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Alternatives to carry you away.

Innovative bus drive systems


for a clean environment.
Buses for all.
Solutions for today and tomorrow.
As a transport system the bus has a lot of points in
its favour. It is flexible and reliable, safe and comfor-
table, clean and quiet. And in terms of environmental
compatibility the bus is a true pioneer. With MANs
modern common-rail diesel engines with
MAN PURE DIESEL technology, for example, which
achieve a further major cut in pollutant emissions
even down to compliance with the EEV standard.
But nothing is so good that it cant be improved,
and so the MAN Nutzfahrzeuge Group, the bus
specialist in the MAN Group, is rising to the chal-
lenge and developing bus applications for drive
concepts to take us into the future. After all, some of
the biggest problems to be tackled are relieving our
environment of harmful substances, reducing con-
sumption of fossil fuel reserves and thus ensuring
mobility in the long term.
With diesel-electric hybrid drive or natural-gas engi-
nes, hydrogen -fired internal-combustion engines or
as a long-term goal the emission-free fuel cell:
MAN Bus and NEOPLAN Bus, the two world-renow-
ned brands under the umbrella of the MAN Group,
have been working with success for over half a
century in the field of the so-called alternative drive
systems. Some of these have already become
reality. We have developed promising approaches
through to series production and will continue to use
our expertise to pave the way for a successful future
for the bus. Buses, after all, mean mobility for us all.
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Euro 0 Euro 1 Euro 2 Euro 3 Euro 4 Euro 5
1990 1992 1995 2000 since 2006 2009
14,4
0,7 0,4
9,0
0,15
7,0
0,1
5,0
0,02
3,5
0,02
2,0
NO
x
in g/kWh
PM in g/kWh
100 % -
-
80 % -
-
60 % -
-
40 % -
-
20 % -
-
0 % -
5 10 40 50 100 300
25 % load
50 % load
75 % load
Particulate diameter in nm
Separation
efficiency
The diesel engine an evergreen.
All clear for Euro 5 and EEV.
The outstanding virtues of the diesel engine are its
undemanding nature, its reliability and its long life.
MANs modern generation of D20 and D26 Common
Rail engines also comes with further improvements in
running comfort and dynamics. Two-stage exhaust-gas
turbocharging and intercooling with intermediate
cooling and the latest common-rail engineering put it at
the peak of development. If the drastic reduction in
oxides of nitrogen and particulates demanded by Euro
5 is to be achieved, innovative technical solutions are
required solutions that MAN offers. With the combina-
tion of common-rail diesel engine, exhaust-gas recircu-
lation (EGR) and the MAN PM-KAT

specially develo-
ped by MAN, Euro 5 is safely achieved.
Buses equipped with an electronically controlled
CRTec

particulate filter already meet the voluntary EEV


standard (Enhanced Environmentally friendly Vehicle)
today. Thanks to MAN PURE DIESEL these vehicles
manage without any additives, while electronic monito-
ring of the filter eliminates problems for the operator.
Be better than Euro 5 with MAN and NEOPLAN even
today no problem at all, thanks to MAN PURE DIESEL.
PM-KAT

: particulates separated out as gas flows through


Over 100 years old and still going strong. The diesel
engine is still the star among the various drive
systems available, above all for coaches and trucks,
where full MAN power is needed. At up to 45 % it
achieves the highest efficiency of any internal-
combustion engine. And it has enough development
potential to meet future environmental requirements
such as Euro 4, Euro 5 and even Euro 6. Since the
days of Rudolf Diesel, who developed his invention
right through to series-production at MAN between
1893 and 1897, MANs engineers have been making
valuable inputs and thus ensuring the progress of
this engine.
Reduction in limits from Euro 0 to Euro 5 Separation efficiency and particle size with PM-KAT

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Alternative fuels for the future
As a real alternative to the highly efficient diesel
engine is not yet in sight in the coach and long-haul
transport sector, alternative fuels will be playing an
ever more important role in the next few years. Alter-
natives available today include Biodiesel and ethanol,
which belong to the first generation of such fuels and
can already be used in some applications. MAN is
also involved in development of second-generation
fuels. GTL fuel (Gas to Liquid) and, later on, BTL
(Biomass to Liquid) have outstanding emission and
CO2 levels and can be used without any problem in
modern diesel engines.
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Efficiency optimised hybrid engine
diesel engine
generator
elektric
traction motor
ultracap
storage modul
Two in one
hybrid drive for lower consumption.
Drive and save with brake energy.
Hybrid concepts are now very much in demand.
New technical concepts are being developed with
high priority to reduce CO
2
emissions and get the
fine dust problem under control. MAN and
NEOPLAN have been developing hybrid drive
systems since the 1970s, and many different
approaches yielded valuable information. The latest
development from MAN, a Lions City low-floor bus
with serial hybrid drive, points the way to a clean
future.
Up to 25 % less fuel.
Urban stop-and-go traffic consumes a lot of
energy and is a problem that has occupied engi-
neers for a long time now. Braking is regarded
as a waste of energy; the large amount of energy
of an accelerated 18 tonne bus is converted during
deceleration above all into heat, which is dissipated
largely into the air. The solution is and was hybrid
drive. City buses above all provide the ideal condi-
tions for using brake energy. Around town the
diesel engine idles for up to 40 % of the time; here
a start/stop system saves valuable fuel. But only
the full package of all measures will yield the
expected saving. On the basis of many thousands
of kilometres covered in tests MAN expects that
up to 25 % of fuel can be saved. MAN has exten-
sive experience in regular services at the VAG trans-
port authority in Nuremberg.
Diesel engine with optimum efficiency.
In the new MAN Lions City Hybrid attention is
focused on further optimisation of fuel consumption
without losing any of the good driving performance.
Like its predecessor, the bus is driven by a series
common-rail diesel engine - naturally meeting the EEV
standard with MAN PURE DIESEL technology and
a high-performance generator which supplies the
energy for the two electric traction motors linked
together by a summation gearbox. The electric
motors are also linked to the electric storage system
on the roof. A largely series-built product, the low-
floor bus has twelve ultracap modules (ultracapaci-
tors) under the cover on the roof; these store the
brake energy. All this energy is enough to accele-
rate the heavy vehicle purely electrically and and
thus without emissions as it leaves the bus-stop.
If the driver then needs more power, the six-cylinder
diesel unit comes into play as well. Operators will
like the large series-standard interior - the hybrid
technology is packed in a space-saving engine
tower. Hybrid technology will be reality on our
streets in only a few years time.
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Electric air conditioner
P
o
t
e
n
t
ia
l s
a
v
in
g
(%
)
Inner city Edge of city
Potential for saving on urban routes
The fuel savings that can be achieved with this
hybrid drive system depend on the vehicles
deployment profile. The greatest savings are
achieved in city centres. If the deployment
profile becomes more like that at the edge of
the city, the saving drops because of the smaller
share of stop-and-go operation.
1
2
3
4
5
Power electronics
Ultracap storage system
12 modules with 24 cells each
Max. charging/discharging
power 200 kW
Voltage range 400630 V
Energy content approx. 0.4 kWh
equivalent to consumption of
one 100 watt bulb in 4 hours)
Generator, 150 kW
Electric propulsion system
2 x 75 kW with summation
gear box
3
2
4 5
1
6-cylinder diesel engine
191 kW (240 hp), Enhanced
Environmentally friendly
Vehicle technology (exhaust-gas
emissions already below
the Euro 5 limits)
How hybrid drive works

