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The OK City Bombing and the politics of terror

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The Mannlicher-Carcanno Bomb
"It had to have been mned," sad the gruff, gnary voce on the other end of the
ne. "It's rea smpe. You cannot brng down a budng ke that wthout cuttng
charges set on the support pars."
Bud, an ex-Green Beret who saw heavy combat n Vetnam, shoud know what he's
takng about. Bud had mtary demotons tranng - the knd taught to men who
need to know how to bow up hardened targets.
"It coudn't have been done externay ke that," added Bud. "Wthout cuttng
charges, there's |ust no way to do t."
Bud ddn't want me to use hs fu name. He was worred about hs VA benefts.
One man who wasn't worred about government reprsas was Genera Benton K.
Partn. A retred U.S. Ar Force Brgader Genera, Partn had responsbty for the
desgn and testng of amost every non-nucear weapon devce used n the Ar
Force, ncudng precson-guded weapons desgned to destroy hardened targets
ke the Afred P. Murrah Budng. Partn has exhaustvey researched the bombng
and the resutng pattern of damage.
In a etter dated May 17, 1995, hand-devered to each member of the Congress
and Senate, Partn stated:
When I frst saw the pctures of the truck-bomb's asymmetrca
damage to the Federa Budng, my mmedate reacton was that the
pattern of damage woud have been techncay mpossbe wthout
suppementng demoton charges at some of the renforcng concrete
coumn bases.. For a smpstc bast truck-bomb, of the sze and
composton reported, to be abe to reach out on the order of 60 feet
and coapse a renforced coumn base the sze of coumn A-7 s
beyond creduty.
The fu text of Partn's report, reproduced n the appendx, s too compex to
eaborate on here, says a truck fed wth ammonum ntrate coud not have
caused the degree of damage done to the Afred P. Murrah budng. Not when t
was parked at east 20 feet away from that budng. Wthout drect contact, the
fa-off from the bast woud be too great to do any serous structura damage.
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Another man who knows a thng or two about bombs s Samue Cohen, nventor of
the Neutron Bomb. Cohen began hs career on the Manhattan Pro|ect at Los
Aamos, where he was charged wth studyng the effects of the atomc bombs that
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destroyed Hroshma and Nagasak. Durng hs 40 year career, Cohen worked wth
every appcaton of nucear weapons desgn and testng.
Cohen stated hs poston n a etter to Okahoma State Representatve Chares
Key:
It woud have been absoutey mpossbe and aganst the aws of
nature for a truck fu of fertzer and fue o. no matter how much
was used. to brng the budng down.
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Interestngy, the Ryder truck-bomb has earned the nckname the "Manncher-
Carcanno Bomb" after the cheap Itaan-made rfe wth a defectve scope that was
aegedy used to k Presdent Kennedy. Dstrct Attorney |m Garrson |oked durng
the Shaw conspracy tra that the government's nucear physcs ab coud expan
how a snge buet coud trave through Presdent Kennedy and Governor Connay
fve tmes whe makng severa u-turns, then and n prstne condton on the
Presdent's gurney.
In the Okahoma bombng case, t appears the government s attemptng to
perform a smar feat of ght and magc. The fact that a non-drectona, ow-
veocty fertzer bomb parked 20 to 30 feet from a modern, stee-renforced super-
structure coud not have caused the pattern and degree of damage t dd s not
beng wdey touted by the government or the manstream press. The government
expects the pubc to beeve that two dsgrunted amateurs bew up the Okahoma
Cty Federa Budng wth a homemade fertzer bomb.
Dr. Roger Raubach doesn't beeve the government. Raubach, who dd hs Ph.D. n
physca chemstry and served on the research facuty at Stanford Unversty, says,
"Genera Partn's assessment s absoutey correct. I don't care f they pued up a
sem-traer truck wth 20 tons of ammonum ntrate; t woudn't do the damage we
saw there."
Raubach, who s the technca drector of a chemca company, expaned n an
ntervew wth The New American magazne:
"The detonaton veocty of the shock wave from an ANFO (ammonum
ntrate/fue-o) exposon s on the order of 3,500 meters per second. In
comparson, mtary exposves generay have detonaton veoctes
that ht 7,000 to 8,000-pus meters per second. The most energetc
snge-component exposve of ths type, C-4 - whch s aso known as
Cyconte or RDX - s about 8,000 meters per second and above. You
don't start dong bg-tme damage to heavy structures unt you get
nto those ranges, whch s why the mtary uses those exposves."
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The government s not happy about peope ke Dr. Roger Raubach. They don't
want you to know what Dr. Raubach knows. Sam Gronnng, a censed, professona
baster n Casper, Wyomng wth 30 years experence n exposves, tod The New
American:
"The Partn etter states n very precse technca terms what everyone
n ths busness knows: No truck-bomb of ANFO out n the open s gong
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to cause the knd of damage we had there n Okahoma Cty. In 30
years of bastng, usng everythng from 100 percent ntroge to ANFO,
I've not seen anythng to support that story."
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In an ntervew wth the author, Gronnng sad, "I set off a 5,000 b ANFO charge. I
was standng 1,000 feet from t, and a t dd was muss my har, take out the mud
n the creek that we were tryng to get rd of, and t shattered a few eaves off the
trees around t. It ddn't cause any coatera damage to any of the deepy set trees
that were wthn 20 feet of t."
The FBI has a dfferent story to te.
The FBI cams that Tmothy McVegh and Terry Nchos bought severa thousand
pounds of ammonum ntrate at a farm suppy store n Manhattan, Kansas, then
drove to Geary State Park where they mxed a bomb. The FBI cams that the
suspects then haued ther magc bomb a dstance of over 500 mes, where, neary
24 hours ater, they bew up the Federa Budng n Okahoma Cty.
Yet what the FBI - those bastons of truth and |ustce - don't want you to know, s
that fertzer-grade ammonum ntrate sn't a very good bastng agent. As a
pubcaton from the Atas Powder company states:
.agrcutura fertzer prs when made nto ANFO had very poor
exposve characterstcs. They woud not detonate effcenty because
of ther hgh densty, ack of porosty and heavy nert coatngs of ant-
settng agents.. The abty of an oed pr to be detonated depends
greaty upon the densty of the pr. Dense prs, such as agrcutura
grade, often are not detonabe at a; or f ntated, perform at a very
ow rate of detonaton and may de out n the bore hoe performng no
usefu work.
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U.S. Army Technca Manua TM 9-1910 states t thusy:
The grade of ammonum ntrate used n the manufacture of bnary
exposves s requred to be at east 99 percent pure, contan not more
than 1.15 percent of mosture, and have maxmum ether-soube,
water-nsoube acdty, sufate, and chorde contents of 0.10, 0.18,
0.02, 0.05, and 0.50 percent, respectvey.
Moreover, a bomb ke that s not easy to mx. Accordng to Gronnng, "You'd have
to str and str and str to get |ust the rght mxture for proper combustbty. And
then, f t sn't used mmedatey, the o settes to the bottom and the bomb
doesn't go off."
"ANFO s easy to make f you know how to do t," adds |effrey Dean, Executve
Drector of the Internatona Socety of Exposves Engneers, "but t takes years of
experence to work wth safey." Accordng to Dean, "It s amost mpossbe for
amateurs to propery mx the ammonum ntrate wth the fue o. Cumps of ANFO
woud nevtaby fa to detonate."
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The scenaro of two men mxng huge barres of fertzer and fue-o n a pubc
park aso stretches the mts of creduty. Such a spectace woud surey have been
seen by anyone passng by: hkers, pcnckers, fshermen.
"That woud have drawn so much attenton," sad Rck Sherrow, a former ATF
(Bureau of Acoho, Tobacco and Frearms) agent wth 25 years experence n
exposves. "It woud have requred an area twce the sze of a truck |ust to wak
around. that woud have not have gone okay."
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Naturay, the expert who testfed for the government dsagrees. Lnda |ones, an
exposves specast who has studed IRA bombngs n Great Brtan, "concuded
that there was one devce. n the rear cargo compartment of a Ryder truck.."
|ones added that t woudn't be dffcut to bud such a arge bomb "provded they
had a basc knowedge of exposves and access to the materas - t woud be
fary smpe. One person coud do t on ther own, but more peope coud do t
qucker."
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Whe the government but ts case on wtness accounts of the snge Ryder truck,
numerous wtnesses, uncaed to testfy by the prosecuton for the McVegh tra,
reca seeng two trucks. Coud two trucks - one rented by McVegh, and one
rented by the suspect known as |ohn Doe 2 - have been used to transport the
huge quanttes of matera necessary to bud such a bomb?
"I woud buy two trucks smpy for ogstcs," sad Sherrow. "One truck fu of barres
of ammonum ntrate, and you st got to put the fue nto t. Because you don't
want to put the fue n and et t sette for days at a tme. They woud have to have
somethng to brng everythng together and mx t, and that's gong to take more
then one truck."
Two days pror to the Murrah Budng bombng - on Apr 17th - Davd Kng,
stayng at the Dreamand Mote n |uncton Cty, Kansas, where McVegh and |ohn
Doe 2 spent tme, remembered seeng the Ryder truck wth a traer attached to t.
Insde the traer was a arge ob|ect wrapped n whte canvas. "It was a squarsh
shape, and t came to a pont on top," sad Kng. "It was about three or four feet
hgh." Kng sad that ater n the day, the traer was gone, but the truck was st n
the ot.
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Was ths wtness descrbng some sophstcated exposve devce? Or was he
descrbng a Ley farm mxer? A Ley farm mxer s about four feet hgh wth a
ponted top. What happened to ths traer? Why dd we never hear anymore about
t?
Then around 2:00 a.m. on Apr 19, a Ryder truck pued nto the Save-A-Trp
convenence store n Kngman, Kansas, foowed by a ght coored car and a brown
pck-up. Assstant manager Rchard Snnett ceary recas three men, ncudng
McVegh and a man resembng |ohn Doe 2 enter the store. Yet Snnett was
partcuary struck by the odd contrapton they were towng - a arge pastc, sem-
transparent tank fu of cear qud.
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Was ths dese fue that the bombers
ntended to add to ther ammonum ntrate mxture at the ast mnute?
Despte a mountan of evdence aganst the |government's| ANFO theory, the
government has gone to great engths to convnce the |ury and the pubc that the
Murrah Budng was destroyed by a snge ANFO bomb devered by a par of
dsgrunted Rght-wng extremsts. In fact, the ATF teevsed a demonstraton of an
ANFO truck-bomb detonatng n an effort to prove ther contenton. "They fred the
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thng off," sad Gronnng. "We saw t - t was on CNN - so what? A t dd was set
off an exposon and wgge the trees behnd t. It ddn't even knock them over.
"My knowedge comes from practca handng of exposves," added Gronnng.
"And my beef s that 4800 bs of ANFO woudn't have scuffed the pant on the
budng!"
The FBI aso changed the sze of the bomb numerous tmes. They orgnay
camed that t weghed 1,200 pounds, upgraded that fgure to 2,000 pounds, then
to 4,000 pounds, and fnay, they ssued a press reease statng that the bomb
weghed 4800 pounds.
"It appears the government keeps up-gradng the sze of the vehce and the
'fertzer' bomb to concde wth the damage," sad retred FBI SAC (Senor Agent-
n-Charge) Ted Gunderson.
The government aso orgnay camed the bomb cost ess than $1,000 to bud.
Then |ust before the start of McVegh's tra, that fgure was upgraded to $5,000.
Ther ratonae was based on the "dscovery," amost two years after the fact, that
the suspects had constructed ther magc bomb wth racng fue, not dese fue,
whch s far ess expensve.
To mantan some sembance of credbty n ght of ncreasngy pubczed reports
of Genera Partn and others, the government aso conceded - rght before the
start of McVegh's tra - that the suspects probaby hadn't but ther bomb at
Geary State Park after a.
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If Tmothy McVegh or anyone ese wth mtary tranng wanted to destroy the
Afred P. Murrah Budng, t s hghy unkey they woud use ANFO. As Army
demoton manuas ceary state, ANFO s not good for destroyng concrete or
stee. McVegh, the consummate soder who studed every concevabe Army
manua n hs spare tme - ncudng Army Manua TM 31-210: Improvsed
Muntons Handbook - certany woud have known ths.
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Yet the FBI nssts that amateur bomb-makers Tmothy McVegh and Terry Nchos
but ths amazng ANFO bomb that ked 169 peope and destroyed a modern
nne-story stee-renforced concrete budng. Of course, that was before the
government's damage-contro apparatus went nto effect. Before t dd, even the
usua government takng-heads were nsstng that no amateurs coud have done
ths.
Vnce Cannstraro, ABC News corespondent and former CIA ntegence advsor to
the Natona Securty Counc stated, "Ths s somethng professona and t reay
mpes that the person who constructed the exposve devce has experence, was
traned n the use of exposves, and knew what they were dong."
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Before he began attackng crtcs of the government's case, Okahoma Governor
and former FBI agent Frank Keatng stated, ".obvousy whatever dd the damage
to the Murrah Budng was a tremendous, very sophstcated exposve devce."
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The very next day, the government was nsstng that a homemade ANFO bomb,
made wth agrcutura grade ammonum ntrate, dd the |ob. FBI Speca Agent
|ohn Hersey contends that traces of a mtary-type detonaton cord known as
PDTN (pentadrythr-tetrantrate), commony known as Prmadet, were found on
McVegh's cothng at the tme of hs arrest (In another report t was PETN, or
pentaerythrto-tetrantrate). PDTN was aegedy used to wre the barres of ANFO.
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Senor FBI chemst Frederck Whtehurst conducted a test on McVegh's cothng
but found no resdue there, or n McVegh's car ether.
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Whtehurst came forward wth aegatons that the FBI has been santng resuts of
ts forensc tests for years. Coected n a 30-page memorandum, Whtehurst
crtczed FBI aboratory personne for ncompetence. As a |ustce Department
memorandum states: "Dr. Whtehurst contends that the Exposves Unt and the
Chemstry and Toxcoogy Unt nappropratey structure ther concusons to favor
the prosecuton."
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Accordng to the Wall Street Journal, "|Whtehurst's| accusatons of bas and even
manufacturng evdence have caed nto queston severa hgh-profe government
cases, ncudng the Okahoma Cty and Word Trade Center bombngs."
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Whtehurst's aegatons were further eaborated on n a hghy reveang report
ssued by the Do| Inspector Genera's Offce, whch concuded that "|SSA Davd|
Wams repeatedy reached concusons that ncrmnated the defendants wthout
a scentfc bass and that were not expaned n the body of the report."
Indeed. It appears Wams reached hs concusons based, not on emprca
evdence, but on the fact that Terry Nchos aegedy purchased arge quanttes of
ANFO. As the OIG (Offce of Inspector Genera) report states:
Wthout the evdence of these purchases, Wams admtted he woud
have been unabe to concude that ANFO was used. Indeed, Wams
stated that based on the post-bast scene aone t coud have been
dynamte..
Wams camed "that the ntator for the booster(s) was ether a detonator from a
Prmadet Deay system or senstzed detonatng cord." Yet as the OIG report states,
"No evdence of a Prmadet system or senstzed detonatng cord was found at the
crme scene."
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Controversa scentst and bomb expert Mchae Rconoscuto tod former FBI agent
Ted Gundersen that the theory of drums of ANFO beng detonated by PDTN-soaked
oops of rope or "det" cord s hghy mprobabe, f not mpossbe. "The ony way to
obtan bast contro s wth voumetrc ntaton," expaned Rconoscuto. "Ths
takes eectronc crcuts of smar sophstcaton as woud be requred n nucear
weapons. Ths sophstcaton s not avaabe to the average person," he added,
statng that the resutant bast woud have been "confused and uncontroed," and
the energy woud have utmatey "canceed tsef out."
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Fnay, the OIG report states: "Whtehurst questons Wams' concuson that none
of the structura damage evdent wthn the Murrah budng was caused by
secondary exposve devces or exposons."
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So why s the government gong to such great engths, n spte of overwhemng
evdence to the contrary, to make us beeve that the Afred P. Murrah Budng was
destroyed by an ANFO bomb? Because the government's case s but upon the
premse that Tmothy McVegh and Terry Nchos but ther aeged bomb wth
ammonum ntrate. The cas aegedy made by McVegh were to stores that se
racng fue and ammonum ntrate. McVegh's fngerprnt s aegedy on a recept
for ammonum ntrate. And a sma trace of ammonum ntrate was aegedy found
at the scene. The government's case must proceed aong those nes. Any
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evdence that proves the bomb was made of anythng other than ANFO woud not
ony destroy the government's case, t woud open up nqures about who really
bombed the Murrah Budng. and why.
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The government |aso had to stck| wth the ANFO theory s because Mchae and
Lor Forter agreed to testfy n a pea-bargan that ther frend McVegh arranged
soup cans n ther ktchen to demonstrate how to make a "shaped charge." Yet as
bomb experts expaned, there s no way to make a shaped charge out of a
coecton of ANFO barres.
But the |government doesn't want any serous nqures as to who reay bew up
the Murrah Budng. The| government expects us to beeve that two one
amateurs wth a crude fertzer bomb, out n the open, twenty to thrty feet away
from a hardened target, destroyed eght renforced coumns and ked 169 peope.
As Genera Partn sad, such a scenaro s "beyond creduty."
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Former ATF |agent| Rck Sherrow, who wrote an artce for Soldier of Fortune
magazne entted "Bombast, Bomb Basts & Baoney," contends that Genera
Partn's assessment of the bombng s somehow naccurate. Sherrow cams that
the pressure wave that woud have struck the budng from the |rapdy
deteroratng| bast of the ANFO bomb (375 p.s.. accordng to Partn's fgures)
woud be more than enough to destroy renforced concrete coumns, whch
Sherrow camed n hs artce dsntegrate at 30 p.s.. (pounds per square nch).
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To Sam Gronnng, such a statement s preposterous: "That's busht!" excamed
Gronnng. "Thrty p.s.. woudn't take out a rubber tre!" Both Partn and Rabauch
contend that at east 3,500 p.s.. s requred to destroy renforced concrete. In a
etter to Partn, Rabauch states:
I took the berty of checkng wth the eadng concrete supper n my
area n order to confrm the compressve yed fgure that you used,
that beng 3,500 p.s.. What I was tod about concrete was very
nterestng. A 3,500 p.s.. fgure s extremey ow for structura
concrete. A propery mxed and cured structure of the type deat wth
n your report woud probaby have a yed strength of 5,600 p.s..
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Those who rush to refute the evdence presented by Partn, Raubach and others,
cte as evdence the 1982 destructon of the Marne bunker n Berut by a truck-
bomb drven by an Isamc terrorst. In that nstance, however, the truck was drven
drecty into the budng - a structure much smaer and ghter than the Afred P.
Murrah Budng.
In August of 1970, 1,700 pounds of ANFO parked n a van expoded outsde the
Army Math Research Lab at the Unversty of Wsconsn n Madson. Athough
parked coser than the Ryder truck was to the Murrah Budng, the bomb merey
bew a hoe n the outer wa and took out the wndows. One person was ked.
(See photo)
In 1989, Coomban narco-terrorsts detonated a truck-bomb outsde the Natona
Securty Department n Bogota, Coumba. The vehce was parked approxmatey
ten feet from the modern hgh-rse budng. The bomb decmated the face of the
budng, but eft the support coumns ntact. Ffteen peope were ked.
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In the summer of 1996, an IRA truck-bomb detonated n the heart of Manchester's
fnanca dstrct. The devce, constructed of ANFO and 3,500 pounds of Semtex, a
hgh-veocty, mtary-grade pastc exposve, caused consderabe damage to the
surroundng budngs, but eft them reatvey ntact. Athough the devce managed
to break a ot of wndows and n|ure 206 peope, no one was ked.
On |une 25, 1996, a tanker-traer packed wth RDX pastc exposves bew up
outsde the Khobar Towers apartment compex at Kng Abdu Azz Ar Base n Saud
Araba, kng 19 Amercan servcemen and n|urng hundreds more. Whe the
bast produced a crater 35 feet deep and 85 feet across (the crater n Okahoma
was approxmatey 6 feet deep and 16 feet across, athough the government
camed t was 30 feet), t ddn't do the same amount of damage done to the
Murrah Budng - a budng constructed to much more rgorous codes and
specfcatons. Yet authortes cam that the bomb was at east the sze as that
whch bew up the Federa Budng.
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|See photo|
In an anaogy offered by Partn, "It woud be as rratona or as mpossbe as a
stuaton n whch a 150 pound man sts n a fmsy char causng the char to
coapse, whe a man weghng 1,500 pounds sts n an dentca fmsy char and t
does not coapse - mpossbe."
"But," contends Sherrow n Soldier of Fortune, "the |Murrah| Budng was not
desgned to wthstand exposons or earthquakes, and t's bascay a weak
budng."
|m Lofts, one of the budng's archtects, tod me they were asked to make the
budng bomb-resstant, due to eft-wng radcas who were bowng up federa
factes n the eary 1970s. Lofts aso sad the budng was desgned to meet
earthquake standards. "We desgned t to meet the budng codes and
earthquakes are part of that code," sad Lofts.
Lofts aso sad that the north sde of the ower eve (the area mpacted by the
truck-bomb) was stee-rebar renforced concrete wthout wndows. He aso
concurred wth Raubach and Partn that the pressure necessary to destroy
renforced concrete s n the 2,500 to 4,000 p.s.. range - a far cry from the 30
p.s.. cted by Sherrow.
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Yet Sherrow concudes that snce there was so much coatera damage (damage to
the surroundng budngs) the truck-bomb must have been responsbe. "The
coatera damage |ust dscounts |Partn's| matera," says Sherrow.
Two experts who seem to agree wth Sherrow are Dorom Bergerbest-Eom and
Yakov Yerusham. The Israe bomb experts were brought to Okahoma at the
request of ATF agent Guy Hama. Accordng to ther report, the bomb was an ANFO
bomb boosted wth somethng more powerfu. and t had a Mdde Eastern
sgnature.
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The Athenan restaurant, whch sts approxmatey 150 feet northwest of the
Murrah Budng, was amost competey destroyed. Peces of the Murrah Budng
were actuay bown into the Athenan. As vdeo producer |erry Longspaugh ponts
out, ony a bomb inside the Federa Budng woud be capabe of pro|ectng parts
of the budng nto another budng 150 feet away.
As Gronnng notes n a etter to Representatve Key: "Not n your wdest dreams
woud that much ANFO affect perphera damage at that dstance. Whch eads me
to suspect that another more powerfu exposve was used."
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Accordng to a source quoted n the Rocky Mountain News, an ammonum ntrate
bomb made wth a racng fue component known as hydrazne "woud create one
of the argest non-nucear basts possbe." McVegh had aegedy attempted to
procure the substance from a deaer n Topeka, Kansas, who refused. In fact,
hydrazne s extremey hazardous and dffcut to obtan.
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Whe not knowedgeabe about hydrazne, Gronnng noted that "C-4, for exampe,
woud be capabe of creatng those knds of pressure waves and destroyng the
oca foundaton of the Federa Budng.
"If you had 4,000 bs of C-4 n there," Gronnng sad, "now you're takng a rea
hgh-order exposve at some serous speed. And when that goes off, you're abe
to take out the thng. But I st have a probem beevng even at that dstance
away from the budng, t woud create that knd of damage. A you have to do to
see what I'm takng about s to see what knd of bomb damage you get from a
bomb n the |WWII| attacks on London."
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It s precsey ths anaogy that Sherrow attempts to use n Soldier of Fortune. "For
perspectve, notes SOF 'demo' expert Donovan, "consder that the German V-1 and
V-2 msses that devastated London carred ony 1,650 pounds of an exposve not
dssmar n brsance and yed. In other words, woud three V-2s smutaneousy
strkng the frst foor of the Murrah Budng do such damage? Of course they
woud."
Yet the Ryder truck dd not mpact the Murrah Budng at the speed of a rocket,
nor dd t mpact t at a. Even to the ayperson, one can see that such an anaogy
s rdcuous. In hs artce, Sherrow never specuates that C-4 or any other hgh-
veocty mtary type exposve mght have been used.
St, the former ATF man contends that an ANFO bomb parked out n the open
coud have caused the pattern and degree of damage done to the Murrah Budng.
"Absoutey and wthout a shadow of a doubt, and I base that on 30 years n the
busness, and shootng ANFO - from a coupe pounds to 630 tons n one shot."
Sherrow goes on to state that Partn's concusons were based upon mere
"theoretca anayss," not hands-on experence.
Yet Partn spent 25 years n the defense research estabshment, ncudng hands-
on work at the Bastc Research Laboratores; Commander of the Ar Force
Armament Technoogy Laboratory; Ar Force System Command, and the Offce of
the Secretary of Defense (OSD) management. Such credentas speak of a man
who knows hs exposves.
It s uncear why the former ATF man was tryng to dscredt Partn, and by
assocaton, others who dsagreed wth the government's theory. What s cear
however s that Soldier of Fortune, the magazne n whch Sherrow's artce
appeared, s owned by Paadn Press, regarded a CIA propretary. Robert K. Brown,
the magazne's pubsher, s an assocate of Genera |ohn Sngaub, a key Iran-
Contra payer who ran the genocda Phoenx Program n Vetnam, and heped tran
death squads n Centra Amerca. Both men reportedy payed an ancary roe n
the 1984 La Penca bombng, whch resuted n the deaths of eght |ournasts. |See
Chapter 14| Sherrow admtted to workng for the CIA n Afrca. What he dd there
wasn't exacty cear.
|35|
If the CIA (or one of ts tentaces) were nvoved, as they nvaraby tend to be n
such cases, they woud have a strong motve to cover up ther nvovement and re-
9
drect the nvestgaton. The most common way of dong ths s through the use of
propaganda and dsnformaton. Whe Sherrow hmsef has crtczed the ATF, and
wrote severa artces debunkng the government's theory regardng mta groups,
ths partcuar artce appeared to be a "ht-pece" desgned to dscredt any
egtmate anayss of the bombng.
Yet some crtcs of the government's story have gone beyond the reatvey
ordnary expanatons of Partn, Gronnng and others to suggest that the Federa
Budng was destroyed by a devce caed an "A-Neutronc Bomb." These
advocates cte as evdence the nature of the spang (the dsntegraton of the
concrete nto tny peces) on the top of the budng, and the extent of the damage
to surroundng budngs that even men ke Genera Partn cam woud be
mpossbe for an ANFO bomb.
Larens Imanyue, a Berkeey assstant physcs professor who has studed the
bombng, s one such advocate. Imanyue's anayss, whch appeared n Veritas
newsetter, ndcates that the wde extent of the coatera damage was not
consstent wth a conventona exposon. As Imanyue wrtes:
There was some very sophstcated bomb that was capabe of causng
a tremendous bast atmospherc pressure wave that bew out wndows
n so many of the surroundng budngs. Ths had to be some sort of
very hgh-tech dust exposve-ke bomb - one that creates a wdey
dspersed exposve mxture n the very ar and then detonates t wth a
secondary charge. Ths ast spectacuar hgh-tech bomb served the
purpose of convncng the genera pubc that the aeged sotary
truck-bomb was powerfu and "devastatng" enough that t coud wpe
out and coapse a nearby budng.
|36|
Consder the comments of a oca structura engneer, Bob Cornforth, "The range of
ths bast has reay mpressed me - the extent of the damage and the dstance
out." A me away, wndow frames had been pushed back two feet. On the other
hand, he nspected two budngs |ust a tte over 200 ft. from the so-caed crater,
the YMCA center and the |ourna Record budng, whch ost part of ts ptched
concrete roof. To hs surprse, "The structura frames performed extremey we.
We desgn for 80-mph wnds," whch he says seems adequate. The ack of damage
to the frames, despte the massve ght-structura damage showed that the shock
waves were of short duraton. Ths was consstent wth a many-pont exposon, but
not wth a snge-pont exposon arge enough to knock out the four heavy coumns
that had coapsed n the Murrah Budng.
|37|
The A-Neutronc bomb, or "Eectro-Hydrodynamc Gaseous Fue Devce," was
reportedy deveoped by the young scentst-prodgy n the eary 1980s whe he
was workng for Hercues Manufacturng n Scon Vaey, CA. The frst bomb test at
the Pentagon's super-secret Area 51 n Nevada apparenty resuted n the death of
a techncan and n|ured severa others due to ther underestmaton of ts power.
The pro|ect was reportedy compartmentazed and cassfed under a "Nucear
Weapons" category by Presdent Reagan. |For a descrpton of the devce, see
Appendx|
10
|What does Samue Cohen have to say about the A-Neutronc bomb? "We, I'm not
expert enough to reay vouch for hs statements, but I've got a hunch that t's
techncay we-based. I've spoken to Mchae Rconoscuto (the nventor of the A-
Neutronc Bomb) and he's an extraordnary brght guy. I aso have a hunch, whch
I can't prove, that they both (Rconoscuto and Lavos, hs partner) ndrecty work
for the CIA."|
Accordng to Imanyue, a member of a pubc watch-dog group that montors
mtary and nucear procurement actvtes, "The desgn woud be partcuary
sutabe for use as a cruse msse warhead, where a non-nucear charge s
requred that can reaby destroy a hardened target despte a severa-meters
targetng error. Such weapons are desgned as part of the Advanced Technoogy
Warhead Program of Lawrence Lvermore and Los Aamos Natona Laboratores."
Ted Gundersen, who has ndependenty nvestgated the bombng, ncuded
numerous etters and memos n hs report whch ponted to the exstence of such a
devce. He reported that the government contract number for the bomb was DAAA-
21-90-C-0045, and was manufactured by Dyno-Nobe, Inc., n Sat Lake Cty. Dyno-
Nobe was prevousy connected wth Hercues Manufacturng, where Rconoscuto
worked. The Department of the Army denes that contract DAAA-21-90-C-0045
exsts. Dyno-Nobe refused to respond to nqures from Gundersen or the author.
|38|
Curousy, the bomb specast the government caed as ts expert wtness durng
the Federa Grand |ury testmony was Robert Hoper. Hoper recenty retred from
Dyno-Nobe.
Sherrow rased the ssue of the Eectro-Hydrodynamc Gaseous Fue Devce n hs
Soldier of Fortune artce. Accordng to Imanyue, "Gundersen's bomb mode was
ceary unworkabe as presented n Soldier of Fortune, but contaned the essenta
nformaton that the bomb generated an eectrostatcay charged coud."
|39|
One vctm n the HUD offce n the Murrah Budng descrbed n a Natona Pubc
Rado ntervew on May 23, 1995 how she fet a heat wave and a statc eectrcty
charge mmedatey before the wndows bew n.
Dana Bradey, who ost her mother and two chdren n the bombng, sad she fet
eectrcty runnng through her body rght before the bomb went off.
|40|
Another vctm, Ramona McDonad, who was drvng about bock away, remembers
seeng a brant fash and descrbed the feeng of statc eectrcty. "It made a rea
oud statc eectrcty sound. It sounded ke bg swarm of bees - you coud
actuay hear t. The next thng was a rea sharp cap, ke thunder.." McDonad
aso descrbed both god and bue fashes of ght. Interestngy, Rconscuto has
caed hs devce "Bue Death."
|41|
Another survvor of the bast was quoted on CNN as sayng, "It was |ust ke an
atomc bomb went off. "The ceng went n and a the wndows came n and there
was a deafenng roar."
|42|
Proponents of the A-Neutronc Bomb concude that these are a sgnatures of such
a devce.
|43|
Whe both Gundersen and Rconoscuto have receved rdcue for suggestng that
a super-secret pneappe-szed devce may have destroyed the Murrah Budng,
Cohen cautons: "Look, when I frst came up wth that concept (the Neutron Bomb,
deveoped n the 1970s), the rdcue I took from the scentfc communty was
11
somethng awfu. And ths ncuded scentsts at the Nobe Prze eve." "Regardng
Rconoscuto," adds Cohen, "the guy's a madman. but techncay, there's no
doubt n my mnd that he's brant."
|44|
Gene Wheaton, a former Pentagon CID nvestgator, cams that the fue-ar bomb
was depoyed n the Guf War, aong wth other expermenta weapons responsbe
for much of the massve devastaton nfcted on Iraq.
|45|
The fue-ar exposve, or
FAE, can cover an area 1,000 feet wde wth bast pressures of 200 p.s.. Accordng
to a CIA report on FAEs:
|T|he pressure effects of FAEs approach those produced by ow-yed
nucear weapons at short ranges. The effect of an FAE exposon wthn
confned spaces s mmense. Those near the gnton pont are
obterated. Those at the frnges are key to suffer many nterna.
n|ures, ncudng burst eardrums and crushed nner-ear organs,
severe concussons, ruptured ungs and nterna organs, and possbe
bndness.
|46|
Moreover, t seems that Messerschmtt-Bokow-Bohm supped Iraq wth pans for a
fue-ar exposve. The bueprnts were aegedy passed on to the Iraqs by the
Egyptans, and Iraq commenced commerca producton of the weapon - the force
of whch s the equvaent of a sma atomc exposon.
|47|
A few mnutes before 9:00 a.m. on Apr 19, a young Arabc man carryng a
backpack was seen n the Murrah Budng hurredy pushng the eevator button as
f tryng to get off. A few mnutes after he exted the budng, the bomb(s) went
off. The eevator doors, whch were on the opposte sde of the budng from the
truck-bomb, had ther doors bown outward.
