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(Session 2014-2015)

Prepared by:
UMAR FAROOQUE (14315604912)
MOHD. FARMAN ANSARI (15715604912)
DHRITI MANCHANDA (16015604912)
GAUTAM KOHLI (16215604912)
POORVESH SHARMA (18215604912)



We, hereby declare that the project entitled PLC,SCADA AND DRIVES submitted by us to
NORTHERN INDIA ENGINEERING COLLEGE, Shastri Park, Delhi; in partial fulfillment of
the requirement for the award of the degree of B.TECH in ELECTRICAL AND
ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT is a record of bonfide project work carried out by us under
the guidance of MR.
We further declare that the work reported in this project has not been submitted or will not be
submitted, either in part or full, for the award of any other degree or diploma in this institute or
any other institute or university.


This is to certify that Mr. UMAR FAROOQUE (14315604912), Mr. Mohd. FARMAN
ANSARI(15715604912), Ms. DHRITI MANCHANDA(16015604912), Mr. GAUTAM
KOHLI(16215604912), Mr. POORVESH SHARMA (18215604912), Ms. KANISHKA
MALHOTRA (21315604912) has satisfactorily and successfully completed their project on
PLC, SCADA & DRIVES for the term ended in JULY 2014.


Signature of the Professor Head of Department


We are thankful to the institute NORTHERN INDIA ENGINEERING COLLEGE for
providing necessary facility to carry out our training successfully.

We would like to express our gratitude and sincere thanks to our respected Faculty
assistant Prof. Numa Malhotra for her professional guidance, advice, motivation , endurance
and encouragements during her supervision period. The present work would have never been
possible without her vital supports and valuable assistance.

We are extremely thankful to Mr. Ajit Sharma, H.O.D, Electrical & Electronics Department, for
this timely advices and all the facilities he provided us, to carry out this report and finish it

Then I would like to thank all my friends whose tips and views were useful indeed and then
thanks to the other faculty members and staff of the Department of Electrical & Electronics for
their extreme help throughout my course of study at this institute.


An industrial PLC and SCADA System are for the development of automatic control of
PLC and SCADA Systems are methods to achieve Automation.
Automation industry has fact growth potential n a country like India, which has large industries.
This Report focus on brief concepts of PLC & SCADA Systems, their development and also
some of their possible application of these systems.
Almost every industry needs automation at present times. Issues & Future trends of Automation
are also mentioned here.

Company profile
List of Tables
List of Figures
List of symbols and abbreviations
Chapter 1 Introduction
Industrial process
Infrastructure process
Facility process


Chapter 2 Applications
Parking garage counter
Counter used for length measurement
Automatic static process

Water distributions
Water treatment
Waste water treatment
Lift stations
Pump stations

Alarms screen
System reports


Simplification of engineering and precise control of manufacturing process can result in
significant cost savings. The most cost-effective way, which can pay big dividends in the long
run, is flexible automation; a planned approach towards integrated control systems. It requires a
conscious effort on the part of plant managers to identify areas where automation can result in
better deployment/utilization of human resources and savings in man-hours, down
time. Automation need not be high ended and too sophisticated; it is the phased, step-by-step
effort to automate, employing control systems tailored to ones specific requirements that
achieves the most attractive results. That is where Industrial electronics has been a breakthrough
in the field of automation and control techniques.

Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)
A Programmable controller is a solid state user programmable control system
with functions to control logic, sequencing, timing, arithmetic data manipulation and
counting capabilities. It can be viewed as an industrial computer that has a central
processor unit, memory, input output interface and a programming device. The central
processing unit provides the intelligence of the controller. lt accepts data, status
infonnation from various sensing devices like limit switches, proximity switches.
executes the user control program store in the memory and gives appropriate output
commands to devices like solenoid valves, switches etc.
Input output interface is the communication link between field devices and the
controllers; field devices are wired to the I/0 interfaces. Through these interfaces the
processor can sense and measure physical quantities regarding a machine or process, such
as, proximity, position, motion, level, temperature. pressure, etc. Based on status sensed,
the CPU issues command to output devices such as valves, motors, alamis, etc.
Programmer unit provides the man machine interface. It is used to enter the application
program, which often uses a simple user-friendly logic.

1.1.1 Benifits Of PLC :
l. Programmable controllers are made of solid state components and hence
provide high reliability.

2. They are flexible and changes in sequence of operation can easily be
incorporated due to programmability. They may be modular in nature and
thus expandability and easy installation is possible.

3. Use of PLC results in appreciable savings in Hardware and wiring cost.

4. They are compact and occupy less space.

5. Eliminate hardware items like Timers, counters and Auxiliary relays. The
presence for timers and counters has easy accessibility.

