*
4ne#(eted 6e*a-io%
4n&%iendly be*a-io%
Page 23

%-I
D
4ow &o u &eci&e the Severity of the &efect
Se-e%ity
>e-el
Des%i(tion ,es(onse Time o% Tu%n!a%ound
Time
0ig* A de&et ou%%ed due to t*e
inability o& a 8ey &untion to
(e%&o%m. T*is (%oblem auses
t*e system *ang it *alts
?%as*A@ o% t*e use% is d%o((ed
out o& t*e system. An
immediate "# o% .o%8 a%ound
is needed &%om de-elo(ment
so t*at testing an ontinue.
De&et s*ould be %es(onded to
.it*in 24 *ou%s and t*e
situation s*ould be %esol-ed
test e#it
A de&et ou%%ed .*i*
se-e%ely %est%its t*e system
su* as t*e inability to use a
ma:o% &untion o& t*e system.
T*e%e is no ae(table .o%8!
a%ound but t*e (%oblem does
not in*ibit t*e testing o& ot*e%
&untions
A %es(onse o% ation (lan
s*ould be (%o-ided .it*in 3
.o%8ing days and t*e situation
s*ould be %esol-ed be&o%e test
e#it.
>o. A de&et is ou%%ed .*i*
(laes mino% %est%it on a
&untion t*at is not %itial.
T*e%e is an ae(table .o%8!
a%ound &o% t*e de&et.
A %es(onse o% ation (lan
s*ould be (%o-ided .it*in 5
.o%8ing days and t*e situation
s*ould be %esol-ed be&o%e test
e#it.
Bt*e%s
An inident ou%%ed .*i*
(laes no %est%itions on any
&untion o& t*e system. Ro
immediate im(at to testing.
A Design issue o%
,e=ui%ements not de"niti-ely
detailed in (%o:et.
T*e "# dates a%e sub:et to
negotiation.
An ation (lan s*ould be
(%o-ided &o% ne#t %elease o%
&utu%e en*anement
Defect Severity %S Defect #riority
T*e 2ene%al %ule &o% t*e "#ing t*e de&ets .ill de(end on t*e
Se-e%ity. All t*e 0ig* Se-e%ity De&ets s*ould be "#ed "%st.
Page 24
T*is may not be t*e same in all ases some times e-en
t*oug* se-e%ity o& t*e bug is *ig* it may not be ta8e as t*e
0ig* (%io%ity.
At t*e same time t*e lo. se-e%ity bug may be onside%ed as
*ig* (%io%ity.
Defect TracBing Sheet
Defect
No
Descripti
on
Origin Severity #riority Status
4ni=ue
Ro
De o& 6ug 6i%t*
(lae o&
t*e 6ug
C%itial
Ma:o%
Medium
Mino%
Cosmeti
0ig*
Medium
>o.
Submitte
d
Ae(ted
Fi#ed
,e:eted
'ost(one
d
Closed

Defect TracBing Tools
6ug T%a8e% !! 6S> '%o(%ieta%y Tools
,ational Clea% Iuest
Test Di%eto%
!.0 Dap -nalysis;
1. 6,S Ms S,S
6,SU1 < S,SU1
!S,SU2
!S,SU3
2. S,S Ms TC
S,SU1 < TCU1
! TCU2
! TCU3
3. TC Ms De&ets
TCU1 < De&etsU1
< De&etsU2
!.1 Delivera,les;
" Testing #hases $ The % Mo&el
Me%i"ation Stati System < Doing ,ig*t Sob
Malidation Dynami System ! Sob ,ig*t
Page 25
Cusiness
*e9uirement
s


%eriFcation
Software
*e9uirement
s

%eriFcation
Design
System

%eriFcation
Cuil&
System

%eriFcation
)nit
Test

%ali&ation
Integration
Test
%ali&ation
System
Test

%ali&ation
-cceptance
Test

%ali&ation
".2 )nit Testing;
In 4nit testing use% is su((osed to *e8 ea* and e-e%y mi%o
&untion. All "eld le-el -alidations a%e e#(eted to test at t*e
stage o& testing.
In most o& t*e ases De-elo(e% .ill do t*is.
-pproach;
E@)I%-ENCE C-SS;
; Fo% ea* (iee o& t*e s(ei"ation@ gene%ate one o% mo%e
e=ui-alene Class
; >abel t*e lasses as LMalidN o% LIn-alidN
; 2ene%ate one test ase &o% ea* In-alid +=ui-alene lass
; 2ene%ate a test ase t*at Co-e%s as many
Malid +=ui-alene Classes as (ossible
Coun&ary %alue -nalysis
Page 26
; 2ene%ate test ases &o% t*e bounda%y -alues.
