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# BETU1013 Technical Mathematics Chapter 1

## BETU1013 Technical Mathematics

ONLINE NOTES
Chapter1
Analytic Trignmetry
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Faculty of Engineering Technology
(FTK)
BETU1013 Technical Mathematics Chapter 1
CHAPTER 1: ANALYTC TR!"N"#ETRY
Reference&
'(ng) C* +,010-) Algebra and Trigonometry +,
th
e.*-* /iley
Ste0art) "* +,01,-) Calculus +1
th
e.*-* Br2s\$Cle) Cengage Learning
A3ler) S* +,01,-) Algebra & Trigonometry) /iley
"\$%ecti&e' &
1* E3plain the cncepts 4 trignmetry*
,* Use apprpriate meth.s t sl5e trignmetry pr6lems*
Content':
1*1 Angle an. Their Meas(re
1*, 7ight Triangle Trignmetry
1*3 Cmp(ting the 8al(es 4 Trignmetric 9(nctins 4 Ac(te Angle
1*: Trignmetric 9(nctins 4 ;eneral Angles
1*< Unit Circle Apprach= %rperties 4 the Trignmetric 9(nctins
1*> ;raphs 4 the Sine an. Csine 9(nctins
1*1 ;raphs 4 the Tangent) Ctangent) Csecant) an. Secant 9(nctins
1*? Trignmetric I.entities
1*@ S(m an. Ai44erence 9rm(las
1*10 A(6leBAngle an. Cal4BAngle 9rm(las
1*11 %r.(ct tS(m an. S(m t %r.(ct 9rm(las
1*1, The In5erse Trignmetric 9(nctins
1*13 Trignmetric ED(atins
1Analytic Trigonometry
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1(1 AN!LE) AN* THER #EA)+RE
A ray, r half-line, is that prtin 4 a line that starts at a pint n the line an. e3ten.s
in.e4initely in ne .irectin* The starting pint 4 a ray is calle. its &erte.( See 9ig(re
1*
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BETU1013 Technical Mathematics Chapter 1
I4 t0 rays are .ra0n 0ith a cmmn 5erte3) they 4rm an angle( /e call ne 4 the rays
4 an angle the initial 'i/e an. the ther the ter0inal 'i/e( The angle 4rme. is i.enti4ie.
6y sh0ing the .irectin an. am(nt 4 rtatin 4rm the initial si.e t the terminal si.e*
I4 the rtatin is in the c(nterclc20ise .irectin) the angle is 1o'iti&e2 i4 the rtatin is
clc20ise) the angle is negati&e( See 9ig(re ,*
An angle is sai. t 6e in 'tan/ar/ 1o'ition i4 its 5erte3 is at the rigin 4 a rectang(lar
cr.inate system an. its initial si.e cinci.es 0ith the psiti5e xBa3is* See 9ig(re 3*
/hen an angle is in stan.ar. psitin) the terminal si.e 0ill lie either in a D(a.rant) in
0hich case 0e say that lie' in that 3ua/rant, r 0ill lie n the xBa3is r the yBa3is) in
0hich case 0e say that is a 3ua/rantal angle( 9r e3ample) the angle in 9ig(re :+a- lies
in D(a.rant II) the angle in 9ig(re :+6- lies in D(a.rant I8) an. the angle ( in 9ig(re :+c-
is a D(a.rantal angle*
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BETU1013 Technical Mathematics Chapter 1
/e meas(re angles 6y .etermining the am(nt 4 rtatin nee.e. 4r the initial si.e t
6ecme cinci.ent 0ith the terminal si.e* The t0 cmmnly (se. meas(res 4r angles
Aegrees &
One cmplete re5l(tin E
One D(arter 4 a cmplete re5l(tin E E ne right angle
One .egree eD(als >0 min(tes) i*e* *
One min(te eD(als >0 secn.s) i*e* *
7a.ians &
One cmplete re5l(tin E ra.ians E
One ra.ian is the angle s(6ten.e. at the center 4 a circle 6y an arc 4
the circle eD(al in length t the ra.i(s 4 the circle*
1 ra.ian
Note: ra.ians
ra.ian 1 ra.ian
Aegrees 0 30 :< >0 @0 1?0 3>0
7a.ians 0
Note& Let an. 6e psiti5e angles*
I4 )they are cmplementary angles*
I4 )they are s(pplementary angles*
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BETU1013 Technical Mathematics Chapter 1
1(4 R!HT TRAN!LE TR!"N"#ETRY
9r any ac(te angle 4 a right angle. triangle OAB +4ig(re sh0n-
9(rther) ) )
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BETU1013 Technical Mathematics Chapter 1
Co01le0entary Angle'2 Cofunction'
T0 ac(te angles are calle. co01le0entary i4 their s(m is a right angle*
Theorem &C4(nctins 4 cmplementary angles are eD(al*
Note & The 4(nctins sine an. csine) tangent an. ctangent) an. secant an. csecant are
c4(nctins 4 each ther*
Trigono0etric Ratio' of Allie/ Angle':
9r +ac(te-
Sme (se4(l res(lts t nte&
TBratis
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BETU1013 Technical Mathematics Chapter 1
1(5 C"#P+TN! THE 6AL+E) "F TR!"N"#ETRC F+NCT"N) "F
AC+TE AN!LE
Co00only +'e/ Ratio' 57, 89, an/ :7Angle'
The trignmetric ratis assciate. 0ith the angles 57, 89, an/ :7 are (se. 4reD(ently
in pr6lems in5l5ing trignmetry* Their e3act 5al(es can 6e easily 6taine. (sing
either an eD(ilateral triangle +4 si.e t0 (nits- +4ig(re 1- r an issceles rightBangle.
triangle +4ig(re ,-*
+9ig(re 1- +9ig(re ,-
Sme 0i.ely (se. ratis&
sin>0
3
,