6. PLC can control a variety of devices and eliminates the need for customized

7. Easy diagnostic facilities are provided as a part of the system. Diagnosis of
the external systems also becomes very simple. Thus easy

8. Programming devices provide operator friendly interface with the machine.
Being an outcome of the latest art ofelectronics technology, Programmable
controllers provide higher level of performance with computers is possible.
Useful management data can be obtained and maintained.

9. It has total protections against obsolescence and has wide scope for

1.1.2 Another Distinct Advantage :

Another distinct advantage of PLC's is that they can be easily modified or
reprogrammed to meet changing intersection operational needs without
having to purchase and install more connectors, sockets, cards, or relays.
Usually the required modifications are limited to running a couple of
wires between 1/0 points of the NEMA controller and the PLC. After the
new logic operation has been checked thoroughly in the shop for the
correct operation, the technician can download the revised program in the
field with a loader or a laptop PC and then field check the operation to
insure its conformance. However, if the PLC-to-Cabinet wiring is installed
as described below, in a matter of seconds you can replace the existing
PLC with a spare PLC already pre-programmed with the revision.

Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA)
SCADA stands for Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition. It refers to an
industrial control system : a computer system monitoring and controlling a process.
The process can be industrial, infrastructure or facility based as described below :

1.2.1 Industrial Process :
it includes those of manufacturing, production, power generation, fabrication and refining and
process may be in continuous, batch, repetitive or discrete modes.

1.2.2 Infrastructure Process :
It may be publ i c or pr i vat e, and wat er t r eat ment and di st r i but i on,
wastewater collection and treatment, oil and gas
pipelines, electrical power transmission and distribution, and large communication systems.

1.2.3 Facility Process :
it occur both in public facilities and private ones, including buildings, airports, ships and space
stations. They monitor and control HVAC, access and energy consumption.

A SCADA System usually consists of the following Sub-Systems:

A Human-Machine Interface (HMI)
is the apparatus which presents process data to a human operator, and through this, the human
operator monitors and controls the process.

A supervisory (computer) system, gathering (acquiring) data on the process
and sending commands(control) to the process.

Remote Terminal Units (RTU)
connecting to sensors in the process, converting sensor signals to digital data and sending
digital data to the supervisory system.

Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)
used as field devices because they are more economical, versatile, flexible, and
configurable than special-purpose RTUs.

Communication infrastructure connecting the supervisory system to the Remote Terminal Units

Drives(AC & DC)

2.1 PLC
In the present industrial world, a flexible system that can be controlled by user at
site is preferred. Systems, whose logic can be modified but still, used without disturbing
its connection to external world, is achieved by PLC. Utilizing the industrial sensors
such as limit switches. ON-OFF switches. timer contact, counter contact etc.. PLC
controls the total system. The drive to the solenoid valves, motors, indicators,
enunciators, etc are controlled by the PLCs.

The above said controlling elements (normally called as inputs of PLCS) and
controlled elements (called as outputs of PLCs) exist abundantly in any industry. These
inputs, outputs, timers, counters. auxiliary contacts are integral parts of all industries. As
such, it is difficult to define where a PLC cannot be used.

Proper application of a PLC begins with conversion of infonnation into convenient
parameters to save money. time and effort and hence easy operation in plants and

The areas where PLC is used maximum are as follows:

1. The batch processes in chemical, cement, food and paper industries which are
sequential in nature, requiring time of event based decisions is controlled by

2. In large process plants PLCs are being increasingly used for automatic start up
and shut down of critical equipment. A PLC ensures that equipment cannot
be started unless all the permissive conditions for safe start have seen
established. It also monitors the conditions necessary for safe running of the
equipment and trips the equipment whenever any abnonnality in the system is

3. The PLC can be programmed to function as an energy management system for
boiler control for maximum efficiency and safety.

4. In automation of blender reclaimers

5. In automation of bulk material handling system at ports.

6. In automation for a ship unloader.

7. Automation for wagon loaders.

8. For blast furnace charging controls in steel plants.

9. In automation of brick moulding press in refractories.

10. In automation for galvanizing unit.

11. For chemical plants process control automation.

12. In automation of a rock phosphate drying and grinding system.

13. Modernization of boiler and turbogenerator set.

14. Process visualization for mining application.

15. Criteria display system for power station.

I6. As stored programmed automation unit for the operation ofdiesel generator

17. In Dairy automation and food processing.

18. For a highly modernized pulp paper factory.

19. In automation system for the printing industry.

20. In automation of container transfer crane.

21. In automation of High-speed elevators.

22. In plastic moulding process.

23. In automation of machine tools and transfer lines.

24. In Mixing operations and automation of packaging plants.

25. In compressed air plants and gas handling plants.

26. In fuel oil processing plants and water classification plants.

27. To control the conveyor/classifying system.

As a car,enters it triggers the up counter outpt instruction and increments the accumulated count
by 1.
As a car leaves,it triggers down counter output instruction and decrements the accumulated count
by 1.
Since both the up and down counters have same address,the accumulated value will be same in
Whenever the accumulated value equals the preset value,the counter output is energized to light
up the Lot Full sign.

