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# PEMP

ACD2506
Session 03
Introduction to Vortex Lattice Methods
Session delivered by: Session delivered by:
Prof M D Deshpande Prof M D Deshpande Prof. M. D. Deshpande Prof. M. D. Deshpande
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Session Objectives
-- At the end of this session the delegate would have g
understood
The vortex lattice methods
Application of BCs in the vortex lattice methods
Vortex dynamics, Helmholtz theorems
Application of Biot-Savart Law
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S i T i Session Topics
1. Introduction to Vortex Lattice Method
2. Application of BCs in VLM
3. Linearisation of the BC
4. Transfer of the BC to the Mean Surface
5 Decomposition BC to Camber Thickness & Alpha 5. Decomposition BC to Camber, Thickness & Alpha
6. Vortex Dynamics, Helmholtz Theorems
7. Biot-Savart law
8. Application of Biot-Savart Law to horseshoe vortex
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Vortex Lattice Methods- Introduction Vortex Lattice Methods Introduction
There is another method that is very close to the Panel
M th d t di d d i i i ht i t th i Methods we studied and gives insight into the wing
aerodynamics: The Vortex Lattice Methods (VLM). These
were first formulated in the 1930s.
The Vortex Lattice Methods are also based on the solution
of the Laplace equation. Hence they have the same limitations. of the Laplace equation. Hence they have the same limitations.
In these methods also, singularities are placed on the
s rfaces and non penetration (tangenc ) condition is satisfied surfaces and non-penetration (tangency) condition is satisfied.
Formulation of a system of linear algebraic equations and
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their solution determine the strengths of the singularities.
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Comparison of VLMs with the Panel Methods Comparison of VLMs with the Panel Methods
The similarity of VLMs with the Panel Methods is mentioned in
th l t l N th diff the last panel. Now the differences:
VLMs are specially meant for lifting surfaces and ignore
thickness. Hence they are restricted to thin surfaces. Recall that
the panel methods are not restricted in this fashion. (Q: Why?)
The boundary conditions are applied on a mean surface, not
the actual surface. There is no singularity for upper and lower
s rfaces separatel Hence e do not get C and C surfaces separately. Hence we do not get C
p upper
and C
p lower
separately but only C
p
.
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Singularities are not distributed over the entire surface.
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Application of BC on the Mean Surface (1) Application of BC on the Mean Surface (1)
The boundary conditions are applied in an approximate manner on
f th th th h i l f Th a mean surface rather than on the physical surfaces. The
following 2-D example of an airfoil makes the idea clear.
The boundary condition required here is V n = 0.
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Application of BC on the Mean Surface (2) Application of BC on the Mean Surface (2)
The airfoil surface is given by the equation
F(x, y) = 0 = y f(x, y).
The unit normal vector n is:
The velocity V at any point is disturbed from V due to the The velocity V at any point is disturbed from V

due to the
presence of the body by a disturbance velocity q(x,y) = u + iv:
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Application of BC on the Mean Surface (3) Application of BC on the Mean Surface (3)
Then the total velocity components are:
And the boundary conditions reduce to
The BC is specified in terms of normal component but we need it
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for u & v. Applying this on the wing surface F(x, y) = 0 leads to
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Application of BC on the Mean Surface (4) Application of BC on the Mean Surface (4)
Or in terms of f we get on y = f(x):
This is an exact relation for v but cannot be used since u is also an
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unknown. (Note that boundary condition is V
n
= 0, not v = 0.)
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Linearisation of the BC (1) Linearisation of the BC (1)
The exact BC
will be shifted to the mean surface so that it becomes solvable.
First, we assume that is small and hence ,
Substituting this in the BC we get
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Linearisation of the BC (2) ( )
The body is assumed to be a thin surface. This, along with small
gives gives
F/ x << F/ y , u << V