Another former mtary source agreed that a devce smar to the fue-ar
exposve exsts. "It's caed a Speca Atomc Demoton Muntons or SADM," sad
Crag Roberts, a Lt. Coone n Army Reserve |Integence|. Accordng to Roberts
and Chares T. Harrson, a researcher for the Department of Energy and the
Pentagon, ths munton has been depoyed wth artery unts n Europe. The
SADM can aso be carred n a backpack.
Another source who has montored top-secret weapons pro|ects confrmed ths
nformaton:
I do not know a ot about SADM's, but I have frends - ex Brtsh SAS
and RAF - who were traned n ther use a few years ago for behnd-
the-nes sabotage n the event of a Russan breakthrough n Europe.
They beeve from ther st-servng mtary contacts that the earer
footba szed back pack weapons that they were traned on have been
sgnfcanty mcroed such that a devce woud now easy ft n a
grapefrut and dever fve to ten tons TNT equvaent - or ess |.e:
down to one ton TNT|. These thngs easy ft nto a 105mm howtzer
she or a brefcase. ...
Exacty what components are utzed n these weapons s dffcut to
get as the st servng Brtsh offcers are reuctant to tak about them
12
n deta. One can assume that a mxture of Putonum 239 (hghy
refned hence reatvey ow radoactvty emsson on detonaton),
Lthum 6 Deuterde Trtde, Trtum, and possby Beryum and
Uranum 238 (NOT 235) woud be nvoved as a seres of enses n a B-
Conca shape. I am endeavorng to get more data but ths a very
touchy area.
|48|
An artce n the The Nashille Tennessean nssts Iraq's Saddam Hussen has been
deveopng 220 pounds of thum 6 per year. thum 6 can be converted to trtum,
an essenta ngredent n thermonucear reactons.
|49|
Other sources say that 6,000 to 7,000 SADM's were produced, some of whch
made ther way to Israe and other countres.
|50|
Sam Cohen confrms ths
nformaton n the Fa ssue of Journal of !iil "efense. Cohen, echong Harrson,
charges that the U.S. has purposefuy underestmated the number of nucear
warheads that Iran, Iraq and North Korea coud produce, and deberatey
dscounted ther capacty to produce substantay smaer warheads.
"A coupe of years ago," states Cohen, "dsturbng statements on advanced sma,
very ow-yed nucear warheads, began emanatng from Russa.
|51|
Cohen adds
that these artces "reveaed a massve smuggng rng had emerged where the
matera was beng sod around the word to a number of countres, some of whch
were terrorst natons."
|52|
|Wrtng n Ne#us Magazne, Austraan |ournast and mtary authorty |oe Vas
ponts out that the bombng whch destroyed a fnanca center n London n |uy of
1993, and whch amost destroyed the Word Trade Center n New York four
months ater, coud not have been caused by conventona exposves. In a bzarre
concdence predatng Cohen's anayss, theoretca physcst and former Pentagon
nucear expert Theodore B. Tayor stated n hs book, The !ure of $indin% &ner%y,
that someday someone was gong to bow up the Word Trade Center wth a
nucear devce the sze of a stck of gum. Tayor's predcton frst appeared n the
New 'orker magazne n 1973.
|53|
Vas adds that the Brtsh government was quck to bame the London attack on
an IRA (Irsh Repubcan Army) truck-bomb, n the same manner that U.S.
authortes were quck to bame the Okahoma bombng on a truck-bomb
constructed by a par of so-caed dsgrunted ant-government oners. Yet at the
same tme the Brtsh government was ssung these statements, ther bomb
techncans were exporng the bomb ste n fu nucear protectve suts.|
Had the Murrah Budng been destroyed by a SADM or a backpack nuke, usng the
truck-bomb as a cover? Brtsh bomb experts, wth extensve experence deang
wth terrorst truck-bombs, tod McVegh's attorney, Stephen |ones, that the ANFO
bomb coud not have done a of the damage to the Murrah Budng.
|54|
Brtsh bomb expert Lnda |ones, testfyng for the prosecuton n McVegh's tra,
came to the opposte concuson however. Nevertheess, the ste was qucky
demoshed and covered over wth concrete; the remans taken to a secure dump
and bured. What was the government tryng to hde? Nucear Physcst Gaen
Wnsor, Genera Ben Partn, and KPOC manager Davd Ha went to the budng and
dsposa stes wth radaton measurng equpment, but were kept away. They
managed to gather some fragments anyway, and when they measured them wth
13
Wnsor's NaI Scntator detector, they regstered radaton eves 50 percent
hgher than norma.
|55|
|The specter of radoactve terrorsm s not exacty brand new. In Pars, the French
secret poce foed terrorsts pannng to set off a conventona bomb desgned to
spread partces of deady radoactve putonum n the ar.
Cohen suggests that f t had been a radoactve attack, and t were made pubc, t
woud have pancked a pubc aready frghtened about terrorst attacks: "If the
perpetrators had been abe to get ther hands on |ust a traceabe amount of
radoactvty, and mxed t up wth the exposve, so that t woud vrtuay assure
that t woud be pcked up by some detectng meter, and ths had gotten out, that
there was a fary copous amount of radoactvty n the exposve, a he woud
have broken oose.. It woud scare the pants off a very arge fracton of the U.S.
ctzenry, by sayng ths was used by terrorsts, and contamnated an area."
|56|
Gven the government's ong hstory of coverng up radaton tests on U.S. ctzens,
from radatng entre towns downwnd of nucear test stes, to sppng radoactve
sotopes to crpped chdren n ther oatmea, t goes wthout sayng that they
woud aso cover ths up.|
"A new cass of nucear weapons coud exst whch coud have an extremey
dsturbng terrorst potenta," sad Cohen. "And to admt to the possbty that the
warheads mght be suffcenty compact to pose a rea terrorst threat was equay
unacceptabe |to the government|."
|57|
So was the Federa Budng bown up by demoton charges, a truck fed wth C-4,
a fue-ar exposve, a mnature nuke, or some combnaton of the above?
|"It reay doesn't make any dfference," says Cohen. "From the standpont of
practcaty. I woud ean towards Ben Partn. Because a the stuff Partn's put out,
t |ust hods up - t makes emnent sense - he doesn't have to get nto ths
exotca. Partn says usng ordnary Prmacord wrapped around these pars coud
have done the |ob."
|58|
In fact, t does make qute a bt of dfference from an nvestgatve pont of vew,
snce the more sophstcated the bomb, the more sophstcated the bombers. And
Tmothy McVegh and Terry Nchos weren't that sophstcated.|
KFOR-Channe 4 reported that the mysterous severed eg cothed n mtary garb
found n the rubbe aegedy had PVC embedded |n| t. PVC ppe s sometmes
used to pack pastc exposves. It ncreases the shear power. Had ths eg,
unmatched to any of the known vctms, beonged to the rea bomber?
|59|
|In fact, t does make qute a bt of dfference from an nvestgatve pont of vew,
snce the more sophstcated the bomb, the more sophstcated the bombers. And
Tmothy McVegh and Terry Nchos weren't that sophstcated.|
Then on March 20, 1996,Strate%ic (nestment Newsletter reported that a Pentagon
study had been eaked whch backed up Genera Partn's anayss:
A cassfed report prepared by two ndependent Pentagon experts has
concuded that the destructon of the federa budng n Okahoma Cty
ast Apr was caused by fve separate bombs. The two experts reached
the same concuson for the same technca reasons. Sources cose to
the Pentagon study say Tmothy McVegh dd pay a roe n the
bombng but perpheray, as a "usefu dot." The mutpe bombngs
14
have a Mdde Eastern "sgnature," pontng to ether Iraq or Syran
nvovement.
|60|
Fnay, n the Sprng of 1997, exposves experts at Egn Ar Force Base's Wrght
Laboratory Armament Drectorate reeased a study on the effects of exposves
aganst a renforced concrete budng smar to the Federa Budng. The Ar
Force's test cosey matched the condtons under whch the government contends
the Murrah Budng was destroyed.
The Egn Bast Effects Study, or EBES, nvoved a three-story renforced concrete
structure 80 ong, 40 feet wde, and 30 feet hgh. The budng constructed for the
test, the Egn Test Structure (ETS), whe smaer than the Murrah Budng, was
smar n desgn, wth three rows of coumns, and sx-nch-thck concrete panes
smar to those n the Murrah Budng. Overa, the ETS was consderaby weaker
than the Murrah, whch had fve tmes the amount of stee renforcng than the
ETS, and 10 tmes the amount of stee n ts coumns and beams. As New American
edtor Wam |asper noted n regards to the EBES:
If ar bast coud not effect catastrophc faure to the decdedy nferor
Egn structure, t becomes a the more dffcut to beeve that t was
responsbe for the destructon of the much stronger Murrah Budng.
The experts at Egn conducted three tests. They frst detonated 704 pounds of
Trtona (equvaent to 830 pounds of TNT or approxmatey 2,200 pounds of
ANFO), at a dstance of 40 feet from the structure, equvaent to the dstance the
Ryder truck was parked from the Murrah Budng. The second test utzed an Mk-
82 warhead (equvaent to 180 pounds of TNT) paced wthn the frst foor corner
room approxmatey four feet from the exteror wa. The thrd test nvoved a 250-
pound penetratng warhead (equvaent to 35 pounds TNT), paced n the corner of
a second foor room approxmatey two and a haf feet from the ad|onng was.
The frst detonaton demoshed the sx-nch-thck concrete wa panes on the frst
foor, but eft the renforcng stee bars ntact. The 14-nch coumns were
unaffected by the bast - a far cry from what occurred at the Murrah Budng. The
damages to the second and thrd foors fe off proportonay, unke that n
Okahoma Cty. The 56-page report concuded:
Due to these condtons, t s mpossbe to ascrbe the damage that
occurred on Apr 19, 1995 to a snge truck-bomb contanng 4,800 bs.
of ANFO. In fact, the maxmum predcted damage to the foor panes of
the Murrah Federa Budng s equa to approxmatey 1% of the tota
foor area of the budng. Furthermore, due to the ack of symmetrca
damage pattern at the Murrah Budng, t woud be nconsstent wth
the resuts of the ETS test |number| one to state that a of the damage
to the Murrah Budng s the resut of the truck-bomb. The damage to
the Murrah Federa Budng s consstent wth damage resutng from
mechancay couped devces paced ocay wthn the structure ....
15
It must be concuded that the damage at the Murrah Federa Budng s
not the resut of the truck-bomb tsef, but rather due to other factors
such as ocay paced charges wthn the budng tsef .... The
procedures used to cause the damage to the Murrah Budng are
therefore more nvoved and compex than smpy parkng a truck and
eavng ....
|61|
Even the Federa Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) was forced to concude
that 4,800 pounds of ANFO coud have not caused the so-caed crater n Okahoma
Cty. FEMA's report, pubshed on August 30, 1996, nadvertenty concuded that
the bombers woud have had to use approxmatey three tmes the amount
reportedy used n Okahoma Cty.
|62|
Another nterestng confrmaton came from FBI agent Danny Defenbaugh, who,
aong wth U.S. Attorney Beth Wkerson, vsted Genera Partn n |une of 1995.
Part of the team that prosecuted McVegh and Nchos, Wkerson ntervewed
Partn on the presumpton that he woud be caed as a wtness. ".and |Agent
Defenbaugh| was gong through the report that I dd," sad Partn, "and he put hs
fnger on that pcture I had n the report. the desgnated crater, and he sad,
'Suppose I tod you that s not the crater?'"
Partn beeves Wkerson and Defenbaugh (who Partn descrbed as begerent)
ntervewed hm as part of a ruse to fnd out what he knew about the bast(s), so
the government coud carefuy avod those ssues at tra. Whe they pretended to
be nterested n Partn's anayss, they never kept ther word to foow up the
ntervew.
"I thnk what they dd," sad Partn, "was they ooked at my credentas and
technca |ustfcaton of a ths stuff, and they fet found that what I had was based
on some pretty sound footng.. I thnk that's why they framed the case the way
they dd."
|63|
Whatever bew up the Afred P. Murrah Budng, one thng's for sure, there was
enough ANFO present at the ste to eave vsbe traces. Randy Ledger, a
mantenance man who was n the budng at the tme of the bast, cams feow
workers who rushed nto the budng mmedatey after the exposon "companed
of burnng eyes, heavy dust and chokng ungs. That s rght out of the textbook of
a dese-fertzer bomb, because t creates ntrc acd," sad Ledger. "The guys I
work wth, they're not gong to make t up that ther eyes are burnng."
|64|
Dr. Pau Heath, a VA psychoogst who was on the ffth foor of the budng at the
tme of the bast, sad, "I pcked fertzer out of my skn. I coud see the fertzer
actuay expodng n the ar; you coud see t poppng a around you."
Ramona McDonad, who aso survved the bast, concurs wth Heath. "There was a
brght fash, and then boom! And you coud see the fertzer poppng n the ar."
Gven ths scenaro, t's reasonabe to concude that the Ryder truck was fed wth
somethng more powerfu, wth |ust enough ANFO to eave a vsbe trace.
Cohen agrees. "The damage that resuted coud not have occurred from a van
parked outsde. I don't care how fancy an exposve was used. What dd n that
budng. was an nsde |ob."
It woud appear that experts' anayss' are not the ony evdence of an nsde |ob. In
an ntervew wth a oca TV staton, a man who escaped the budng sad, "I was
16
sttng at my desk, and I fet a rumbng, a shakng n the budng. so I decded to
get under my desk.. the gass wndows bew n and knocked down the ceng and
some of the stuff above the ceng and t a anded on top of my desk."
Another man sad, "I thought t was an earthquake because I resded n Caforna
for many years, and t was amost ke t was n sow moton. I fet a shake, and
then t began shakng more, and I dove under my desk, and then the gass a
came fyng n."
A frend of Dr. Ray Brown's, who's secretary was n the budng sad, "She was
standng by a wndow. The wndow cracked, then she got away from t and then
she was bown across the room and anded n another woman's ap. Another
woman I know, |udy Morse, got under her desk after feeng the budng shake,
and before the gass few."
"Dr. Bran Espe, who was the soe survvor n the Department of Agrcuture's ffth
foor offce, tod the author he frst "heard a rumbng nose."
Accordng to these ndvduas' accounts, f the truck-bomb - the aeged soe
bomb - had detonated frst, how woud they have fet a rumbng, had tme to
thnk about the stuaton, then dve under ther desks? The resutng bast wave
from the truck-bomb woud have been mmedate and tota. Such an account coud
ony be ndcatve of demoton charges paced nsde the budng.
|65|*
"The nsde charges - demoton charges," sad Cohen, "may have gone off frst,
and so the coumns now started to coapse. Boy, that woud produce one he of a
rumbe, to put t mdy.."
|66|
A caer to the Okahoma Rado Network reated the experences of hs frend, a
Federa Government worker, who had wtnessed the bast frst-hand. "He was
approxmatey fve bocks from the budng whenever the budng went up. He
cams that the top of the budng went up ke a msse gong through t. The
debrs was comng back down when the sde of the budng bew out. He sad thrd
and ast, the truck bew up on the street."
|67|
Notce ths wtness sad the budng "bew out." Ths s contrary to the effect of an
exposve bast from the street bowng the budng in from the street. Candy Avey,
who was on her way to the Soca Securty offce when the exposons occurred,
was bown away from the budng, struck a parkng meter, and then ht her car.
|68|
Sad Suzanne Steey, reportng ve for KFOR, "We coud see a the way through
the budng. That was |ust the force of the exposon - t |ust bew out a the was
and everythng nsde."
|69|
Ramona McDonad saw a fash and smoke rsng up from
inside the budng, "ke a rocket had shot out the top of the budng."
|70|
It shoud be obvous to the reader that t's mpausbe an ANFO bomb parked out
n the street woud have the force to bow a the way through a huge
superstructure ke the Afred P. Murrah Budng.
No matter how hard the government tred to e, obsfucate, and dstort the truth,
the evdence woud come back to haunt them.
On Apr 19, a tape recordng made durng a conference at the Water Resources
Board drecty across from the Murrah Budng appears to ndcate a successon of
bast events, spaced very cose together.
|71|
The tape recorder at the Water Resources Board was not the ony nstrument
recordng exposons that mornng. The sesmograph at the Okahoma Geoogca
Survey at the Unversty of Okahoma at Norman, 16 mes from the Murrah
17
Budng, recorded two waves, or "two events," on the mornng of Apr 19th.
Another sesmograph at the Omnpex Museum, four mes away from the Federa
Budng, aso recorded two events. These sesmc waves, or "spkes," spaced
approxmatey ten seconds apart, seem to ndcate two basts. |See Appendx|
Professor Raymond Brown, senor geophyscst at the Unversty of Okahoma who
studed the sesmograms, knew and taked to peope nsde the budng at the
tme of the bast. "My frst mpresson was, ths was a demoton |ob," sad Brown.
"Somebody who went n there wth equpment tred to take that budng down."
Not so, accordng to the U.S. Geoogca Survey's anayss. The USGS put out a
press reease on |une 1st, entted "Sesmc Records Support One-Bast Theory n
Okahoma Cty Bombng."
The bomb that destroyed the Afred P. Murrah Budng n Okahoma
Cty produced a tran of conventona sesmc waves, accordng to
nterpretatons by scentsts wth the U.S. Geoogca Survey and the
Okahoma Geoogca Survey (OGS).
Scentsts from those agences sad the sesmc recordngs of the May
23 demoton of the budng reproduced the character of the orgna,
Apr 19th sesmc recordng by producng two trans of sesmc waves
that were recorded on sesmometers near Norman, Oka.
"Sesmc recordngs from the budng's mposon ndcate that there
was ony one bomb exposon on Apr 19," sad Dr. Thomas Hozer, a
USGS geoogst n Meno Park, Caf. Hozer s one of severa USGS and
OGS scentsts who anayzed the shock waves created by the Apr 19
exposon and the May 23 mposon.
|72|
Hozer added that the two dstnct waves from the Apr 19 exposon(s) were the
resut of the same wave traveng at two dfferent speeds through two separate
ayers of the earth's crust. The "uson" of a doube exposon was smpy the
resut of the budng's coapse, he camed. "So the bottom ne then," sad Hozer,
"s I thnk these observatons are totay consstent wth a snge exposon. It
doesn't requre mutpe exposons to do t."
|73|
Dr. Brown has an honest dfference of opnon wth foks at the U.S. Geoogca
Survey. "I w canddy say that we are havng troube fndng that veocty
dfference," sad Brown. "We have not dentfed a par of ayers that coud account
for the ten-second dfference.
"Whatever the USGS saw n that data convnced them that the orgna bast was
one bomb," he added. "I fnd that hard to beeve.. What was uncomfortabe and
mght be construed as pressure s that they were gong to come out wth a press
reease that says we have concuded that data ndcates one bomb. It puts us n
the uncomfortabe stance of sayng that we, too, have concuded that, and we
haven't."
Yet the USGS press reease sad that Dr. Chares Mankn of the OGS, Brown's boss,
was "peased wth the work performed by Dr. Hozer and hs USGS coeagues n
the anayss of the sesmc records." Yet Mankn had actuay urged Hozer to deay
18
the press reease. "Everybody that has ooked at the sgna has sad a refracton
(an echo) woud reay be strange because there's absoutey no oss of energy n
the recorded sesmc sgna. The second event has the same amptude as the
frst. The arrva tme s wrong for a refracted wave. We've rued out refectons,
refractons, and the ar bast. We determned that these two records of these two
events corroborate our nterpretaton that there were two exposons."
|74|
The manstream meda, of course, |umped on the USGS's fndngs, wth headnes
ke "Snge Bomb Destroyed Budng" and "Sesmc Records Shake Murrah Mutpe
Bomb Theory." "The news meda even reported two bomb basts ntay," sad
Mankn, "but ater changed ther story."
"The USGS's concusons are not supported by ether data or anayss," added
Brown, who asked that hs name be taken off the report. Athough Brown cautons
that hs own concusons are far from concusve and requre "more thorough
nvestgaton," the most ogca expanaton for the second event says Brown, s "a
bomb on the nsde of the budng."
"Even the smaest of those detonatons (from the May 23rd demoton) had a
arger effect on the recordng than the coapse of the budng," he added, "whch
demonstrates that the exposves are much more effcent at exctng the ground
moton than s the coapse of three-fourths of the budng. So t s very unkey
that one-fourth of the budng fang on Apr 19th coud have created an energy
wave smar to that caused by the arge |truck-bomb| exposon."
|75|
One of the probems wth the two event theory s that the spkes on the sesmc
readngs were ten seconds apart. Wth that much dfference, most everybody n
the vcnty shoud have heard two separate basts. But gven the traumatc nature
of beng n the mmedate vcnty of a bombng, woud wtnesses necessary have
heard two exposons? Athough the sound of a truck-bomb woud certany have
made a oud, roarng nose, compete wth ots of smoke and fyng debrs, experts
say that the "crack" of a C-4 cuttng charge s "downrght dsappontng" to hear.
One man who works as a parkng garage attendant one bock north of the Murrah
Budng tod The New American that he was test drvng a new pckup truck near
the budng when the bomb went off. "It seemed ke one, bg, ong exposon," he
sad, "but I can't say for sure. My ears were rngng and gass and rocks and
concrete were fang a over and around me."
|76|
Dr. Pau Heath, who was on the ffth foor, says he heard ony one bast. But feow
VA worker |m Guthre stated n an ntervew wth the Washin%ton )ost:
"I fet a boom and was pcked up off my feet and thrown under a water
fountan." He heard a second exposon and covered hs ears. Dane
Dooey, who was at a thrd foor starwe, aso beeves she heard a
second exposon.
|77|
P. G. Wson, who worked n the Murrah Budng, tod researcher Mchee Moore, "A
second exposon came after the frst one and shards of gass began fyng n the
offce."
|78|
Hassan Muhammad, who was drvng for a devery servce that day, had hs ears
ruptured by the exposons. Muhammad tod the author he ceary recaed hearng
two dstnct basts. ".when I was crossng the street |at 10th and Robnson|. the
19
frst exposon went off, and t was a oud exposon. And my frend who was
comng out of the warehouse asked me what was t, because we thought t was a
drve-by shootng. and we got on the ground, and by the tme we got on the
ground, another one went off, and that's when a the wndows came out."
Muhammad recas that t was about three to four seconds between basts.
|79|
|ane C. Graham, a HUD worker n|ured n the bombng, aso ceary fet two dstnct
basts. As Graham stated n a vdeotaped deposton: "I want to specfy that the
frst bomb - the frst mpact - the frst effect, was a wavng effect, that you got
when the budng was movng, you mght have maybe fet a tte wavng, perhaps
an earthquake movement, and that asted for severa seconds.
"About 6 or 7 seconds ater, a bomb expoded. It was an entrey dfferent sound
and thrust. It was ke t came up rght from the center up. You coud fee the
budng move a tte.. But there were two dstnct events that occurred. The
second bast not ony was very, very oud, t was aso very powerfu. And as I sad, I
|ust fet ke t was comng straght on up from the center of the budng - straght
up."
|80|
Mchae Hnton, who was on a bus near NW 5th and Robnson - one bock away -
aso heard two exposons. "I had |ust sat down when I heard ths voent type
rumbe under the bus," sad Hnton. "It was a pushng type moton - t actuay
rased that bus up on ts sde. About sx or seven seconds ater another one whch
was more voent than the frst pcked the bus up agan, and I thought that second
tme the bus was gong to turn over."
|81|
What Hnton s descrbng s consstent wth a two-bomb scenaro. The frst, smaer
exposon beng the more subdued bast of the demoton charges. The second,
arger exposon beng the bast of the truck-bomb - the bast pressure wave of
whch amost tpped the bus over.
In an ntervew wth Media $y*ass magazne, attorney Chares Watts, who was n
the Federa Courthouse across the street, descrbed hearng, and feeng, two
separate basts:
Watts: I was up on the nnth foor, the top foor of the Bankruptcy
Court, wth nothng n between the two budngs. We were on the
south sde, out n the foyer, outsde the courtroom. It was nne o'cock,
or |ust very, very shorty thereafter. Severa awyers were standng
there takng and there was a arge exposon. It threw severa of the
peope cose to me to the foor. I don't thnk t threw me to the foor,
but t dd move me sgnfcanty, and I threw mysef to the foor, and
got down, and about that tme, a huge bast, unke anythng I've ever
experenced, ht.
Media Bypass: The bast wave ht?
Watts: A second bast. There were two exposons. The second bast
made me thnk that the whoe budng was comng n.
20
Watts, a Vetnam veteran, has experenced the effects of bombngs, ncudng
beng wthn 100 feet of B-52 ar strkes. Watts tod Media $y*ass he never
experenced anythng ke ths before.
|82|
Another veteran who heard the bast s George Waace, a retred Ar Force fghter
pot wth 26 years n the servce. Waace, who ves nne mes northwest of the
Federa Budng descrbed the bast as a "sustaned, oud, ong rumbe, ke severa
exposons." Waace kened the nose to that of a successon of bombs beng
dropped by B-52s.
|83|
Taken together, the evdence and wtness accounts appears to ndcate that there
were at east two basts on the mornng of Apr 19.
Genera Partn, aong wth Senator Inhoffe, Representatve Key and others, asked
Congress that the budng not be demoshed unt an ndependent forensc team
coud be brought n to nvestgate the damage.
"It s easy to determne whether a coumn was faed by contact demoton charges
or by bast oadng (such as a truck-bomb)," Partn wrote n hs etter to Congress.
"It s aso easy to cover up cruca evdence as was apparenty done n Waco. I
understand that the budng s to be demoshed by May 23rd or 24th. Why the
rush to destroy the evdence?"
|84|
Cohen echoed Partn's sentments: "I beeve that demoton charges n the
budng paced at certan key concrete coumns dd the prmary damage to the
Murrah Federa Budng. I concur wth the opnon that an nvestgaton by the
Okahoma State Legsature s absoutey necessary to get at the truth of what
actuay caused the tragedy n Okahoma Cty."
Yet the feds n fact dd demosh the Murrah Budng on May 23, destroyng the
evdence whe ctng the same reason as they dd for qucky demoshng the
Waco compound: "heath hazards." In the Waco case, what was destroyed was
evdence that the feds had fred from hecopters nto the roof of the budng
durng the eary part of the rad, kng severa peope, ncudng a nursng mother.
In the Okahoma case, what was destroyed was evdence that the coumns had
been destroyed by demoton charges.
|85|
The rubbe from the Murrah Budng was haued by Mdwest Wreckng to a andf
surrounded by a guarded, barbed-wre fence, sfted for evdence wth the hep of
the Natona Guard, then subsequenty haued off BFI Waste Management and
bured. Aong wth t was bured the evdence of what reay happened on the
mornng of Apr 19.
"It's a cassc cover-up," sad Genera Partn, "a cassc cover-up."
"Eerything !hort of a T-"# Tan$"
If the bombng of the Murrah Budng was the resut of an nsde |ob, who s
responsbe? Was t wred for demoton, and f so, who coud have wred t?
Dr. Heath, who has worked n the Murrah Budng for 22 years, was present on the
day of the bombng. Athough Heath personay dscounts the second bomb theory,
he expaned that poor securty n the budng woud have permtted access to
amost anyone, anytme.
"The securty was so ax n ths budng, that one ndvdua or group of ndvduas
coud have had access to any of those coumns," sad Heath, "amost n every part
of the budng, before or after hours, or even durng the hours of the workday, and
coud have panted bombs."
21
Guy Rubsamen, the Federa Protectve Servces guard on duty the nght of the
18th, sad that nobody had entered the budng. Yet Rubsamen took off at 2:00
a.m., and sad that nobody was guardng the budng from 2:00 a.m. to 6:00 a.m.
|86|
"It was a budng you coud have panted a bomb n anytme you wanted to," sad
Heath. "It was a budng that was not secure at a. I've gone n and out of ths
budng wth a pen knfe, |ust by sppng a knfe n the south doors, sde the bot
back, and go n wthout a key. I've done that ever snce the budng was new. If
you wanted nto t, you coud have gotten nto t any tme you wanted to."
|87|
Heath aso expaned that vstors coud drve rght nto the garage, anytme.
"There was no guard. You coud drve nsde the garage - four stores - anytme
you wanted to, and carry anythng you wanted to nsde the car."
|88|
It appears that aeged bomber Tmothy McVegh (or someone drvng hs car) dd
|ust that. On the mornng of Apr 19, attorney |ames Lnehan was stopped for a
ght at the corner of NW 4th and Robnson at approxmatey 8:38 a.m. when he
observed a battered yeow Mercury run the ght and drve drecty nto the
underground parkng garage. Lnehan sad the drver had sharp faca features
smar to McVegh's, athough he thought the drver may have been a woman.
Referrng to the we-pubzed scene of McVegh beng ed out of the Nobe County
Courthouse, Lnehan sad, ".that's t! That's the same profe." Curousy, one
month ater Lnehan sad, "My gut feeng s that t was a femae drvng."
|89|
Why dd "McVegh" drve nto the garage? Coud he have done so to pant
addtona bombs? Or perhaps someone n McVegh's car made t a**ear that he
was dong so? A fa-guy for the rea bombers?
"If McVegh was totay outsde the aw, he certany woudn't have snugged up
aganst them ke drvng nto that basement that mornng," sad Davd Ha,
genera manager of KPOC-TV n Ponca Cty, Okahoma, who has nvestgated the
ATF's roe n the bombng."
Yet Ha doesn't beeve "the ATF or the FBI or anybody went around and wred
coumns or anythng ke that. What he (Partn) sad was that there may have been
some exposves stored by some coumns that went off. I don't fee that those
peope set out to k 168 peope n Okahoma Cty ntentonay. But I thnk that
because of ncompetence on ther part that very we may have happened n two or
three dfferent ways."
Shorty after the bombng, an undentfed wtness caed Representatve Key and
tod hm that she saw two men n the garage who appeared to be "sawng" on the
pars. The men were workng n amost tota darkness. When she asked them
what they were dong, they sad, "We're |ust puttng thngs rght agan."
Were they "puttng thngs rght," or were they weakenng the support coumns |ust
enough to make sure that they'd fa at the approprate moment?
|90|
Then, on the Frday before the bombng, HUD worker |ane Graham notced three
men n the garage whom she thought were teephone reparmen. As Graham
stated n her deposton, the men were hodng what appeared to be C-4 pastc
exposves:
"It was a bock, probaby 2 by 3 nches of 3 by 4, n that area, but t
was a putty coor - sod pece of bock - I don't know what t was. But
22
they had that and they had ths wrng. When they saw me watchng
them, they were down there and they had pans of the budng. They
were dscussng - they were argung n fact - apparenty there was a
dsagreement, because one of the men was pontng to varous areas
of the garage. They were takng about, I assume, pans of the budng.
I thought maybe they were teephone men at frst.
"When they saw me watchng them, they took the wrng - t ooked
ke cord, teephone cord - t was putty coored - they took whatever
ese was n ther hand, they put a of that back nto a paper sack, they
put t n the drver's sde, behnd the passenger seat |of a| pae green,
sghty faded staton wagon."
Graham ater tod me that one of the men was hodng a one by two by three nch
devce that ooked ke "some sort of ccker, ke a sma TV remote-contro," she
sad.
The men stopped workng abrupty when they saw Graham. "They ooked
uncomfortabe," she sad. "They were as ntent ookng at me as I was at them."
She aso stated that the men were not wearng unforms and were not drvng a
teephone or eectrc company truck. They were, however, very we but. They
"obvousy fted weghts" sad Graham.
(Graham's account s backed up by IRS worker Kathy Wburn, who aso saw the
tro of men n the garage, as dd a HUD empoyee named |oan.)
||91||
Athough the FBI ntervewed Graham, they never showed her any pctures or
brought her before a sketch artst. "They ony wanted to know f I coud dentfy
McVegh or Nchos," she sad. "I sad t was nether of these two gentemen."
|92|
A ca to the oca eectrc, teephone, and natura gas companes reveaed that the
men were not authorzed reparmen. Nor were they constructon workers
nspectng the premses for a proposed renovaton pro|ect by the Genera Servces
Admnstraton (GSA). The 20 or so contractors nvoved n that bd stated
emphatcay that the men were not ther empoyees.
|93|
Davd Ha (who stopped workng on the case n ate 1995 due to an IRS audt)
wasn't aware of the Graham deposton, he dd drop a bombshe.
"We do know that exposves were devered there wthout a doubt. We know there
were sx boxes of 25 to 35 pounds marked 'hgh exposves' devered to the
budng two weeks pror to the exposon. We had contact wth the truck drver
who was nvoved n that devery. The name of the truckng company s Tr-State,
ocated n |opn, Mssour."
Tr-state. s an exposves carrer.
"We've taked to the drver," sad Ha. "We've taked to two drvers. Nobody knows
what was n them because they were boxed and marked 'hgh exposve.'"
Then Ha dropped another bombshe.
"We aso know that the ATF had a magazne nsde the budng, whch was ega.
But the foor was bown out of that magazne. And there's some queston about
what was n there too that created that damage, because that was a foot of
concrete that was bown out of that magazne."
|94|
23
Whe severa other unexpoded bombs were pued out of the wreckage, none
were wdey mentoned.
One such bomb was a 2 X 2 foot box marked "Hgh Exposves" which had a timer
on it. Ths was confrmed by Okahoma Cty Fre Marsha Dck Mer. The tmng
mechansm apparenty had been set to detonate at ten mnutes after nne.