; Minimum Malue @ Minimum Malue O 1@ Minimum Malue !1
; Ma#imum Malue@ Ma#imum Malue O 1@ Ma#imum Malue ! 1
Error Duessing.
< 2ene%ating test ases against to s(ei"ation
".2 Integration Testing;
T*e (%ima%y ob:eti-e o& integ%ation testing is to diso-e% e%%o%s
in t*e inte%&aes bet.een Modules)Sub!Systems ?0ost & Client
Inte%&aesA.
-pproach;
TopEDown -pproach
T*e integ%ation (%oess is (e%&o%med in a se%ies o& 5 ste(s
1. T*e main ont%ol module is used as a test d%i-e%@ and stubs
a%e substituted &o% all modules di%etly subo%dinate to t*e
main ont%ol module.
2. De(ending on t*e integ%ation a((%oa* seleted ? de(t* o%
b%eadt*!"%stA subo%dinate stubs a%e %e(laed at a time .it*
atual modules.
3. Tests a%e onduted as ea* module is module is
integ%ated.
4. Bne om(letion o& ea* set o& tests@ anot*e% stub is
%e(laed .it* t*e %eal!module.
5. ,eg%ession testing may be onduted to ensu%e t*at ne.
e%%o%s *a-e not been int%odued.
CottomE)p -pproach.
- bottom!u( integ%ation st%ategy may be im(lemented .it* t*e
&ollo.ing ste(sQ
1. >o. le-el modules a%e ombined into luste%s ?Some times
alled buildsA t*at (e%&o%m a s(ei" so&t.a%e sub &untion.
2. A d%i-e% ? ont%ol (%og%am &o% testingA is .%itten to
oo%dinate test ase in(ut and out(ut.
3. T*e luste% is tested.
4. D%i-e%s a%e %emo-ed and luste%s a%e ombined u(.a%d in
t*e (%og%am st%utu%e
Page 2*
An integ%ation testing is onduted@ t*e teste% s*ould identi&y
%itial modules. A %itial module *as one o% mo%e o& t*e
&ollo.ing *a%ate%istisQ
1. Add%ess se-e%al so&t.a%e %e=ui%ements.
2. 0as a *ig*!le-el o& ont%ol. ?%esides %elati-ely *ig* in t*e
(%og%am st%utu%eA
3. Com(le# & +%%o%!'*one.
4. 0a-e de"nite (e%&o%mane %e=ui%ements.
".! System Testing;
T*e (%ima%y ob:eti-e o& system testing is to diso-e% e%%o%s
.*en t*e system is tested as a *ole. System testing is also alled
as +nd!+nd Testing. 4se% is e#(eted to test &%om >ogin!To!>ogout
by o-e%ing -a%ious business &untionalities.
-pproach; IDO Mo&el
Identi&ying t*e +nd!+nd)6usiness >i&e Cyles.
Design t*e test and data.
O(timi9e t*e +nd!+nd)6usiness >i&e Cyles.
"." -cceptance Testing;
T*e (%ima%y ob:eti-e o& ae(tane testing is to get t*e
ae(tane &%om t*e lient. Client .ill be using t*e system
against t*e business %e=ui%ements.
'%e!use% ae(tane testing .ill be onduted to ase%tain t*e
stability and to *e8 .*et*e% t*e om(lete &untionality o& t*e
system is *e8ed du%ing system testing. A&te% t*e "%st %ound o&
system testing@ test enginee%s .ill go t*%oug* t*e test ases
?Test S%i(tsA sent by t*e use%s. T*ey .ill ase%tain .*et*e% a
(a%tiula% ondition ?&untionalityA is o-e%ed and t*e test ase
numbe% .ill be ente%ed against ea* ondition. I& a (a%tiula%
ondition test ase sent by t*e use% is not o-e%ed beause o&
t*e *anges in t*e %e=ui%ement@ t*at (a%tiula% test ase .ill be
doumented ?%e&e% t*e tabula% &o%matA and t*e e#isting be*a-io%
o& t*e system .ill be mentioned in t*e %ema%8s olumn.
$*en a (a%tiula% ondition is not o-e%ed@ a ne. test ase is
(%e(a%ed along .it* t*e test data and it is e#euted to ensu%e
t*e system is .o%8ing ao%dingly. I& t*e%e a%e any test ases
.*i* a%e not o-e%ed du%ing system testing and .*en t*e%e is
no su((o%ti-e doument &o% t*at (a%tiula% test ase it is named
as an in-alid test ase. A&te% t*e ma((ing t*e .*ole doument
.ill be sent ba8 to t*e use%.
Page 2+
-pproach; CE
6uilding a team .it* %eal!time use%@ &untional use%s and
de-elo(e%s.