cs>0
1
,

tan>0 3

sin30
1
,

cs30
3
,

tan30
1
3

sin:<
1
,
,
,

cs:<
1
,

tan:< 1

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BETU1013 Technical Mathematics Chapter 1
1(8 TR!"N"#ETRC F+NCT"N) "F !ENERAL AN!LE)
The )ign' of the Trigono0etric Function'
The Cartesian a3es .i5i.e a plane int : D(a.rants&

@0 0 1
st
D(a.rant

1?0 @0 ,
n.
D(a.rant

,10 1?0 3
r.
D(a.rant

3>0 ,10 :
th
D(a.rant
y
,
n.
D(a.rant 1
st
D(a.rant
x +Bve- x +Fve-
y +Fve- y +Fve-
x
3
r.
D(a.rant :
th
D(a.rant
x +Bve- x +Fve-
y +Bve- y +Bve-
Emply a rectang(lar cr.inate systems r Cartesian systems&
r
a
sin
y
r
b
cs
b
a
tan
a
b
b
r
a
r
ct = sec = csc
The trignmetric rati 4 any angle is then 6taine. 6y .etermining the D(a.rant
cnnecte. 0ith the angle) the sign 4 x r y 0ithin that D(a.rant an. the assciate. ac(te
angle ma.e 0ith the +ve +r -ve- xBa3is* Irrespecti5e 4 in 0hich D(a.rant the angle lies)
r is al0ays ta2en as +ve*
A (se4(l ai. is the .iagram sh0ing 0hich trignmetric ratis are +ve in each D(a.rant&
y
Sine All
+sin, cos, tan-
x
Tangent Cosine
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b
r
a
x
BETU1013 Technical Mathematics Chapter 1
Th(s) a- sin,:0

3
r.
D(a.rant tangent nly psiti5e

## sin sin * ,:0 >0 0?>>0

6- cs+ - 30

:
th
D(a.rant cosine nly psiti5e
cs+ - cs * 30 30 0?>>0

;ua/rantal Angle':