& v << V

.
H l / V d i l di h Hence we can neglect u / V

## compared to unity leading to the

linearised BC
See that these assumptions are not valid if the body is thick or if is See that these assumptions are not valid if the body is thick or if is
large or if the flow details near the leading edge are important. But
this form of the BC can be applied though it is inconvenient since it
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is not known on coordinate lines. Hence we simplify it further.
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Transfer of the BC (1) Transfer of the BC (1)
The linearised BC
is now applied on the chord instead of on the wing surface
assuming
This can be justified using the Taylor series of v about a point on
the surface and in the transverse y-direction: the surface and in the transverse y direction:
Note that here y = f(x) and also ( v/ y) is very small. (Q:
Justify. Use continuity eqn.). Also note that we are changing
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geometry when we replace a thin airfoil by a flat plate for BC.
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Transfer of the BC (2) Transfer of the BC (2)
Now the interesting part. The airfoil geometry (camber &
thi k ) k i i l b t t t l b ll th thickness), we know, is very crucial; but we want to club all the
information on the x-axis, i.e. y = 0. This is done cleverly by
making a distinction between the upper and lower surfaces and
applying the corresponding BCs for the transverse velocity v:
See that it accounts for camber and also upper and lower surface
geometry (thickness). These approximations turn out to be good,
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surprisingly even in transonic and supersonic flow.
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Decomposition of BCs to Camber/Thickness/Alpha(1) Decomposition of BCs to Camber/Thickness/Alpha(1)
We get insight by decomposing the BCs in terms of combination of
l f tt k b d thi k S h ti ll angle of attack, camber and thickness. Schematically
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Decomposition of BCs to Camber/Thickness/Alpha(2) Decomposition of BCs to Camber/Thickness/Alpha(2)
Hence
Notice that only the thickness term sign changes for the upper and
lo er sides lower sides.
The Laplace equation is to be solved subject to this BC. Further,
superposition of individual solutions is possible.
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Thin Airfoil Theory Pressure Relation (1) Thin Airfoil Theory Pressure Relation (1)
p
and then use the approximations of thin airfoil introduced earlier
here:
This gives
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Thin Airfoil Theory Pressure Relation (2) Thin Airfoil Theory Pressure Relation (2)
Since , (u / V

), (v / V

## ) << 1, the exact relation for C

p
reduces to:
This is the thin airfoil or linearised pressure distribution formula.
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Delta C
p
Due to Airfoil Camber and Alpha (1)
p
p ( )
We will calculate now the net load on the wing
C = C - C C
p
= C
p lower
- C
p upper
starting from the formula
Using superposition, the pressure can be written as a combination
from the wing thickness, camber and angle of attack g g
C
p lower
= C
pt
+ C
pc
+ C
p
C
p upper
= C
pt
- C
pc
- C
p
C ) This gives C
p
= 2 (C
pc
+ C
p
)
In the present linear model disturbance velocity and pressure
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e p ese e ode d s u b ce ve oc y d p essu e
distribution are not influenced by thickness.
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Line Source or Vortex
The same expression describes a "point" source or vortex in 2-D
(which can be thought of as a vortex line or line of sources in 3 D) (which can be thought of as a vortex line or line of sources in 3-D).
When K is real the expression describes a source with radially
directed induced velocity vectors; imaginary values lead to vortex
flows with induced velocities in the tangential direction. Further
discussion of these flows is given in the next section.
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Li S V t (C td) Line Source or Vortex (Contd)
= (S / 2 ) ln R (S / 2 ) ln R
= (- / 2 ) ln R
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Decay of a vortex Decay of a vortex
filament in a viscous
fluid. At t = 0, u