+#eution o& business Test Cases.
<hen Shoul& we start writing Test CasesA Testing
M Model is t*e most suitable .ay to sta%t .%iting Test Cases and
ondut Testing.
SDC #hase *e9uirements
(reeKe
*e9uirements
Cuil&
Cusiness
*e9uirements
Docs
Ae(tane Test
Cases
Ae(tane
Testing
Software
*e9uirements
Docs
System Test
Cases
System testing
Design
*e9uirements
Docs
Integ%ation test
Cases
Integ%ation
Testing
Co&e 4nit Test Cases 4nit Testing
' Testing Metho&s $ ()**#SC Mo&el
'.2 (unctionality Testing;
O,Jective;
2. Test against system re9uirements.
2. To conFrm all the re9uirements are covere&.
-pproach;
E@)I%-ENCE C-SS
Coun&ary %alue -nalysis
Error Duessing.
'.2 )sa,ility Testing;
To test the Easiness an& )serEfrien&liness of the system.

-pproach;
@ualitative . @uantitative
@ualitative -pproach;
2. Ea* and e-e%y &untion s*ould a-ailable &%om all t*e
(ages o& t*e site.
2. )se% s*ould able to submit ea* and e-e%y %e=uest .it* in
4!5 ations.
!. Con"%mation message s*ould be dis(layed &o% ea* and
e-e%y submit.
Page 2,
@uantitative -pproach;
4euristic ChecBlist s*ould be (%e(a%ed .it* all t*e gene%al test
ases t*at &all unde% t*e lassi"ation o& *e8ing.
T*is gene%i test ases s*ould be gi-en to 1U di7e%ent (eo(le
and as8 to e#eute t*e system to ma%8 t*e (ass)&ail status.
T*e a-e%age o& 1U di7e%ent (eo(le s*ould be onside%ed as t*e
"nal %esult.
E>ample; Some (eo(le may &eel system is mo%e use%s &%iendly@
I& t*e submit is button on t*e le&t side o& t*e s%een. At t*e same
time some ot*e% may &eel its bette% i& t*e submit button is (laed
on t*e %ig*t side.
ClassiFcation of ChecBing;
Cla%ity o& ommuniation.
Aessibility
Consisteny
Ra-igation
Design & Maintenane
Misual ,e(%esentation.
'.! *elia,ility Testing;
*T is (%o(e%ty@ .*i* de"nes *o. .ell t*e so&t.a%e meets its
%e=ui%ements.
Bb:eti-e is to "nd Mean Time bet.een &ailu%e)time a-ailable
unde% s(ei" load (atte%n. Mean time &o% %eo-e%y.
-pproach; **T8*ational *eal Time: for continuous hours
of operation.
More then 0'= of the sta,ility is must.
*elia,ility Testing helps you to conFrm;
6usiness logi (e%&o%ms as e#(eted
Ati-e buttons a%e %eally ati-e
Co%%et menu o(tions a%e a-ailable
,eliable *y(e% lin8s
?$*y is load %unne% used &o% %eliability testing !%easonA
Mi%tual 4se%s an be %eated using >oad ,unne%. >oad Sene%ios@
.*i* a%e a mi# o& business@ (%oesses and t*e numbe% o& -i%tual
use%s@ .ill %un on ea* load se%-e%. 4se% an =ui8ly om(ose
multi!use% test sena%ios using >oad ,unne%Ks Cont%olle%. T*e
Cont%olle%Ks inte%ati-e a(ability (%o-ides an inte%ati-e
en-i%onment in .*i* use% an manage and d%i-e t*e load test
sena%io@ as .ell as %eate %e(eatable and onsistent load. >oad
Page 3-
,unne%Ks g%a(*ial inte%&ae *el(s to o%gani9e and ont%ol
sena%ios du%ing load test setu( and e#eution.?$%ite some
sentenes t*at an be o%%elated .it* load %unne%. Reed to (ut
t*is sentene in an a((%o(%iatelyA
'." *egression Testing;
Bb:eti-e is to *e8 t*e ne. &untionalities *as ino%(o%ated
o%%etly .it* out &ailing t*e e#isting &untionalities.
,AD < In ase o& ,a(id A((liation de-elo(ment ,eg%ession Test
(lays a -ital %ole as t*e total de-elo(ment *a((ens in bits and
(iees.