Apparenty t had mafunctoned due to the nta bast.
|95|
Accordng to Ton Garrett, a nurse who was on the scene taggng dead bodes.
"Four peope - rescue workers - tod us there was a bomb n the budng wth a
tmng mechansm set to go off ten mnutes after nne." Accordng to Garrett,
wtnesses tod her t was an actve bomb. "We saw the bomb squad take t
away."
|96|
Ths fact was confrmed by an Okahoma Cty Poce offcer who nadvertenty
began to wak nto the budng when a freman yeed, "Hey dot, that's a bomb!"
The stunned offcer ooked over and saw the 2 X 2 box surrounded by poce crme
tape. He then heard the freman ye, "There's one over there and another over
there! We're watng for the bomb squads to come back from haung off the
others."
Investgator Ph O'Haoran has B Martn of the Okahoma Cty Poce Department
on tape statng that one of the bombs found n the budng was two to three fve-
gaon contaners of Mercury Fumnate - a powerfu exposve - one not easy
obtanabe except to mtary sources.
|97|
Ctzens montorng poce rados heard the foowng conversaton on the mornng
of the 19th:
%irst oice: "Boy, you're not gonna' beeve ths!"
!econd oice: "Beeve what?"
%irst oice: "I can't beeve t. ths s a mtary bomb!"
|98|
Apparenty, the contaners, wth "Mspec" (mtary specfcaton) markngs ceary
vsbe, were found n the basement. Coud ths expan what McVegh's car was
dong n the underground parkng garage? Mercury Fumnate s a hghy voate
booster matera. Voate enough to create a very powerfu exposon.
|99|
Shorty thereafter, a freman up on the thrd foor of the budng notced two
mtary ambuances pu up to the budng, and saw severa men n dark fatgues
carryng stretchers from the budng to the watng ambuances. What were on the
stretchers were not bodes, but boxes, whch appeared to contan documents. One
of the stretchers had on t what appeared to be a msse aunch tube. The msse,
apparenty part of the Army recrutng offce's dspay, was confrmed the 61st EOD
to be nert.
|100||101|
What s aso nterestng s that Genera Partn stated the budng's support
structures faed prmary at the thrd foor eve. In specuatng who woud have
access at that |uncture, t may be reevant to note that the Department of Defense
(DoD) was on the thrd foor, ad|onng coumn B-3, whch Partn beeves contaned
the man detonaton charge.
|102|
24
Partn was aso nformed by an acquantance n the CIA that severa of ther
personne who examned the ste dscovered Mercury Fumnate resdue on severa
rooftops near the budng.
|103|
Around the same tme as the Egn Ar Force Base report was beng made pubc,
Wam Northrop, a former Israe ntegence agent, tod me that a frend n the
CIA's Drectorate of Operatons nformed hm that there was pastc exposve
resdue on the budng's coumns.
Addng more fue to the theory of an nsde |ob was the dsmembered mtary eg
found n the wreckage - a eg not beongng to any of the known vctms.
(Athough authortes woud ater attempt to attrbute the eg to Arman Lakesha
Levy.)
Nor was the oca meda attrbutng the bombng to the work of amateurs. "Rght
now, they are sayng that ths s the work of a sophstcated group," stated a KFOR-
TV newscaster. "Ths s the work of a sophstcated devce, and t had to have been
done by an exposves expert, obvousy, wth ths type of exposon."
|104|
Even Governor Frank Keatng tod oca news statons: "The reports I have s that
one devce was deactvated, and there's another devce, and obvousy whatever
dd the damage to the Murrah Budng was a tremendous, very sophstcated
exposve devce."
Newscasters ve on the scene coud be heard throughout the day announcng, "We
have reports of two other bombs pued out of the budng," and "The second two
devces were arger than the frst," and so on:
K%O& Channel ': The FBI has confrmed there s another bomb n the
Federa Budng. It's n the East sde of the budng. They've moved
everybody back severa bocks, obvousy to, uh, unpug t so t wont go
off. They're movng everybody back. It's a. t's a werd scene because
at frst everybody was runnng when they gave the word to get
everybody away from the scene, but now peope are |ust standng
around knd of starng. It's a very surrea, very strange scene.
Now, we want to get some nformaton out to peope, to peope who
are n the downtown area. You don't want to stand on the sdewak,
and the reason for that s there are gas mans underneath and f
there's a second exposon, that those gas mans coud bow. But,
agan, we do have confrmaton. There s a second bomb n the Federa
Budng. We know t's on the east sde. We're not sure what foor, what
eve, but there s defntey danger of a ma|or second exposon.
They're warnng everybody to get as far back as they can. They're
tryng to get the bomb defused rght now. They are n the process of
dong t, but ths coud take some tme. They're teng peope that ths
s somethng to take very serousy, and not to sp forward to get a
ook at ths, because ths thng coud defntey go off.
KWT( Channel ): A rght, we |ust saw, f you were watchng, there,
there was a whte pckup truck backng a traer nto the scene here.
They are tryng to get peope out of the way so that they can get t n.
25
Appears to be the Okahoma Bomb Squad. It's ther Bomb Dsposa
Unt, s what t s, and t s what they woud use f, f, the report that we
gave you |ust a few mnutes ago s correct, that a second exposve
devce of some knd s nsde the budng. They' back that traer n
there, and the Bomb Squad foks w go n and they' use that traer.
You see the bucket on the back? Ths s how they woud transport the
Exposve Devce away from ths popuated area. They woud try to do
somethng.
Fnay, KFOR announced:
The second exposve was found and defused. The thrd exposve was
found - and they are workng on t rght now as we speak. (
understand that +oth the second and the third e#*losies were lar%er
than the first.
|105|
|Paramedc Tffany Smth, who was workng wth other rescue personne n the
Murrah Budng that mornng, cams she was tod by a back-suted ATF agent that
another bomb had been found attached to a gas ne.
|106|
|
When Channe 4 ntervewed terrorsm expert Dr. Randa Heather at
approxmatey 1:00 P.M. he stated: "We shoud fnd out an awfu ot, when these
bombs are taken apart.. We got ucky today, f you can consder anythng about
ths tragedy ucky. It's actuay a great stroke of uck, that we've got defused
bombs. It's through the bomb matera that we' be abe to track down who
commtted ths atrocty."
|107|
In fact, t s uncertan f the bombs were taken apart and examned. As stated n a
report prepared by the Natona Fre Protecton Assocaton: "The devce was
removed n the sherff's bomb traer and expoded n a remote ocaton."
|108||109|
Incredby, a these reports were qucky hushed up and dened ater on. Suddeny,
the addtona bombs nsde the budng became a car-bomb outside the budng,
then a van contanng 2,000 pounds of ANFO, then a truck contanng 4,800
pounds.
Governor Keatng, who hmsef had reported a second devce, woud ater reverse
hs poston, eadng a statewde cover-up procamng that Representatve Key and
others nvestgatng addtona bombs and suspects were "howng at the moon,"
and "off the reservaton."
When |.D. Cash, a |ournast wrtng for the Mc!urtain !ounty ,a-ette, tred to
ntervew members of the Bomb Squad, Fre Department and Poce, he was
generay tod by potenta ntervewees, "I saw a ot that day, I wsh I hadn't. I have
a wfe, a |ob, a famy. I've been threatened, we've been tod not to tak about the
devces."
|110|
When I attempted to ntervew two members of the Sherff's Bomb Squad who
were frst on the scene, they tod me there were no addtona bombs taken away
or detonated. When questoned further they became vsby uptght and referred
me to ther superor.
One aw-enforcement offca who had a tte more practce at yng was Okahoma
Cty FBI SAC Bob Rcks, the master propagandst of Waco fame, who cooy stated
26
to the press, "We never dd fnd another devce.. we confrmed that no other
devce exsted."
|111|
The ATF, who ntay dened even havng any exposves n the budng,
eventuay recanted ther statements and tod reporters that the 2 X 2 foot box was
a "tranng bomb." I asked Genera Partn f there coud be such a thng as an ATF
"tranng bomb."
"I woud certany not thnk so," sad Partn. "Look, when you have an EOD team -
EOD teams are very we traned peope. And any tranng devce woud have to be
so abeed - so abeed. And the EOD peope who were there were camng t was
exposves."
|112|
Former ATF man Rck Sherrow had hs own thoughts on the ssue of tranng
bombs. "A the fed offces have that matera (tranng bombs). It's 100 percent
on the outsde - weghs the same, ooks the same, but t has no f - no nert
markngs or anythng ese. I can't say absoutey that's what was found n the
budng, but t's more than key. They had stun grenades too, whch are ve. They
can't contrbute or anythng |to the damage|, but they ed about t, and that |ams
up ther credbty."
|113|
Cash ntervewed GSA workers who heped the ATF unoad ther arsena room two
weeks after the bast. Cash descrbed n a seres of ,a-ette artces begnnng on
May 4, 1995, how the ATF had stored weapons, exposves and ammunton n the
Murrah Budng n contraventon of the very aws they were supposed to enforce:
Both the Acoho, Tobacco and Frearms Bureau (ATF) and the Drug
Enforcement Bureau (DEA) had exposves and weapons - ncudng
an ant-tank msse - egay stored n the budng when t bew up
Apr 19, the Mc!urtain ,a-ette has earned. An eyewtness observer
tod the ,a-ette recenty of assstng federa agents to remove
weapons and exposve devces from a partay-damaged arsena
nsde the Federa Budng after the exposon.
|114|
Lester Martz, ATF Speca Agent n Charge for the regon, dened ths. "That ocker
was ntact," sad Martz n an ntervew wth the "allas Mornin% News, and wth the
author. Martz went on to say that the basted out area between coumns B-2 and
B-4 was the resut of DEA ordnance. Yet the DEA offces were on the west side of
the budng on the seventh foor, nowhere near that area. The ATF offces,
however, were n cose proxmty to t, beng ocated n the top rear corner of the
budng, on the east sde.
ATF offcas were adamant n denyng that no exposves were stored n the
budng. But t seems they dd have C-4. OCPD Offcer Don Brownng, who vewed
vdeo footage taken by Sherff Mevn Sumter, says C-4 was "defntey" carred out
of the budng. Brownng, a Vetnam veteran, descrbed the exposves he saw: "It
was n wde bocks, about 3/4" thck, around 10" ong, and about 2" wde, wrapped
n ceophane."
|115||116|
Cash ntervewed at east one unnamed wtness who descrbed hepng ATF agents
remove ordnance from ther storage ocker:
27
"One nght, up on the nnth foor, where the ATF offces |were|, I heped
some of ther agents oad onto an eevator sma arms, machne guns,
severa cases of ammunton and even some boxes marked
'Exposves'" he sad.
|117|
The ,a-ette ntervewed two more wtnesses who asssted n the post bombng
cean-up. One, a cvan contractor hred by the GSA, tod the ,a-ette |uy 30th:
"They had everythng! .home-made zp guns, AK-47s, sawed-off
shotguns, AR-15s, M-16s - teray hundreds of guns. You name t,
they had t a. any knd of weapon you coud ever want." He aso sad
he recas seeng an ATF agent wth a fve-gaon bucket of hand-
grenades.
"They carred out every concevabe type of frearm known to man," Cash tod
vdeo producer Chuck Aen, "ncudng hundreds of thousands of rounds of
ammunton, boxes marked exposves, hand grenades, everythng short of a
Russan T-72 tank." Fnay, a wtness tod the ,a-ette:
"What was eft of that |ATF magazne| room s n the far south-east end
of the nnth foor, but much of t was bown away and |apparenty|
dsappeared nto the rubbe rght on top of the Amerca's Kds Day Care
Center."
The area |ust beow the ATF's arsena room - the coned-n area on the far eft
(south-east) sde of the budng seen n aera photographs - s where most of the
casuates occurred. Ths area extends one to two stores beow the street eve.
(See Appendx)
Apparenty, ths s not the frst tme such a "mshap" has occurred. Approxmatey
10 years ago, some captured Sovet ordnance, ncudng rockets wth hgh-
exposve warheads, wound up stored at FBI headquarters n Washngton, D.C.
There was a subsequent fre, and the expodng ordnance caused more than a
tte consternaton among frefghters, especay when one rocket took off and
basted a two-foot dameter hoe n a cnder bock wa. When the story eaked out,
the ATF reacted by removng more than 30 pounds of exposves from ther offces
down the street.
|118|
In Aen's vdeo, Cash makes the asserton that the massve nterna damage to the
budng was the resut of secondary exposons caused by these egay stored
exposves. The ordnance, whch ncuded percusson caps for C-4 (and C-4 tsef),
had faen from ther nnth foor storage area after the nta truck bast, Cash
suggests, to one of the ower foors, where t detonated, causng massve nterna
damage. Accordng to Cash's experts, athough C-4 s reatvey safe to hande, t
can be set off wth 3500 p.s.. of pressure.
Genera Partn dsagrees wth Cash's anayss, expanng: "For anythng to have
tumbed down from up there and done the ncreased damage s techncay
mpossbe. If somethng had faen after that secton had coapsed and caused
an exposon that brought down |coumn| B-3, the thng woud not have cropped
28
the way t dd. If you ook up there at the top eft hand sde, you don't see anythng
up there that woud ndcate that you had a bg bow-out at the top. If t had, t
woudn't of had anythng to do wth the coumn coapsng down beow - they're
too far away."
I asked Partn f C-4 coud expode due to the ncreased ar pressure resutng from
the truck bast, from the weght of fang debrs, or smpy by fang eght or nne
stores.
"Look," sad Partn, "C-4 s knda' tough to get to go; ammonum ntrate s even
tougher. It takes a rea ntense shock wave to get that knd of exposve to go."
Partn then added, "I thought I expaned t to Cash, but I guess he's persstng wth
hs story."
Why Cash woud persst wth hs story whe argey sde-steppng Partn's anayss
s curous. Yet f the ATF were responsbe for the secondary exposon, t woud
seem they woud have reason to e.
|119|
|Not ony were they storng exposves
egay n a pubc budng contanng a day-care center, but amost the entre
contngent of approxmatey 13 agents was absent on the day of the bombng
(more on ths ater).|
Was the ATF n fact responsbe, knowngy or unknowngy, for the exposon that
destroyed the Murrah budng? Consder the foowng artce whch appeared n
the |une 5, 1995 ssue of Newsweek:
For the past year, the ATF and the Army Corps of Engneers have been
bowng up car bombs at the Whte Sands Provng Ground n New
Mexco. The pro|ect, code-named Dpoe Mght, s desgned to create a
computer mode to unrave terrorst car-and truck-bomb attacks. By
concdence, a ATF agent assgned to Dpoe Mght, happened to be n
Okahoma Cty on Apr 19th, workng at the Federa Courthouse, whch
stands across the street from the Murrah Budng. He saw the
devastaton and caed the ATF offce n Daas. The Murrah Budng
had |ust been ht by 'ANFO' (ammonum matera) bomb of at east
severa thousand pounds, he reported. Wthn mnutes, exposves
agents traned under Dpoe Mght were dspatched to the scene. They
dentfed the type and sze of the bomb amost mmedatey.
|ust how ths agent (Harry Eberhardt) was abe to mmedatey ascertan the
budng had been bown up by an ANFO bomb, when no forensc anayss had yet
been conducted, s uncear. When Ph O'Haoran, a freeance |ournast, attempted
to ask the ATF Pubc Reatons Bureau why a Dpoe Mght expert |ust happened to
be n the courthouse at that moment, and how he coud mmedatey have known
the exact nature of the bomb, O'Haoran, rather than gven a ratona expanaton,
was accused of attackng the agency and was promsed a fax of agency vews on
Rght-wng conspracsts (whch never arrved).
|120|
It s aso uncear why was the Sherff's Bomb Squad was n the parkng ot between
the Murrah Budng and the Federa Courthouse at 7:45 that mornng. The Bomb
Squad denes beng there. But Norma Smth and other Federa Courthouse
empoyees reca seeng the Bomb Squad's dstnctve whte truck. "We dd wonder
29
what t was dong n our parkng ot," recaed Smth. "|okngy, I sad, 'We, I guess
we' fnd out soon enough.'"
|121|
Okahoma Cty attorney Dane |. Adomts tod the Forth Worth Star-Tele%ram he
aso saw the Bomb Squad there that mornng. "As I was passng the back sde of
the County Courthouse, I notced a truck wth a traer and the truck sad 'Bomb
Dsposa.' I remember thnkng as I passed that , 'Gee, I wonder f they had a bomb
threat at the county courthouse?'"
|122|
Was the bomb squad aerted that somethng was n the works? Not accordng to
the ever-controvertfu Lester Martz. "I have not come across any nformaton that
any knd of bomb unt was at the budng pror to the bombng," announced Martz
wth a straght face at the same tme he auded the herosm of Luke Franey, the
ATF agent who supposedy "karate-kcked" hs way through three was.
|123|
What s certan s that the Murrah Budng had a bomb threat one week pror to the
19th. Mchae Hnton remembers ookng out the wndow of hs YMCA room a week
before and seeng about 200-300 peope gathered outsde. The ncdent ddn't |og
hs memory unt the oca TV networks announced on the mornng of the bast that
the Federa Budng had receved a threat |ust a week before.
|124|
Nurse Ton Garret recaed takng to severa peope who sad there had been bomb
threats two weeks pror to the bombng. "The FBI and the ATF knew that these
bomb threats were rea, and they dd nothng about t."
Terrorsm expert Dr. Randa Heather confrmed these reports, addng, "I know that
there had been a threat phoned n to the FBI ast week, but I don't know what the
nature of that was."
|125|
Accordng to the Okahoma Cty Fre Department, the FBI phoned n a warnng on
Apr 14, amost a week before the bombng. Assstant Fre Chef Chares Ganes
tod Genn Wburn, who ost two grandsons n the bast, that there was never any
warnng. The grevng grandfather then waked down the ha to Assstant Chef
Dspatcher Harvey Weathers offce. Weathers tod Wburn n no uncertan terms
that the Fre Department had ndeed receved a warnng on Apr 14. Reatng
Ganes' apparent oss of memory to Weathers, he reped, "We, you asked me and
I tod you. I'm not gong to e for anybody.."
|126|
|Of course, one person perfecty wng to e for eery+ody was FBI SAC Bob
Rcks.| When asked durng a press conference f the FBI had receved a warnng,
Rcks sad, "The FBI n Okahoma Cty has not receved any threats to ndcate that
a bombng was about to take pace."
Interestng pay on words. Was Rcks surrepttousy suggestng that one of the
other FBI offces had receved a warnng? Or was there smpy no reason for the FBI
to receve a warnng because they were n charge of the bombng from the
begnnng?
The transparent stores of the ATF and FBI are strkngy famar to those
propounded n the wake of the 1993 Word Trade Center bombng. In that case, the
FBI had one of ts own nformants - former Egyptan Army Coone Emad E Saem
- nsde the group responsbe for the bombng. Accordng to Saem, who made
secret tapes of hs conversatons wth hs FBI hander, Nancy Foyd, her supervsor
refused to et Saem substtute a harmess powder for the rea exposve. The agent
then pued Saem off the case. Soon afterwards, the bomb bew up, kng sx
peope and n|urng amost a 1,000 more.
|127|
30
It aso seems that the "concdence" of the ATF's Dpoe Mght tests were uncanny
smar to the May 24, 1990 bombng of Earth Frst! actvst |ud Bar. The FBI
camed that Bar and her companon Dary Cherney, who were on ther way to a
peacefu protest ray, had nadvertenty bown themseves up wth ther own ppe-
bomb. After Bar sued the FBI for fase arrest and cv rghts voatons, she found
out though dscovery that the FBI ran a "bomb schoo" at Eureka Coege of the
Redwoods n Apr of 1990 for both FBI and oca poce. The casses ncuded
bowng up cars wth ppe bombs, ostensby to demonstrate the tactcs used by
terrorsts (the same reason cted n the ATF's case). The nstructor for ths "schoo
of terrorsm" was none other than Frank Doye |r., the FBI bomb squad expert who
showed up at the scene of Bar's car bombng one month ater.
Accordng to Freedom of Informaton Act records, Pro|ect Dpoe Mght was ntated
under the authorzaton of Cnton's Natona Securty Counc. One of the stated
purposes of the pro|ect was to produce computer modes of bombngs to "be
dspayed n a courtroom to ad n the prosecuton of defendants." The |ustce
Department used the vdeo tapes shot at Whte Sands durng McVegh's tra to
"prove" that an ANFO bomb bew up the budng. As Lawrence Myers, wrtng n
Media $y*ass magazne, asked:
Why the Natona Securty Counc woud fund such an ATF pro|ect,
despte the absoute rarty of the crme, has not been expaned.. Nor
has t been expaned as to what specfc threat assessment
nformaton the government had when t decded to engage n such a
pro|ect, |ust a few months before a Ryder Truck aden wth ammonum
ntrate fertzer expoded n front of the Murrah Budng.
|128|
As Myers ponts out, the ast-known case of a truck-bomb expodng n the U.S. was
n 1970, when an ANFO bomb expoded n front of the Army Math ab at the
Unversty of Wsconsn n Madson. Why then, woud the Natona Securty Counc
suddeny fee the need for detaed nformaton regardng ANFO truck-bomb
attacks?
Was the ATF expectng such a bombng? Were they n fact responsbe for bast or
the secondary damage to the budng? Or was the budng wred for demoton as
part of a arger pot?
|"I'm frmy convnced that the ATF s guty of an awfu ot of thngs," sad Bud, our
ex-Green Beret. "I mean, f you ook at what the ATF and the FBI dd to Randy
Weaver (and at Waco), t's |ust awfu. They've gone hog wd and have |become| a
power unto themseves."
Asked f he thought a rogue group or speca unt wthn the mtary/ntegence
communty coud or woud commt such an act, Bud reped "It woudn't reay stun
me."|
Next | Prevous | Contents | Text Verson
#
"The %ace of Terror"
31
.$efore the ,oernment tries to conict someone/ they try first to demoni-e him0.
- Tra awyer Gerry Spence
On May 1st, a stunned Amerca was ntroduced to "The Face of Terror." The steey-
eyed mug of Tmothy |ames McVegh, supermposed over the mp, boody body of
a tny dead chd, stared cody out at us from the cover of Time magazne.
Suddeny, there was no onger any doubt who had bombed the Murrah Budng. As
|ohn Doe No. 1 was ed from the Nobe County Courthouse n handcuffs and eg
rons, the scene was somethng akn to a medeva scrpt. "Baby Ker!" the crowd
screamed. "Burn hm! Burn hm!"
In the pages that foowed, Time and others woud set out to "revea the paranod
fe and tmes of accused bomber Tmothy McVegh and hs Rght-wng
assocates."
|129|
Wth the nk barey dry on the ndctments, the natona news
meda qucky began pumpng out story after story focusng on the trva banates
of McVegh's fe, attemptng to renforce the offca aegatons of hs gut. Whe
the New 'ork Times set the overa tone based on "eaks" from federa aw
enforcement sources, sef-styed experts came crawng out of the woodwork.
"In deepy dsturbng ways, hs s a portrat of hs generaton," qupped Dae Russak
and Serge Kovaesk, two socoogsts moonghtng for the Washin%ton )ost.
|130|
".hs tortured path - s a psychoogca portrat of hs deteroraton.." |ohn Kfner
of the New 'ork Times announced wth the authorty of a Freudan anayst. "Frst
there was McVegh's own stunted personaty and mmedate frustratons. He was
never abe to overcome a sense of abandonment by hs mother.."
|131|
"Not makng the Speca Forces was somethng that was very hard for hm to dea
wth," sad an FBI agent tranng for hs Ph.D. n psychoogy. "In hs mnd, much of
hs fe has been one of thnkng that he s a knd of Speca Forces of hs own."
|132|
Fnay: "He was the quet one," sad McVegh's former 10th grade Engsh teacher
Coeen Conner, throwng a bt of adoescent psychoogy on the stuaton. "A ot of
the quet ones are the ones who have ended up dong scary thngs.."
|133|
There t was - tra by meda. Tmothy McVegh must be guty, after a, they put
hs face on the cover of Time magazne.
|134|
|Time. As |ournast |on Rappaport put t, "the home of fanty patronzng stores
that go nowhere." Lke the carefuy manufactured mage of Lee Harvey Oswad,
the meda woud construct a menagere reaty of Tmothy |ames McVegh, sutabe
for pubc consumpton.|
Fortunatey, n the avaanche of artces that woud foow, sma hnts of reaty
woud occasonay seep through the mre.
32
"That |ust doesn't rng true to me, as to the person I knew," sad Sheffed
Anderson, a correctona offcer who had gone through basc tranng wth McVegh
and served wth hm n the Guf. "In that pcture of hm comng out of the
courthouse, he ooks ke a rea mean guy. But I ddn't sense anythng out of the
ordnary. McVegh was a ratona type guy, a thnkng type person. The bombng
thng s totay contrary to the person I knew."
|135|
"The Tmothy McVegh I taked wth ddn't seem ke a baby ker," sad former
Army Coone Davd Hackworth about hs Newsweek ntervew wth McVegh.
|136|
Durng an ntervew on Prme Tme Lve, Lana Pada, Terry Nchos ex-wfe, tod
Dane Sawyer, "It's not the same person. I mean, you know."
!a*yer: "The stony face."
+adilla: "No."
|137|
"It became obvous durng the hour-ong dscusson that Tmothy McVegh s
nether a monster nor a madman," wrote Lawrence Myers, who ntervewed
McVegh for Media $y*ass magazne. "He eft the mpresson that he s a man wth
strong convctons and a sense of honor."
|138|
So |ust who s Tmothy |ames McVegh? Is he a hardened ker as the press and
federa authortes have made hm out to be? Or s he an ordnary man who
became caught up n a compcated web of ntrgue and decepton?
"Timmy"
Tmothy |ames McVegh was born n Pendeton, New York on Apr 23, 1968, a sma
workng cass town of 5,000 peope |ust outsde of Buffao. Tm was the second
chd of B McVegh, an auto worker, and Mdred, a trave agent. The eder
McVegh, 55, coached Ltte League and ran bngo nght at the oca cathoc
church, spendng hs free tme gofng, or putzng n hs garden. A heavy wooded
rura area, young Tm spent hs tme hkng or payng sports wth the
neghborhood boys.
"He ved a few houses down from me, sad boyhood frend Keth Maurer. "We
payed hockey, baseba and |ust about every other sport n the neghborhood. He
wasn't the best athete n the bunch, but he showed up to pay every day and he
aways payed hard."
The brght and nventve youngster aso spent hs tme engagng n nove actvtes
such as settng up a haunted house n hs basement, where he charged admsson,
or hodng weekend casno fars, where he acted as the deaer.
"He was very advanced for our age, "Maurer sad. "I remember sayng to mysef: I
woudn't have thought of that."
Pat Waugh, a neghbor, sad "I used to thnk to mysef, that kd s gong to go
somewhere |ust because he's such a mover and shaker. I pctured hm growng up
to be a saesman, sort of a shyster."
When Tm's mom moved out n |une of 1984, the outgong young McVegh became
more reserved, as he and hs ssters, Patty and |ennfer, attempted to dea wth the
trauma of the breakup. Reverend Pau Bezer of the Good shepherd Roman
33
Cathoc Church n Pendeton knew the famy for 20 years. "Peope asked me,
wasn't Tm crushed? But he ddn't seem to be. He ved n the same house, had the
same frends. Yeah, he'd have to mss hs mother, but so many of the anchors were
there."
Yanya Panepento, a cassmate of Tm's recaed, He was a quet boy. He kept to
hmsef. He ddn't seem ke he was a troube maker or anythng ke that."
Yet, nne months after the bombng, the Times |ohn Kfner woud wrte, "As
commonpace as ths seems, crmnoogsts say, these trats are often the stuff of
sera kers, terrorsts and other sotary murderers."
To the armchar psychoanaysts of the manstream/tabod meda, the breakup
woud be the frst of two ma|or events - the second beng hs nta faure to
make the Speca Forces - that woud profoundy and adversey affect the young
McVegh's personaty. The frst ndcatons of ths came when reporters dscovered
n hs hgh schoo yearbook that Tm had been voted "most takatve" by hs senor
cass.
"The ony thng I can remember s that he was very qute and pote," recaed
Cecea Maty|as, who taught 10th grade geometry. "He ddn't cause any probems
n cass. He seemed to be cooperatve and attentve. He was on the track team and
the cross-country team, so he was abe to get aong wth others."
Brandon Stckney, a |ournast contracted to produce an unauthorzed bography of
McVegh for Prometheus Books, sad "Tm was not the most takatve out of hs
cass of 194 students, but he was by no means ntroverted. He was certany an
outgong young man who had many frends and acquantances."
Yet none of these easy to check facts were ever mentoned n the voumous
artces whch appeared n the Times. Kfner, the Times "resdent anayst,"
procamed wth surety, "He was never abe to overcome a sense of abandonment
by hs mother, who eft the famy when he was a boy; nor coud he fnd a home
outsde the Army."
Backng up Kfner was |ohn Dougas of the FBI's Psychoogca Profe Unt, who
camed McVegh was "asoca, asexua, a oner, wthdrawn, from a famy wth
probems, strong feengs of nadequacy from eary n fe, an underachever."
"I thnk t's a bunch of psychobabe f you ask me, f you want to know the truth,"
sad |ennfer, Tm's younger sster. "We were free to ve wth who we wanted. We
coud vst the other parent whenever we wanted. There was no btterness
between my parents."
"There's nothng there, added McVegh hmsef, respondng to the meda's anayss
of hm n a |uy 3rd ntervew wth Newsweek.
Apparenty, Dougas and the so-caed |ournasts from the New 'ork Times never
bothered to check on the fact that Tm had many frends, ncudng severa
grfrends ater n fe, was cose to hs Father and hs sster |ennfer, and was a
Regents Schoar.
Not to be hamstrung by such mnor detas |as checkng on facts|, the Times and
the )ost qucky |umped on the dea that Tm was nterested n frearms. "In a
regon of huntng enthusasts, t caused tte str when Tm, at 10, became
nterested n guns. But a cose reatve sad that the famy saw ths as a bd for
attenton by a boy who ddn't know how ese to ask for t."
34
"He had a semautomatc BB gun that coud fre 15 rounds wth the pu of a
trgger," added the )ost. "Other boys had ony snge-shot varetes. Tm used to
show them at schoo how he hed t, posng poce-stye wth hands casped
together. Durng borng casses, when other students dooded, he drew guns."
In fact, Tm's father dd buy hm a .22-caber rfe, whch the young McVegh woud
use for target practce n the woods behnd hs home. Yet apparenty Tm was not
the young bood-thrsty adventurer the meda made hm out to be. "I remember
startng to hunt at age 11," sad hs frend Keth Maurer, "and Tm never had any
nterest n ths."
McVegh was ater abe to nduge n hs nterests n frearms as a securty guard for
Burke Armored, where he worked for a year or so n 1987. |eff Camp, McVegh's co-
worker, noted that he had a keen nterest n guns, athough he ddn't fnd t
unusua snce most fu-tme securty guards and aw enforcement personne
owned an assortment of frearms, he sad.
One story eagery crcuated amongst the press s that McVegh showed up at
Burke one day wth a huge Desert Eage psto and bandoeers sung n an "X"
across hs chest. "He came to work ookng ke Rambo," recaed Camp. "It ooked
ke Word War III."
Yet McVegh aughs off the tae, statng that he and some other empoyees were
smpy payng a |oke on ther supervsor, who was sendng them on a hgh profe
assgnment for the day. Apparenty, ther supervsor was not amused.
Accordng to the )ost, McVegh aso worked as a gun saesman at a sportng goods
store n Lockport.
"Guns were the entre foca pont of the 27-year-od Mr. McVegh's fe," wrote the
Times1 Kfner.
"Ths obsesson wth weapons - a form of power - s an overcompensaton for
deep-rooted feengs of nadequacy," added the FBI's Dougas, attemptng to drve
another na nto McVegh's coffn.
One must wonder f an nterest n stamp coectng or brd watchng - other
egtmate hobbes - coud be construed as a "bd for attenton." The author -
much more of a "troube maker" n hs formatve years than Tmothy McVegh -
personay remembers hs own nterest n guns, and even mtary armor. Lke
motorcyces, fast cars or other macho symbos, such nterests pass as one
matures. Yet federa authortes, wth the backng of the corporate-owned meda,
attempted to make ths a cornerstone of ther psuedo-psychoogca case aganst
McVegh. He was "obsessed wth guns," ergo, he s a mad bomber. I doubt f a the
gun enthusasts n the country woud be peased to know they are, by assocaton,
beng mpcated as mad bombers.
Not to be deterred, )ost reporters dscovered that young Tm had stockped food,
campng equpment and weapons n case of a dsaster ".n case of a nucear
attack or the Communsts took over the country," sad an anonymous neghbor n
the )ost. "Perhaps t made sense that a young boy often forced to fend for hmsef
woud fantasze about fghtng the word a aone," mused the )ost. Fghtng the
word? Or deveopng common sense at a young age? In hs Media $y*ass
ntervew, McVegh recaed that one of hs most vvd memores was the wnter
bzzard of 1977, whch dumped 15 feet of snow on Pendeton, strandng hs
mother mes away, and knockng out power and phone nes for days. The young,
35
nventve McVegh responded by hepng hs father store necesstes, even
recommendng that the oder McVegh purchase a generator.