Count input pulses are generated by the magnetic sensor,which detects passing teeth on a
conveyor drive sprocket.if 10 teeth per foot of conveyor motion pass the sensor,the accumulated
count of the counter would indicate feet in tenths.

The photoelectric sensors monitors a reference point on the conveyor. When activated it prevents
the unit from counting ,thus permitting the counter to accumulate counts onlywhen bar stock is

Combining counter and timer functions-
When the start button is pressed, conveyor M1 begins running.
After 15 plates have been stacked, conveyor M1 stops and conveyor M2 begins running.
After conveyor M2 has been operated for 5 seconds, it stops and the sequence is repeated

The done bit of the timer resets the timer and counter, and provides momentary pulse to
automatically restart conveyor M1.


The City of Campbell uses PLC's to supplement the operational needs of
several signalized intersections and were chosen because of their high
performance-to-cost ratio over relays and 24 volt external logic cards. The
PLC receives inputs from the signal controller's NEMA outputs, makes
logic decisions based on its operator-written stored program, and then
outputs commands to the signal controller's NEMA inputs. The PLC used
in Campbell for traffic signal operation, the "IDEC Micro-l ", is a fixed,
8 input/6 output, "brick type" PLC that can be expanded to a total of I6
inputs and I2 outputs. Although several I/O types are available, the model
used in Campbell has "source" inputs and "sink" outputs, so that like a
NEMA signal controller, it recognizes a ground as a "true" input and
outputs a ground as a "true" output, in reference to the cabinet's +24 volt
dc power supply. It has EEPROM memory capable ofstoring 600 steps of
user program and numerous internal logic components such as "AND"
gates, "OR" gates, latches, 80 timers, and 48 counters. It can be
programmed with either a hand-held "Boolean type" loader with LCD
display or ladder logic software that runs on an IBM, or equivalent
computer. Other PLC models and brands are available that can be
modularly expanded as needed to provide up to 512 I/O points, floating
point math, high speed counting, line voltage I/0 and analog I/O. These
more costly, higher-end units can be configured with RS-232/422/485
serial interfaces for peer-to-peer networking and telephone modem
interfacing, providing remote control and monitoring. Of course, the
concept of using external logic cards has been available for some time
from controller manufacturers, e.g. "Econologic", "MultiLogic", etc..
However, this PLC only occupies I/4 cubic foot of space and for only
$300 it can replace relays and timers costing 10 times as much and taking.


The PLC offers a compromise between advance control techniques and present day
technology. It is extremely difficult to forecast the rate and fonn of progress of PLCs,
but there is strong evidence that development is both rapid and cumulative. Though a
PLC is not designed to replace a computer, it is useful and cost effective for medium
sized control systems. With the capability of functioning as local controllers in
distributed control systems. PLC s will retain their application in large process plants.

A further development of PLCs leads to the development of programmable function
controller (PFC) is compatible to PCs and directly controls the desired functions.

In India every process industry is replacing relay control systems by PLCs and will go
for PFCs in near future. In the near future every flats and offices may possess PFCs to
control room temperature. as elevator controller. maintain water tank levels. as small
telephone exchange etc.

2.2 SCADA-Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition

SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) is a system operating with coded signals over
communication channels so as to provide control of remote equipment (using typically one
communication channel per remote station). The supervisory system may be combined with a
data acquisition system by adding the use of coded signals over communication channels to
acquire information about the status of the remote equipment for display or for recording
[1] It is a type of industrial control system (ICS). Industrial control systems are computer-based
systems that monitor and control industrial processes that exist in the physical world. SCADA
systems historically distinguish themselves from other ICS systems by being large-scale
processes that can include multiple sites, and large distances.
[2] These processes include industrial, infrastructure, and facility-based processes, as described
Industrial processes include those of manufacturing, production, power generation, fabrication,
and refining, and may run in continuous, batch, repetitive, or discrete modes.
Infrastructure processes may be public or private, and include water treatment and distribution,
wastewater collection and treatment, oil and gas pipelines, electrical power transmission and
distribution, wind farms, civil defense siren systems, and large communication systems.
Facility processes occur both in public facilities and private ones, including buildings, airports,
ships, and space stations. They monitor and control heating, ventilation, and air conditioning
systems (HVAC), access, and energy consumption.