T*e te%m X%eg%ession testingX an be a((lied t.o .ays. Fi%st@
.*en a ode (%oblem *as been "#ed@ a %eg%ession test %uns tests
to -e%i&y t*at t*e de&et is in &at "#ed.H XImagine "nding an
e%%o%@ "#ing it@ and %e(eating t*e test t*at e#(osed t*e (%oblem
in t*e "%st (lae. T*is is a %eg%ession testX. Seond@ %eg%ession
testing is t*e ounte%(a%t o& integ%ation testingQ .*en ne. ode
is added to e#isting ode@ %eg%ession testing -e%i"es t*at t*e
e#isting ode ontinues to .o%8 o%%etly@ .*e%eas integ%ation
testing -e%i"es t*at t*e new ode .o%8s as e#(eted. ,eg%ession
testing an des%ibes t*e (%oess o& testing ne. ode to -e%i&y
t*at t*is ne. ode *asnTt b%o8en any old ode
-pproachQ Automation tools
'.' #erformance Testing;
#%ima%y ob:eti-e o& t*e (e%&o%mane testing is Lto demonst%ate
t*e system .o%8s &untions as (e% s(ei"ations .it* in gi-en
%es(onse time on a (%odution si9ed database.
Bb:eti-esQ
Assessing t*e system a(aity &o% g%o.t*.
Identi&ying .ea8 (oints in t*e a%*itetu%e
Detet obsu%e bugs in so&t.a%e
Tuning t*e system
Me%i&y %esiliene & %eliability
'e%&o%mane 'a%amete%sQ
,e=uest!,es(onse Time
Page 31
T%ansations (e% Seond
Tu%n A%ound time
'age do.n load time
T*%oug* 'ut
-##*O-C4; )S-DE O( -)TOM-TION TOOS
ClassiFcation of #erformance Testing;
oa& Test
%olume Test
Stress Test
oa& Testing
-pproach; oa& #roFle
%olume Testing
-pproach; Data #roFle
Stress Testing
-pproach; *C@E -pproach
*e(eatedly .o%8ing on t*e same &untionality
C%itial @ue%y +#eution ?Soin Iue%iesA
To Emulate (ea8 load.
oa& %s Stress;
$it* t*e Sim(le Sena%io ?Funtional Iue%yA@ R numbe% o& (eo(le
.o%8ing on it .ill not en&o%e st%ess on t*e se%-e%.
A om(le# sena%io .it* e-en one less numbe% o& use%s .ill
st%ess t*e se%-e%.
'.+ Scala,ility Testing;
O,Jective is to Fn& the ma>imum num,er of user system
can han&le.
ClassiFcation;
NetworB Scala,ility
Server Scala,ility
-pplication Scala,ility
-pproach; #erformance Tools
'./ Compati,ility Testing;
Com(atibility testing (%o-ides a basi unde%standing o& *o. a
(%odut .ill (e%&o%m o-e% a .ide %ange o& *a%d.a%e@ so&t.a%e &
net.o%8 on"gu%ation and to isolate t*e s(ei" (%oblems.
-pproach; ET -pproach
Page 32
En-i%onment Seletion.
T+ST 6+D C,+ATIBR
I. Selection of environment
T*e%e a%e many ty(es o& B(e%ating systems@ 6%o.se%s@ SMMs used
by .ide %ange o& audiene a%ound t*e .o%ld. Com(atibility
testing &o% all t*ese (ossible ombinations is e#*austi-e and
*ene@ o(timi9ing t*e ombination o& en-i%onment is -e%y
%itial.
Many times t*e ustome% may gi-e t*e en-i%onment details &o%
t*e om(atibility testing. Inase i& it is not gi-en@ t*e &ollo.ing
st%ategy may be ado(ted &o% seleting t*e en-i%onment.
Cy un&erstan&ing the en& users.
>ist t*e (ossible end use%s &o% t*e (%o(osed so&t.a%e a((liation
to be tested. Analy9e t*ei% %e=ui%ement o& en-i%onment on t*e
basis o& t*e (%e-ious e#(e%iene ?,egion .ise o% ty(e o& t*e
a((liationA. Selet t*e (ossible ombination o& o(e%ating system
& b%o.se% &%om t*is in(ut.
Importance of selecting ,oth ol& ,rowser an& new
,rowsers
Many end use%s use t*e de&ault b%o.se%@ .*i* a%e (a%t o& t*e
o(e%ating system & may not u(g%ade &o% ne. -e%sions. $*e%e as
some end!use%s may tend to go &o% t*e latest -e%sions o& t*e
b%o.se%s. 0ene im(o%tane s*ould be gi-en &o% bot* old & ne.
-e%sions o& t*e b%o.se%s &o% om(atibility testing.
Selection of the Operating System
T*e o(e%ating system o& Mi%oso&t *as .ide %ange o& use%
om(a%ed to ot*e% o(e%ating system. 0o.e-e% many also use
Maintos* and 4ni# o(e%ating system. T*e om(atibility o& t*e
a((liation .it* di7e%ent o(e%ating system is -e%y im(o%tant.