Apparenty the armchar psychoanaysts of the manstream press fet ths
ndcatve of eary creepng paranoa, rather than the natura combnaton of the
actve magnaton and common sense nherent n a remarkabe nne-year od boy.
If the youngster was concerned about Communsts, one ony need ask where such
fears were ncubated.
The )ost, keepng wth the propaganda of Tmothy McVegh as underachever, was
quoted as sayng "Tm's hgh-schoo yearbook entry n 1986 sted no organzed
actvtes (he omtted the track team), rather: 'stayng away from schoo, osng
seep, fndng t n schoo.'"
Yet even the )ost admtted that Tm's gudance counseor, Harod Smth, sad that
he had not mssed a day of casses from seventh through twefth grade. Far from
beng an underachever, hs record ndcates a young man wth remarkabe
dscpne.
|ustn Gertner, who knew McVegh snce second grade recas, "he hung around
wth the ntegenty ete at Starpont. Tm was n the Regent's program n our
schoo for advanced pacement students who panned on attendng coege. He
aso created and ran our computer buetn board system."
In fact, McVegh exceed n computers, takng every avaabe computer cass n
hgh schoo. He even desgned hs own computer program. "That was the age
when there was no software to speak of, and t wasn't user frendy," sad a teacher
who asked to reman anonymous, "But Tm and some other kds went out and dd
ths.. In a way, that was fary advanced. Ths demonstrates hs brght mnd and
hs abty."
Ths brght mnd and abty ed McVegh to Bryant & Stratton Busness Coege n
Wamsve, N.Y. to study advanced COBOL and FORTRAN programmng
anguages. In spte of hs abtes, opportuntes for decent empoyment were
uncertan n Buffao n the md-1980s. Buffao, ke the rest of the Rust Bet, was
experencng the worst of economc trends. Severa stee and auto pants had shut
down, and two ma|or banks faed, throwng thousands of whte-coar workers out
of |obs and causng downturns n rea-estate, advertsng, aw and other feds.
|139|
"There are no |obs around here uness you want to work for $6 an hour or ess at a
McDonad's or Wendy's," sad B McVegh. "It's rough for anybody ookng for
work."
McVegh apparenty dd not fee comfortabe that hs auto-worker father was
payng for most of hs coege tuton. So n December 1987, he took a |ob wth
Burke Armored Truck (now known as Armored Servces of Amerca) n
Cheektowaga, near Buffao.
"He was a very aert guard." sad |eff Camp, McVegh's co-worker. "He worked a ot
of overtme and was pote wth our customers." McVegh was aso moody, rangng
from ntense to quet. "If someone was drvng bady, cuttng us off or nterferng
wth our schedue, he coud get pretty mad," added Camp. "Hs face woud turn red
and he woud ye and scream nsde the truck, athough he camed down pretty
fast." (Smar to the way the author drves.) Camp aso descrbed an ncdent
where a woman had ht ther truck. Athough the woman was upset, McVegh
36
camed her down and tod her not to worry, that there was no damage to the truck,
and that he woud even report t as ther faut, whch t wasn't.
|140|
McVegh worked at Burke from Apr of 1987 t May of 1988. By the tme he was
19, McVegh had but up a substanta savngs account and he and a frend, Davd
Darak, acqured 10 acres of and for $7,000 at a huntng and campng retreat
north of Oean, N.Y. The two young men bought the and as an nvestment, and to
use for campng and for target practce.
|141|
Reported the )ost:
"Robert Morgan, who ves nearby, sad hs father Chare once caed
the state poce to compan about a the gunfre. 'My dad turned hm
n," he sad. "One day t sounded ke a war out there. Sometmes he'd
come down durng the week, sometmes the weekend. He had on
huntng cothes. Camoufage.'"
|142|
Whe the press made much out of the fact that McVegh and hs frends used the
and for target practce, t shoud be noted that McVegh was aw-abdng and dd
not have a crmna record.
By the Sprng of 1988, the young securty guard fet he was gong nowhere. He
was workng n a reatvey ow-wage |ob whe stenng to the fate of those who
had been ad-off whe workng other |obs. Tm's father stened wth concern as
Tm vented hs frustraton, companng that he was unempoyabe except at |obs
that pad "no money." One nght B McVegh and a frend from the auto pant
suggested that the younger McVegh enter the servce.
"B and I had both been n the servce," the frend sad, "and one nght we sad to
Tm, 'That's what you ought to do: go n the servce.' A week ater, he had |oned."
"It happened n a spt second," sad Tm's co-worker |eff Camp. "He ddn't te
anyone he was |onng. He |ust came to work one day and sad he was gong n the
Army.
|143|
I never saw a guy who wanted to go n the Army that bad. I asked hm
why the Army, and he sad 'You get to shoot.' He aways wanted to carry an M-
16."
|144|
Keth Maurer sad, "I coudn't see hm |onng the mtary. He had a ot of optons.
He was very smart. I ddn't see the mtary as the one he needed to take."
|But to McVegh, who saw hs career optons n economcay depressed Upstate
New York as beak, the Army made perfect sense.| The Army hed the possbty of
trave and adventure for a boy from a sma town. In the Army, he coud choose hs
specaty, ndugng hs nterest n frearms or computers.
On May 24, McVegh drove the 25 mes to the Army recrutng offce n Buffao,
and sgned up for a three-year htch. "In a coupe of days he was gone," sad
Camp.
!ergeant Mac
McVegh arrved at Fort Bennng, Georga on May 30, and was assgned to Echo
Company, 4th Battaon, 36th Infantry Regment, 2nd Tranng Brgade. The unt
was a COHORT unt, an acronym for "Coheson Operatona Readness and
Tranng." In a COHORT unt, soders were supposed to stay together for ther
entre three-year enstment perod. The COHORT concept orgnated n 1980, n an
attempt to correct the probem of sendng n raw green recruts for those who had
been ked n batte. The Army dscovered that many new repacements had
37
dffcuty ad|ustng to a new unt n the heat of batte, resutng n a hgher number
of casuates. Moreover, Pentagon studes from the Vetnam War era suggested
that soders who had deveoped bonds of frendshp were more key to perform
courageousy. Unfortunatey, the Army soon deveoped a new probem: many of
the soders became sck of each other after three years, resutng n soders
commttng sucde or gong AWOL.
Athough McVegh orgnay wanted to try out for Army Ranger Schoo, he ddn't
want to wat for an avaabe openng, and decded to |on the nfantry mmedatey.
As he sound found out, he had been msed by the Army recruter. Once n the
COHORT unt, t was not possbe for hm to enter Army Ranger Schoo. Yet the
dsapponted young recrut qucky made the best of the stuaton, scorng a hgh
126 ponts on hs Genera Technca test score, puttng hm n the top 10 percente
among new recruts.
"McVegh was reay motvated to be a good soder and performed we at
everythng expected of hm," sad assstant patoon eader Gen "Tex" Edwards.
"You coud oad that boy up wth 140 pounds of gear and he woud carry t a day
on the march wthout companng. He was thn as a ra but he never fe out of
formaton," sad Edwards, recang the hot Georga summer of 1988. " It was the
worst tme of the year to go through the course, but t dd not seem to bother
McVegh one bt."
Athough McVegh ddn't have many cose frends durng basc tranng, one person
he woud deveop a cose frendshp wth was Terry Nchos. Nchos, 13 years
McVegh's senor, was promoted to patoon eader due to hs age and maturty.
Despte ther age dfference however, the two men bonded, sharng smar
nterests. "Terry and Tm n boot camp went together ke magnets," sad Robn
Ltteton.
By the end of basc tranng, McVegh was promoted to prvate E-2, havng
managed to score hgher than anyone n hs battaon on hs md-cyce and end-of-
cyce testng. "Any test, he'd ace t," sad Davd Dy. "He knew exacty what the
Army wanted. It was gong to be an easy fe for hm."
On August 25, 1988, McVegh was awarded a certfcate by hs commandng
offcer, then n September the unt was shpped out to Fort Rey, Kansas, where
McVegh was assgned to the 2nd Battaon, Frst Infantry Dvson, part of the
"Dagger Brgade" of the famous "Bg Red One" that made the assaut on Normandy
durng WWII. Whe McVegh was assgned to Chare Company, Nchos went to
Bravo Company.
A mechanzed nfantry unt, 2nd Battaon was equpped wth M-2 Bradey Armored
vehces, a more sophstcated verson of the famous M-113 Armored Personne
Carrer used durng the Vetnam War. In addton to ferryng troops, the aumnum
Bradey has a turret-mounted 25mm cannon, a 7.62mm machne gun and ant-
tank msses. McVegh was the gunner on one of four Bradeys attached to Chare
Company's Frst Patoon. Naturay, he scored hgher than anyone ese n the
battaon. In 1989, hs commander seected hm as gunner on the "Dvson Dspay
Vehce," used to demonstrate the M-2 system for Pentagon offcas and vstng
dgntares.
"He was wthout a doubt the best soder I have ever traned wth," sad Staff
Sergeant Abert Warnement, McVegh's supervsor at Fort Rey. He was motvated
38
and very nterested n earnng everythng he coud about beng a professona
soder."
|145|
"As far as soderng, he never dd anythng wrong," sad Todd Reger, assgned to
McVegh's Bradey. "He was aways on tme. He never got nto troube. He was
perfect. I thought he woud stay n the Army a hs fe. He was aways vounteerng
for stuff that the rest of us woudn't want to do, guard dutes, casses on the
weekend."
|146|
McVegh studed every concevabe Army manua, ncudng the Ranger Handbook,
the Speca Forces Handbook, and the Improvsed Muntons Handbook. But press
reports |portrayed| McVegh as a mad bomber:
McVegh's ove of guns and exposves stood out even n the Army,
where gun overs abound. In the frst weeks of basc tranng, when
soders earn to make exposves, recaed patoon mate Frtz Curnutte,
McVegh boasted to feow soders that he aready knew how to make
a powerfu bomb usng a botte, then tod them how to make a Mootov
cockta.
|147|
Accordng to Warnement, such knowedge s not unusua for the more serous
soders, who routney studed manuas on survva, evason, resstance and
escape, and mprovsed muntons. "You have to remember," sad Warnement, "at
that tme, we were tranng to fght the Russans n Western Europe and t was
expected the Red Army woud probaby break through our nes amost
mmedatey. We were encouraged to earn how to mprovse. Our survvabty on
the battefed woud key depend on our sks n unconventona warfare."
|148|
Athough McVegh's mtary record makes no menton of forma demotons
tranng, n her book, $y $lood $etrayed, Lana Pada cas McVegh a "former Army
demotons expert."
|149|
But Sheffed Anderson, who served wth McVegh snce
basc tranng sad "He had the same tranng that the rest of the outft had."
|150|
The ony thng that dfferentated McVegh from the rest of the outft was hs
dedcaton and commtment to the mtary. "He payed the mtary 24 hours a day,
seven days a week," sad Curnutte. "A of us thought t was sy. When they'd ca
for down tme, we'd rest, and he'd throw on a rucksack and wak around the post
wth t."
Ths "sness" ed to McVegh makng sergeant ahead of the rest of hs unt. "It
was unusua to have sergeant strpes so soon," sad Reger. "The rest of us n the
Cohort |unt| were specasts," a non-supervsory rank smar to corpora.
In fact, after the bombng, when McVegh's records and test scores were shown to
a master sergeant wthout reveang hs dentty, he stated that the sub|ect "woud
make a great nfantry offcer, tanker, artery offcer or combat engneer." Hs
eectronc apttude, sad another offca, quafed hm for "reparng satete
communcatons."
|151|
"He has a very hgh IO," sad a federa source famar wth
the suspect's mtary record.
|152|
In fact, McVegh was rated among the top 5
percent n combat arms.
McVegh rented a three-bedroom house n the sprng of 1991 n Herrngton wth
Corpora |ohn Keso and Sergeant Rck Cerney. But the arrangement was not a
39
comfortabe one for McVegh, and he soon moved nto another house whch he
shared wth Sgt. Roya Wcher, who served wth McVegh n the Bradey.
The Times quoted members of the McVegh's unt camng that he had no cose
frends. "He kept to hmsef," sad Robert Handa. "He was a dedcated soder. He
oved beng a soder. I ddn't. So after duty hours he'd stay n the barracks whe
everybody ese took off, go out to town. I never saw hm go anywhere. He aways
had a hghy pressed unform." Reger recas that McVegh had a TV and a VCR and
stayed n and watched moves, or occasonay went bowng.
"The whoe thng s," sad |ohn Keso, who shared a house off-base wth McVegh
and feow soder Rchard Cerney, "he coudn't have a good tme."
"He was very shy of women - amost embarrassed," sad Anderson. "It ddn't
seem he was gay. He was |ust awkward." McVegh dsputed ths anayss n hs
Apr 15th Time ntervew, statng:
"I don't thnk there s any way to narrow my personaty down and abe
t as one thng or another. I'm |ust ke anyone ese. Moves I en|oy,
comedes, sc f. The bg msconcepton s that I'm a oner. We, I
beeve n havng my own space. But that n no way means I'm a oner.
I ke women, soca fe.."
McVegh became frends wth bombng suspect Mchae Forter whe statoned at
Fort Rey. He and Forter woud occasonay go shootng together at a frend's
farm near Tutte Creek Lake, and stop by and vst Terry Nchos at hs house near
the base.
The press was quck to pck up on McVegh ownng ots of guns he kept hdden
around hs house. Accordng to Wcher, "He had a coupe n the ktchen, a coupe
n the vng room under the couch. I thnk there was one n the bathroom, behnd
the towes. As you go up the steps there was a tte edge and he kept one n there
too, a .38 revover." "I don't know f he was paranod or what," added Wcher. "Or
maybe he had some frends that were after hm. I don't know."
|153|
Accordng to an account n 2SA Today and the Times, McVegh and Nchos, who by
now were pretty far aong n ther "ant-government" beefs, attempted to recrut
other mtary personne for a mta that Nchos was purportedy startng. Nchos
reportedy tod at east one feow soder that he'd be back to Fort Rey after hs
dscharge to recrut new men, and McVegh's co-worker at Burns Securty, Car
Lebron, woud ater te the FBI that McVegh was aways tryng to "recrut hm nto
an undescrbed group.."
|154|
Accordng to Dave Dy, one of McVegh's roommates, McVegh rented a storage
ocker n |uncton Cty, stocked wth weapons, mtary meas (MREs), and a 100-
gaon |ug of water - n case of dsaster or a Communst attack.
|155|
"He was hafway there when I knew hm," sad Dy, referrng to McVegh's Patrot
beefs. Durng McVegh's tenure at Burns Securty, McVegh woud nundate hs co-
workers wth Patrot terature, such as the S*otli%ht, artces and vdeos on Ruby
Rdge and Waco, and books such as "eta#in% America.
For hs part, McVegh says, "If you had to abe what I thnk, then I woud say I am
cosest to the vews of the Patrot movement," McVegh tod the 3ondon Sunday
Times. "For a ong tme, I thought t was best not to tak about my potca vews,
40
he added, "but mons share them, and I beeve t s gravey wrong that I shoud
aow the government to try and crucfy me |ust for beevng what I do."
Interestngy, McVegh woud te hs frend Car Lebron, who shared some of
McVegh's beefs, "A the readng you do s |ust a hobby. You stamp your feet, but
you're not dong anythng."
Another ssue the meda focused on were race probems n Chare Company, and
wth McVegh n partcuar. Reger tod the )ost that McVegh was crtczed for
assgnng undesrabe work to back soders, makng back specasts sweep out
the motor poo, work that woud have ordnary gone to prvates. Other soders
sad he made derogatory remarks about backs. "It was pretty we known, pretty
much throughout the patoon, that he was makng the back specasts do that
work," sad Reger. "He was a racst. When he taked he'd menton those words,
ke ngger. You pretty much knew he was a racst." The back soders companed
to a company commander and McVegh was reprmanded, the ony tme he ever
got nto troube accordng to Reger.
|156|
Dy sad that "Race was an ssue, ke everywhere n Amerca, but not one that
affected anyone's promoton. McVegh pcked the best man for the |ob."
Yet the Mc!urtain ,a-ette dscovered that McVegh hed membershp n the Ku
Kux Kan. Apparenty, he boasted that t was personay approved by Thom Robb,
the KKK's natona chapan. "He was a very racst person," sad Wcher.
"Chare Company as a whoe had a probem wth race," sad Captan Terry Gud,
who served brefy as McVegh's patoon commander after the Guf War. "There
was grafft on the was of the barracks' bathroom: 'Ngger' or 'Honky, Get Out.'
They were md ncdents. If a probem was dentfed, a eader n Chare Company
woudn't et t happen agan f he saw t. But t was defntey a probem n the
company. And hs patoon had some of the most serous race probems. It was
pretty bad."
In spte of such nterpersona or raca dffcutes, most of the patoon hed
McVegh n hgh esteem for hs soderng abtes. "He coud command soders of
hs own rank and they respected hm," sad Barner. "When t came to soderng,
McVegh knew what he was dong."
"If we ever went to war," sad Edwards, "every one of us wanted to go to war wth
McVegh."
|157|
Durng the summer of 1989, after returnng from a week-ong orentaton sesson n
Hedeberg wth the West German Army, or Bundeswehr, McVegh decded to try
out for the Army Speca Forces. To the young sergeant who had ong desred to be
a member of the Army's ete, the Speca Forces provded the chance. It aso
provded McVegh an opportunty to graduate from the COHORT unt. Yet the
physca requrements to even quafy for the Speca Forces are among the
toughest n the mtary. Requrements ncude swmmng 50 meters wth fu gear;
42 push-ups n two mnutes; 52 st-ups n two mnutes; and runnng two mes n
ess than 15 mnutes 54 seconds. To pass the grueng tests, McVegh began
tranng vgorousy n the summer of 1989, workng out constanty, and forcng
hmsef to march 10 mes wth 100 pound packs. By the summer of 1990, he had
passed the Speca Forces physca ftness test, and was ordered to report to Fort
Bragg, NC on November 17 to begn the Speca Forces Assessment and Seecton
41
Course (SFAS). Towards the end of 1990, McVegh rensted for another four years.
|158|
Yet McVegh's dream of becomng a Green Beret woud have to wat. On November
8th, wth the confct n the Persan Guf comng to a head, the Pentagon canceed
a eaves and tranng assgnments. McVegh's unt was actvated for depoyment.
Athough he was the consummate mtary man, the gung-ho soder, McVegh was
aganst the decson to go to war. "McVegh dd not thnk the Unted States had any
busness or nterest n Kuwat," sad Warnement, "but he was a good soder. He
knew t was hs duty to go where he was tod, and he went." He was promoted to
sergeant on February 1, 1991.
|159|
Unke the steey-eyed ker the press have panted hm to be, McVegh was as
scared as the rest of the patoon. "The nght before the ground war kcked off, he
was sayng he was scared because we were gong to be part of the frst wave,"
Anderson recaed. "He was scared we weren't gong to come out of t. Maybe we
woud get shot, bown up. It wasn't cowardy. He was |ust concerned. I was feeng
the same way, but most peope ddn't express t."
|160|
On February 24, 1990, the 2nd Battaon was ordered across the southern Iraq
desert to punch a hoe n Iraq defenses - a ne of dug-n nfantry supported by
tanks and artery. McVegh's patoon was attached to the "Ironhorse" tank
company, and McVegh's Bradey was the ead track n the patoon. McVegh, the
"top gun," took out an enemy tank on the frst day wth a TOW msse.
The "Ironhorse" protected unts cearng the trenches. Usng tanks and trucks
equpped wth pows, the U.S. forces woud foow behnd the Bradeys, buryng the
Iraqs dead or ave, to create a smooth crossng pont for the nfantry and avod
havng to engage the enemy n hand-to-hand combat.
McVegh's moment of gory came when hs patoon encountered a dug-n enemy
machne-gun empacement and came under fre. McVegh brought hs 25mm
cannon to bear on the chest of an enemy soder 1,000 yards away, and took hs
head off wth one shot. He foowed up wth a smar shot, whch was foowed by
the rasng of a whte fag and the rasng of more than 60 hands nto the ar.
For hs roe n the batte, McVegh was awarded an Army Commendaton Meda
whch read n part: "He nspred other members of hs squad and patoon by
destroyng an enemy machne-gun empacement, kng two Iraq soders and
forcng the surrender of 30 others from dug-n postons." McVegh aso earned a
Commendaton meda wth an upgrade for vaor, two Army Achevement medas,
and the Bronze Star "for fawess devoton to duty."
Ths "fawess devoton to duty" resuted n McVegh's unt beng nvted to provde
persona securty for Genera "Stormn' Norman" Schwarzkopf.
A much-hackneyed phrase attrbuted to Sergeant |ames Ives, whch the meda ke
to pay over and over agan was, "If he was gven a msson and a target, t's
gone." Yet Roger Barnett, who served n McVegh's Bradey, tod the Times that
McVegh never expressed any desre to k troops who were surrenderng and
never seemed boodthrsty n any way.
|161|
|Yet the Times1 preordaned sant on McVegh was ceary evdent. Whe others n
hs outft "served" durng the Guf War, McVegh "ked Iraqs."
|162|
|
One story whch appeared n Media $y*ass |but predctaby never made t nto the
manstream press,| recounts how McVegh saved an accdent vctm's fe on a
42
oney stretch of hghway. The man had been e|ected from hs overturned car and
ay sem-conscous and beedng. A passng sem had stopped but was unabe to
fnd hm as he ay n the darkness 50 yards away. McVegh, who was on hs way to
hs home town of Pendeton, had recenty fnshed a 46-hour medca ad course at
Fort Rey. Aganst reguatons, he had taken hs Combat Lfesaver Pack wth hm
on the 1200-me drve. As he came upon the scene, McVegh saw that an EMS
(Emergency Medca Servce) crew had not yet arrved. Traned n nght vson
technques, McVegh the soder qucky spotted the n|ured motorst n the grass
aong the medan strp. Foowng s an excerpt from the Media $y*ass artce:
The vctm recas that the soder was confdent, quet and effcent. To
centraze hs crcuaton, he eevated the man's undamaged mbs and
warned hm to be cam to avod gong nto shock. He checked hs puse
and fashed a sma penght across hs pups. The man, who ony
moments earer was convnced he was gong to de, shvered n the
dark and started aughng. He tod the ta young stranger he was
never gong to buy another Chevy Bazer agan.
The soder smed as he roed up the vctm's rght seeve and nserted
the neede to start a sane IV nto hs vens. "You've ost a ot of bood
and you rsk gong nto shock. Ths s an IV to hep stabze you and
keep your fuds gong. Reax. You' be fne," he tod hm. He paced
the cear pastc IV bag under the man's hp and checked hs puse
agan.
In the dstance, an ambuance sren screamed over the sound of the
truck engnes as Tmothy |ames McVegh qucky packed up hs Army
ssue trauma kt and dsappeared nto the nght. The respondng EMS
crew tod the state poce offcer who arrved at the accdent mnutes
ater that they had never come upon such a potentay deady crash to
fnd a severey n|ured man reaxed and aughng, neaty bandaged
wth an IV dangng from hs arm.
|163|
In a furry of artces, manstream meda panted McVegh as a psychotc, attenton-
seekng oner wth a grudge aganst the government and a hatred of humanty. A
man wth "a stunted personaty," who ed a "tortured path," "obsessed wth
weapons" and wth "deep-rooted feengs of nadequacy." When the press coudn't
fnd evdence of overt voence or hostty, hs noted poteness and manners
suddeny became evdence hs of hs psychoss. "It s a personaty that a Seatte
forensc psychatrst, Kenneth Muscate, has descrbed as the "Smerdyakov
Syndrome," announced the Times, "after the scorned haf-brother n Dostoyevsky's
$rothers 4arama-o who stens to the other brothers nvegh aganst ther father
unt, fnay, he commts patrcde."
|164|
McVegh was panted as a socopath when Lana Pada, n her book, $y $lood
$etrayed, hntng that McVegh may have been responsbe for the death of 26-
month-od |ason Torres Nchos - Terry and Marfe's son - who accdentay
suffocated to death n a pastc bag n November of 1993.
|165|
Yet Pada ncuded a
43
photo n her book of McVegh aughng and payng wth the tte boy. And
accordng to Terry Nchos, McVegh had tred to revve the nfant for neary haf an
hour, and had caed the paramedcs - a response apparenty out-of-character
wth the actons of a deranged socopathc ker.
|166|
Captan |esus Rodrguez, who commanded McVegh durng Desert Storm,
descrbed hm as a frend who was "reay compassonate" and "reay cared" when
Rodrguez's brother-n-aw ded n an accdent.
|167|
Further evdence of McVegh's humanty can be found n a etter he wrote to the
3ock*ort 2nion-Sun 5 Journal on March 10, 1992: (See appendx for fu text)
To buy your meat n a store seems so nnocent, but have you ever
seen or thought how t comes to be wrapped up so neaty n
ceophane?
Frst, catte ve ther entre ves penned up n cramped quarters, never
aowed to roam freey, bred for one purpose when ther tme has
come.
The technque that I have personay seen s to take catte, ne them
up sde by sde wth ther heads and necks protrudng over a ow fence,
and wak from one end to the other, sttng ther throats wth ether
machete or power saw. Unabe to run or move, they are eft there unt
they beed to death, standng up.
Woud you rather de whe vng happy or de whe eadng a
mserabe fe? You te me whch s more "humane."
Does a "growng percentage of the pubc" have any pty or respect for
any of the anmas whch are butchered and then sod n the store? Or
s t |ust so convenenty "cean" that a doube standard s aowed?
The manstream press twsted the context of McVegh's etter. In hs |book|, A
Force 2*on the )lain, author Kenneth Stern wrtes: "McVegh sad he thought a
human beng was, by nature, 'a hunter, a predator.' He aso asked: 'Is cv war
mmnent? Do we have to shed bood to reform the current system?'"
|168|
Stern
takes two unreated etters wrtten by McVegh, then crafty combnes them to
suggest that the humane kng of anmas s actuay part and parce of McVegh's
boodthrsty desre to k human bengs.
|169|
Reaty pants a much dfferent pcture of Tmothy |ames McVegh however. In
February of 1996, Ron Rce and Caro Moore of the Amercan Board of Forensc
Examners were asked to produce a profe of McVegh's personaty based on a
handwrtng anayss.
|170|
Both Rce and Moore characterzed McVegh as an
ntroverted person - what they term an "Apoonan" personaty - "a steady,
unemotona, organzed ndvdua who |s| not devod of emoton/passon, but
more apt to vaue reason over passon." Lke Sheffed Anderson, who descrbed
McVegh as a "thnkng type person," the examners stated that McVegh was
"head-orented." "They tend to be dstrustfu of feeng n the beef that foowng
44
one's feengs can ead to troube," the report stated. "Rarey, w he aow hs
emotona expressons to be drected at another person out of fear of hurtng
them.."
The report concuded wth the observaton that Tmothy McVegh "s a mtary
man. hs heart and sou beongs to the mtary of the U.S. Government. In a non-
mtary envronment, McVegh w not undertake any form of overt hostty that
w be harmfu to others or dangerous to hmsef.. It s not ogca that he woud
undertake any acton aganst our government n whch others woud be hurt or
ked. To do so woud voate everythng he stands for."
|171|
In Apr of 1991, McVegh put hs heart and sou nto hs ong-awated dream of
becomng a Green Beret. On March 28 he reported to Camp McCa, the Speca
Forces Assessment and Seecton (SFAS) tranng facty west of Fort Bragg, for the
grueng 21-day assessment course. But McVegh, who had kept hmsef n top
shape by dong 400 push-ups a day and marchng around the post wth a 100
pound pack was now out of shape and he knew t. The Bradey gunner who had
served n the Persan Guf for four months was aso draned from the stress of
combat.
As the recruts stood at attenton, the nstructor asked severa of the recenty
returned war veterans f they wanted to return to ther unt to get back n shape.
One of the soders yeed that they were ready, so out of a sense of gung-ho prde,
nobody backed out.
The frst day of testng was devoted to psychoogca screenng. McVegh cams he
had no probem wth the psychoogca tests, whch ncuded the Adut Personaty
Inventory, the Mnnesota Mutpe Phase Personaty Test, and a sentence
competon exam desgned by Army psychoogsts.
The second day of tests began wth an obstace course whch McVegh passed wth
ease. After unch, the recruts were ed on a hgh-speed march wth 50 pound
rucksacks. Yet new boots tore nto McVegh's feet durng the fve me march, and
wth the worst yet to come, he and another recrut, Davd Whtmyer, decded to
drop out. McVegh sgned a Vountary/Invountary Wthdrawa from the SFAS
schoo. Hs snge sentence expanaton read: "I am not physcay ready, and the
rucksack march hurt more than t shoud."
|172|
The manstream press |umped on hs nta faure to make the Speca Forces. He
was "unabe to face the faure" stated the New 'ork Times. "He washed out on the
second day."
|173|
"There were no second chances," camed the Washin%ton )ost. "Hs sprt was
broken."
|174|
These reports suggested that McVegh had faed the psychoogca screenng tests.
"Mtary offcas sad that premnary psychoogca screenng had shown hm to
be unft," auded the ever-wse voce of the New 'ork Times. "|He| saw hs
chershed hope of becomng a Green Beret shattered by psychoogca tests."
|175|
"It
was apparenty a bow so crushng that he qut the Army and went nto a psychc
taspn."
|176|
Meda pundts qucky backed up ther armchar anayses' wth statements from
severa of McVegh's former buddes.
"Anyone who puts a that effort nto somethng and doesn't get t woud be
mentay crushed," sad Roger Barnett, the drver of McVegh's Bradey. "He wasn't
45
the same McVegh. He ddn't go at thngs the way he normay dd.. He ddn't
have the same drve. He ddn't have hs heart n the mtary anymore."
|177|
"He aways wanted to do better than everyone," sad Captan Terry Gud, "and that
(Green Berets) was hs way of tryng to do t. He took a ot of fak. He was reay
down on hmsef."
|178|
McVegh camed "That's a bunch of bunk," n response to the aegatons. "Any
reast knows that f you deveop bsters on the second day. you're not gong to
make t."
|179|
|St, the sef-styed psychoanaysts of the manstream press made
much of hs dsappontment, assertng knowngy that t was the crux of McVegh's
"burgeonng torment."|
|Apparenty, the "psycho|ournasts" at the Times had never bothered to check wth
offcas at the SFAS schoo. "McVegh dropped out of the course on the second
day," sad Coone Ken McGraw, Informaton Offcer at the Speca Operatons
Command at Fort Bragg. "Hs psychoogca test work woud not have even been
graded yet."|
Accordng to McVegh's attorney Stephen |ones, hs Army records ndcate that hs
SFAS psychoogca tests weren't graded unt Apr of 1995. The "mtary offca"
who eaked the story about McVegh's "psychoogca test faure" turned out to be
none other than FBI Agent |ohn R. Hersey, who testfed to ths repeatedy durng
the Federa Grand |ury hearngs. Apparenty, Hersey never tod the grand |urors
that he was moonghtng as an Army psychoogst.
Athough McVegh may have been genuney dsapponted by hs nta faure, he
added that the schoo's commander had nvted the decorated war veteran to try
out agan whenever he fet he was ready. It seems McVegh was not too
dsapponted to score a perfect 1,000 ponts durng a Bradey gunner competton
sx months ater at Fort Rey, earnng hm another Army commendaton and the
honor of the dvson's "Top Gun," a rare achevement. An Army evauaton aso
rated hm "among the best" n eadershp potenta and an "nspraton to young
soders."
|180|
Yet n spte of McVegh's achevements, "a bt of doubt started to surface" n hs
mnd about a potenta for a career n the mtary.
|181|
Athough a frend sad "I
swear to God he coud have been Sergeant Ma|or of the Army - he was that good
of a soder," McVegh apparenty was havng second thoughts. Most of these, hs
Army buddes sad, stemmed from the mtary's downszng then n progress. He
aso confded to hs frend Dave Dy that wthout beng a Green Beret, the Army
woudn't be worth the effort. "I thnk he fet he got a raw dea, and wanted out,"
sad Ltteton.
Gven McVegh's achevements - hs quck rse to sergeant, hs medas of
commendaton, the dstncton of beng "Top Gun," and the extremey hgh prase
of hs superors, one has to wonder what hs rea motves were. It seems hghy
unkey that gven the massve effort he put nto hs mtary career, he woud take
an eary out on such presumptve pretenses. McVegh was a spt and posh soder
wth a top notch record. He was totay devoted to the mtary. He had served n
combat, earnng severa medas. If anythng he was due for hs next promoton.
The commander of the Speca Forces schoo had even nvted hm to try out agan
n a few months. As Sheffed Anderson sad, "He seemed destned for a brant
career n the mtary."
46
These observatons were backed up by McVegh's sster |ennfer. "I thought t was
gong to be hs career. He was defntey a career mtary type. That was hs fe,
you know. Hs fe revoved around that."
It hardy seems key that the ambtous soder who had recenty sgned on for
another four year htch woud opt out so easy. Yet, on December 31, 1991,
Sergeant McVegh took an eary dscharge from the Army, and went back to hs
home town of Pendeton, NY.
The Manch,rian Candidate
To fuf hs mtary obgaton, McVegh sgned on wth the Army Natona Guard n
Buffao, where he anded a |ob as a securty guard wth Burns Internatona
Securty. McVegh was assgned to the nght shft, guardng the grounds of Caspan
Research, a defense contractor that conducts cassfed research n advanced
aerospace rocketry and eectronc warfare.