3>0 ) ,10 ) 1?0 ) @0 ) 0
Coter0inal Angle'
T0 angles in stan.ar. psitin are sai. t 6e cterminal i4 they ha5e the same terminal
si.e*
E3ample&
9r e3ample) the angles >0G an. :,0G are cterminal) as are the angles B:0 an. 3,0G*
Note:
1* is cterminal0ith k , t ) k is any integer*
,* The trignmetric 4(nctins 4 cterminal angles are eD(al*
E3ample&
- , sin+ sin k t
Reference Angle'
Let .ente a nnac(te angle that lies in a D(a.rant* The ac(te angle 4rme. 6y the
terminal si.e 4 an. either the psiti5e 3Ba3is r the negati5e 3Ba3is is calle. the
reference angle4r *
9ig(re :3 ill(strates the re4erence angle 4r sme general angles* Nte that a re4erence
angle is al0ays an ac(te angle* That is) a re4erence angle has a meas(re 6et0een 0G an.
@0G*
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BETU1013 Technical Mathematics Chapter 1
Theore0: (Reference Angle')
I4 is an angle that lies in a D(a.rant an. i4

## is its re4erence angle) then

ct ct sec sec csc csc
tan tan cs cs sin sin
t t t
t t t
0here the F r B sign .epen.s n the D(a.rant in 0hich lies*
1(9 +NT CRCLE APPR"ACH2 PR"PERTE) "F THE TR!"N"#ETRC
F+NCT"N)
E&en < "// Pro1ertie'
7ecall & A 4(nctin is sai. t 6e even i4
f f + - + -
4r all in the .main 4 f ) an.
a 4(nctin is sai. t 6e odd i4
f f + - + -
4r all in the .main 4 f *
Theore0:
sin+ - sin+ - cs+ - cs+ - tan+ - tan+ -
csc+ - csc+ - sec+ - sec+ - ct+ - ct+ -
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BETU1013 Technical Mathematics Chapter 1
1(: !RAPH) "F THE )NE AN* C")NE F+NCT"N)
The !ra1h of y = 'in x
, 0 ) sin x x y
Characteristics 4 the Sine 9(nctin &
Amain & all real n(m6ers
7ange &
1 1 y
%eri. & ,
Symmetry thr(gh rigin &
sin+ - sin
O.. 4(nctin
x B intercepts &
****) ) ) ) ) ) )****** , 0 , 3
y B intercept &
ma3 5al(e & 1 ) cc(rs at x *****) ) ) )***
3
, ,
<
,

min 5al(e & B1 ) cc(rs at x *****) ) ) )***

,
3
,
1
,
The !ra1h of y = co'x
, 0 ) cs x x y
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BETU1013 Technical Mathematics Chapter 1
Characteristics 4 the Csine 9(nctin &
Amain & all real n(m6ers
7ange &
1 1 y
%eri. & ,
Symmetry a6(t yBa3is &
cs+ - cs
E5en 4(nctin
x B intercepts & *****) ) ) ) ) )***
3
, , ,
3
,
<
,

y B intercept & 1
ma3 5al(e & 1 ) cc(rs at
x ***) ) ) ) )****** , 0 , :
min 5al(e & B1 ) cc(rs at
x ****) ) ) ) )****** 3 <
)inu'oi/al !ra1h'
The graphs 4 sine an. csine 4(nctins are re4erre. t as sinusoidal graphs 6eca(se
sin cs+ - x x

,
9r graphs) re4er t the te3t62*
Characteristics 4 Sin(si.al ;raphs&
y A x
y A x
y A x
y A x
>
>
>
>
sin )
cs )
sin+ -
cs+ -

0
0
0
0
%eri. ETE
,

## = Amplit(.e E A = %hase Shi4t E

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BETU1013 Technical Mathematics Chapter 1
1(= !RAPH) "F THE TAN!ENT, C"TAN!ENT, C")ECANT, AN* )ECANT
F+NCT"N)
The !ra1h of y = tan x
3 3
) tan

x x y
Characteri'tic' of the Tangent Function:
Amain & all real n(m6ers e3cept .. m(ltiples 4

,
7ange & all real n(m6ers
%eri. &

## Symmetry 0ith respect t the rigin &

tan+ - tan
O.. 4(nctin
x B intercepts &
x ***) ) ) ) ) ) )****** , 0 , 3
y B intercept & 0
8ertical asympttes & x *****) ) ) ) )***
3
, , ,
3
,