T*e details o& o(e%ating system -e%sus b%o.se%s su((o%ted a%e
gi-en -ide Table!3 o& setion 2.U.
II. Test Ce& Creation
Follo.ing ste(s a%e ado(ted &o% %eation o& test bed &o% di7e%ent
-e%sion o& b%o.se%s and Mi%oso&t o(e%ating system. T*is
Page 33
(%oedu%e is not a((liable &o% Maintos* and 4ni# o(e%ating
systems.
$*en t*e use% .ants to loo8 &o% om(atibility on di7e%ent
Mi%oso&t o(e%ating systems and di7e%ent -e%sion o& b%o.se%s@
&ollo.ing ste(s *el(s to %edue time and ost.
1A 'a%tition o& t*e *a%d dis8.
2A C%eation o& 6ase Image

2: #artition of the har& &isB
'a%tition *el(s in installing mo%e t*an one o(e%ating system
on a single *a%d dis8. 0a%d dis8 is a-ailable .it* t.o (a%tition
namely (%ima%y (a%tition and e#tended (a%tition. T*e "%st
seto% o& *a%d dis8 ontains a (a%tition table. T*is (a%tition
table *as %oom to des%ibe &ou% (a%titions t*ese a%e alled
(%ima%y (a%titions. Bne o& t*ese (%ima%y (a%titions an (oint
to a *ain o& additional (a%titions. +a* (a%tition in t*is *ain
is alled a logial (a%tition & one (a%tition is -isible at a time.
4sing (a%tition magi so&t.a%e t*e (%ima%y (a%tition o& t*e
*a%d dis8 an be on"gu%ed into ma#imum o& &ou% (a%ts.
Follo.ing a%e t*e ste(s in-ol-ed .*ile (a%titioningQ
aA C%eate one (%ima%y (a%tition o& %e=ui%ed si9e.
bA Ma8e it ati-e.
A >oad t*e (a%tiula% o(e%ating system.
dA 4sing (a%tition magi *ide t*at (a%tition.
eA A&te% installing ea* o(e%ating system ste(s a@ b@ @ d
a%e %e(eated.
$it* t*is t*e (%ima%y (a%tition o& t*e *a%d dis8 an be
on"gu%ed .it* $inRT@ $in35@
$in31 & $in28 %es(eti-ely.
2: Creation of Case Image
6ase image is a lone o& *a%d dis8. It is (ossible to %eate t*e
base image o& all t*e &ou% o(e%ating system o& Mi%oso&t
along .it* I+ lo.e% -e%sion and oDe 3/.
Inase o& Inte%net +#(lo%e%@ it is not (ossible to *ange &%om
*ig*e% -e%sion to lo.e% -e%sion. $it* t*e *el( o& base image
it is (ossible to %e.%ite t*e *a%d dis8 .it* t*e %e=ui%ed
Page 34
B(e%ating system@ .*i* ontains lo.e% -e%sion o& I+. Ro%ton
g*ost so&t.a%e *el(s to ta8e t*e base image o& t*e
(a%titioned *a%d dis8 along .it* t*e %e=ui%ed o(e%ating
system.
Inase o& Retsa(e Ra-igato% t*e%e is no (%oblem o& *anging
&%om *ig*e% -e%sion to lo.e% -e%sion and -ie -e%sa.
Follo.ing is t*e om(a%ison o& t*e time %e=ui%ed &o% installing
o(e%ating systems .it* & .it*out Ro%ton g*ost.
<ithout using Norton ghost <ith Norton ghost
1A $in35@ I+ & oDe3/ is 6U
minutes.
2A $in31@ I+ & oDe3/ is /U
minutes.
3A $in2Y@ I+ & oDe3/ is /U
minutes.
4A $inRT@I+ & oDe3/ is 5U
minutes.
1A It ta8es / minutes to .%ite
one o(e%ating system .it* I+ &
oDe3/.
2A It ta8es 11 minutes to .%ite
base image o& all t*e &ou%
o(e%ating systems .it* lo.e%.
-e%sions o& Inte%net +#(lo%e%.
+ #erformance ife Cycle
+.2 <hat is #erformance Testing;
'%ima%y ob:eti-e o& t*e (e%&o%mane testing is Lto demonst%ate
t*e system .o%8s &untions as (e% s(ei"ations .it* in gi-en
%es(onse time on a (%odution si9ed database
+.2 <hy #erformance Testing;
ETo assess t*e system a(aity &o% g%o.t*
T*e load and %es(onse data gained &%om t*e tests an be
used to -alidate t*e a(aity (lanning model and assist
deision ma8ing.