SCADA can be a great tool while working in an environment where operational duties need to be
monitored through electronic communication instead of locally. For example, an operator can
position a valve to open or close through SCADA without leaving the control station or the
computer. The SCADA system also can switch a pump or motor on or off and has the capability
of putting motors on a Hand operating status, Off, or Automatic. Hand refers to operating the
equipment locally, while Automatic has the equipment operate according to set points the
operator provides on a computer that can communicate with the equipment through SCADA.
Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Systems are frequently used in Water and
Waste Water Systems to monitor and control tank levels, remote well pumps, lift station pumps,
high service pumps, valves, and chemical pumps.
SCADA Systems monitor a variety of plant data including flows, motor currents, temperatures,
water levels, voltages, and pressures. Alarms at central or remote sites triggered by any abnormal
conditions are propagated to the HMI computer for operator's attention. In addition to alarms,
important plant information such as, levels, flows, pressure will be logged in the HMI computer
database for reports and trends.

Water Distribution

The SCADA Communication network is spread throughout the water distribution system to
monitor parameters such as tank levels and system pressure. Workstations, which are typically
PC-based and located in a control or operations room at a treatment plant, allow operators to
view the entire process and perform control actions.
With in the plant, process controllers or programmable logic controllers (PLC's) supervise unit
processes, such as chemical treatment, sedimentation, and filtration. A local area network
(LAN), such as Ethernet, links the controllers to the workstations as well as to one another.

Water Treatment

Based on the type of water treatment plant, surface water treatment vs. a well system, the
automation process can get quite involved. Control Systems has done countless jobs of both

These systems are far superior to others. These include surface water treatment plants that
involve drawing water from river, filter the raw water using bar screens, then enters
sedimentation where water is mixed with various chemicals to get the dirt out of the water then
the settled water is fed through the filters and to the clear wells. Various chemicals are mixed at
various stages of the process.

These provide the operator with the luxury of backwashing the filters automatically based on the
hours it is in service or based on the amount flow that has been through the filter.

In a well based water treatment plant, they provide the operator with a host control matrix system
that allows him to designate a tank as a controlling tank and all the wells should run or stop
based on the level in that tank. Wells can be grouped and a group of wells can be started and
stopped from the HMI computer by the operator with the click of a button or by the selected
tank. Well groups can be alternated based on first-on-first-off or all stop algorithms. Graphics
used are very easy to understand by the operator with minimal computer skills and knowledge of
the water treatment process.

Waste Water Treatment

Control Systems has done quite a number of waste water treatment plants including sequential
batch reactor based, traditional lagoon based, and clarifier based. It measures all the parameters
at each step of the way, process the parameters based on the set criteria by the operators, and
control the process 24x7. They generate alarms appropriately and inform the operator of any
abnormal conditions in the system via a dialer or on the HMI system.

Lift Station

Control Systems Duplex Controller DC201B combines duplex controls with a built-in Lift-
Station Analyzer, Remote Telemetry Unit and optional data logging capability. The controller
normally operates on 120 VAC but can also operate on +12 VDC. The controller is panel
mounted with a separate backplate mounted terminal board for field contacts. Automatic motor
alternation is provided along with Manual/Off/Auto switches for each motor and a Lead-Pump
selector switch. Variable time delays are provided for motor failures. Alarm indicators and
outputs are provided for motor failure, seal failure, high level and auxiliary alarms. All inputs are
optically isolated and operate on +15 VDC. Integral RTU functions and optional Float Test
(FT201) and Alarm Telemetry boards (DCAT-E) make this a very versatile system.

Remote Telemetry features include industry standard communications protocols, user-selectable
unit number and baud rate, and RS232 and RS485 serial ports for interfacing to System Control
and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems via telephone or radio modems. A Dallas
Semiconductor 1-wire communications option board may be added for communications to I-
button security badges. An optional LCD operator interface can also be used for stand-alone
units or for temporarily viewing statistics locally. Four (4-20ma dc) analog inputs are standard
for RTU transmission: one for tank level and three others for any desired input to the SCADA

Pump Stations

Graphical display screens indicating status of pump stations. A pump station screen typically
show the instantaneous station flow, wet well level for waste water pump stations, pump run
times, pump starts, pump status such as running, failed, off, forced on and forced off, pump start
position, power status, generator status etc.

For Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) pumps, the screen also shows VFD speed and other VFD
set points.

2.2.2 FEATURES used:-

Alarm Screen
SCADA shall display process and systems alarms read from data concentrator or the network.
Each of these alarms shall be prioritized in the SCADA as per their importance. For example,
high wet well level or station power failure shall have highest priority. Alarm screen shall have
button for operator to acknowledge alarms.

Active, inactive, acknowledged and unacknowledged alarms shall be identified with different

We store all important SCADA systems parameters such as, Flow, Pressure, Level, Motor
Current, Chemical Dosages, Well/Pump Running etc for historical trending. We provide easy
navigation between different trends and other parts of the system.

System Reports
SCADA systems come with a report package that can be used to generate daily, weekly, and
monthly reports of all the sites or selected sites for selected period.

Reports can also configured for automatic printing, faxing, and e-mailing.