9r the graphs 4 y ! tan x, y ! cscx, y ! sec x, an. y ! ct x, re4er t the te3t62*
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1(> TR!"N"#ETRC *ENTTE)
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BETU1013 Technical Mathematics Chapter 1
In Tpic 1) 0e ha5e l2e. at the si3 trignmetric 4(nctins 4 ac(te angles* Other
trignmetric i.entities are gi5en 6el0*
A( ;uotient /entitie'
i ii * tan
sin
cs
*ct
cs
sin

?( Reci1rocal /entitie'
i ii iii *csc
sin
*sec
cs
*ct
tan

1 1 1
C( Pythagorean /entitie'
i ii
iii
*sin cs * tan sec
* ct csc
, , , ,
, ,
1 1
1

+ +
+
*( E&en - "// /entitie'
i ii iii
iv v vi
*sin+ - sin *cs+ - cs * tan+ - tan
*csc+ - csc *sec+ - sec *ct+ - ct

T 5eri4y mst 4 the trignmetric i.entities) 0e sh(l. at least 2n0 all the a65e
i.entities an. a lt 4 practice is the nly real 0ay t learn h0 t esta6lish i.entities*
E.a01le& 8eri4y that tan + ct -
sin
, ,
,
1
1
1

## )olution: Start 0ith the le4tBhan. si.e

tan + ct -
, ,
1 + E tan tan ct
, , ,
+
E tan tan *
tan
, ,
,
1

+
E tan
,
1 +
E sec
,

E
1
,
cs
E
1
1
,
sin
Guidelines For Establishing Identities:
1* It is s(ggeste. t chse the si.e cntaining the mre cmplicate. e3pressin*
,* 7e0rite s(ms r .i44erences 4 D(tient as a single D(tient*
3* 7e0rite ne si.e in terms 4 sine r csine nly might help*
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BETU1013 Technical Mathematics Chapter 1
1(@ )+# AN* *FFERENCE F"R#+LA)
)u0 For0ula for Co'ine
cs +A F B- E csAcs B B sin A sin B
*ifference For0ula for Co'ine
cs +A B B- E cs A cs B F sin A sin B
Using the a65e i.entities) 0e can e5al(ate) 4r e3ample cs 1< 0ith(t (sing the
calc(latr*
E.a01le& 9in. the e3act 5al(e 4r cs 1<*
)olution& cs 1< E cs +:< B 30-
E cs :<cs 30 F sin :< sin 30
E
1
,
3
,
1
,
1
,
+
E
3 1
, ,
+
The s(m an. .i44erence 4rm(las 4r csines are (se. t pr.(ce ther i.entities 0hich
are gi5en 6el0
cs sin
sin cs

,
,

_
,

_
,

)u0 For0ula for )ine
sin +A F B- E sin AcsB F csA sin B
*ifference For0ula for )ine
sin +A B B- E sin AcsB B csA sin B
)u0 For0ula for Tangent
tan+ -
tan tan
tan tan

+
+
1
*ifference For0ula for Tangent
tan+ -
tan tan
tan tan

+ 1
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BETU1013 Technical Mathematics Chapter 1
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1(17 *"+?LE-AN!LE AN* HALF-AN!LE F"R#+LA)
Using the s(m 4rm(las 4r sine an. csine) 0e can easily .eri5e 4rm(las 4r sin ,A)
cs ,A an. tan ,A 0hich are calle. thedouble angle*
E.a01le& cs,A Ecs +A F A-
E csAcsA B sin A sin A
E cs
,
A B sin
,
A
Using ther 4rm 4 i.entities) s(ch as %ythagrean i.entities)
cs ,A E cs
,
A B sin
,
A E +1B sin
,
A- B sin
,
A E 1 B , sin
,
A
an.
cs ,A E cs
,
A B +1 B cs
,
A- E , cs
,
A B 1
*ou\$le Angle For0ula':
cs ,A E cs
,
A B sin
,
A
E 1 B , sin
,
A
E , cs
,
A B 1
sin ,A E , sin AcsA
tan,A E
,
1
,
tan
tan
A
A
E.a01le& ;i5en csA E 3\$<) 0here 3\$, HAH ,) 4in. sin ,A) cs ,A an. tan ,A*
)olution:
Since A is in D(a.rant I8) sin A m(st 6e negati5e* ;i5en csA E 3\$< an. (sing the
i.entity cs
,
A F sin
,
A E 1
sin
,
A E 1B @\$,< E1>\$,<
sinA E B :\$< +nly ta2e the negati5e 5al(e 4 sin -
Cence sin ,A E , sin AcsA E , * +B:\$<- *3\$< E B,:\$,<
cs ,AE cs
,
A B sin
,
A E @\$,< B 1>\$,< E B1\$,<*
an. tan ,A E sin ,A\$cs ,A E ,:\$1
Half -angle For0ula':
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BETU1013 Technical Mathematics Chapter 1