!To identi&y .ea8 (oints in t*e a%*itetu%e
T*e ont%olled load an be in%eased to e#t%eme le-els to
st%ess t*e a%*itetu%e and b%ea8 it bottlene8s and .ea8
om(onents an be "#ed o% %e(laed
!To detet obsu%e bugs in so&t.a%e
Tests e#euted &o% e#tended (e%iods an ause &ailu%es
aused by memo%y lea8s and %e-eal obsu%e ontention
(%oblems o% onGits
!To tune t*e system
,e(eat %uns o& tests an be (e%&o%med to -e%i&y t*at tuning
ati-ities a%e
*a-ing t*e desi%ed e7et < im(%o-ing (e%&o%mane.
!To -e%i&y %esiliene & %eliability
Page 35
+#euting tests at (%odution loads &o% e#tended (e%iods is
t*e only .ay to aess t*e systems %esiliene and
%eliability to ensu%e %e=ui%ed se%-ie le-els a%e li8ely to be
met.
+.! #erformanceETests;
4sed to test ea* (a%t o& t*e .eb a((liation to "nd out .*at
(a%ts o& t*e .ebsite a%e slo. and *o. .e an ma8e t*em &aste%.
+." oa&ETests;
T*is ty(e o& test is done to test t*e .ebsite using t*e load t*at
t*e ustome% e#(ets to *a-e on *is site. T*is is somet*ing li8e a
L%eal .o%ld testN o& t*e .ebsite.
Fi%st .e *a-e to de"ne t*e ma#imum %e=uest times .e .ant t*e
ustome%s to e#(e%iene@ t*is is done &%om t*e business and
usability (oint o& -ie.@ not &%om a te*nial (oint o& -ie.. At t*is
(oint .e need to alulate t*e im(at o& a slo. .ebsite on t*e
om(any sales and su((o%t osts.
T*en .e *a-e to alulate t*e antii(ated load and load (atte%n
&o% t*e .ebsite ?,e&e% Anne#u%e I &o% details on load alulationA
.*i* .e t*en simulate using t*e Tool.
At t*e end .e om(a%e t*e test %esults .it* t*e %e=uests times
.e .anted to a*ie-e.
+.' StressETests;
T*ey simulate b%ute &o%e atta8s .it* e#essi-e load on t*e .eb
se%-e%. In t*e %eal .o%ld situations li8e t*is an be %eated by a
massi-e s(i8e o& use%s < &a% abo-e t*e no%mal usage < e.g.
aused by a la%ge %e&e%%e% ?imagine t*e .ebsite being mentioned
on national TMCA.
T*e goals o& st%ess tests a%e to lea%n unde% .*at load t*e se%-e%
gene%ates e%%o%s@ .*et*e% it .ill ome ba8 online a&te% su* a
massi-e s(i8e at all o% %as* and .*en it .ill ome ba8 online.
+.+ <hen shoul& we start #erformance Testing;
It is e-en a good idea to sta%t (e%&o%mane testing be&o%e a line
o& ode is .%itten at allW +a%ly testing t*e base te*nology
?net.o%8@ load balane%@ a((liation!@ database! and .eb!
se%-e%sA &o% t*e load le-els an sa-e a lot o& money .*en you
an al%eady diso-e% at t*is moment t*at you% *a%d.a%e is to
slo.. Also t*e "%st st%ess tests an be a good idea at t*is (oint.
T*e osts &o% o%%eting a (e%&o%mane (%oblem %ise stee(ly &%om
t*e sta%t o& de-elo(ment until t*e .ebsite goes (%oduti-e and
an be unbelie-able *ig* &o% a .ebsite al%eady online.
As soon as se-e%al .eb (ages a%e .o%8ing t*e "%st load tests
s*ould be onduted and &%om t*e%e on s*ould be (a%t o& t*e
Page 36
%egula% testing %outine ea* day o% .ee8 o% &o% ea* build o& t*e
so&t.a%e.
+./ #opular tools use& to con&uct #erformance Testing;
Some o& t*e (o(ula% indust%y standa%d tools used to ondut
(e%&o%mane test a%e
>oad,unne% &%om Me%u%y Inte%ati-e
Ast%a>oad &%om Me%u%y Inte%ati-e
Sil8 'e%&o%me% &%om Segue
,ational Suite Test Studio &%om ,ational
,ational Site >oad &%om ,ational
B(enSTA &%om Cy%ano
$ebload &%om ,ad-ie.
,S$ eSuite &%om +m(i%i#
MS St%ess tool &%om Mi%oso&t
+.0 #erformance Test #rocess;
This is a general process for performance Testing. This process can be
customized according to the project needs. Few more process steps can be
added to the existing process, deleting any of the steps from the existing
process may result in Incomplete process. If lient is using any of the tools,
In this case one can blindly follow the respecti!e process demonstrated by
the tool.