In a manner mrrorng hs conduct n the servce, McVegh became the
consummate securty guard. Caspan spokesman A Saandra tod reporters that
McVegh was "a mode empoyee." Yet accordng to meda accounts, McVegh had
ost hs confdence. and hs coo.
"Tmmy was a good guard," sad former Burns supervsor Lnda Haner-Mee. "He
was "aways there prompt, cean and neat. Hs ony qurk," accordng to Mee, "was
that he coudn't dea wth peope. If someone ddn't cooperate wth hm, he woud
start yeng at them, become verbay aggressve. He coud be set off easy.
Accordng to an artce n the )ost, co-workers at a Nagara Fas conventon center
where he was assgned descrbed hm as "emotonay spent, veerng from
passvty to vocanc anger." An od frend sad he ooked "ke thngs were reay
weghng on hm."
|182|
"Tmmy |ust wasn't the type of person who coud ntate acton," sad Mee. "He
was very good f you sad, 'Tm watch ths door - don't et anyone through.' The
Tm I knew coudn't have mastermnded somethng ke ths and carred t out
hmsef. It woud have had to have been someone who sad: 'Tm, ths s what you
do. You drve the truck..'"
Mee's account drecty contradcts the testmony of Sergeant Chrs Barner and
former Prvate Ray |mboy, both of whom served wth McVegh at Fort Rey, and
camed that he was a natura eader.
|183|
Backng up |mboy was McVegh's frend
and Caspan co-worker, Car Lebron, who descrbed McVegh as "ntegent and
engagng - the sort of person who coud be a eader."
|184|
Mee's testmony aso contradcts McVegh's servce record, whch rated hm
"among the best" n eadershp potenta and an "nspraton to young soders."
|185|
"He had a ot of eadershp abty nsde hmsef," sad Barner.. He had a ot of sef
confdence."
Apparenty, "Somethng happened to Tm McVegh between the tme he eft the
Army and now," sad Captan Terry Gud.
"He ddn't reay carry hmsef ke he came out of the mtary," sad Mee. "He
ddn't stand ta wth hs shouders back. He knd of sumped over." She recaed
hm as sent, expressoness, wth ghtness eyes, but sub|ect to exposve fts of
temper. "That guy ddn't have an expresson 99 percent of the tme," she added.
"He was cod."
|186|
47
Coone Davd Hackworth, an Army veteran who ntervewed McVegh for
Newsweek, concuded that McVegh was sufferng from a "postwar hangover." "I've
seen countess veterans, ncudng mysef, stumbe home after the hgh-noon
exctement of the kng feds, mssng ther batte buddes and the unque
dangers and sense of purpose," wrote Hackworth. "Many ose themseves
forever."
|187|
Athough such symptoms may be seen as a deayed reacton syndrome resutng
from the stress of batte, they are aso common symptoms of mnd-contro. The
sub|ect of mnd-contro or hypnoss often seems emotonay spent, as though he
had been through a harrowng ordea.
Whe vstng frends n Decker, Mchgan, McVegh companed that the Army had
mpanted hm wth a mnature subcutaneous transmtter, so that they coud keep
track of hm.
|188|
He companed that t eft an unexpaned scar on hs buttocks and
was panfu to st on.
|189|
To the pubc, unfamar wth the bewderng excon of government mnd-contro
research, such a cam may appear as the obvous rantngs of a paranoac. But s
t?
Mnaturzed teemetrcs have been part of an ongong pro|ect by the mtary and
varous ntegence agences to test the effectveness of trackng soders on the
battefed. The mnature mpantabe teemetrc devce was decassfed ong ago.
As far back as 1968, Dr. Stuart Mackay, n hs textbook entted $io-Medical
Telemetry, reported, "Among the many teemetry nstruments beng used today,
are mnature rado transmtters that can be swaowed, carred externay, or
surgcay mpanted n man or anma. They permt the smutaneous study of
behavor and physoogca functonng.."
|190|
Dr. Car Sanders, one of the deveopers of the Integence Manned Interface (IMI)
bochp, mantans, "We used ths wth mtary personne n the Iraq War where
they were actuay tracked usng ths partcuar type of devce."
|191|
It s aso nterestng to note that the Caspan Advanced Technoogy Center n
Buffao (Caspan ATC), where McVegh worked, s engaged n mcroscopc
eectronc engneerng of the knd appcabe to teemetrcs.
|192|
Caspan was
founded n 1946 as Corne Aeronautca Laboratory, whch ncuded the "Fund for
the Study of Human Ecoogy," a CIA condut for mnd-contro experments by
mgr Naz scentsts |and others under the drecton of CIA Doctors Sdney
Gotteb, Ewen Cameron, and Lous |oyn West|.
Accordng to mnd-contro researcher Aex Constantne, "Caspan paces much
research emphass on boengneerng and artfca ntegence (Caspan poneered
n the fed n the 1950s)." In hs artce, "The Good Soder," Constantne states:
Human trackng and montorng technoogy are we wthn Caspan's
sphere of pursuts. The company s nstrumenta n REDCAP, an Ar
Force eectronc warfare system that wnds through every Department
of Defense facty n the country. A Pentagon reease expans that
REDCAP "s used to evauate the effectveness of eectronc-combat
hardware, technques, tactcs and concepts." The system "ncudes
cosed-oop radar and data nks at RF manned data fuson and
weapons contro posts." One Patrot computer news board reported
48
that a dsemboded, rumbng, ow-frequency hum had been heard
across the country the week of the bombng. Past hums n Taos, NM,
Eugene and Medford, OR, Tmmons, Ontaro and Brsto, UK were most
defntey (despte specous offca denas) attuned to the bran's
audtory pathways..
The Ar Force s among Caspan's eadng cents, and Egn AFB has
farmed key personne to the company. The gratng rony - recang
McVegh's contenton he'd been mpanted wth a teemetry chp - s
that the Instrumentaton Technoogy Branch of Egn Ar Force Base s
currenty engaged n the trackng of mammas wth submnature
teemetry devces. Accordng to an Ar Force press reease, the
boteemetry chp transmts on the upper S-band (2318 to 2398 MHz),
wth up to 120 dgta channes.
There s nothng secret about the boteemetry chp. Ads for commerca |abet
somewhat smper| versons of the devce have appeared n natona pubcatons.
Time magazne ran an ad for an mpantabe pet transcever n ts |une 26, 1995
ssue - roncay enough - opposte an artce about a mta eader who was
warnng about the comng New Word Order. Whe montorng anmas has been
an uncassfed scentfc pursut for decades, the montorng of humans has been a
hghy cassfed pro|ect whch s but a subset of the Pentagon's "nonetha"
arsena. As Constantne notes, "the dystopan mpcatons were expored by
"efense News for March 20, 1995:
-aal &esearch .ab /ttempts To Meld -e,rons /nd Chips:
!t,dies May +rod,ce /rmy of "0ombies1"
Future battes coud be waged wth genetcay engneered organsms,
such as rodents, whose mnds are controed by computer chps
engneered wth vng bran ces.... The research, caed Hppocampa
Neuron Patternng, grows ve neurons on computer chps. "Ths
technoogy that aters neurons coud potentay be used on peope to
create zombe armes," Lawrence Korb, a senor feow at the Brookngs
Insttuton, sad.
It's concevabe, gven the current state of the eectronc mnd-contro
art, a bocybernetc Oz over the back budget ranbow, that McVegh
had been drawn nto an expermenta pro|ect, that the devce was the
rea McCoy..
|193|
The Defense Department newsetter may have been dscussng s the successor to
the "Stmocever," deveoped n the ate 1950s by Dr. |oseph Degado and funded
by the CIA and the Offce of Nava Research. The Stmocever s a tny transcever
mpanted n the head of a contro sub|ect, whch can then be used to modfy
emotons and contro behavor.
49
Accordng to Degado, "Rado Stmuaton of dfferent ponts n the amygdaa and
hppocampus |areas of the bran| n the four patents produced a varety of effects,
ncudng peasant sensatons, eaton, deep, thoughtfu concentraton, odd
feengs, super reaxaton, coored vsons, and other responses.... One of the
possbtes wth bran transmtters s to nfuence peope so that they confrm wth
the potca system. Autonomc and somatc functons, ndvdua and soca
behavor, emotona and menta reactons may be nvoked, mantaned, modfed,
or nhbted, both n anmas and n man, by stmuaton of specfc cerebra
structures. Physca contro of many bran functons s a demonstrated fact. It s
even possbe to foow ntentons, the deveopment of thought and vsua
experences."
|194|
As Constantne ponts out, the mtary has a ong and sordd hstory of usng
ensted men and unwttng cvans for ts nefarous experments, rangng from
radaton, poson gas, drugs and mnd-contro, to sprayng entre U.S. ctes wth
bacteroogca vruses to test ther effectveness. The most recent exampe
nvoves the use of expermenta vaccnes tested on Guf War veterans who are
currenty experencng bzarre symptoms, not the east of whch s death. When
attorneys representng the former soders requested ther mtary medca fes,
they dscovered there was no record of the vaccnes ever beng admnstered.
|195|
Tmothy McVegh may have unkownngy been an Army/CIA gunea pg nvoved n
a cassfed teemetrc/mnd-contro pro|ect - a "Manchuran Canddate."
Recent hstory s repete wth cases of ndvduas who camy wak nto a
restaurant, schooyard, or post offce and nexpcaby begn shootng arge
numbers of peope, as though they were n a trance. What appear ke gruesome
but happenstance events to the casua observer rases red fags to those famar
wth CIA "seeper" mnd-contro experments. Such cases may be ndcatve of
mnd-contro experments gone horrby wrong.
A recent case occurred n Tasmana, where Martn Bryant camy waked around a
tourst ste n May of 1996 methodcay shootng and kng over 35 peope.
Interestngy, Bryant was n possesson of an assaut rfe that had been handed n
to poce n Vctora as part of a gun amnesty program, but mysterousy wound up
n Bryant's hands before the massacre.
|196|
|An ant-soca oner, Bryant had aso recenty returned from a sotary two-week
trp to the U.S., ostensby to vst "Dsneyand." Austraan Customs agents notced
he carred no uggage, and was actng strangey. They took hm to the hospta to
be examned as a possbe drug courer, but found nothng. Had Bryant actuay
vsted Dsneyand, or had he vsted a dfferent type of payground - one
nhabted by the mnd-contro masters of the CIA?
In the wake of the massacre, Austraa underwent whoesae gun confscaton of ts
ctzenry. Not surprsngy, Austraa and New Zeaand have ong served as a
payground for the CIA, who reportedy payed a ma|or roe n the overthrow of
Austraan Prme Mnster Gough Whtam, drected from the CIA's super-secret Pne
Gap facty. It has aso been reported that the CIA has been testng submna TV
transmssons to nfuence the outcome of eectons.
|197|
|
As n Bryant's case, many of these bzarre kers meeky surrender to authortes
after ther sprees. When he was stopped by State Trooper Chares Hanger for a
mssng cense pate, McVegh was carryng a oaded Gock 9mm psto. Athough
50
he coud have easy shot and ked the offcer, McVegh nformed hm that he was
carryng a conceaed weapon, then meeky handed hmsef over for arrest. Why
does a man who has |ust aegedy ked 169 nnocent peope, bak at kng a cop
on a oney stretch of hghway? |Ths suggests that ether McVegh was nnocent,
was actng under orders by some branch of the government, or was under some
form of mnd-contro.|
After McVegh's arrest n Nobe County, Assstant Attorney Genera Mark Gbson
stated, "There stood a pote young man who gave pote, cooperatve answers to
every queston. It was ke the dutfu soder," Gbson sad. "Emotons don't come
nto pay, rght and wrong don't come nto pay. What happens next doesn't come
nto pay. hs mood was so eve, t was unnatura. I ooked at hm and reazed I
fet no repuson or fear. It was ke there was an absence of feeng. He exuded
nothng."
Chares Hanger, the offcer who arrested McVegh, reated hs account to Gbson,
who tod the Times, "And when he grabbed hs gun and there was no reacton, no
shock, that ddn't seem rght, ether."
|198|
Ths "absence of feeng" among a man who had |ust aegedy commtted a
henous crme may we have been ndcatve of a psychoogcay controed agent
- or "seeper" agent - a person traned to carry out a preconceved order upon
command. Such an ndvdua coud concevaby carry out a horrendous crme, then
have no recoecton of the event. Far from the stuff of spy noves or conspracy
theores, seeper agents have been deveoped and used by ntegence agences
for decades.
|The CIA's nterest n mnd contro orgnay dates back to WWII when the Offce of
Strategc Servces (OSS), under Staney Love, deveoped the dea of hypnotzng
German prsoners to re-nftrate the Thrd Rech and assassnate Adoph Hter.
After the war, the OSS, re-formed as the CIA, brought Naz doctors and scentsts to
work for them under the cover of Operaton PAPERCLIP. Some of these ncuded
war crmnas sprted away through Naz-Vatcan "Ratnes" under the aegs of
Operaton OMEGA, convenenty mssng ther day n court at the Nuremberg War
Crmes Trbuna. Ther coeagues wound up n Centra and South Amerca, draned
from the best of Naz bood under Operaton VAMPIRE.|
The CIA's punge nto the netherword of mnd-contro began n 1950 wth Pro|ect
BLUEBIRD, authorzed by Aen Dues after t was dscovered that recenty reeased
Korean War prsoners had been sub|ected to hypnoss. In 1952, BLUEBIRD was re-
named Operaton ARTICHOKE, under the authorty of Deputy CIA Drector Rchard
Hems, and coordnated by CIA Securty Offcer Shefed Edwards.
|By the ate 1950s, the mtary was we on ts way to nvestgatng the potenta
for "branwashng," a term coned by the CIA's Edward Hunter to expan the
experence of Amercan POWs n Korea. In 1958 the Rand Corporaton produced a
report for the Ar Force entted "The Use of Hypnoss n Integence and Reated
Mtary Stuatons," statng that "In defense appcatons, sub|ects can ce
specfcay seected by a crteron of hypnotzabty, and subsequenty traned n
accordance wth ther antcpated mtary functon..."
|199|
|
Takng the Hppocratc Oath on behaf of the CIA for ARTICHOKE was Dr. Sdney
Gotteb, mnd-contro emertus of the CIA's Technca Servces Dvson (TSS), the
rea-fe counterpart to the mythca "O-Branch" of Ian Femng fame. TSS was
51
engaged deveopng the usua |ames Bond spy toys - mnature cameras, shootng
fountan pens, and, under the tuteage of Dr. Gotteb, posons that coud k n
seconds, eavng no trace. Wth Operaton ARTICHOKE however, the CIA broadened
ts horzons nto the ream of psychoogca warfare. ARTICHOKE was one of the
CIA's ater-day attempts to create an eectroncay-controed Manchuran
Canddate.
In the 1950s, under the code name MKULTRA, the CIA set up safe houses n San
Francsco and other ctes where they performed experments on unwttng
sub|ects usng LSD and other drugs. In 1960, Edwards recruted ex-FBI agent
Robert Maheu, who approached Mob bosses Sam Gancana and |ohn Rosse to
form CIA ht-teams to assassnate foregn eaders usng the technques acqured by
Gotteb's TSS. |The frst on ther st was Cuban eader Fde Castro, who they
panned to assassnate by posonng hs food and even hs cgars. The work of
Gotteb and hs CIA assocates can be traced drecty back to Naz war crmnas
such as Dr. |oseph Mengee of Auschwtz.|
By 1963, reported the Senate Integence Commttee, the number of operatons
and sub|ects had ncreased substantay. But as far back as 1960, TSS offcas,
workng aong wth the Counterntegence staff, had expanded ther hypnoss
programs to concde wth ther MKULTRA experments. Accordng to |ohn Marks n
hs book The Search for the Manchurian !andidate/ "the Counterntegence
program had three goas: (1) to nduce hypnoss very rapdy n unwttng sub|ects;
(2) to create durabe amnesa; and (3) to mpant durabe and operatonay usefu
posthypnotc suggeston."
By 1966, MKULTRA had spawned Operaton MKSEARCH, the use of boogca,
chemca, and radoogca substances to nduce psychoogca and physoogca
changes n the CIA's vctms. MKSEARCH spawned Operatons OFTEN and
CHICKWIT, usng boogca, chemca, and radoogca substances to nduce
psychoogca and physoogca changes. Operatons THIRD CHANCE and DERBY
HAT nvoved the Army's Mtary Integence Group's (M.I.G.) surrepttous dosng
of vctms n Europe and the Far East. MKDELTA, an offshoot of MKULTRA, nvoved
sprayng massve doses of LSD and other drugs by the Army over areas nhabted
by Vet Cong.
|200|
|The preemnent don of the CIA's psychoogca warfare program was Dr. Lous
|oyn West. As part of hs MKULTRA experments, West decded to send an eephant
at the Okahoma Cty Zoo on an LSD trp. Apparenty, the poor creature dd not
apprecate the effects of Dr. West's Magca Mystery Tour. It ded severa hours
ater.
A cose assocate of Drs. Cameron and Gotteb, West studed the use of drugs as
"ad|uncts to nterpersona manpuaton or assaut," and was among one of the
poneers of remote eectronc bran expermentaton, ncudng teemetrc bran
mpants on unwttng sub|ects.
West's good frend, Adous Huxey, suggested that he hypnotze hs sub|ects before
admnsterng LSD, n order to gve them post-hypnotc suggestons whch woud
orent the drug-nduced experence n a "desred drecton."
Interestngy, West was the psychatrst who examned |ack Ruby, the assassn of
Lee Harvey Oswad. Ruby's asserton that an utra-Rght-wng caba was
responsbe for |FK's murder, and hs refusa to admt nsanty, ed West to
52
concude that he was paranod and mentay . West paced Ruby on ant-
depressants, whch dd tte to modfy hs cams of conspracy. He ded of cancer
two years ater, camng to the end that he had been n|ected wth cancerous
boogca matera.
West aso examned Srhan Srhan, a controed hypo-patsy who aegedy ked
Robert F. Kennedy. Currenty charman of UCLA's Neuropsychatrc Insttute, West
headed the Amercan Psychoogca Assocaton (APA) trauma response team that
rushed to Okahoma Cty n the wake of the dsaster.
I ntervewed Dr. West by phone. Whe confrmng that he had ndeed traveed to
Okahoma Cty wth hs team, the emnent psychatrst made a curous "Freudan
Sp." When asked f he had examned McVegh, he sad, "No, I haven't been asked
to do that. I thnk hs awyer woudn't want someone he ddn't trus. pck."
|201|
West nevertheess tod me that someone from the FBI's Behavora Scences unt
woud have ntervewed McVegh. In fact the FBI's Behavora Scences unt dd
ntervew the prsoner. |ohn Dougas of the FBI's Psychoogca Profe Unt was ater
quoted n the Times as sayng, "Ths s an easy controed and manpuated
personaty." What Dougas s unwttngy confrmng s that McVegh was perfect
matera for the CIA's psychoogca mnd-contro program.
By the ate 1950s, many German or Eastern European mgrs brought to work n
the U.S. had been farmed out to unverstes such as Corne, UCLA, and Stanford.
and to peope ke Dr. Ewen Cameron and Dr. |oyn West.
|202|
In the wake of the 1965 Watts rot, West proposed to then Caforna Governor
Ronad Reagan a "Center for the Study and Reducton of Voence," whch was to
have ncuded a psychosurgery unt for performng obotomes, and a seven-day-a-
week, around-the-cock eectro-shock room. Assocates of Dr. Cameron's,
empoyed at the tme n Naz-run detenton centers n South Amerca, woud be
caed on to perform obotomes on unsuspectng patents, wth the fu approva of
Governor Reagan.
|203|
One of the more brazen of the emergng cotere of branwashng enthusasts,
Cameron receved hs fundng through the Rockefeer and Gerschckter
Foundatons, whch was channeed nto the nnocuous soundng Socety for the
Investgaton of Human Ecoogy at Corne. Cameron performed hundreds of
obotomes and eectroshock treatments at the behest of the CIA on unwttng
patents n prsons and menta hosptas, and at hs beoved Aen Memora
Insttute n Montrea.
|204|
It s nterestng to note that McVegh camed he was sub|ected to psychoogca
torture whe n prson.
|205|
He was paced n a ce wth a guard watchng hm
around the cock, who wasn't aowed to speak to hm. The ghts n hs ce were
kept on 24-hours-a-day, deprvng hm of seep - a standard technque desgned
to break down a sub|ect's psychoogca barrers. Eventuay, McVegh caed n a
psychatrst to hep treat hs anxety - a psychatrst, perhaps, traned by Dr.
Cameron.|
CIA psychatrst Dr. Ewen Cameron was aso the progentor of "psychc drvng," a
technque whereby the psychatrst or controer repeatedy pays back seected
words or phrases to break down a person's psychoogca barrers and open up hs
unconscous.
|206|
Such technques woud be eagery ncorporated nto the CIA's
program for creatng Manchuran Canddates - programmed hypno-kers who
53
coud be uneashed at the behest of the Agency to k upon command. An account
of the dscusson surroundng the creaton of a Manchuran Canddate s reveaed
by |FK researcher Dck Russe n hs book, The Man Who 4new Too Much:
In 1968, Dr. |oseph L. Bern of Vrgna Poytechnc Insttute questoned
authortes on hypnoss about whether the creaton of a "Manchuran
Canddate" was reay feasbe. As Author Bowart recounted one
expert's response to Dr. Bernd: "I woud say that a hghy sked
hypnotst, workng wth a hghy susceptbe sub|ect, coud possby
persuade the sub|ect to k another human." Another beeved t was
even possbe, through posthypnotc suggeston, to make a sub|ect
unabe to reca such an act: "There coud be a conspracy, but a
conspracy of whch the prncpa was unaware."
|207|
Ths "psychc drvng" appears to have mpacted Srhan Srhan. Chares McOuston,
a former Army ntegence offcer who dd a Psychoogca Stress Evauaton of
voce recordngs of Srhan, sad, "I beeve Srhan was branwashed under hypnoss
by the constant repetton of words ke, 'You are nobody, you're nothng, the
Amercan dream s gone'.. Somebody mpanted an dea, k RFK, and under
hypnoss the branwashed Srhan accepted t."
|208|
The accused assassn nssted
that he coudn't reca even the murder.
CIA contract agent Coone Wam Bshop expaned to Russe some of the
rudments of the CIA's mnd-contro operatons:
"There were any number of psychoogca or emotona factors nvoved
n peopes' seecton. Antsoca behavor patterns, paranoa or the
rudments of paranoa, and so on. But when they are successfu wth
ths programmng - or, for ack of a better term, ndoctrnaton - they
coud take |ohn Doe and get ths man to k George and |ane Smth. He
w be gven a the pertnent nformaton as to ther ocaton, day
habts, etc. Then there s a menta bock put on ths msson n hs
mnd. He remembers nothng about t."
|209|
On March 3, 1964, CIA Drector |ohn McCone sent a memo to Secret Servce chef
|ames Rowey statng that after hs surgery at the hospta n Mnsk, |Russa|,
Oswad mght have been "chemcay or eectroncay 'controed'. a seeper
agent. Sub|ect spent 11 days hosptazed for a mnor ament whch shoud have
requred no more than three days hosptazaton at best."
|210|
Even |. Edgar Hoover tod the Warren Commsson, "Informaton came to me
ndcatng that there s an esponage tranng schoo outsde of Mnsk - I don't
know whether t s true - that he |Oswad| was traned at that schoo to come back
to ths country to become what they ca a 'seeper,' that s, a man who w reman
dormant for three or four years and n case of nternatona hosttes rse up and
be used."
|211|
|Accordng to |FK researchers Art Ford and Lncon Lawrence n ther book, Were
We !ontrolled6, Lee Harvey Oswad was a programmed assassn wth a
mafunctonng eectrca mpant n hs bran.
|212|
Herman Kmsey, A veteran Army
54
counterntegence operatve and former CIA offca, tod |FK researcher Hugh
MacDonad, "Oswad was programmed to k.. Then the mechansm went on the
bnk and Oswad became a dangerous toy wthout drecton."
|213|
|
The CIA's nterest n producng the perfect programmed assassn took a new bent,
when n 1965, the Agency, n cooperaton wth the DoD, set up a secret program
for studyng the effects of eectromagnetc radaton, or mcrowave (EM) weapons
at the Army's Advanced Research Pro|ects Agency (ARPA) at the Water Reed Army
Insttute of Research. The pro|ect was nspred by the Sovets, who had been
dousng the Amercan Embassy n Moscow wth a etha dose of mcrowaves,
causng many of ts personne to de from cancer.
|214|
Yet causng degeneratve dseases was not the man goa of the DoD/CIA EM
weapons research, code named PANDORA. The spooks were nterested n the
effects of mcrowaves on controng a person's behavor. By 1973, both the
Amercans and the Sovets were far aong n ther mnd-contro appcatons, usng
technoogy such as pused mcrowave audograms and acoustca teemetry to
create voces n a sub|ect's mnd, or erase hs mnd competey.
|215|
|
Causng degeneratve dseases was not the man goa of the DoD/CIA EM weapons
research, code named PANDORA. The spooks were nterested n the effects of
mcrowaves on controng a person's behavor. By 1973, both the Amercans and
the Sovets were far aong n ther mnd-contro appcatons, usng technoogy such
as pused mcrowave audograms and acoustca teemetry to create voces n a
sub|ect's mnd, or erase hs mnd competey.
|216|
Wth the advent of EM technoogy,
scentsts coud bypass the need for eectrodes mpanted n the bran, and contro
ther sub|ects drecty. Lawrence descrbed a technoogy caed RHIC-EDOM, or
"Rado Hypnotc Intracerebra Contro and Eectronc Dssouton of Memory."
Accordng to Lawrence:
It s the utra-sophstcated appcaton of post-hypnotc suggeston
trggered at w by rado transmsson. It s a recurrng state, re-
nduced automatcay at ntervas by the same rado contro. An
ndvdua s brought under hypnoss. Ths can be done ether wth hs
knowedge - or wthout t - by use of narco-hypnoss, whch can be
brought nto pay under many guses. He s then programmed to
perform certan actons and mantan certan atttudes upon rado
sgna.
Lawrence went on to state that "through the use of rado-waves and utra-sonc
sgna tones. It n effect bocks memory of the moment."
|217|
"Such a devce has
obvous appcatons n covert operatons desgned to drve a target crazy wth
'voces' or dever undetected nstructons to a programmed assassn," states Dr.
Robert Becker.
|218|
Thane Eugene Cesar, a reported accompce n the murder of Robert Kennedy, hed
a vaguey-defned |ob at Lockheed, a CIA/PANDORA contractor. Retred Lockheed
engneer |m Yoder tod former FBI agent Wam Turner that Cesar worked foatng
assgnments n an "off-mts" area operated by the CIA.
|219|
The parae s strkngy
smar to that of Tmothy McVegh, who worked at Caspan, another hgh-tech
mtary contractor engaged n top-secret teemetrc work.
55
The preemnent don of CIA's psychoogca warfare program (MKULTRA), Dr. Lous
|oyon "|oy" West, sent an Okahoma Cty Zoo eephant careenng on a massve
LSD trp, trggerng ts death hours ater. Studyng the use of drugs as "ad|uncts to
nterpersona manpuaton or assaut," |oy West was among the poneers of
remote eectronc bran expermentaton on unwttng sub|ects. Adous Huxey
passed on the dea to West that he hypnotze sub|ects before admnsterng LSD,
orentng drug-nduced experence toward a "desred drecton."
West was gven the |ob of examnng |ack Ruby, Lee Harvey Oswad's ker. Ruby's
refusa to admt nsanty, and hs beef that a rght-wng caba was responsbe for
|FK's murder, ed West to concude Ruby was mentay , the proper canddate for
ant-depressants. Ruby ded of cancer two years after the exam, camng to have
been n|ected wth magnant boogca matera. West aso examned Srhan
Srhan, |who may have been| a hypno-patsy |aed for murderng Robert Kennedy.
On March 31, ess than three weeks before the bombng, McVegh appeared at the
Impera Mote n Kngman. For the next 12 days, accordng to owner Hemut Hofer,
he |ust sat there, emergng ony for meas or to pay hs b. He had no vstors,
made few phone cas, and barey dsturbed the furnshngs. No one ever heard hs
teevson, and hs car never moved from ts spot outsde.
|220|
"That's the funny thng," sad Hofer. "He ddn't go out. He ddn't make phone cas.
He ddn't do anythng. He |ust sat up there and brooded."
|"He aways had been a brooder." added the Times, throwng a bt of nstant
psychoanayss on the stuaton.
|221|
|
To Earne Roberts, the housekeeper at the Oak Cff roomng house where Oswad
stayed |ust pror to the assassnaton, "Mr. Lee" probaby seemed ke a brooder
too, stayng n hs room, havng no vstors and never socazng.
|222|
Yet t s unkey that McVegh smpy rented a room at the Impera for 12 days to
brood. Lke Oswad, McVegh was probaby tod to wat somewhere unt he was
contacted. Perhaps t was a pre-arranged date; perhaps he was watng for a phone
ca; or perhaps McVegh was smpy put on ce, watng to be actvated by some
sort of sgna. It s possbe McVegh's anger at the Federa Government was stoked
by a more mysterous enemy, one that he coudn't see or fee. but hear.
One of the most famous documented cases of "hearng voces" was that of Denns
Sweeny, the student actvst who shot and ked hs mentor Aard Lowensten.
Lowensten, who marched n the 1964 Freedom Summer n Msssspp, had
campagned for Robert Kennedy and Ada Stevenson, and ran the Natona
Student Assocaton before the CIA took over. Lowensten, who was aso frends
wth CIA propagandst Wam F. Buckey, had attempted to prove that a great
conspracy was responsbe for the deaths of Martn Luther Kng and the Kennedys.
(At the tme he was assassnated, he was hepng Ted Kennedy wn the 1980
presdenta eecton.)
|223|
One fne day, Sweeny camy waked nto the mdde of Rockefeer Center and
pumped seven buets nto hs mentor. He then sat down, t a cgarette, and
wated for the poce to arrve. "Sweeny camed that the CIA, wth Lowensten's
hep, had mpanted a teemetrc chp n hs head 15 years earer, and had made
hs fe an unbearabe torment. Voces were transmtted through hs denta work,
he sad, and he attempted to sence them by fng down hs fase teeth. Sweeny
56
bamed CIA "controers" for hs unce's heart attack and the assassnaton of San
Francsco mayor George Moscone."
|224|
Moscone and Cty Supervsor Harvey Mk met ther deaths at the hands the
nfamous "Twnke" assassn - former Cty Supervsor Dan Whte. Whte earned
the curous tte due hs attorney's nove defense - that hs cent was under the
nfuence of a heavy dose of sugar at the tme of the murders. More key, Whte
was under the nfuence of a heavy dose of hypnoss.
Lke McVegh, Whte had been n the mtary, servng a tour of duty n Vetnam.
After eavng the poce department n 1972, Whte took an extended vacaton
snce known as Whte's "mssng year."
"He broke a contact wth frends and famy. He kept no records of the trp,
purchased no trave tckets, dd not use a credt card. He ater accounted for hs
mystery year by expanng that he'd worked a stnt as a securty guard n Aaska."
Whte subsequenty moved back to San Francsco, where |oned the Fre
Department. Lke McVegh, Whte's work record was untarnshed, though ke the
engmatc soder, he was known to erupt n embarrassng temper tantrums. As
Constantne wrtes n The ,ood Soldier7
Whe campagnng for the Board of Supervsors, he spoke as f he was
"programmed," accordng to oca abor eader Stan Smth. Durng Board sessons,
he was known to sp nto spes of sence punctuated by goose-steppng waks
around the Supervsors' chambers.
|225|
One of the more recent cases of murder by suggeston was the assassnaton of
Nava Commander Edward |. Hggns. Hggns was shot fve tmes n the Pentagon
parkng ot by Car Campbe, who camed that the CIA had mpanted a mcrochp
n hm that controed hs mnd.
|226|
To those who beeve that such eectroncay-manpuated scenaros are the stuff
of fantasy, they shoud take note that no ess than three support groups currenty
exst n the U.S. to dea wth the trauma of mtary and ntegence agency
branwashng.
Yet the hypnoss and druggng of aduts s not by far the worst exampe of the
CIA's nefarous efforts at deveopng programmed assassns. Other efforts nvove
the use of chdren, programmed whe they are st young (See the "Fnders"
case), and the use of cuts, often run by former mtary and ntegence offcers.
The use of cuts provdes a convenent cover for experments that coud not
otherwse be conducted out n the open. Any resutant behavora anomaes can
then smpy be attrbuted to the pecuartes of the "cut."
|227|
One program for the recrutment of programmed operatves s caed Operaton
OPEN EYES. Accordng to a former Navy Integence offcer and SEAL team eader
attached to the CIA, "Cear Eyes" are the programmed vctms of OPEN EYES. The
operaton nvoves canvassng the country for ndvduas who have few cose
frends or reatves. They are then put under a progressve seres of graduay
ntensfed hypnoss, where the sub|ect's personaty s "overwrtten."