cs 1
cs 1
,
tan =
,
cs 1
,
cs =
,
cs 1
,
sin
+

t
+
t

t
E.a01le& 9in. the e3act 5al(e 4r cs 1<*
)olution &
In a..itin t the .i44erence 4rm(la 4r csine) 0e can als sl5e the pr6lem
(sing hal4 angle 0here 1< E 30\$,*
cs 1< E cs
30
,
1 30
,

+ cs
E
1 3 ,
,
, 3
:
+

+ \$
Cal4 Bangle 4rm(la 4r tangent can als 6e e3presse. as
tan
cs
sin
sin
cs

,
1
1

+
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1(11 PR"*+CT-T"-)+# AN* )+# T" PR"*+CT F"R#+LA)
Pro/uct-to-)u0 For0ula':
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
sin sin cs+ - cs+ -
cs cs cs+ - cs+ -
sin cs sin+ - sin+ -

+
+ +
+ +
1
,
1
,
1
,
)u0 to Pro/uct For0ula':
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BETU1013 Technical Mathematics Chapter 1
sin sin sin cs
sin sin sin cs
cs cs cs cs
cs cs sin sin

+
+

+
+
+

+
,
, ,
,
, ,
,
, ,
,
, ,
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1(14 THE N6ER)E TR!"N"#ETRC F+NCT"N)
7ecall & I4 the 4(nctin is neBtBne) it 0ill ha5e an in5erse*
The n&er'e )ine Function
Sine 4(nctin is nt neBtBne) 6(t i4 0e restrict the .main 4 y ! sin x t the inter5al

1
]
1

, ,
) ) the restricte. 4(nctin
y x x sin )

, ,
is neBtBne 4(nctin) an. hence) it has an in5erse
i*e* ) y x x y

sin sin
1
0here

, ,
y an. 1 1 x
E.a01le& +9in.ing the e3act 5al(e 4 an In5erse Sine 9(nctin-
9in. the e3act 5al(e 4 sin + -

1
1 *
)olution&
Let

sin + -
1
1 * Then) 0e see2 the angle )

, ,
) 0hse sine eD(als B1 &
sin )

1
, ,

,
) +since the nly angle 0ithin the inter5al 0hse sine E B1 is

,
-*
S) sin + -

1
1
,

*
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BETU1013 Technical Mathematics Chapter 1
The n&er'e Co'ine Function
y x x y

cs cs
1
0here
0 y
an. 1 1 x
The n&er'e Tangent Function
y x x y

tan tan
1
0here < <

, ,
y an. x
Note & 9r all graphs 4 in5erse trignmetric 4(nctins) please re4er t the te3t62*
1(15 TR!"N"#ETRC E;+AT"N)
In this sectin) 4e0 e3amples 4 sl5ing trignmetric eD(atins are .isc(sse.*
E.a01le& Sl5e 3 sin x E
3
F sin x
)olution& 3 sin x E
3
F sin x
, sin x E
3
sinx E
3
\$,
There are many pssi6le sl(tins 4r x) i*e* 3 E >0) 1,0) :,0)* * I /e can e3press the
sl(tin in terms 4 the general solution 4r x as&
x E >0 F 3>0n 0here n is any integer
r x E

3
, + n 0here n is any psiti5e integer*
E.a01le& Sl5e sin x F csx E 0 4r 0 HxH ,

## )olution& sin x F csx E 0

sin
cs
x
x
+1 E 0
tanx E B1
x E
3
:
1
:

)
E.a01le& Sl5e sin , E 1\$, 0here 0 H ,*
)olution&
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BETU1013 Technical Mathematics Chapter 1
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at

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