Deneral #rocess Steps;
Page 3*
Setting up of the
Environment
Record & Playback in
the standby mode
Enhancement of the
script to support
multiple users
Configure the scripts
Execution for fixed
users and reporting
the status to the
developers
Reexecution of the
scenarios after the
developers finetune
the code
Setting up of the test environment
T*e installation o& t*e tool@ agents@ di%eto%y st%utu%e
%eation &o% t*e sto%age o& t*e s%i(ts and %esults and
installation additional so&t.a%e i& essential to ollet t*e
se%-e% statistis ?li8e SRM' agentA. It is also essential to
ensu%e t*e o%%etness o& t*e en-i%onment by im(lementing
t*e d%y %un.
*ecor& . play,acB in the stan& ,y mo&e
T*e s%i(ts a%e gene%ated using t*e s%i(t gene%ato% and
(layed ba8 to ensu%e t*at t*e%e a%e no e%%o%s in t*e s%i(t.
Enhancement of the script to support multiple users
T*e -a%iables li8e logins@ use% in(uts et. s*ould be
(a%amete%ised to simulate t*e li-e en-i%onment. It is also
essential sine in some o& t*e a((liations no t.o use%s an
login .it* t*e same id.
ConFguration of the scenarios
Sena%ios s*ould be on"gu%ed to %un t*e s%i(ts on di7e%ent
agents@ s*edule t*e sena%ios@ dist%ibute t*e use%s onto
di7e%ent s%i(ts@ ollet t*e data %elated to database et.
0osts
T*e ne#t im(o%tant ste( in t*e testing a((%oa* is to %un t*e
-i%tual use%s on di7e%ent *ost ma*ines to %edue t*e load on
t*e lient ma*ine by s*a%ing t*e %esou%es o& t*e ot*e%
ma*ines.
4se%s
T*e numbe% o& use%s .*o need to be ati-ated du%ing t*e
e#eution o& t*e sena%io.
Sena%ios
A sena%io mig*t eit*e% om(%ise o& a single s%i(t o% multi(le
s%i(ts. T*e main intention o& %eating a sena%io to simulate
load on t*e se%-e% simila% to t*e li-e)(%odution en-i%onment.
Page 3+
,am(ing
In t*e li-e en-i%onment not all t*e use%s login to t*e
a((liation simultaneously. At t*is stage .e an simulate t*e
-i%tual use%s simila% to t*e li-e en-i%onment by deiding !
2. 0o. many use%s s*ould be ati-ated at a (a%tiula%
(oint o& time as a bat*5
2. $*at s*ould be t*e time inte%-al bet.een e-e%y
bat* o& use%s5
E>ecution for F>e& users an& reporting the status to
the &evelopers
T*e s%i(t s*ould be initially e#euted &o% one use% and t*e
%esults)in(uts s*ould be -e%i"ed to *e8 it out .*et*e% t*e
se%-e% %es(onse time &o% a t%ansation is less t*an o% e=ual to
t*e ae(table limit ?ben* ma%8A.
I& t*e %esults a%e &ound ade=uate t*e e#eution s*ould be
ontinued &o% di7e%ent set o& use%s. At t*e end o& e-e%y
e#eution t*e %esults s*ould be analysed.
I& a stage %ea*es .*en t*e time ta8en &o% t*e se%-e% to
%es(ond to a t%ansation is abo-e t*e ae(table limit@ t*en
t*e in(uts s*ould be gi-en to t*e de-elo(e%s.
*eEe>ecution of the scenarios after the &evelopers Fne
tune the co&e
A&te% t*e "ne!tuning@ t*e sena%ios s*ould be %e!e#euted &o%
t*e s(ei" set o& use%s &o% .*i* t*e %es(onse .as
inade=uate. I& &ound satis&ato%y@ t*en t*e e#eution s*ould
be ontinued until t*e deided load.
(inal report
At t*e end o& t*e (e%&o%mane testing@ "nal %e(o%t s*ould be
gene%ated .*i* s*ould om(%ise o& t*e &ollo.ing <
Int%odution < about t*e a((liation.
Bb:eti-es < set ) s(ei"ed in t*e test (lan.
A((%oa* < summa%y o& t*e ste(s &ollo.ed in
onduting t*e test
Analysis & ,esults < is a b%ie& e#(lanation
about t*e %esults and t*e analysis o& t*e %e(o%t.
Conlusion < t*e %e(o%t s*ould be onluded by
telling .*et*e% t*e ob:eti-es set be&o%e t*e
test is met o% not.