= /
( 2 ) D h d li ( 2 r) . Dashed lines
correspond to the case of
rigid body rotation
corresponding roughly to
sqrt( t) sqrt( t).
From: Kuethe & Chow
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This 1/r behavior of the vortex induced velocity is not just a
mathematical result It is essential for the flow to exist in mathematical result. It is essential for the flow to exist in
equilibrium. We can easily see that the velocity must vary as 1/r
for the pressure gradients to balance the centrifugal force acting
th fl id Th d i ti i h l t
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on the fluid. The derivation is shown later.
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F V ti Free Vortices
Singularities that are free to move in the flow do not behave in g
response to F = m a (what is m?). Rather they move with the
local flow velocity. Thus, vortices and sources are convected
downstream with the flow And interacting singularities can downstream with the flow. And interacting singularities can
produce complex motions due to their mutual induced
velocities.
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A pair of counter-rotating
vortices moves downward
Co-rotating vortices orbit
each other under the
because of their mutual
induced velocities.
influence of their mutual
induced velocities.
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Fundamental Singularities in 3D Potential Flow g
One may derive fundamental solutions to Laplace's equation in
3-D, just as we did in 2-D (although complex variables are not
quite so useful) quite so useful).
3-D Source
I il di d h h i l k/ i fi d It was easily discovered that the potential: = -k/r satisfied
Laplace's equation in 3-D.
Since V = grad , the velocity associated with this solution is g y
V = k/r
2
. It is easily shown that the constant k is related to the
volume flow rate S by: k = S / 4 so: volume flow rate, S by: k S / 4, so:
V = S / 4 r
2
.
The velocity distribution associated with this 3-D source dies off
2
th th i th 2 D
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as r
2
rather than r as in the 2-D case.
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Point Doublet Point Doublet
Another basic solution, that has been used with some success in
supersonic aerodynamics programs is the point doublet,
obtained by moving a point source and sink together while
keeping the product of their strength, S, and separation, L, p g p g , , p , ,
constant. With = SL, the velocity associated with the point
doublet is:
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Vortex Filament Vortex Filament
One of the most useful fundamental solutions to the 3-D
Laplace equation is that of a vortex filament. A vortex filament
may be visualized as a thin tube in which the flow has vorticity,
. In the limit as the diameter of the tube is made small, but the ,
circulation, , is held fixed, this region of vorticity is called a
vortex filament.
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H l h lt V t Th Helmholtz Vortex Theorems
Helmholtz summarized some of the properties of vortex filaments,
or vortices, in 1858 with his vortex theorems. These three theorems
govern the behavior of inviscid three-dimensional vortices:
1 Vortex strength is constant (circulation is constant) 1. Vortex strength is constant (circulation is constant).
2. Vortices are forever (They cannot end abruptly. They should
extend to infinity, or end on boundaries or form a closed path).
3 V ti ith th fl (A i iti ll i t ti l i i id 3. Vortices move with the flow (An initially irrotational, inviscid
flow remains irrotational).
Vortex strength is constant: A vortex line in a fluid has constant
circulation.
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This can be proved by imagining a closed 3 D loop around the This can be proved by imagining a closed 3-D loop around the
vortex line as shown:
The integral around the closed loop from a to b to c to d to a
cuts through no vorticity so from Stokes theorem the integral is
zero But as the slit is made very small the integral approaches zero. But as the slit is made very small the integral approaches
the sum of the integral from b to c and the integral from d to a.
These are the local circulations around the vortex line and so,
the circulations must be constant along the line.
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Since the vortex strength is constant along the vortex line the Since the vortex strength is constant along the vortex line the
strength cannot suddenly go to zero. Thus, a vortex cannot end
in the fluid. It can only end on a boundary or extend to infinity.
Of course in an real, viscous fluid, the vorticity is diffused
through the action of viscosity and the width of the vortex line
can become large until it is hardly recognized as a vortex line. A g y g
tornado is an interesting example. One end of the twister is on a
boundary; but at the other end, the vortex diffuses over a large
area with vorticity area with vorticity.
As discussed in the section on sources and vortices, singularities
such as vortices in the flow move along with the local flow
velocity. Here, interactions of the vortices in the trailing wake,
cause them to curve around each other and to form the
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nonplanar wake shown below.
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Image from Head 1982 in van Dyke An Album of Fluid Motion Image from Head 1982 in van Dyke, An Album of Fluid Motion,
used with permission.
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Bi t S t L Biot-Savart Law
The Biot-Savart law relates the velocity induced by a vortex e o S v w e es e ve oc y duced by vo e
filament to its strength and orientation. The expression, used
frequently in electromagnetic theory, can be derived from the
basic equations for the 3D potential The result is: basic equations for the 3D potential. The result is:
In the simple case of an infinite vortex we obtain the 2-D result:
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In the case of a horseshoe vortex the two trailing legs In the case of a horseshoe vortex, the two trailing legs
contribute:
A simple subroutine is provided to compute the velocity
components due to a vortex filament of length Gx, Gy, Gz with
the start of the vortex rx, ry, rz from the point of interest.
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, y, p