At eve four, dverse programs can be wrtten or overwrtten nto the bran. Any
command s accepted at ths eve. At that eve you can gve the test sub|ect a
compete personaty, hstory and make hm/her beeve anythng the program
requres for the accompshment of any desred pro|ect. He s then gven a new fe
n a new state and town. Drver's cense, car, bank account, passport, credt cards,
57
B.C., and a the sma thngs, such as photos of hs famy (that don't reay exst).
Sub|ect and patent (one and the same) has now an agenda (that he beeves s hs
own) and s prepared for eve fve hypnoss. At ths stage, very carefuy a code
work or sequence of numbers or a voce mprnt s etched nto hs bran. That s
commony known and referred to as the trgger that w actvate sub|ect to acton.
He then ves a very norma and sometmes usefu fe, unt sub|ect s requred to
perform the program mpanted/wrtten nto eve four hypnoss at the pont of
actvatng the trgger, sub|ect s beyond reca. That's why a eve fve person can
ony be approached after hs/her operaton. There s no actua reca n the
subconscous program of any of the hypnoss. If an act of voence had been
perpetrated, sub|ect w not be abe to assocate wth the deed. Ony shrnks
traned n ths partcuar form of sub menta behavor w fnd any tracks eadng to
post eve one or two mnd-contro.
I have personay wtnessed eve one to fve programmng, and was mysef sub|ect
of eve three programmng.
Due to the fact that sub|ect has such hgh IO (preferaby around 130-140 sub|ect s
very quck to earn anythng fed to hm/her. A ma|or patrot groups, and norma
workers and workers n bg |government contract| corporatons have at east one
or more "seepers" attached to them.
Now t must be cear to you the varous eves used by the nte communty to get
ther |ob done. Remember |onestown? It was one of ours that went sour because a
Cear Eyes was n the group. When he began frng on the runway, t a sef
destructed. The man (Congressman Leo Ryan) who was ked, knew t was a
government operaton. Cear Eyes was accdentay - through a one sequence -
actvated! There was no way to stop the kngs. They were a programmed to at
east eve three, the cutes themseves. There were ony three deaths attrbutabe
to cyande, the rest ded of gunfre. Now you know a tte more about our ne of
work. I am gad I am out of t.
|228|
An ex-CIA agent ntervewed by researcher |m Keth cams to have knowedge of
boogca warfare testng and "speca medca and Psy-ops (psychoogca
operatons) factes at Fort Rey," where Tmothy McVegh was statoned. (Reca
that McVegh took a Psy-ops course at Ft. Rey) Ths agent stated that
expermentaton s conducted "n coaboraton wth the whoe range of ntegence
agences, FBI, CIA, NSA, the works." The agent aso tod Keth that he had
wtnessed speca psychoogca operatons performed on the crew of the Puebo
nava vesse at Fort Rey, and at Fort Bennng, Georga (where dd hs basc
tranng), pror to the shp's capture under mysterous crcumstances by the North
Koreans. Fort Bennng s aso home to the notorous Schoo of the Amerca's, where
the CIA and the Speca Forces have traned Latn Amercan death squad eaders
for over three decades. Fort Rey was aso home to a mysterous pague of
murders and shootngs rght around the tme of the Okahoma Cty bombng. On
March 2, 1995, PFC Maurce Wford shot three offcers wth a 12-gauge shotgun
before turnng the gun on hmsef. On Apr 6, Bran Soutenburg was found dead n
hs quarters after an apparent sucde.
|229|
Is t possbe these ncdents were the resut of some psychoogca testng or
experment gone awry? Gven the Army's opprobrous hstory of psychoogca
research and covert experments on ts own personne, t s not nconcevabe. The
58
ncdents seem ndcatve of the shootng death of Commander Edward |. Hggns
by Car Campbe, who camed he was mpanted wth a mcrochp.
|It s nterestng to note that| after hs arrest, McVegh was taken to Tnker Ar
Force Base. Why he woud be taken to a mtary nstaaton s uncear. Perhaps Dr.
West was on hand, watng to see whether McVegh's mcrochp was st snug. Was
Tmothy McVegh n fact manpuated through the use of a subcutaneous
transcever, mpanted n hm wthout hs knowedge? Was he a "seeper agent,"
programmed to do a drty deed and have no memory of t afterwards?
Interestngy, Rchard Condon's cassc pay, The Manchurian !andidate made ts
debut n Okahoma Cty exacty one year after the bombng. It s possbe the real
Manchuran canddate made his debut on Apr 19, 1995. Gven the ong and sordd
hstory of Pentagon/CIA mnd-contro operatons, such a scenaro s certany
possbe.
|230|
What's aso possbe s that McVegh was smpy ed to. Someone - whom
McVegh thought was workng for the government, gave hm a cover story -
convnced hm that he was on an mportant, top secret msson. McVegh's seemng
ndfference upon hs arrest may smpy have been ndcatve of hs understandng
that he was workng for ths agency, had smpy devered a truck as he was tod,
and had not, n fact, ked anyone.
|It s possbe that| McVegh was concerned about mtary cut-backs when he qut
the Army n December of 1991. It s possbe that hs ncreased |ob dutes were the
reason he qut the Natona Guard n |une of 1992. It s aso possbe, hghy
probabe n fact, that he was secrety offered a more ucratve career - one that
promsed more exctement, adventure, and money. n the ntegence servces.
To the ntegence communty, Tmothy McVegh woud have been exacty what
they were ookng for - a top-notch but mpressonabe young soder who s
patrotc and gung-ho to a faut. A tacturn ndvdua who foows orders wthout
hestaton, and who knows when to keep hs mouth shut, a prerequste of any
good ntegence operatve.
Accordng to former CIA agent Vctor Marchett, the CIA currenty does ts most
"frutfu" recrutng n the armed forces.
|231|
Integence agences reguary recrut
from the mtary, and mtary fes are routney revewed for potenta canddates
- those who have proven ther wngness and abty to k on command and
wthout hestaton - those whose combat tranng and profcency wth weapons
make them exceent canddates for fed operatons. McVegh had aready taken
the Psychoogca Operatons (PSYOPS) Course whe he was at Fort Rey. Whether
he knew t or not, McVegh was we on hs was way to a career n covert
ntegence. An ntegence agency woudn't have to search hard for a man ke
McVegh. Hs above-average mtary record, and the fact that he was a canddate
for the Speca Forces, woud have made hm a natura choce. &s*ecially hs try-
out for Speca Forces. The Speca Forces were created as the coert military arm
of the !entral (ntelli%ence A%ency. Accordng to Lt. Coone Dane Marvn (Ret.),
"amost a of the ndependent operatons wthn the Green Berets were run by the
CIA"
|232|
Moreover, McVegh was |ust begnnng to espouse mta-type vews. Ths
observaton, and the fact that he was racst, woud have made hm a perfect
operatve to nftrate any far rght-wng or whte supremacst group. Lkewse t
59
woud have made hm the perfect patsy to mpcate n connection with any rght-
wng group.
|As Dave Dy tod the )ost, "The mtas reay recrut, and he's exacty what
they're ookng for.. They coud catch hm easy. He had a the same nterests as
them; they're |ust a tte more fanatca."
What Dy s descrbng to the etter, athough he s unaware of t, s the modus
operand of the ntegence communty. If McVegh was recruted by one of the
ntegence branches, t s possbe that he was recruted by someone posng as a
mta member. As far as fanatcs go, there s no one group of peope more
fanatca than the "unatc frnge" of the ntegence communty. In short, McVegh|
possessed a the quates that woud have made hm an exceent undercover
operatve. and a perfect fa-guy.
In May of 1992, McVegh was promoted to eutenant at Burns Securty, and wrote
hs Natona Guard commander that hs cvan |ob requred hs presence. "But the
etter was rea vague," sad hs commander. "It ddn't say |ust what ths new |ob
was." Approxmatey nne months ater, when McVegh was gong to be promoted
to supervsor, he suddeny qut, sayng that he had "more pressng matters to
attend to."
|ust what these "pressng matters" were s not exacty cear. Accordng to co-
worker Car Lebron, McVegh tod hm he was eavng to take a cvan poston wth
the Army n Kentucky pantng trucks. He ater tod Lebron that he became prvy to
a top-secret pro|ect at Caspan caed "Pro|ect Norstar," whch, accordng to
McVegh, nvoved brngng drugs nto the country va mnature submarne. He tod
hs frend that he was afrad that those responsbe for Pro|ect Norstar were
"comng after hm," and he had to eave.
Whe ths expanaton may strke one as bzarre, McVegh wrote hs sster |ennfer
whe he was st n the Army teng her that he had been pcked for a hghy
specazed Speca Forces Covert Tactca Unt (CTU) that was nvoved n ega
actvtes. The etter was ntroduced to the Federa Grand |ury. Accordng to former
grand |uror Hoppy Hedeberg, these ega actvtes ncuded "protectng drug
shpments, emnatng the competton, and popuaton contro." Whe a the
detas of the etter aren't cear, Hedeberg sad that there were fve to sx dutes
n a, and that the group was comprsed of ten men.
Such unts are nothng new. Durng the Vetnam War, CIA Drector Wam Coby
and Sagon Staton Chef Ted Shackey (who aso ran a massve heron smuggng
operaton) created what they caed Provnca Reconnassance Unts (PRUs), whch
woud capture, torture, and k suspected Vet Cong eaders.
|233|
Former Army CID nvestgator Gene Wheaton aso descrbed a covert unt created
by the hghy secretve NRO (Natona Reconnassance Offce), whch used
assassnaton and torture to emnate so-caed enemes of the state. In 1985,
Wheaton was approached by "securty consutants" to Vce Presdent Bush's "Task
Force on Combatng Terrorsm" who were workng for USMC Lt. Coone Over
North (who served under Shackey n Vetnam) and Assocate Deputy FBI Drector
Over "Buck" Reve. "They wanted me to hep create a 'death squad' that woud
have Whte House denabty to assassnate peope they woud dentfy as
'terrorsts,'" sad Wheaton.
60
Code-named "Zeta Dogenes" n the USAF subset, ths secret pro|ect, accordng to
Wheaton, "was created n a rage by the covert ntegence eadershp after the
faed Bay-of-Pgs operaton aganst Cuba n 1961." Wheaton cams the program
contnues to the present day.
|234|
Anyone who prefers to thnk that agences of the U.S. government are above
assassnatng U.S. ctzens, not to menton senor U.S. offcas where expedent,
may wsh to bear n mnd the foowng testmony gven by Coone Dane Marvn, a
hghy decorated Speca Forces Vetnam veteran. Whe gong through Speca
Forces tranng at Fort Bragg n 1964, Marvn's group was asked f any members
woud ke to vounteer to take speca assassnaton tranng on behaf of the CIA,
emnatng Amercans overseas who posed "natona securty rsks." About sx
peope, hmsef ncuded, vounteered.
"The CIA had agents there a the tme at Fort Bragg, n the Speca Warfare Center
Headquarters," sad Marvn. "My commandng offcer, Coone C.W. Patton, caed
me up to hs offce one day n the frst week. and he sad, "Dan, go out and meet
the 'Company' man standng there underneath the pne trees, watng to tak to
you."
Ironcay, Marvn had been motvated to |on the Speca Forces by the death of
Presdent Kennedy, who had conferred upon the unt ther dstnctve and coveted
green berets. Marvn began hs assassnaton tranng n the Sprng of 1964. ".
durng one of the coffee breaks, I overheard one of the |CIA| nstructors say to the
other one, 'We, t went pretty we n Daas. Ddn't t?'"
Marvn sad hs group was shown "16 mmeter movng pctures that we assumed
were taken by the CIA of the assassnaton, on the ground there at Daas.. We
were tod that there were actuay four shooters. There was one on the roof of the
ower part of the Book Depostory, and there was one shooter who was n front of
and to the rght of the vehce. And I'm not sure whether t was on the Grassy Kno
area that they were speakng of, or, as some peope have reported, |a shooter
frng| out of a manhoe to the rght-front of the vehce."
He aso added that there were two addtona snpers wth spotters statoned on
the routes that the motorcade woud have used to trave to the hospta. If the
spotter determned that Kennedy had survved, he was to fnsh hm off.
|"They used the assassnaton of Presdent Kennedy as a prme exampe of how to
deveop the strategy for the assassnaton of a word eader as a conspracy, whe
makng t ook ke some 'one nut' dd t..
"The stronger a patrot you are, the more mportant t s to you that you do
whatever s necessary for your fag, for your country," he adds. "It makes you the
most susceptbe type of person for ths knd of tranng. You are the utmate
warror. You're out there to do for your country what nobody ese s wng to do. I
had no quams about t at a."|
Marvn camed hs "assassnaton" tranng was reserved soey for ctzens outsde
the Unted States, not on U.S. so. "The Mafa sts were the ones beng used |to k
Amercans| n the contnenta Unted States," sad Marvn. "We were beng used
overseas." That was, unt he was asked to k an Amercan Nava offcer - Lt.
Commander Wam Bruce Ptzer, the X-ray techncan who fmed the Kennedy
autopsy, "as he was, supposedy, a trator, about to gve secrets to the enemy. It
61
turned out that these 'secrets' were the photos of the real autopsy of Presdent
|ohn F. Kennedy. And the 'enemy' was us!"
|235|
When he found out that hs assgnment was to be conducted n the U.S., he
refused. ".that wasn't my msson," sad Marvn. "When I took my tranng, I
vounteered to do ths knd of thng overseas where t coud be covered, as far as
the famy goes. I had a wfe and three chdren. If I were to accept that msson to
k Commander Ptzer rght here n the Unted States, I woud have been dropped
from the ros mmedatey as a deserter so that t woud cover me for takng off
and takng care of that msson.."
|236||237|
Such a "cover" tactc appears to cosey parae that of Tmothy McVegh, who
"dropped out" of Speca Forces tranng before embarkng on hs bewderng and
mysterous |ourney (aa: Dan Whte) pror to the bombng.
St another, more we-documented reference to such ega operatons s made
by Wall Street Journal reporter |onathan Kwtny n hs best-seng book, The !rimes
of )atriots. Kwtny descrbes how rogue CIA agents Edwn Wson (who reported to
Shackey) and Frank Terp were not ony egay seng huge quanttes of C-4
pastc exposves and sophstcated assassnaton gear to the Lbyans, but were
actuay hrng ant-Castro Cubans from Shackey's od |M/WAVE program, and U.S.
Green Berets to assassnate Oaddaf's potca opponents abroad. (See Chapter 14)
Some U.S. Army men were teray ured away from the doorway of
Fort Bragg, ther North Carona tranng post. The GIs were gven every
reason to beeve that the operaton summonng them was beng
carred out wth the fu backng of the CIA..
|238|
Coud ths be the same group McVegh cams he was recruted for? Consderng
the aegatons of the Federa Government aganst McVegh, the fact that he was
chosen for such a candestne and batanty ega government-sponsored
operaton s hghy reveang.
Accordng to Hedeberg's account of the etter, McVegh turned them down. "They
pcked hm because he was gung-ho," sad Hedeberg. "But they ms|udged hm.
He was gung-ho, but n a sncere way. He reay oved hs country."
|239|
In another verson of the story reported by Ted Gunderson, an ntegence
nformant ndcated that McVegh was "traned to work for the CIA n ther ega
drug operatons," then "became dsenchanted wth the government, and voced hs
dspeasure." At that pont he was sent to Fort Rey for dscharge, at whch pont
|ohn Doe 2 "was panted on hm" and "orchestrated the bombng." Accordng to
Gundersen's nformant, McVegh was a vctm of the CIA's mnd-contro pro|ect,
Pro|ect MONARCH.
|240|
Whether McVegh turned down ths ega covert operatons group, or worked for
them for a short tme, t s hghy key that he was workng n some fashon for the
government. There s smpy no ogca expanaton for hs gvng up a hard-earned
and brant mtary career, then subsequenty quttng hs securty guard |ob on
the eve of hs promoton to take a |ob pantng od army trucks, or go toong
around the country n a beat-up car hawkng used frearms and mta
paraphernaa.
62
If McVegh was recruted, hs "optng out" of the mtary was most key a cover
story for that recrutment. Former Pentagon counter-ntegence offcer Robert
Gambert tod Kennedy assassnaton researcher Dck Russe of the mysterous
actvtes of hs cousn Rchard Case Nage, "Dck payed the roe of a dsgrunted
ex-Army offcer.. he was reay st operatona, n an undercover capacty, for the
Army Integence.. They're not gonna' trust anybody who's actve mtary or a
frendy retree. They're gonna trust somebody who's gong around grpng aganst
the mtary, aganst the ntegence operatons, aganst the government.."
|241|
After McVegh's mysterous departure from the Army, hs frend Robn Ltteton
receved a strange etter from hm. On t was ustrated a cartoon depctng a sku
and crossbones wth the capton "so many vctms, so tte tme."
|242|
Whether he
meant t as a |oke, or whether t contaned a hdden message, s uncear. But
consderng the etter he wrote to |ennfer regardng the CTU, ts mpcatons are
unsettng.
A patrotc soder ke Tmothy McVegh ddn't have a ot of reasons to grpe
aganst the government. But, sad the )ost7 "McVegh was by now rang at
vrtuay every aspect of Amercan government, and at east begnnng to consder
a voent souton, as refected n etters he wrote to the 3ock*ort 2nion-Sun 5
Journal n February and March 1992, (entted 'Amerca Faces Probems.')"
|243|
Crme s out of contro. Crmnas have no fear of punshment. Prsons
are overcrowded so they know they w not be mprsoned ong. Ths
breeds more crme, n an escaatng cycc pattern.
Taxes are a |oke. Regardess of what a potca canddate "promses,"
they w ncrease. More taxes are aways the answer to government
msmanagement. They mess up, we suffer. Taxes are reachng
catacysmc eves, wth no sowdown n sght.
The "Amercan Dream" of the mdde cass has a but dsappeared,
substtuted wth peope struggng |ust to buy next week's groceres.
Heaven forbd the car breaks down!
Potcans are further erodng the "Amercan Dream" by passng aws
whch are supposed to be a "quck fx," when a they are reay
desgned for s to get the offca re-eected. These aws tend to "dute"
a probem for a whe, unt the probem comes roarng back n a
worsened form (much ke a stran of bactera w ater tsef to defeat
a known medcaton).
Potcans are out of contro. Ther yeary saares are more than an
average person w see n a fetme. They have been entrusted wth
the power to reguate ther own saares and have grossy voated that
trust to ve n ther own uxury.
Racsm on the rse? You had better beeve t! Is ths Amerca's
frustratons ventng themseves? Is t a vad frustraton? Who s to
63
bame for the mess? At a pont when the word has seen Communsm
fater as an mperfect system to manage peope; democracy seems to
be headed down the same road. No one s seeng the "bg" pcture.
Maybe we have to combne deooges to acheve the perfect utopan
government. Remember, government-sponsored heath care was a
Communst dea. Shoud ony the rch be aowed to ve ong? Does
that say that because a person s poor, he s a esser human beng; and
doesn't deserve to ve as ong, because he doesn't wear a te to work?
What s t gong to take to open up the eyes of our eected offcas?
Amerca s n serous decne!
We have no proverba tea to dump; shoud we nstead snk a shp fu
of |apanese mports? Is a Cv War mmnent? Do we have to shed
bood to reform the current system? I hope t doesn't come to that! But
t mght.
Naturay, an ordnary grpe etter wrtten by a person wth above-average
ntegence and potca awareness was turned nto a manfestaton of suppressed
frustratons wth attendant voent overtones by the psycho|ournasts of the
manstream press. Yet, f McVegh was under the nfuence of some form of mnd-
contro, t s possbe the etter, and the one to Ltteton, mght have been the
begnnngs of a pan to "sheep-dp" McVegh as a dsgrunted ex-mtary man.
|244|
It s aso possbe that McVegh, tasked wth the responsbty of nftratng the
Mta Movement, became genuney enamored wth ts deas and precepts.
Whether or not ths s true, McVegh's etter to the 3ock*ort 2nion-Sun 5 Journal
and to Robn Ltteton were two more nas the government and the press woud
use to drve nto McVegh's coffn.
But the ma|or nas n McVegh's coffn were yet to come.
The Man Who 2idn3t E4ist
In September of 1992 McVegh sod hs property n Oean, NY, and n eary 1993
traveed to Kngman, Arzona to vst hs od Army frend Mchae Forter.
Apparenty McVegh's father ddn't approve of Tm's etters n the oca paper. A
frend of McVegh's father tod the )ost that one of the reasons McVegh eft was
because "he wanted to be somewhere he coud tak about what he reay
beeved."
In Kngman, a rugged hgh-desert town where ant-government sentments run
strong, McVegh woud fnd ke-mnded sous. "Arzona s st gun-on-the-hp
terrtory, rugged ndvduas who don't ke the government n ther busness," sad
Maryn Hart, manager of the Canyon West Mobe Park.
After spendng a bref tme vng wth Forter at hs traer home on East McVcar
Road, McVegh rented a traer at Canyon West where he ved from |une to
September of 1993, for $250-a-month.
The Times, the )ost/ Time and Newsweek a reported that McVegh was a
begerent beer-drnkng, oud musc-payng sob who stayed at the Canyon West
Mobe Park and was subsequenty evcted. Accordng to the Times7
64
Resdents of the Canyon West Mobe Park drew a pcture of an arrogant oner who
worked as a securty guard for a now-defunct truckng company, ved wth hs
pregnant grfrend, expressed deep anger aganst the Federa Government and
often caused troube for hs neghbors. "He drank a ot of beer and threw out the
cans, and I aways had to pck them up," Bob Rangn, owner of the park, was
quoted as sayng. He sad he had frequent fghts wth Mr. McVegh, who often wore
Army fatgues, over such thngs as oud rock musc comng from hs traer and a
dog he kept n voaton of hs ease.
|245|
"|ust about any free tme, he'd be wakng down there, or across the raroad tracks
and frng hs guns," sad Maryn Hart, noddng at the andscape of canyons and
mesas around the Canyon West traer park here that s one of the ast known
addresses of the man arrested for bombng the Okahoma Cty Federa Budng.
"He |ust pan ddn't care. Ddn't matter the tme of day or nght, he'd be out there
shootng."
"Bascay he |ust had a poor atttude, a chp on the shouder knd of thng," sad
Rob Rangn, the owner of the traer park. "He was very cocky. He ooked ke he
was ready to get n a fght pretty easy. I' te you, I was a tte afrad of hm and
I'm not afrad of too many peope.
Mr. McVegh brought n a bg brown dog n defance of the camp reguatons and
eft a wrecked car parked by hs traer, Mr. Rangn sad, and even a neary totay
deaf neghbor, Cyde Smth, companed about the musc. Fnay, sad Mr. Rangn,
"he ped up so many voatons, I asked hm to eave."
"When he dd, the traer was a dsaster," he sad. "It was trashed."
|246|
Yet these accounts of McVegh n the Times1 on Apr 23 and 24 are totay contrary
to ther accounts on May 4 and December 31, whch descrbe hm as a compusve
neat-freak, hghy dscpned, respectfu of hs eders, and courteous to a faut.
Frends and acquantances ntervewed aso camed that McVegh was extremey
quet, never drank, and never had a date, much ess a pregnant grfrend.
Yet on Apr 23, the )ost descrbed how McVegh payed oud musc, terrorzed hs
neghbors, and was evcted from the park. Then on |uy 2, the )ost wrote:
When he moved nto the Canyon West traer park outsde Kngman n 1993, hs
frst act was to wash the drty curtans and dust, vacuum and scrub the entre
traer spotess, sad owner Bob Rangn, who so ked McVegh that he offered to
ower the rent to keep the ex-soder from movng.
The )ost aso ran an ntervew wth neghbor |ack Gohn, who sad McVegh was so
"quet, pote and neat and cean" that "f I had a daughter n that age bracket, I
woud have ntroduced them."
|247|
Sad Maryn Hart of Tmothy McVegh: "He was very quet, very pote, very
courteous, very neat, very cean, quet, obeyed a the park rues. He worked on
the traer, dd some pantng, he dd some ceanng on t, he bought new furnture,
thngs ke that."
|248|
In fact, what the Times was reportng on was not Tmothy McVegh at a, but a
competey dfferent man! Accordng to Hart, the mx-up came when reporters from
the Times were gven nformaton about Dave Heden, who aso was |ust out of the
servce, and had ved n traer #19 (McVegh ved n traer #11). "They thought t
was the man who ved down beow," sad Hart. "He was a sob. But he was not Tm
McVegh. The other guy took hs guns out across the way and fred them a the
65
tme, he got drunk and got up on top of the traer and dd a knds of nosy
thngs.."
Accordng to Hart, after the man's grfrend gave brth he sobered up. "Now
they're marred, the baby was born, he's straghtened up hs fe," sad Hart. "He
straghtened up hs act, and he doesn't act that way any more at a."
Rangn caed authors Kfner and McFadden of the Times to correct them. "I tred to
te them that wasn't McVegh," sad Rangn. "I caed that feow at the Times who
came down here, and tod hm they got the wrong guy."
|249|
Accordng to the Times, t was a "ceary embarrassed" Mr. Rangn who had made
the mstake, wrote the Times on Apr 25: He added that the man he ncorrecty
recaed as Tm McVegh "was ke you woud thnk" a suspect n a mass kng
mght be.
|250|
Ths s ceary nterestng consderng that for days the Times had been pantng
McVegh as a pathoogca, asexua neat freak who was extremey pote. These
trats, the Times1 psychobabbsts camed, were ndcators of a mass ker.
The Times then camed on the very next day that McVegh was a begerent sob
wth a pregnant grfrend, and a of a sudden, these were the characterstcs of a
mass ker. Obvousy, to a propaganda screed ke the New 'ork Times, t ddn't
matter what McVegh's actua personaty reay was.
Whe n Kngman, McVegh worked at dfferent |obs through an agency caed
Aed Forces. "He dd a number of |obs that way," sad Hart. "He was a securty
guard, he dd a number of dfferent |obs. But he aways went to hs |ob, dd them
we. any of the peope who worked wth hm sad he ddn't act odd, you know, t
was totay out of character."
|251|
McVegh worked for a tme at True Vaue Hardware, on Stockton H Road, a |ob
that Forter heped hm get. Pau Shuffer, the store owner, sad McVegh "was a
young and cean ookng person so I gave hm a |ob." Accordng to Shuffer, "If he
was a radca around here, I woud have notced t pretty quck and I woud have
fred hm. Radcas don't ast ong around here because they |ust make a mess of
thngs."
|252|
McVegh aso worked for a spe at State Securty. The Times ntervew wth co-
worker Fred Burkett took a sghty dfferent sant, pantng hs co-worker McVegh
as an arrogant, gun-totng oner. "He had a very dry personaty," Burkett tod the
Times. "He was not very outgong, not takatve and not reay that frendy. He
wasn't a person that mnged. He was a knd of by yoursef knd of person, a oner."
Once, Burkett went wth McVegh on a target-shootng course n the desert, where
McVegh "pretty much went crazy," Burkett sad. After runnng through the course,
pckng off targets wth a Gock .45, McVegh began "emptyng cps on pretty much
anythng - trees, rocks, whatever happened to be there."
|253|
"Other than that, Mr. Burkett sad, "he seemed pretty much norma." "The ony
thng he ever ndcated was that he ddn't care much for the Unted States
Government and how they ran thngs," Mr. Burkett sad. "He ddn't care much for
authorty and especay when t concerned the government."
Yet authortes have specuated that McVegh's nterests went beyond mere
dssatsfacton wth the Federa Government. Accordng to Car Lebron, McVegh
once brought hm a newsetter from the Ku Kux Kan.
|254|
McVegh was aso fond of
a book caed the Turner "iaries. Wrtten by former physcs professor and neo-Naz
66
Wam Perce, the Turner "iaries was a fctonazed account of a whte
supremacst uprsng aganst the ZOG (Zonst Occupatona Government). The
book, exceedngy voent and racst n tone, s a fctonazed account of the
overthrow of the Federa Government - whch by that tme had become the
"|ewsh-bera-democratc-equataran pague" - by a Rght-wng paramtary
group caed the "Organzaton," whch then goes on to murder and segregate |ews
and other "non-whtes." The protagonsts aso bow up FBI headquarters wth a
truck-bomb. The Turner "iaries was found on Tmothy McVegh upon hs arrest.
The book became the bueprnt for a neo-Naz group caed The Order, whch
terrorzed the Mdwest n the eary to md '80s wth a strng of murders and bank
robberes. Authortes have specuated that McVegh, who carred the book wth
hm constanty and sod t at gun shows, was nspred by ts screed to commt hs
terrbe act of voence. Yet McVegh dsmsses such suggestons as gbbersh. "I
bought the book out of the pubcaton that advertsed the book as a gun-rghts
book. That's why I bought t; that's why I read t."
|255|
In Kngman, McVegh made frends wth an ex-marne named Water "Mac"
McCarty. McVegh apparenty sought out the 72-year-od McCarty for dscussons n
whch he tred to make sense of the actons of the Federa Government at Ruby
Rdge and Waco, and such ssues as the Unted Natons, the Second Amendment,
and the "New Word Order."
"I gathered that he was foowng the Rght-wng, survvast, paramtary-type
phosophy," McCarty sad. "I aso got the sense that he was searchng for meanng
and acceptance."
|256|
McVegh and Forter aso took handgun casses from McCarty durng the summer of
1994, whch s odd consderng that the two men, McVegh especay, were
extremey profcent n the use of frearms. "Beeve me, the one thng he dd not
need was frearms tranng, "sad Fred Burkett, McVegh's co-worked at State
Securty. "He was very good and we were mpressed wth hs actons."
|257|
McCarty hmsef was apparenty suspcous of McVegh's motves. "They wanted to
hear certan thngs from me to see f they coud get me nvoved," sad McCarty.
"They defntey ked what they heard. We were on the same page about the
probems of Amerca."
Why woud McVegh, the consummate frearms expert, bother takng a course n
handguns? Perhaps to be around ke-mnded ndvduas or as a harmess
dverson. It s aso possbe, ke the Lee Harvey Oswad mpostor seen at the
Texas rfe range, McVegh was beng sheep-dpped. "I know branwashng when I
see t, McCarty sad. "Those two boys had reay gotten a good case of t." Perhaps
McCarty was beng more tera than he reazed.
|258|
After the August 1994 passage of the Omnbus Crme B outawng certan types
of sem-automatc weapons, "McVegh's demons fnay became unbearabe,"
camed the Times. "What w t take?" wrote McVegh to Forter, expressng hs
exasperaton.
|259|
It s possbe that McVegh had some contact wth a oca mta whe n Kngman.
Accordng to reporter Mark Schafer of the Ari-ona Re*u+lic/ Forter, who worked at
True Vaue, knew |ack Ophant, the edery patron of the Arzona Patrots, an
extreme Rght-wng paramtary group. Ophant had been caught n 1986 pannng
to bow up the Hoover Dam, the IRS and a oca Synagogue. After the FBI rad,
67
Ophant was sentenced to four years n |a, and the Arzona Patrots went
underground. It s reported that Forter, who sported a "Don't Tread on Me" fag
outsde hs traer-home, was frendy wth some of the Arzona Patrots, ncudng
Ophant.
Accordng to federa authortes, McVegh aso eft a note addressed to "S.C." on a
utty poe near Kngman seekng "fghters not takers." It has been specuated that
"S.C." s actuay Steven Cobern, who ved n the nearby town of Oatman, and was
frends wth McVegh. (See Chapter 5)
But federa authortes became very nterested when they earned that a sma
exposon, reated to a home-made bomb, had sghty damaged a house down the
road from the traer park. That house was owned by Frosty McPeak, a frend of
McVegh's who had hred hm n 1993 to do securty work at a oca sheter. When
McPeak's grfrend was arrested n Las Vegas on a bad credt charge, Cark
Vomer, a parapegc drug deaer n Kngman, heped ba her out. In February of
'95, Vomer had asked McPeak to ferry some drugs. He refused. On February 21, a
bomb expoded outsde McPeak's home. When he went to Vomer's house to
confront hm, he found Tmothy McVegh, aong wth another man he ddn't
recognze.
|260|
Accordng to Mohave County Sherff |oe Cook, the exposon "wasn't reay a bg
dea" and probaby wasn't reated to the exposon n Okahoma Cty.
|261|
What does Maryn Hart thnk about McVegh's connecton to the oca mtas? "I
probaby do know severa peope who are mta," sad Hart. "But they don't
advertse t, and they're not kooks. To me, McVegh ddn't have the money. The
two other guys, Rosencrans and Forter, went to schoo wth our chdren, and
nether of them have money ether. And t took a good amount of money to pu
ths off. "
"Obsessed With Waco"
Whether or not McVegh's "demons" became "unbearabe" after the passage of the
Omnbus Crme B, hs anger, aong wth that of mons of others, woud be
|ustfed by the governments' massacre of 86 nnocent men, women and chdren
at the Branch Davdan Seventh Day Adventst Church near Waco the foowng
Apr. The ostensbe purpose of the ATF's rad was to nspect the premses for
ega weapons. Athough the Davdans, who were censed gun deaers, had
nvted the ATF to nspect ther weapons, the agency decned; they were more
nterested n stagng a show rad to mpress the pubc and ncrease ther
budgetary aowance. In fact, the rad was code-named "Show Tme."