/ ife Cycle of -utomation
Page 3,
3/.2 <hat is -utomation6
- software program that is use& to test another software
programL This is referre& to as Mautomate& software
testingN.
<hy -utomation
-voi& the errors that humans maBe when they get tire& after
multiple repetitions. The test program wonGt sBip any test ,y
mistaBe.
Each future test cycle will taBe less time an& re9uire less human
intervention.
*e9uire& for regression testing.
/.2 CeneFts of Test -utomation;
Page 4-
-nalyKe the -pplication
Select the Tool
*eporting the Defect
Finding & Reporting the
Defect
Finding & Reporting the
Defect
Finding & Reporting the
Defect
Finding & Reporting the
Defect
sdasdadadasdadafhgfdgdf
Finding & Reporting the
Defect
Finding & Reporting the
Defect
I&entify the Scenarios
Design A *ecor& Test Scripts
Mo&ify the Test Scripts
*un the Test Scripts
-llows more testing to happen
Tightens A Strengthen Test Cycle
Testing is consistentL repeata,le
)seful when new patches release&
MaBes conFguration testing easier
Test ,attery can ,e continuously improve&.
/.! (alse CeneFts;
(ewer tests will ,e nee&e&
It will ,e easier if it is automate
Compensate for poor &esign
No more manual testing.
/." <hat are the &i?erent tools availa,le in the marBet;
*ational *o,ot
<in*unner
SilBTest
@- *un
<e,(T

0 Testing imitations
$e an only test against system %e=ui%ements
May not detet e%%o%s in t*e %e=ui%ements.
Inom(lete o% ambiguous %e=ui%ements may lead to
inade=uate o% ino%%et testing.
+#*austi-e ?totalA testing is im(ossible in (%esent sena%io.
Time and budget onst%aints no%mally %e=ui%e -e%y a%e&ul
(lanning o& t*e testing e7o%t.
Com(%omise bet.een t*o%oug*ness and budget.
Test %esults a%e used to ma8e business deisions &o%
%elease dates.
0.2 Test Stop Criteria;
Minimum numbe% o& test ases suess&ully e#euted.
4no-e% minimum numbe% o& de&ets ?16)1UUU stmA
Statement o-e%age
Testing uneonomial
,eliability model
1 Tester *esponsi,ilities
Follo. t*e test (lans@ s%i(ts et. as doumented.
Page 41
*eporting the Defect
Finding & Reporting the
Defect
Finding & Reporting the
Defect
Finding & Reporting the
Defect
Finding & Reporting the
Defect
sdasdadadasdadafhgfdgdf
Finding & Reporting the
Defect
Finding & Reporting the
Defect
,e(o%t &aults ob:eti-ely and &atually
C*e8 tests a%e o%%et be&o%e %e(o%ting s). &aults
Assess %is8 ob:eti-ely
'%io%iti9e .*at you %e(o%t
Communiate t*e t%ut*.
1.2 4ow to #rioritiKe Tests;
$e anKt test e-e%y t*ing. T*e%e is ne-e% enoug* time to do all
testing you .ould li8e@ so .*at testing s*ould you do5
'%io%iti9e Tests. So t*at@ .*ene-e% you sto( testing@ you
*a-e done t*e best testing in t*e time a-ailable.
Tips
'ossible %an8ing %ite%ia ? all %is8 basedA
Test .*e%e a &ailu%e .ould be most se%-e.
Test .*e%e &ailu%es .ould be most -isible.
Ta8e t*e *el( o& ustome% in unde%standing .*at is most
im(o%tant to *im.
$*at is most %itial to t*e ustome%s business.
A%eas *anged most o&ten.
A%eas .it* most (%oblems in t*e (ast.
Most om(le# a%eas@ o% te*nially %itial.
23 4ow can we improve the e5ciency in testing6
In t*e %eent yea% it *as s*o. lot o& outsou%ing in testing a%ea.
Its %ig*t time to t*in8 and %eate (%oess to im(%o-e t*e
eDieny o& testing (%o:ets. T*e best team .ill %esult in t*e
eDient deli-e%ables. T*e team s*ould ontain 55] *a%d o%e
test enginee%s@ 3U domain 8no.ledge enginee%s and 15]
te*nology enginee%s.
0o. did .e a%%i-e to t*is "gu%es5 T*e (ast (%o:ets *as s*o.n
5U!6U (e%ent o& t*e test ases a%e .%itten on t*e basis o& testing
te*ni=ues@ 21!33] o& test ases a%e %esulted to o-e% t*e
domain o%iented business %ules and 15!11] te*nology o%iented
Page 42
test ases.
Testing Vs Domain Vs Tech
Testing
55%
Domain
30%
Technolog
!5%
Page 43