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Bi t S t L E l ti Biot-Savart Law- Explanation
To determine the velocity associated with a vortex line, we o de e e e ve oc y ssoc ed w vo e e, we
consider the expression for vorticity :
If the flow is incompressible then If the flow is incompressible, then ,
so we can write
where A is called the vector potential. We are free to choose A
so that it satisfies
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Hence Hence
This is a Poisson equation for A which has the well-known
solution:
So the contribution of a length dl
of vortex filament A is:
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This expression may be integrated along the vortex line for the
velocity induced by the filament to obtain the Biot-Savart law:
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E l 1 A I fi it l L St i ht V t Example-1 An Infinitely Long Straight Vortex
The velocity induced by an infinitely long straight vortex at a e ve oc y duced by e y o g s g vo e
point p located at a distance h from the vortex will be evaluated
using the Biot-Savart Law. In 2-D it was stated to be
We verify that it is
Consistent with the
3-D formulation.
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E l 1 (C td) Example-1 (Contd)
The velocity induced by an infinitesimal vortex element of e ve oc y duced by es vo e e e e o
length dl is given by the Biot-Savart Law:
It requires integration for l varying from - to + . The
vortex element is at location q and varies from 0 to to cover
the entire length.
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Example 1 (Contd) Example-1 (Contd)
Refer to the notes by W.H. Mason for details. After completing y p g
the integration we get the correct 2-D limit
NOTES
1. Observe the radial dependence of V
p
in 2-D & 3-D.
2 Wh i h di i f V i h 2 D ( i 3 D)? 2. What is the direction of V
p
in the 2-D case (same as in 3-D)?
3. What is the direction of dV
p
due to the vortex element of
length dl ? Is there an axial component of velocity? g p y
4. See that the vortex element farther away from point p will
have smaller effect which drops off like (1 / r
pq
2
). This
dependence allows convergence of the integral over the
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dependence allows convergence of the integral over the
infinite range.
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E l 2 Th S i I fi it St i ht V t Example-2 The Semi-Infinite Straight Vortex
In this and the next example we consider a vortex that has an s d e e e p e we co s de vo e s
end point(s). This may be on the surface or we may consider a
part of the vortex where the geometry changes.
In this example the vortex starts at the left most point and In this example the vortex starts at the left most point and
extends up to infinity.
The induced velocity is:
It gives the correct limit
for the infinite vortex
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for the infinite vortex.
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Example-3 The Finite Straight Vortex Example-3 The Finite Straight Vortex
See the comments on the previous example.
The induced velocity V
p
is:
It gives the correct limit
for the infinite and
semi-infinite vortices.
The velocity at a point on the axis but outside vortex is zero.
Can you prove it? Do you see the trouble with the
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Can you prove it? Do you see the trouble with the
indeterminate form? This result will be needed later. (Contd)
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Example-3 The Finite Straight Vortex (Contd) Example 3 The Finite Straight Vortex (Contd)
We express the result in another form that will be used later.
We re-write the formula:
Thi f l ill b h d This formula will be handy.
Plot V
p
on a line parallel to the vortex a distance h away.
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p
p y
Identify the location of the maximum velocity. Justify it physically.
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Example-4 The Horseshoe Vortex (1) Example-4 The Horseshoe Vortex (1)
We have seen the downwash due to a horseshoe vortex. Here
AB is the bound vortex and we have two trailing vortices.
Now the value of the induced velocity at any point will be Now the value of the induced velocity at any point will be
evaluated based on the Biot-Savart law formulas we have
developed in the previous examples.
Note that has to be
same for the three legs.
Induced velocity V
p
at any point is due to
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at any point is due to
to the sum of three values.
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Example-4 The Horseshoe Vortex (2) Example-4 The Horseshoe Vortex (2)
We sum the values from three legs obtained by the formula
given earlier:
Note that the point C need not have to be co-planar with the
t I f t t d thi th d t bi ti vortex. In fact, we can extend this method to any combination
of vortices, since superposition is allowed.
Here (vector) and (scalar) represent:
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Example-4 The Horseshoe Vortex (3) Example-4 The Horseshoe Vortex (3)
Explicit expressions are available for the three legs of the
horseshoe vortex ( for the terms (c1
mn
, c2
mn
& c3
mn
) shown
below; see, e.g. W.H. Mason) that can be used in computer
program Note that is the same for the three legs program. Note that
n
is the same for the three legs.
By summing we write at any point m, velocity at location m
d t th
th
h h t due to the n
th
horseshoe vortex
V
mn
= (c1
mn
+ c2
mn
+ c3
mn
)
n
= (C
mn
)
n
(C ) is the influence coefficient for the n
th
horseshoe
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(C
mn
) is the influence coefficient for the n horseshoe
vortex effect at location m.
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Summary
The following topics were dealt in this session
1. Introduction to Vortex Lattice Method
2. Application of BCs in VLM
3 Linearisation of the BC 3. Linearisation of the BC
4. Transfer of the BC to the Mean Surface
5. Decomposition BC to Camber, Thickness & Alpha p p
6. Vortex Dynamics, Helmholtz Theorems
7. Biot-Savart law
8 A li ti f Bi t S t L t h h t
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8. Application of Biot-Savart Law to horseshoe vortex
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Thank you Thank you
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