On February 28, 1993, wthout a proper warrant and wthout dentfyng
themseves, over 100 agents stormed the Church compound. Resdents who
answered the door were mmedatey fred upon. At east one ATF hecopter began
strafng the budng, frng nto the roof. For the next hour, ATF agents fred
thousands of rounds nto the compound. Many church members, ncudng women,
chdren and the edery, were ked by gunfre as they ay hudded n fear, the
women attemptng to cover the chdren wth ther bodes. Church members
repeatedy begged the 911 operator to stop the rad. In the ensung batte, four
ATF agents were ked, athough there s evdence that ndcates they were ked
by "frendy fre."
68
Severa days ater, the FBI took over. Amost mmedatey, they began
psychoogcay harassng the Church members wth oud noses. For over a month
and a haf, the Davdans were tormented by the sounds of dyng anmas, regous
chants, oud musc, and ther own voces. Ther eectrcty was cut off, and mk and
other suppes necessary for young chdden was not aowed nto the compound.
Brght ghts were shned on resdents 24 hours-a-day, and armored vehces began
crcng the compound, whe fash-bang grenades were thrown nto the courtyard.
The meda was kept at bay, fed propagandzng stores by FBI spokesmen that
panted the Davdans as crazed cutsts wth desres for apocayptc sef-
destructon - dangerous wackos who stockped machne-guns and who abused
ther chdren. The mass meda happy obged, feedng these mages to a gube
pubc.
|262|
After a 51-day standoff, the newy apponted Attorney Genera, |anet Reno,
approved an FBI pan to assaut the compound wth a hghy voate form of tear-
gas, proven deady to chdren, who she was ostensby tryng to protect from
"abuse." On Apr 19, tanks from the Texas Natona Guard and the Army's |ont
Task Force Sx, n voaton of the Posse Comtatus Act forbddng the use of
mtary force aganst prvate ctzens, stormed the compound, frng hundreds of
CS gas ferret rounds nto the budngs. The tanks aso rammed the budngs
repeatedy, knockng hoes n them, the offca expanaton beng so that the
resdents coud more easy escape. Instead, what t dd was cause the budngs to
coapse, kng dozens as they ay crouched n fear. Kerosene anterns knocked
over by the tank rammng gnted the hghy fammabe CS gas, and the hoes
created a fue effect through the budngs, caused by 30 me and hour wnds.
Immedatey the compound became a fery nferno.
Whe some resdents managed to escape, most were trapped nsde, exphyxated
by the gas, crushed by fang debrs, or burned ave. Some who tred to escape
were shot by FBI snpers. One unarmed man who tred to enter the compound to
be wth hs famy was shot sx tmes, then eft yng n a fed whe prare dogs
pcked at hs bones. Durng the fna sege, whch asted for sx hours, fretrucks
were purposefuy kept away. Bradey M-2 armored vehces ftted wth pows
pushed n the st standng was, buryng those st trapped nsde. A concrete
vaut where approxmatey 30 peope had sought refuge was basted open wth
demoton charges, kng most of the peope nsde.
When t was a over, the fre department was aowed nsde the compound to
pump water on the smoderng debrs. Out of approxmatey 100 Church members,
86 pershed, ncudng 27 chdren. No FBI agent was n|ured. The remanng 11
Church members were put on tra for attempted murder of federa agents. Durng
the tra, government prosecutors repeatedy wthhed, atered, and destroyed
evdence. The government even cut off eectrcty to the morgue, preventng
autopses on the bodes.
The |udge, recenty under scrutny by the "|ustce" Department, aso refused to
aow the testmony of crtca wtnesses. Athough the |ury found a 11 nnocent,
the |udge reversed the verdct. Nne Davdans were mprsoned for attemptng to
defend ther fames. Some receved sentences up to 40 years.
69
Whe "Genera" Reno, n a symboc gesture of pubc reconcaton, took "fu
responsbty" for the actons of the FBI, she never resgned or served tme. In fact,
Larry Potts, who ed the rad on behaf of the FBI, was promoted.
The assaut woud be compared to the massacre of the |ews n Warsaw by the
Nazs durng WWII. A bunch of regous fanatcs. Who'd compan? Who'd care? Yet
the government ddn't count on the fact that a ot of peope would care. Mons n
fact. The murder of the Branch Davdans woud ndeed become a wake-up ca for
a ctzenry concerned about an ncreasngy tyrannca, awess government. A
government that woud murder ts own ctzens wth mpunty, n fact wth zea. A
government that woud e to ts ctzens, and be accountabe to no one.
|263|
In March of 1993, Tmothy McVegh traveed from Kngman to Waco to observe the
51-day standoff. He was photographed by the FBI aong wth others protestng the
sege on the road outsde the compound, seng bumper stckers out of hs car.
Lke Lee Harvey Oswad, who was photographed at the Cuban embassy n Mexco
(a cam made by the government, but never substantated), the photo of McVegh
woud be added proof of hs far-Rght-wng assocatons.
A day and a haf ater, McVegh drove to Decker, Mchgan to be wth hs od Army
buddy, Terry Nchos. The Nchos famy sat wth McVegh n ther vng room as
they watched M-2 Bradey assaut vehces storm the compound. On Apr 19, they
watched as the Branch Davdan Church burnt to the ground. "Tm dd not say a
word," sad |ames Nchos, who watched the compound burn to the ground aong
wth Tm and hs brother. "We stood there and watched the ve teevson footage
as the church burned and crumbed. we coudn't beeve t."
|264|
McVegh, who the |ustce Department camed was "partcuary agtated about the
conduct of the Federa Government n Waco," had a rght to be. McVegh had
offered hs fe to serve n the mtary, and now had seen that very same mtary
massacrng ts own ctzens. He coud see the Green Berets from the Army's |ont
Task Force Sx advsng the FBI, and had watched whe Bradey armored vehces
- the same vehces he had served n - gassed and budozed the ctzens of a
country he had sworn to defend.
The Federa Budng was bown up on Apr 19, the two year annversary of the
Waco confagraton. Lke mons of other ctzens, McVegh was angry about the
deady rad. He was partcuary ncensed about the partcpaton of the Army's
|ont Task Force Sx, and about the depoyment of the Seventh Lght Infantry
durng the Los Angees rots n 1992, and the Unted Natons command over
Amercan soders n Somaa, hs former Army frend Staff Sergeant Abert
Warnement tod the Times. "He thought the Federa Government was gettng too
much power. He thought the ATF was out of contro."
|265|
"I saw a ocazed poce state," McVegh tod the 3ondon Sunday Times, "|and| was
angry at how ths had come about."
|266|
"Ther (the FBI's) actons n Waco, Texas were wrong. And I'm not fxated on t...."
he tod Newsweek.
"It dsturbed hm," sad Burkett. "It was wrong, and he was mad about t. He was
fat out mad. He sad the government wasn't worth the powder to bow t to
he."
|267|
Perhaps rather concdentay, McVegh's sster |ennfer sad that durng her
brother's November '94 vst to the McVegh famy home n Lockport, he confded
70
that he had been drvng around wth 1,000 pounds of exposves. Durng hs tra
Prosecutor Beth Wknson asked |ennfer f she had questoned her brother about
why he was carryng so much. "I don't thnk I wanted to know," she sad.
|268|
|ust what was McVegh dong drvng around wth exposves, and where dd he
acqure them? Were these exposves part of the batch of ammonum ntrate Terry
Nchos had aegedy purchased from the Md-Kansas Co-op on October 20, or
perhaps the Dynamte and Tovex the government aeged Nchos stoe from the
Martn Maretta rock quarry n September?
Obvousy ths, and McVegh's expresson of anger at the Federa Government,
woud become the foundaton of ther case aganst hm. In a etter Tm wrote to
|ennfer, he s hghy crtca of the ATF. The anonymous etter, whch was sent to
the federa agency, was accompaned by a note that read: "A you tyrannca
motherfuckers w swng n the wnd one day for your treasonous actons aganst
the Consttuton and the Unted States." It concuded wth the words, "De, you
spneess cowardce bastards."
|269|
"He was very angry," recaed |ennfer McVegh durng her brother's tra. "He
thought the government gassed and murdered the peope there."
|ennfer aso camed her brother aso wrote a etter to the Amercan Legon sayng
that ATF agents "are a bunch of fascst tyrants." He dentfed hmsef n the etter
as a member of the "ctzens' mta." He aso sent hs sster terature on the
standoff at Ruby Rdge, the Consttuton, and even a copy of the Turner "iaries.
|270|
By the Sprng of 1995, he tod |ennfer not to send any more etters to hm after
May 1 because "G-men mght get them." Then he sent her a etter sayng,
"Somethng bg s gong to happen n the month of the Bu." He dd not expan
what that meant, but |ennfer ooked n her astroogy book and saw that the
"month of the Bu" was Apr. McVegh aso advsed her to extend her Sprng break
- whch began on Apr 8 - a bt onger than the panned two weeks, and
nstructed her to burn the etter.
|271|
For McVegh's part, he wrote that ths "expresson of rage" the government
camed was so key, was nothng more than ".part of my contrbuton to defense
of freedom, ths ca to arms.. I ntend to become more actve n the future. I
woud rather fght wth penc ead than buet ead. We can wn ths war n votng
booth. If we have to fght n the streets, I woud not be so sure.. A too often n
the past, we gutsy gun owners have ost the batte because we have faed to fght.
The Brady B coud have been defeated n Congress f gun owners had become
more nvoved n eectng offcas and communcatng to those offcas what was
expected to them.. Start your defense today. Stamps are cheaper than buets
and can be more effectve."
Ths etter, found by authortes n McVegh's car, speaks of a man commtted to
fghtng for freedom as many Amercans have, n the "votng booth," and wth pen
and paper. Yet ead prosecutor |oseph Hartzer woud read ths etter, aong wth
quotes such as ths one: "My whoe mndset has shfted. from the nteectua to
the anma," nto evdence at McVegh's tra, n an attempt to prove that Tmothy
McVegh was commtted to voence.
Lke Lee Harvey Oswad, who was upset about the Cuban Bay of Pgs nvason and
Amercan foregn pocy n genera, a vew he expressed to hs frends n Daas,
McVegh was upset about the government's foregn pocy, a vew he expressed to
71
hs frends here. "He wasn't happy about Somaa," that f we coud put the Unted
States under bascay UN command and send them to Somaa to dsarm ther
ctzens, then why coudn't they come do the same thng n the Unted States?"
Sergeant Warnement sad.
McVegh was aso reportedy angry over the kngs of Sammy and Vck Weaver,
who were ked by federa agents at ther cabn n Ruby Rdge, Idaho n August of
1992. Randy Weaver had become a fugtve wanted on a mnor weapons voaton.
Durng the stand-off, U.S. Marshas had shot 14-year-od Sammy Weaver n the
back, and had shot Vck Weaver, Randy's wfe, n the face as she stood at the
cabn door hodng her nfant daughter. McVegh had traveed to Ruby Rdge and
came back convnced that federa agents ntentonay ked the Weavers.
Athough hs anger over Waco and Ruby Rdge hardy mpcates McVegh n the
destructon of the Federa Budng, the government woud make ths one of the
cornerstones of t case. The press naturay |umped on the bandwagon. When |ane
Pauey of NBC's Datene ntervewed |ennfer McVegh about her thoughts on
Waco, she sad, "The way I saw t, the Davdans were |ust a group of peope who
had ther own way of vng, perhaps dfferent from the manstream. But they were
never reay harmng anybody. And to brng n a those tanks and thngs ke that
to peope who are |ust mndng ther own busness, not harmng anybody, I |ust - I
don't thnk that's rght."
But the dead, burned chdren at Waco were not what the producers at Datene
wanted the pubc to see. Immedatey after |ennfer's statement, they cut to an
mage of the bombed-out day care center nsde the Murrah Budng. "We. We've
been hopng ths woudn't be the case," sad the ve voce of an undentfed
rescue worker, "but t s the case, there was a day-care nsde the budng."
Time ran a page dedcated to the Waco theory, statng, "The date of ast week's
bombng and the annversary of the apocayptc fre (notce they don't say
government massacre) at the Branch Davdan compound n Waco - has ony
ganed n nfamy, ntrcatey bound as t s to the mythooges of homegrown
zeaots ke McVegh."
|272|
!heep-2ipped
It woud appear that the seed that gave root to McVegh's "homegrown zea" was
ncubated n a U.S. government hothouse and fertzed by a heapng dose of
ntegence agency fanatcsm.
After Waco, wth the emergence of the Mta Movement, the stage woud be set,
the de woud be cast - for Tmothy McVegh to be poured nto ke a mnature
ead soder. Whe the FBI and the press admtted that McVegh ddn't actuay
beong to any organzed mta organzaton, "there was consderabe evdence
that he sympathzed wth and espoused ther beefs," wrote the Times.
He voced ther deas n conversatons, he wrote etters expressng them, he read
ther terature and attended ther meetngs. And he ved, worked and traded
weapons n areas where the paramtary groups en|oy consderabe support.
|273|
Lke Lee Harvey Oswad, who appeared to be an avd Communst, dstrbutng
eafets on behaf of the Far Pay for Cuba Commttee, McVegh woud pay the part
of an avowed Rght-wnger, dstrbutng terature about taxes, the Second
Amendment, Waco and Ruby Rdge. Lke Oswad, who eft behnd a dary wdey
72
beeved to be a CIA forgery, McVegh was purported to have smary documented
hs own extremst poston. Accordng to the Times7
Law enforcement offcas say McVegh eft behnd a arge body of wrtngs about
hs deoogca eanngs, ncudng extensve tracts n etters to frends and
reatves, that descrbe hs beef n the consttutona prncpes that he adamanty
mantaned aowed hm to carry frearms and ve wthout any restrants from the
government. Prosecutors are key to use such documents to estabsh hs motve
at a tra.
|274|
Lke Oswad, McVegh's departure from the mtary was under somewhat
mysterous crcumstances. And ke Oswad, an ex-Marne wth a top-secret
securty cearance who appeared to "defect" to the Sovet Unon, McVegh woud
appear to be a "dsgrunted" ex-Army sergeant who happened to "drft" nto the
frnges of the far-Rght.
|275|
Yet, ke Oswad, who ved and worked amongst the bastons of the far-Rght n
Daas whe purportng to be a Marxst, McVegh woud not seem to be the extreme
Rght-wng fanatc he's been made out to be. In a etter to hs hometown
newspaper n February, 1992, he wrote:
At a pont when the word has seen Communsm fater as an mperfect system to
manage peope; democracy seems to be headed down the same road.. Maybe we
have to combne deooges to acheve the perfect utopan government.
Remember, government-sponsored heath care was a Communst dea..
Obvousy, such vews are anathema to the far-Rght, who see any attempt to
socaze socety as a ma|or step towards the great one-word Communst
conspracy. It s possbe that McVegh was more progressve than hs Rght-wng
assocates. It s aso possbe that McVegh was beng sheep-dpped as a mtant
Rght-wnger.
After Waco, McVegh traveed to Mchgan, stayng for a tme wth Terry Nchos. He
worked on Nchos' farm, and went huntng and target practcng. Neghbors reca
how McVegh and Nchos made and detonated sma homemade bombs. Pau
Izydorek, a neghbor, recas "When they were around, they'd get dfferent guns
and pay and shoot and stuff." On at east one occason, Izydorek heard basts at
the farm and notced Terry Nchos and a man he thought was McVegh. "I'd seen
them payng around wth dfferent househod tems that you can make bow up.
|ust sma stuff. |ust outsde n the yard, bowng away."
|276|
Nchos' brother |ames aso admtted to the FBI that McVegh and Terry made and
expoded "botte bombs" at hs farm, usng brake fud, gasone, and dese fue,
and that he sometmes partcpated.
|277|
In hs ntervew wth Newsweek, McVegh dspeed the myth that hs bomb makng
was a precursor to more deady acts. "It woud amount to frecrackers. It was ke
poppng a paper bag," sad McVegh, who had aso expermented wth sma
exposves on hs and n Oean, NY pror to enterng the Army.
Yet a reatve aso tod the FBI that |ames Nchos kept a arge suppy of ammonum
ntrate fertzer on the farm - the very substance federa authortes accused the
suspects of usng to manufacture ther aeged truck-bomb, a fact that woud
become yet another nchpn n the government's case aganst the two men.
Whe n Mchgan, McVegh aso started workng the gun shows. From Apr of 1993
to March of 1995, McVegh woud trave from Kngman, Arzona to Decker,
73
Mchgan, and across the U.S., attendng mta meetngs and workng the gun
show crcut. A gun coector ntervewed by the Times sad that he had
encountered McVegh n gun shows rangng from Forda to Okahoma to Nevada.
"At the S.O.F. (Soder of Fortune) conventon he was knd of wanderng around,"
sad the gun coector, who requested anonymty, "ke he was tryng to meet
peope, maybe make converts. He coud make ten frends at a show, |ust by hs
manner and demeanor. He's pote, he doesn't nterrupt."
"McVegh traveed around the country n a rattetrap car," wrote the Times1 Kfner,
"hs camoufage fatgues cean and pressed, hs ony companon a we-thumbed
copy of the venomous apocayptc nove, The Turner "iaries0.
Yet t woud seem McVegh s not the asexua, socopathc oner that the press -
the New 'ork Times n partcuar - has made hm out to be.
Had Kfner read the May 5th edton of Newsweek, he woud have dscovered that
McVegh had more than an od book for a companon. Newsweek reported that a
Kansas prvate nvestgator had tracked down an od |patonc| grfrend of
McVegh's - most key Catna Lawson of Herrngton, Kansas - attemptng to
convnce her to se her story to a news agency.
|278|
Robert |erow, an Okahoma Cty prvate nvestgator, was aso trackng down a
grfrend of McVegh's n Las Vegas.
|279|
And CNN ndcated that authortes had
dscovered a etter n the gove compartment to an od grfrend.
|280|
Yet McVegh's gypsy-ke traves across the country n an od beat-up car were
sghty more then unusua. He traveed wdey wth no vsbe means of support,
other than tradng and seng guns and mtary paraphernaa. Yet acquantances
and other wtnesses reca he aways had wads of cash on hm. Upon hs arrest,
McVegh had $2,000 on hm. He reportedy had thousands more stashed away. He
aso traveed wthout uggage, makng hs car and occasona cheap motes hs ony
home.
"He ved n hs car," sad the gun deaer quoted n the Times. "Whatever he owned
t was n that car."
|281|
Accordng to hs sster |ennfer, hs cosest confdant, ".haf the tme we ddn't
know where he was. Haf the tme he woudn't even te us where he was vng."
|282|
Agan, one has to ask why McVegh woud vountary gve up a promsng mtary
career to go careenng around the country hawkng used mtary surpus n an od
car.
McVegh used the name "Tm Tutte" whe workng the gun shows, camng that
the aas was necessary to protect hm from peope who ddn't share hs potca
vews.
|283|
There s another possbe reason McVegh may have used an aas
however.
At one gun show n Phoenx, an undercover detectve reported that McVegh had
been attemptng to se a fare gun whch he camed coud be converted nto a
rocket auncher. Accordng to B Ftzgerad of the Marcopa County Attorney's
offce n Phoenx, McVegh "took a she apart and showed that the nteror coud be
removed and another package put n that coud shoot down an ATF hecopter." He
aso was reportedy handng out copes of the name and address of Lon Horuch,
the FBI snper who shot and ked Vck Weaver, and seng caps wth the etters
'ATF' surrounded by buet hoes.
|284|
74
"He had come to see hmsef as a soder n hs own strange war aganst the Unted
States," wrote the Times. McVegh's mother tod an acquantance after vstng wth
hm n her home state of Forda that he was "totay changed," and observed, "t
was ke he traded one Army for another one."
|285|
Whe t s hghy possbe that McVegh, ke many peope, genuney dsked the
ATF and FBI, t s aso possbe he used such hgh-profe ant-government tactcs as
a ruse whe workng undercover. Whe such behavor mght appear extreme, t s
a cassc agent provocateur technque. The ATF routney works undercover at gun
shows, searchng for peope seng ega frearms. Who better to ure and entrap
unwary vctms than a gun deaer camng to be vruenty ant-ATF. It s aso
possbe that McVegh was workng undercover for another agency.
In an umnatng seres of phone cas to Representatve Chares Key, an
anonymous source stated that McVegh was present at severa meetngs wth ATF
and DEA agents n the days mmedatey precedng the bombng. The meetngs
took pace n Okahoma Cty at dfferent ocatons. The ostensbe purpose of the
meetngs were to provde McVegh wth further nstructons, and to factate a
payoff.
Davd Ha of KPOC-TV uncovered nformaton that McVegh had met wth oca ATF
agent Aex McCauey n a McDonads the nght before the bombng. The ATF agent
was seen handng McVegh an enveope. (See Chapter 9)
CNN woud cast a pae over ths |argey unknown| nformaton by reportng n |une
of 1995 that McVegh had been under surveance by an undercover operatve at
an Arzona gun show two years pror to the bombng.
Ths fact was renforced when the Ant-Defamaton League of B'Na B'Rth (ADL)
reported that McVegh ran an ad for a "rocket auncher" (actuay a fare gun) n
the far-Rght S*otli%ht newspaper on August 9, 1993. In fact, the ad ddn't appear
unt the ne#t week, August 16. McVegh had orgnay pad to have the
advertsement run on the 9th. Not beng aware of the S*otli%ht1s mpendng
schedung confct, however, the ADL reported that the ad had run one week
before t actuay dd. Ths subsumes that the ADL, ong known for ts spyng and
ntegence-gatherng actvtes, had McVegh under surveance as we.
|286|
Interestngy, McVegh's young frend, Catna Lawson, recaed a strange man who
often showed up at summer partes the hgh-schooers threw. The soders from
nearby Ft. Rey woud attend the gatherngs ookng to meet grs, and McVegh
and hs frends Mchae Bresca and Andy Strassmer (who ved at the whte
separatst compound n Southeast Okahoma known as Eohm Cty), woud often
attend.
|287|
Yet the man Catna descrbed was nether a hgh-schooer nor a soder. Ths
mysterous character n hs ate 30s to md-40s, who often wore a sut and a te
and drove a red sports car, was was apparenty not there to pck up grs. As
Conne Smth, Catna's mother tod me, "The man dd not nteract wth anyone
ese. he stayed off. he never nteracted wth anybody ese," ony McVegh.
Barbara Whttenberg, who owned the Sante Fe Tra Dner n Herrngton, Kansas,
aso remembered the man. The restaurant owner recaed that he woud come n
wth McVegh and Terry Nchos, who ved nearby. She ddn't know where he was
from, and had never seen hm before.
75
Was McVegh an nformant? Was he workng for two dfferent agences? Numerous
Kennedy researchers have uncovered evdence that Oswad was an FBI nformant
at the same tme he was beng sheep-dpped by the CIA for hs roe n the |FK
assassnaton. Accordng to former Dstrct Attorney (ater federa |udge) |m
Garrson:
Oswad appears to have been extensvey manpuated by the CIA for a ong tme
pror to the assassnaton and may we have beeved he was workng for the
government. Oswad was aso a confdenta nformant, a |ob that provded
addtona contro over hm and may have gven hm a reason to beeve he was
actuay penetratng a pot to assassnate the presdent.
|288|
Stuatons where a person s workng for two aw-enforcement or ntegence
agences at the same tme are not uncommon.
What is uncommon s for a man ke McVegh to gve up a promsng mtary career
to hawk used duffe bags from an od car. But then agan, n the twght
netherword of ntegence operatons, thngs aren't aways what they appear.
|289|
Whe n Mchgan, McVegh aso began tunng n to the Voce of Amerca and Rado
Free Amerca on hs shortwave. He was drawn to personates ke Chuck Harder,
|ack McLamb, and Mark Koernke, a conveyng an ant-federast, ant-New Word
Order message. "He sent me a ot of newsetters and stuff from those groups he
was nvoved n," sad Warnement, then statoned n Germany. "There were
newsetters from Bo Grtz's group, some other odd newsetters, some from the
Patrots; then he sent that vdeotape 'The Bg Le' about Waco."
|290|
McVegh aso began attendng mta meetngs. Accordng to Mchgan Mta
member Erc Maoney, McVegh was present at a truck-stop near Detrot for a
|anuary 25, 1995 meetng of approxmatey 70 members of the Oakand County Sx
Brgade. Members had obtaned photographs of T-72 tanks and other Russan
vehces en route va raway fatcars to Camp Grayng, an Ar Natona Guard base
n northern Mchgan. Athough the captured Iraq tanks were for target practce,
the mtamen nterpreted the equpment as proof postve of a UN pan to dsarm
Amercan ctzens and decare marta aw.
Accordng to Maoney and mta member |oseph Dtzhazy, a pot was hatched to
attack the base by Mark Koernke, a hgh-profe mta spokesman known to hs
rado steners as "Mark from Mchgan." Accordng to Maoney, Koernke sad, "We
can ether take them out now whe we're st abe to, or wat unt the sons of
btches are rong down the street." Three days ater, about 20 members met at a
farm near Leonard to dscuss pans for the attack. Accordng to Maoney, McVegh
was one of 13 who vounteered for the assaut. "McVegh was there," recaed
Maoney on ABC's Prme Tme Lve. "My wfe sat next to hm. He was very
attentve, very nterested n beng nvoved n that operaton, vounteered hs
servces."
The pan never came off. Dtzhazy and Maoney aerted State Poce, who then
contacted federa authortes. When the pot was made pubc, the Mchgan Mta
ssued a press reease statng that the pan was the branchd of Koernke, workng
aongsde a group of renegade members. Others who attended the meetngs sad
that t was actuay Maoney who pushed the pan, and had to be dssuaded from
gong through wth t. Interestngy, Maoney was to provde weapons tranng for
severa of the attackers, and Dtzhazy, who made audo-tapes of the meetngs, s a
76
former mtary ntegence offcer. When the FBI was contacted about Dtzhazy's
cam that the pot was hatched by McVegh and others, the FBI refused comment.
|291|
What s aso nterestng s that Koernke hmsef s a former Army ntegence
offcer. Koernke, a veteran of the 70th Army Reserve Dvson n Lvona, Mchgan,
refers to hmsef as an "ntegence anayst" and "counterntegence coordnator"
wth a "top-secret cearance." He aso purports to have traned two "speca-
warfare" brgades that traned Army personne n "foregn warfare and tactcs."
Whe hs cams may be exaggerated, Koernke dd attend the Army's ntegence
schoo at Fort Huachuca, Arzona. He returned to Mchgan an E-5 specast wth a
G-2 (securty) secton of a peacetme Reserve unt.
|292|
Koernke qucky rose to become one of the most sought after speakers on the
Patrot crcut, eadng off semnars n over 40 states. Hs vdeo, America in )eril,
sounds apocayptc warnngs of the comng New Word Order, ncudng pans by
the Counc of Foregn Reatons, the Tratera Commsson, and the Bderbergers
to domnate and ensave Amerca - wth of course, a tte hep from Russan
troops, Nepaese Gurkhas, and L.A. street gangs.
|293|
It woud seem that Koernke s
empoyng a tme-tested technque of ntegence PSYOP dsnformaton. Whe
purportng to ra aganst what may be genune pans of a New Word Order caba,
Koernke sps n |ust enough rdcuous dsnformaton to dscredt hs thess, and by
assocaton, anyone who supports t.
After the bombng, the meda put Koernke n ts spotght. Koernke has boasted
freey to frends that he was once empoyed as a "provocateur." He ddn't say
exacty for whom. In hs tape, Koernke s shown hodng an AK-47 and a cord of
rope, statng: "Now, I dd some basc math the other day, not New Word Order
math, and I found that usng the od-stye math you can get about four potcans
for about 120 foot of rope. And, by the way, DuPont made ths. It s very fttng that
one of the New Word Order crowd shoud provde us wth the resources to berate
our naton.."
Whe the author personay has no quams about strngng up the DuPonts, the
Rockefeers and many other cons of the mtary-ndustra-estabshment,
Koernke's rant smacks of the cassc art of propaganda - that of the agent
provocateur. Many n the Mta movement have accused hm of |ust that.
|294|*
On September 8, 1994, Fowerve, Mchgan poce stopped a car that contaned
three men n camoufage and back face pant, armed wth three 9mm
semautomatcs, a .357 Magnum, an assortment of assaut rfes, and 7,000 rounds
of ammunton. The men camed to be Koernke's bodyguards.
Ken Krkand, an offca of the St. Luca County, Forda Mta sad that McVegh
was actng as Koernke's bodyguard at a March 1994 meetng. Krkand recaed a
bodyguard n Army camoufage cothes resembng McVegh who ntroduced
hmsef as "Tm" and was "reay upset about Waco."
|295|
Koernke and McVegh both deny ths. As McVegh tod Newsweek ".I was never to
one of ther meetngs, ether."
|296|
Was Koernke's "bodyguard" actuay Tm McVegh? In the September, 1995 ssue of
Soldier of Fortune, an ATF agent - the spttng mage of Tm McVegh - s seen
accompanyng ATF Agent Robert Rodrquez to the tra of the Branch Davdans.
Was ths n fact the "McVegh" who accompaned Koernke?
77
Gven both mens' mysterous backgrounds, ther curous ntersectons n Forda
and Mchgan, and the Camp Grayng and Fowerve ncdents, t s hghy key
that we are ookng at two agent provocateurs.
Other evdence of McVegh's apparent empoyment as an agent provocateur woud
surface ater. In a statement he made to Newsweek n response to a queston
about Reno and Cnton askng for the death penaty, McVegh sad: "I thought t
was awfuy hypocrtca, especay because n some ways the government was
responsbe for dong t. I thought she was payng both sdes of the fence." One
must wonder |ust how McVegh knows that "n some ways" the government was
"responsbe for dong t."
McVegh's own nsurrectonst tendences began comng to fruton towards the end
of 1993, accordng to authortes, when McVegh nformed hs sster that he was
part of an ant-government group that was robbng banks. Ths startng reveaton
came n the form of three $100 bs he sent to |ennfer n a etter dated December
24, 1993. The money was part of the proceeds from a bank hest. As |ennfer tod
the FBI on May 2, 1995:
"He had been nvoved n a bank robbery but dd not provde any further detas
concernng the robbery. He advsed me that he had not actuay partcpated n the
robbery tsef, but was somehow nvoved n the pannng or settng up of ths
robbery. Athough he dd not dentfy the partcpants by name, he stated that
'they' had commtted the robbery. Hs purpose for reatng ths nformaton to me
was to request that I exchange some of my own money for what I reca to be
approxmatey three (3) $100.00 bs.
"He expaned that ths money was from the bank robbery and he wshed to
crcuate ths money through me. To the best of my recoecton, I then gave my
brother what I reca to be approxmatey $300.00 of my persona cash, n
exchange for 3 $100.00 bs, whch I deposted wthn the next severa days n an
account at the Unt No. 1 Federa credt Unon, Lockport, New York."
|ennfer aso recaed Tm statng, "Persons who rob banks may not be crmnas at
a. He mped |ews are runnng the country and a arge degree of contro s
exercsed by the Free Masons. Banks are the rea theves and the ncome tax s
ega."
|297|
Was Tmothy McVegh n fact a bank robber? If so, t s possbe he was nspred by
the Turner "iaries. The protagonsts n that nove fnance ther overthrow of the
"Zonst Occupatona Government" by robbng banks and armored cars. As
prevousy dscussed, the book became a rea fe nspraton for Robert Matthew's
Order, aso known as "The Sent Brotherhood," whch was engaged n hests of
banks and armored cars throughout the Mdwest durng the 1980s. The Order was
part of the whte Aryan supremacst communty that sought to estabsh an a-
whte homeand n the Northwest.
In December of 1984, Mathews was ked n a shoot-out wth the FBI and poce,
and the Order dsntegrated. Yet the whte supremacst movement ved on, n such
guses as the Aryan Natons, Whte Aryan Resstance (WAR), and a new, as yet
unheard of group - the Aryan Repubcan Army, whose members are beeved to
be drect descendants of the Order.
It was to ths ast group that Tmothy McVegh woud be drawn, at a rura whte
separatst regous communty n southeast Okahoma caed Eohm Cty. It was
78
there that McVegh woud meet such sef-styed revoutonares as Peter
"Commander Pedro" Langan, who, aong wth Scott Stedeford, Kevn McCarthy, and
the ate Rchard Guthre, woud go on to rob over 22 banks across the Mdwest,
coectng a tota of $250,000.
In a recrutment vdeo obtaned by the Mc!urtain ,a-ette, Langan appears n a
dsguse, expanng the goas of the ARA - the overthrow of the Federa
Government, and the subsequent executon of a |ews and the deportaton of a
non-whtes from the U.S.
In the tape, made ony a few months before the Okahoma Cty bombng, Langan
says, "Federa budngs may have to be bombed and cvan oss of fe s
regrettabe but expected."
|298|
Accordng to ATF nformant Caro Howe, ntervewed by ,a-ette reporter |.D. Cash,
both McVegh and Forter had vsted Eohm Cty, as had Langan, Guthre,
Stedeford and McCarthy. A secret recordng made by the nformant apparenty
reveas dscussons between Andreas Strassmer, Eohm Cty's chef of securty
(aso suspected of beng an nformant), and varous ARA members, dscussng
pans to bow up federa budngs. Whe t s not known f McVegh was ntmatey
nvoved wth the ARA bank robbers, he was seen wth Strassmer and ARA
assocate Mchae Bresca at partes n Kansas, and at a bar n Tusa shorty before
the bombng. McVegh had aso caed Eohm Cty ookng for Strassmer the day
after he reserved the Ryder truck aegedy used n the bombng.