Recuperation of brake energy
The brake energy generated during braking is
temporarily stored and can be used again, e.g.
for moving off.
Moving off by electric power
The energy saved is used for moving off
electrically, i.e. without emissions.
Automatic start-stop system
The diesel engine is automatically switched off
(e.g. at traffic lights). If required it is automatically
started again.
Phlegmatisation of the diesel engine
Dynamic peak power requirements can be covered
by the electric energy storage unit, which in
turn permits slower adjustment of the power provision
by the diesel engine. This reduces both
fuel consumption and emissions.
Use of smaller diesel engines
As the energy storage unit provides additional
power, smaller engines can be used than in
conventional drive systems.
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Gas engines to speed up progress.
Even the brilliant Rudolf Diesel gave some thought
to alternatives to diesel fuel in his patent of 1912.
Nowadays one of the few alternative fuels that has
established itself is natural gas. With it excellent
results in terms of engine emissions can be
achieved, even without a particulate filter. The
increasing number of natural-gas filling stations
proves how attractive this fuel is. The only
problems involved are the higher vehicle price and
the development of a nationwide supply network.
Cleaner than Euro 5.
Even today the natural-gas (CNG, Compressed
Natural Gas) engines developed by MAN have emis-
sions that fall below the limits of the Euro 5 standard
and the even stricter EEV (Enhanced Environmentally
Friendly Vehicle) standard. These are six-cylinder
horizontal in-line engines which are available with
3-way catalytic converter (lambda = 1) or as super-
charged and intercooled lean-mix engines (lambda
= 1.7). They generate power outputs of 180 to 228
kW and are thus on a par with diesel units. The soft
combustion makes these spark-ignition MAN gas
engines extremely quiet too.
Gas opens up new avenues for the market leader.
In view of rising oil prices natural-gas remains a
low-cost and clean alternative for use in public
transport buses. At present more than 50,000
natural-gas vehicles are in operation in Germany
alone, and the figure is expected to rise to 500,000
units by 2012. MAN alone has supplied some 4,000
natural-gas engines to many countries, 2,500 of
these in complete buses and chassis.
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Even today MAN and NEOPLAN can offer many
environment-friendly drive systems. With our
research and development activities we are
creating the basis for ensuring that the bus remains
an attractive transport system in future too. Our
focus here is on further sustained reductions in
emissions and fuel consumption.
Active in three areas.
With the goal of assuring a clean future for us all we
are researching and developing in three areas: we
want to exhaust the considerable potential of the
The future refuels with hydrogen.
Hydrogens availability is practically unlimited,
and the gas can be generated from renewable
sources. Another advantage is its high potential for
reducing greenhouse gases and pollutants, as the
element with the symbol H
2
burns without releasing
any CO
2
and thus has no environmental impact.
All these properties make hydrogen the fuel of the
future. Beside fuel-cell drive, MAN is researching
into hydrogen combustion in piston engines; these
are based on natural-gas engines and work largely
without emissions.
diesel engine and track down solutions that set new
standards, such as the diesel-electric hybrid drive. In
a second area we shall be continuing development
of natural-gas and hydrogen internal-combustion
engines. The MAN Nutzfahrzeuge Group already
has a wide range of series-produced diesel and
natural-gas engines that meet the highest environ-
mental standards (EEV). And last but not least the
MAN Nutzfahrzeuge Group is, of course, still active in
the field of future-orientated fuel-cell drive. For us
there are no limits to progress.
For us thinking means thinking ahead.
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Alternatives to carry you away.
Innovative bus drive systems for a clean environment.
D 112.473/E bv 09082 Printed in Germany
Text and illustrations not binding.
Subject to changes in the course of technical progress.
MAN Nutzfahrzeuge Gruppe
Postfach 50 06 20
D-80976 Mnchen
www.man-mn.com
A member of the MAN Group