In the Fa on 1994, McVegh and Terry Nchos aegedy began hoardng
ammonum ntrate and dese fue. By md-October, the par had, accordng to
offca accounts, managed to stockpe approxmatey 4,000 pounds of fertzer,
whch they stashed n storage ockers from Kansas to Arzona.
|299|
Lke Mohammed Saemeh, a Word Trade Center bombng suspect arrested when
he attempted to retreve hs truck renta depost, McVegh woud be nked to the
bombng by the frst n a chan of damnng evdence - hs thumbprnt on a
fertzer recept found n Terry Nchos' home; nqures about bomb-makng
materas made on hs cang-card; and the paperwork used to rent the Ryder truck
tsef.
Lke Saemeh's renta recept whch had traces of ANFO on t, McVegh's cothes
woud aegedy contan traces of a detonator cord known as PDTN.
|300|
Lke the
Word Trade Center bombers who stockped bomb-makng equpment n rented
storage ockers n New |ersey, McVegh and Nchos woud store ther ammonum
ntrate n rented ockers n Kansas and Arzona. And ke the Word Trade Center
bombers who caed commerca chemca companes requestng bomb-makng
materas, McVegh woud mpcate hmsef by usng a traceabe phone card to
make hs purchases.
The most dammng evdence nkng McVegh to the crme woud be the wtness
sghtngs pacng hm at the Murrah Budng |ust before the bombng, foowng the
Ryder truck, then speedng away n hs yeow Mercury severa mnutes before the
bast.
Yet the most curous evdence mpcatng McVegh n the bombng came from
wtnesses who say he cased the budng on December 16, when he and Mchae
Forter drove through Okahoma Cty en route to Kansas, then agan approxmatey
one and a haf weeks before the bombng.
79
Danee Wse Hunt, who operated the Stars and Strpes Chd Deveopment Center
n the Murrah Budng, tod the FBI that on December 16, a cean-cut man wearng
camoufage fatgues approached her, seekng to pace hs two chdren n the day
care center. Hunt tod agents that the man ddn't ask typca parent-type
questons, but nstead wanted to know about the day-care center's securty. Hunt
thought he mght be a potenta kdnapper. Later, after seeng hs face on TV, she
recognzed the man as Tmothy McVegh.
|301|
If the man was ndeed Tmothy McVegh, t s curous why he woud ater cam he
was unaware of the day-care center n the budng. If McVegh was so upset about
the deaths of nnocent chdren at Waco, why woud he knowngy bomb a budng
contanng nnocent chdren as an act of revenge?
Yet ths "act of revenge" s precsey what the government cams motved hm.
Such an act coud ony be the resut of a deranged man. Yet McVegh s anythng
but deranged. In hs |uy 3rd Newsweek ntervew, he sad, "For two days, n the
ce, we coud hear news reports; and of course everyone, ncudng mysef, was
horrfed at the deaths of the chdren. And you know, that was the No. 1 foca pont
of the meda at the tme, too, obvousy - the deaths of the chdren. It's a very
tragc thng."
Perhaps "deranged" sn't the proper word; perhaps "controed" woud be more
approprate. After hs arrest, McVegh was shown photographs of the dead
chdren. He camed to have no emotona reacton. Agan, ths coud very we be
ndcatve of a psychoogcay-controed ndvdua.
There s another strong possbty. The man whom wtnesses say s Tmothy
McVegh may not have been Tmothy McVegh at a.
".ee 5arey" Mc(eigh
As prevousy dscussed, McVegh, aong wth hs frends Andreas Strassmer, Mke
Forter, and Mchae Bresca attended partes n Herrngton, Kansas n the Summer
of '92. Catna Lawson was actuay good frends wth McVegh, and her roommate,
Lndsey |ohnson, dated Mchae Bresca. Lawson's accounts are we documented.
|302|
Yet cang card records obtaned by the Rocky Mountain News ndcate that each
ca charged to the card durng 1992 orgnated wthn western New York, where
McVegh was workng as a securty guard for Burns Internatona Securty. There
appears to be tte tme he coud have gone to Kansas to party wth teen-agers.
Dr. Pau Heath, the VA psychoogst who worked n the Murrah Budng and
survved the bast, spoke to an ndvdua named "McVegh" ate one Frday
afternoon, a week and a haf before the bombng. In an ntervew wth the author,
he descrbed n vvd deta hs encounter wth "McVegh" and two other men, one
of whom appears to be one of the eusve |ohn Doe 2s.
"I've narrowed ths to probaby a Frday |Apr 7|, at around three o'cock," recas
Heath. "A be rang n the outer offce of room 522. No one answered, so I went out
to the watng room.. A man came n wth two others to appy for a |ob. One other
was Amercan-Indan ookng, the other was Caucasan. A mae ndvdua was
standng there, and I ntroduced mysef as Dr. Heath, 'how can I hep you?' and ths
ndvdua sad 'my name s somethin%1 and I don't remember what hs frst name
was, but he tod me hs ast name was McVegh.
80
"So I sad 'can I hep you?' and he sad 'we, we're here ookng for work.' and I sad
'what knd of work are we ookng for?' He sad 1we are ookng for constructon
work.' And I sad, 'we Mr. Brmbaum, the genteman who s the |ob counseor for
the state |obs offce, s not here.' And ths ndvdua - I asked hm f I coud go
back and get the |ob openngs from the |ob counseor's desk - and he sad 'no,
that won't be necessary.' So I sad, 'we, I'm very famar wth the area, and I
coud gve you some |ob eads,' and I began to te hm about |ob eads, and began
to gve hm some names and some dfferent pro|ects, and I sad 'woud you ke me
to get you the phone book; I coud get you the state |obs offces.' He sad, 'no, that
won't be necessary.'
"And about somewhere aong n ths conversaton, the man who was sttng on the
east wa, drecty behnd the man who named hmsef as McVegh, came up behnd
the man, and sad 'can I use your phone?' I woud descrbe hm as vana, 5'7" or
5'9", md-30's. |Then| the thrd party who was n the offce, ooked drecty at me,
made eye contact wth me, and. I got the mpresson that ths ndvdua's
natonaty was Natve Amercan, or haf-Natve Amercan or haf-Mexcan Amercan
or a foregn natona. He was handsome - at one tme my mnd sad maybe he
was from South Amerca.
"I. contnued to tak to Mr. McVegh and I sad, 'Mr. McVegh, dd you take
anythng n hgh schoo that woud be benefca for me to know about so I coud
refer you to a dfferent type of |ob?' And he sad, 'we, probaby not.' And I sad,
'we, where dd you go to hgh schoo?' And he ether sad up north or New York.
And then I sad, 'Where are you vng?' And he sad, 'We, I've been vng n
Kansas.' So then I sad, 'Do you happen to be a member of the McVay famy from
Cussng, Okahoma?' .he sad, 'We Dr. Heath, how do they spe ther name?'
'We I assume, M-c-V-a-y.' And he took hs fnger, and he knd of put t n my face
and sad, 'We Dr. Heath,' n knd of a bosterous way, 'Dr. Heath, you remember
ths. My name s McVegh, but you don't spe t M-c-V-a-y..'"
|303|
What Dr. Heath was descrbng appears to have been Tmothy McVegh and hs co-
consprators casng the Murrah Budng. As the press reported, the men went foor-
to-foor, askng |ob-reated questons and pckng up appcatons. Yet f McVegh
had aready cased the budng on December 16, as reported by Danee Hunt, why
woud he need to case t agan?
Moreover, f McVegh wanted to case the budng, why woud he do t n such a
conspcuous manner? Why woud he go from foor-to-foor askng about |ob
openngs, then pretend not to be nterested n foowng them up? And. f McVegh
was pannng on commttng such a horrfc crme, why woud he make t a pont to
te peope hs name, sayng to Dr. Heath, "You remember ths. My name is
McVei%h0.
Former Federa Grand |uror Hoppy Hedeberg concurs. "Why woud McVegh wak
around the budng before the bast teng peope hs name?"
|304|
If McVegh was keen on nformng peope of hs dentty before commttng the
crme, he apparenty was on a ro. On Saturday, Apr 8, McVegh and frends
Andreas Strassmer and Mchae Bresca - both vng at Eohm Cty at the tme -
were seen at Lady Godva's topess bar n Tusa, Okahoma. Accordng to a securty
camera vdeotape obtaned by |.D. Cash of the Mc!urtain ,a-ette, and Trsh Wood
of CBC, McVegh's boasts were the topc of dscusson among the dancers that
81
nght. In the tape, one of the grs named Tara s overheard reatng the
conversaton to another gr n the dressng room:
"...he goes, 'I'm a very smart man.' I sad, you are? And he goes, 'Yes, you're gong
to fnd an (naudbe) and they're gong to hurt you rea bad.' I was, ke, 'Oh
reay?' And he goes, 'Yes, and you're gong to remember me on Apr 19, 1995.
You're gong to remember me for the rest of your fe.'
Laughng, she repes, "Oh, reay?"
"Yes you w," McVegh says.
|305|
The sghtng of McVegh n Tusa on Apr 8, aong wth an oder, pae yeow Ryder
truck that appeared to be prvatey-owned, drecty contradcts the testmony of
the mad at the Impera Mote who says McVegh was there each day.
However, phone records ndcate that McVegh made a steady seres of cas up
unt Apr 7, whch suddeny resumed agan on the 11th. Coud McVegh have fown
to Okahoma to pck up the od Ryder truck, then have fown back to Kngman
severa days ater? As |.D. Cash notes n the September 25, 1996 Mc!urtain
,a-ette7
It s not merey de specuaton that McVegh few to eastern Okahoma or western
Arkansas to pck up the second truck. Records subpoenaed by the government
ndcate McVegh may have made such a trp to Fort Smth, Ark., between March
31 and Apr 14, 1995. Curousy, an empoyee of the arport tax servce n Fort
Smth coud not eaborate on why the tax frm's records for that perod were
sezed by federa agents workng on what the government cas the "OKBOMB"
case.
If McVegh actuay dd fy from Arzona to Arkansas, then drve the truck to Kansas,
then fy back to Arzona agan, he apparenty was a very busy man. Wtness
accounts and phone records put hm n Okahoma Cty on the 7th, n Tusa on the
8th, n Kansas from the 10th to the 14th (athough he's supposed to be n Kngman
on the 11th and 12th), then back n Okahoma Cty on the 14th, 15th and 16th
(when he's supposedy n Kansas) then n Kansas on the 17th and 18th (when he's
aso seen n Okahoma Cty), and fnay n Okahoma Cty on the 19th, the day of
the bombng.
Whe McVegh was supposedy seen at Terry Nchos' house n Herrngton, Kansas
on the 13th, wtness Davd Snder saw hs car n Okahoma Cty. A Brcktown
warehouse worker, Snder remembers seeng McVegh's dstnctve yeow Mercury
whz past around 2:30 p.m., not far from downtown. Snder s certan t was the
same battered yeow Mercury drven by McVegh. "I was standng there wth my
frend, who does auto bodywork," sad Snder, "when the car went past. I turned to
hm and sad, 'My Mom used to have a car |ust ke that. It ooks ke homeboy
needs a prmer |ob.'" Snder sad the car had an Okahoma tag, as wtness Gary
Lews ater reported, not an Arzona tag as the FBI cams.
On Thursday, Apr 13, a federa empoyee n the Murrah Budng saw two men,
one of whom she ater dentfed as McVegh. She was rdng the eevator when t
stopped at the second foor. When the doors opened, there were two men n
|antora smocks watng to get on. She ddn't recognze the men as any of the
reguar |antors, and thought t odd that they turned away when she ooked n ther
drecton.
82
On Monday, Apr 17, |antors Katherne Woody and Martn |ohnson, who were
workng the 5-9 p.m. shft, saw McVegh and hs companon agan. Martn sad
McVegh spoke to hm about a |ob, and the man who resembed |ohn Doe 2 nodded
to Woody.
|306|
That same day, or possby the foowng day, Debbe Nakanash, an empoyee at
the Post Offce across from the Murrah Budng, saw the par when they stopped
by and asked where they mght fnd federa |ob appcatons. It was Nakanash who
provded the descrpton for the we-known profe sketch of |ohn Doe 2 n the
baseba cap.
Crag Freeman, a retred Ar Force master sergeant who works n the same offce
as Dr. Heath, was one of the peope who saw McVegh n Okahoma when he was
supposedy n Kansas. Freeman recas sharng the eevator wth a man who
resembed McVegh on Frday, Apr 14. "The guy was ta. What struck me s hs
har was cut rea ow. I thought he was a sknhead." Freeman, who s back, sad
'Hey man, how's t gong?' "And he ooked at me ke he was |ust dsgusted wth me
beng there. Most peope n the budng speak to each other, you know, so I spoke
to ths guy, and he ooked at me ke. pure hate."
About a week and a haf before the bombng, a HUD empoyee named |oan was
rdng the eevator wth a man she descrbed as Tmothy McVegh. What struck her
was the man's strct mtary demeanor. He stared straght ahead makng no eye-
contact or conversaton. "He won't ast ong n ths budng," |oan thought to
hersef.
|307|
The Frday before the bombng, when Crag Freeman waked out of the budng to
ma hs taxes, he saw an ndvdua he beeves to have been Terry Nchos,
"because he ooked |ust ke the pcture of hm," sad Freeman. "He was standng
there, he had a bue pad shrt on. He was standng n the front of the budng -
he was |ust standng there, ookng knd of confused. You know, how somebody
ooks when they're nervous."
Was the man n the eevator Freeman was descrbng actuay Tmothy McVegh?
Accordng to phone records obtaned from the Dreamand Mote, McVegh made
severa phone cas from hs room on the mornng of Frday, Apr 14. Is t st
possbe that McVegh drove down to Okahoma Cty n the afternoon?
If he dd, he woud had to have been back n Kansas by eary next mornng.
Barbara Whttenberg, owner of the Santa Fe Tra Dner n Herrngton, remembers
servng breakfast to Nchos, McVegh, and |ohn Doe 2 around 6:00 a.m. on
Saturday.
"I asked them why they had a Ryder truck outsde," sad Whttenberg. "I wasn't
beng nosy, I |ust wondered f Terry Nchos was movng. My sster was movng
here, and she needed to fnd a pace. We, the guy who they haven't arrested yet
- |ohn Doe #2 - he burted out that they were gong to Okahoma. When that
happened, t was ke someone threw ce water on the conversaton. McVegh and
Nchos |ust stared at the guy"
|308|
A dancer n |uncton Cty, Kansas had the same experence as Whttenberg, when
four of the suspects stopped by the Hoywood Supper Cub around 10:30 that
evenng. The dancer, who we' ca Sherre, defntey recognzed two of the men
as McVegh and Nchos.
83
"The ony reason I reay remember t," sad Sherre, "s |ust because I had a
conversaton wth one of them about Okahoma, and my husband's famy s from
Okahoma. He sad they were panng a trp down there, and he sad - I thnk t
was for huntng or somethng.. then one of them knd of gave hm a ook, and
they changed the sub|ect.."
Sherre aso sad one of the men, who was quet and sat n the corner, appeared to
be Mdde-Eastern. The other was Hspanc or part Hspanc, and was frendy.
When he mentoned Okahoma, Nchos shot hm a hard ook.
|309|
Addtonay, whe the records at Eott's Body Shop ndcate that "Bob Kng"
rented hs truck on Apr 17, Barbara Whttenberg saw the truck outsde her
restaurant on the 15th. Later that day she saw t at Geary State Fshng Lake,
aong wth three peope and a ght-coored car, possby a Thunderbrd, wth
Arzona tags.
|310|
Backng up Whttenberg s Lee McGowan, owner of the Dreamand Mote n |uncton
Cty, where McVegh stayed from Apr 14 to Apr 17. McGowan tod the FBI that
McVegh was n possesson of hs truck the day +efore "Kng" aegedy rented hs.
She remembered the day ceary because t was Easter Sunday.
McGowan's son, Erc, as we as mote resdent Davd Kng and hs mother, aso
stated that they saw McVegh drvng an oder faded yeow Ryder truck at the
mote around 4 p.m. on Apr 16.
|311|
Yet McGowan's testmony contradcts that of Physs Kngsey and Lnda Kuhman,
who worked at the H-Way Gr n Newcaste, |ust south of Okahoma Cty. The two
women saw McVegh and three companons around 6:00 p.m. on Apr 16, when
they stopped n the restaurant and ordered hamburgers and fres to go. The two
women dstncty reca the Ryder truck pung nto the restaurant at SW 104th and
Portand, accompaned by a whte Chevy ong-bed pck-up, and an oder, darker,
possby bue pck-up, whch may have beonged to Terry Nchos. Accompanyng
McVegh was a short, stocky, handsome man, of ether Mexcan or Amercan Indan
descent. The man cosey resembed the FBI sketch of |ohn Doe 2, they sad.
|312|
Accordng to the FBI, ths was the same day that McVegh caed Nchos from a pay
phone at Tm's Amoco n Herrngton, Kansas at 3:08 p.m., and asked hm to drve
hm to Okahoma Cty. It woud have been mpossbe for McVegh and Nchos to
drve from |uncton Cty to Okahoma Cty n ess than four hours.
Reports soon surfaced that "McVegh" had stayed at a mote south of downtown
Okahoma Cty on the nght of the 18th. Wtnesses reca seeng a yeow Ryder
truck, and two companons. They reca that "McVegh" gave them a "go to he
ook" as he pued away.
Later that mornng, at 8:35 a.m., Tusa banker Kye Hunt was drvng to an
appontment when he came upon the Ryder truck at Man and Broadway, traed by
a yeow Mercury. ".for some reason I thought they were out of state, movng and
ost n downtown Okahoma Cty," sad Hunt. "I fet sorry for them and then when I
pued up besde them, I got that cod cy stare from a guy that had a rea short GI
harcut.."
|313|
Hunt descrbed the drver of the Mercury as Tmothy McVegh. "He gave me that
cy, go-to-he ook," sad Hunt. "It knd of unnerved me." Whe Hunt ddn't see the
occupants of the truck, he dd reca two passengers n the Mercury. The rear
84
occupant, sad Hunt, had ong har, smar to the suspect Physs Kngsey and
Lnda Kuhman saw on Sunday at the H-Way Gr south of the cty.
Around the same tme as Hunt saw ths convoy, Davd Snder, a warehouse worker
n Brcktown, a few bocks southeast of downtown, saw a heavy oaded Ryder
truck wth two men nsde, sowy makng ts way towards hm. Snder had been
expectng a devery that mornng, and expaned that peope sometmes get ost
because the oadng dock s on a dfferent street than the warehouse. The tme
was 8:35 a.m. Thnkng the truck was hs devery, Snder waved them down.
Snder, who by now was gestcuatng wdy, became frustrated as the two men,
starng at hm, contnued on ther way.
Whe he never receved hs devery, Snder dd get a good ook at the truck, and
the two men. The truck appeared to be an oder mode wth a cab overhang, not
the newer verson the FBI camed was destroyed n the bombng.
Snder descrbed the drver as a barre-chested, dark-sknned mae wth ong,
straght back har, parted n the mdde, wearng a thn sma mustache. The man,
who was aso wearng tear-drop stye sungasses and a dark shrt, was of Amercan
Indan or Hspanc decent. (See sketch) "I ved n New Mexco for years," sad
Snder; "I know the ook." The passenger, wearng a whte T-shrt, Snder sad, was
Tmothy McVegh.
"He ooked at me ke 'who the he are you?' - rea atttude," recas Snder, and
began yeng profantes at the oadng-dock worker. Snder, who was not n a
great mood that mornng to begn wth, yeed back, "Fuck you, you skn-head
motherfucker!"
Snder and Hunt weren't the ony ndvduas who saw McVegh and the Ryder truck
that mornng. At 8:40 a.m., Mke Moroz and Bran Marsha were busy at work at
|ohnny's Tre Store on 10th and Hudson, when a yeow Ryder truck pued n
ookng for drectons to the Murrah Budng. The drver, who Moroz ater dentfed
as Tmothy McVegh, was wearng a whte T-shrt and a back ba cap on
backwards. Moroz caught a gmpse of the passenger - a stocky man wth dark
cury har, a tattoo on hs upper eft arm, and a ba cap worn smar to McVegh's.
The passenger, sad Moroz, stared straght ahead, never turnng to ook n hs
drecton.
|314|
Moroz then proceeded to gve drectons to McVegh, whom he descrbed as pote,
frendy, and reaxed - qute nterestng consderng that McVegh s supposedy
mnutes away from murderng 169 peope. After thankng Moroz, McVegh got back
n the truck, sat there for a few mnutes, then took off n the drecton of the
Federa Budng.
At approxmatey the same tme as McVegh was seen drvng the Mercury by Kye
Hunt, and seen as a passenger n the Ryder truck by Davd Snder, and seen
drvng the Ryder truck by Mke Moroz, he was then seen drvng the Mercury by
attorney |ames Lnehan.
As prevousy dscussed, Lnehan, a Mdwest Cty attorney, was stopped at a red
ght at the northwest corner of 4th and Robnson, one bock from the Murrah
Budng. Late for an appontment, Lnehan ooked at hs watch. It read 8:38 a.m.
When he ooked back up, he notced a pae yeow Mercury stopped besde hm.
Whe he coud not postvey I.D. the drver, he descrbed hm as havng sharp,
ponted features, and smooth pae skn.
85
A second ater, the Mercury drver gunned hs engne, ran the red ght, and
dsappeared nto the underground parkng garage of the Murrah Budng.
Is t possbe these wtnesses are descrbng are two dfferent peope? In Snder's
account, the drver s an Amercan Indan or Hspanc man wth ong, straght back
har, wearng sungasses. The passenger s McVegh. Nether one s wearng a ba
cap. The tme s 8:35 a.m. In Moroz's account, the drver s McVegh, whe the
passenger s a stocky man wth short cury har. Both men are wearng ba caps on
backwards. The tme s 8:40 a.m.
Snder and Moroz both saw a Ryder truck contanng Tmothy McVegh, yet wth
competey dfferent companons. Whe Snder was yeng at McVegh n the Ryder
truck n Brcktown, Hunt was watchng the truck beng traed by McVegh n the
Mercury severa bocks away. A few mnutes ater, Lnehan watched as the Mercury
drove nto the Murrah Budng garage.
Moreover, each wtness saw these convoys at approxmatey the same tme. It s
possbe that the heavy oaded truck seen by Snder coud have made t from 25
East Caforna n Brcktown to 10th and Hudson n fve mnutes. But n order to do
so, they woud have had to drop off one man, pck up another, exchange paces n
the truck, and put on ba caps. Then they woud have to drve a dstance of
approxmatey 25 bocks - durng mornng rush hour traffc. Possbe, but not too
key.
Is t possbe one of these wtnesses has hs story wrong? We, f he does, he has t
really wrong. How coud an apparenty credbe wtnesses mstake a short-cury-
hared man wth a back ba cap for a ong-straght-hared man wth tear-drop
sungasses? One who s ceary the passenger, the other who s ceary the drver?
In numerous ntervews wth the author and other |ournasts, Snder went nto
great deta about hs encounter, and never wavered.
In a taped ntervew wth Mke Moroz, he struck me as a sncere, sober, young
man. Both Lnehan and Hunt are sod, professona peope. It s not key that
these wtnesses are reayng naccurate nformaton.
"Ther stores reay seem to check out," sad vdeo producer Chuck Aen, who
ntervewed many wtnesses. "They go nto great depth and deta about a ths. If
you ever meet these guys, you' know ther stores are very strong - very
beevabe."
|315|
Researchers have aso questoned why McVegh, who had supposedy been to the
Murrah Budng at east three tmes - once on December 16, agan a week and a
haf before the bombng, then agan on Apr 14 - woud need to ask drectons to
t when he was ony sx bocks away. But accordng to Moroz, who has heped more
than a few ost traveers, the number of one-way streets n the downtown area
often confuses peope. "A ot of peope get ost down here, even peope who ve
here, he sad"
|316|
Fnay, HUD empoyee Germane |ohnston was wakng through an aey
approxmatey two bocks from the Murrah Budng about 15 mnutes after the
bast, when she ran nto McVegh and another man. "They were |ust standng there
watchng," sad |ohnston.
McVegh then asked the dazed passerby "Was anyone ked?" When |ohnston
answered that numerous peope had been ked, ncudng many chdren,
86
McVegh's expresson suddeny turned sad. He and hs companon then got up and
eft.
|317||318|
Mke Moroz was eventuay caed n to dentfy McVegh n a photo ne-up. Yet he
was never caed to testfy before the Federa Grand |ury. Snder was ntay
ntervewed by two FBI agents, ncudng Wedon Kennedy and Rob Rcks |of Waco
fame|, but was never brought n to a ne-up or caed to testfy before the Federa
Grand |ury.
Consderng he had cose and sustaned contact wth "McVegh" and severa of hs
assocates, Dr. Heath shoud have been a key prosecuton wtness. Yet the FBI
never caed Dr. Heath n to dentfy McVegh n a ne-up. Nor was Dr. Heath ever
caed before the Federa Grand |ury. Nor was Freeman ever caed n to see a ne-
up, or before the grand |ury. Lnehan, Hunt, |ohnston, and numerous other
wtnesses were kewse never caed.
On May 10, the 3os An%eles Times reported, "Investgators sad authortes
theorze that |ohn Doe 2 coud be two peope, and that McVegh and hs aeged
consprators coud have used dfferent men to accompany hm n order to serve as
'decoys' and confuse nvestgators tryng to trace hs movements."
|319|
The 3os An%eles Times report, whch woud tend to account for the two dfferent
trucks, ony gves haf the story. What they aren't sayng s that not ony were
there at east two |ohn Doe 2s - there apparenty were two "Tmothy McVeghs."
One was probaby a doube.
The use of doubes n esponage work s not new. In fact, the use of mpostors,
ook-akes and doubes was we-documented n the |FK and Martn Luther Kng
assassnatons.
Lke the "Lee Harvey Oswad" who was seen fng out numerous |ob appcatons n
New Oreans, "McVegh" was seen gong foor-to-foor n the Federa Budng n
Okahoma. Except that the "Oswad" who fed out |ob appcatons sted hs heght
as 5' 9", whe the rea Oswad's heght was 5' 11."
Accordng to empoyees at Eott's Body Shop n |uncton Cty, the "McVegh" (aas
"Kng") who rented the truck on Apr 17 was of medum bud, 5' 10" to 5' 11" and
weghed 180-185 pounds. Eott's empoyee Tom Kessnger stated on hs FBI FD-
383 report that the man had a "rough" compexon wth "acne."
|320|
(See Appendx)
The ony probem s, Tmothy McVegh s 6' 2," weghs 160 pounds, and has a
totay cear compexon. Another shop empoyee, Vck Beemer, sad the man had
a deformed chn, unke the rea McVegh.
|321|
Nevertheess, federa prosecutors woud cam that a "tte curcue" on the "K" n
"Kng's" sgnature was ndcatve of McVegh's handwrtng. Yet f McVegh was the
same person who rented the truck at Eott's on the 17th, why ddn't he aso use
an aas whe sgnng the mote regster? Whe the "McVegh" who rented the
truck sted hs name as "Bob Kng," 428 Mat Drve, Redfed, SD, the "McVegh"
who checked nto the Dreamand, rght down the street, sgned hs name as "Tm
McVegh," and sted hs address as 3616 North Van Dyke Road, Decker, Mchgan,
the home of |ames Nchos.
|322|
If McVegh was pannng on commttng such a henous crme, certany he woud
not eave such a batanty ncrmnatng tra of evdence. Ths makes about as
much sense as McVegh gong from foor-to-foor n the Murrah Budng fng out
87
|ob appcatons and announcng hs name. Or teng a dancer n Tusa, "You're
gong to remember me on Apr 19th."
These preposterous scenes were practcay dentca to those of a-tme patsy Lee
Harvey Oswad. In eary November of 1963, a "Lee Harvey Oswad" apped for a
|ob as a parkng ot attendant at the Southand Hote. Durng hs ntervew wth the
manager, he asked f there was a good vew of downtown Daas from the hote.
|323|
On |anuary 20, 1961, two men, one representng hmsef as "Lee Harvey Oswad,"
waked nto the Boton Ford deaershp n New Oreans and requested a bd for 10
pck-up trucks, ostensby for the Frends of Democratc Cuba Commttee. The ony
probem was, Lee Harvey Oswad was n Russa at the tme.
|324|
Then n September of 1963, a man purportng to be "Lee Harvey Oswad" showed
up at the Mexcan Consuate n New Oreans. Accordng to Mrs. Fenea Farrngton,
"Oswad" sad, "What do you have to do to take frearms or a gun nto Mexco?"
A "Lee Harvey Oswad" subsequenty phoned, then showed up at the Sovet
embassy n Mexco Cty, speakng wth a trade consutant who was aegedy a
member of the KGB's "qud affars" bureau (ht squad). The CIA ater turned over
to the Warren Commsson a surveance snapshot of a man they camed was
Oswad at the Sovet embassy. The man ooked nothng ke Oswad.
On Apr 17, 1995, a "Bob Kng" showed up at Eott's Body Shop n |uncton Cty,
Kansas and rented a Ryder truck. Yet accordng to surveance footage taken from
a nearby McDonads, McVegh was sttng n the restaurant eatng a hamburger at
the tme. He was wearng competey dfferent cothes than those ascrbed to
"Kng."
Yet the FBI contends that McVegh eft the restaurant 20 mnutes before the truck
was rented, waked the 1.3 mes to Eott's - a ffteen-mnute wak - n a ght
ran, then showed up at Eott's nce and dry, wearng competey dfferent cothes.
In November of 1963, a "Lee Oswad" waked nto the downtown Lncon Mercury
deaershp n Daas announcng hs ntenton to buy a Mercury Comet. Accordng to
the saesman, Abert Bogard, "Mr. Oswad" took hm on a wd test drve, speedng
aong at 60 to 70 mes an hour. After he was tod the amount of the down
payment, another saesman, Eugene Wson, heard "Oswad" say, "Maybe I'm gong
to have to go back to Russa to buy a car."
Durng the Warren Commsson hearngs, saesman Frank Pzzo descrbed the
customer as 5' 8" ta. When the Warren Commsson showed Pzzo a photo of
Oswad taken after hs arrest, he sad, "I have to say that he s not the one."
|325|
After the bombng n Okahoma Cty, ATF nformant Caro Howe tod the FBI that
she recognzed the two men on the FBI's orgna wanted posters as Peter Ward
and Mchae Bresca - two Eohm Cty resdents. She sad that nether man was
Tm McVegh.
|326|
In eary November of 1963, Mrs. Love Penn of Daas found three men frng a rfe
on her property. After they eft, she found a spent cartrdge bearng the name
"Manncher-Carcanno," the rfe that the Warren Commsson camed Oswad used
to perform hs hstorc feat of marksmanshp n Deay Paza.
As Dstrct Attorney |m Garrson ater noted, "These scenes were about as subte
as roaches tryng to sneak across a whte rug."
No ess subte were the scenes and events eadng up to the Okahoma Cty
bombng. It s hghy possbe that the man Dr. Heath saw n the Murrah Budng a
88
week and-a-haf before the bombng was not Tmothy McVegh at a, but a doube.
The scenaro of Tmothy McVegh - the aeged "one nut" bomber - gong from
foor-to-foor n the target budng announcng hs name whe eavng a paper tra
s beyond creduty.
Lke Oswad, who repeatedy teephoned, then appeared at the Sovet embassy n
Mexco, McVegh woud teephone Eohm Cty - a whte separatst compound -
|ust before the bombng, askng to speak to Andy Strassmer.
Lke Oswad, who eft behnd a dary of hs "Left-eanng" wrtngs, McVegh
purportedy eft ntentons of hs pans to bomb other targets n the gove
compartment of hs car - a car whch coud be easy recognzed and traced to
hm.
Lke Oswad who, after purportedy kng the presdent of the Unted States,
waked nto a move house wthout payng, purposey attractng the attenton of
the poce, McVegh woud speed down the hghway at 80 mes an hour wthout a
cense pate, purposefuy attractng the attenton of the Hghway Patro. He woud
then meeky hand hmsef over for arrest, not even attemptng to draw hs Gock
9mm psto on the approachng cop, whom he coud have easy shot and ked.
Lke the Manncher-Carcanno rfe whch Oswad purportedy bought from a ma-
order suppy house, and the Manncher-Carcanno cartrdge found by Mrs. Penn,
McVegh woud eave a busness card from Pausen's Mtary Surpus wth a
notaton to pck up more TNT n the poce cruser after hs arrest.
|327|
As |m Garrson noted, "Some of these scenes were so preposterous ony the most
gube coud swaow them."
Lke Oswad, who was ed out of the Daas Poce Department and mmedatey
shot by |ack Ruby, McVegh woud be ed out of the Nobe County Courthouse n a
brght orange |umpsut, wthout a buet-proof vest, paraded before an angry crowd
on the verge of voence.
Fnay, ke |ames Ear Ray, who was accused of kng Martn Luther Kng, |r., we
are eft ponderng the sgnfcance of two smar vehces, both apparenty ted to
the crme. Ray had owned a whte Ford Mustang, whch was seen speedng away
after the assassnaton. Yet another whte Mustang was seen parked n front of
|m's Gr n Memphs, near where Ray had hs car parked. The two cars were
amost dentca, except for two thngs: Whe Ray was wearng a sut on Apr 4,
1968, the drver of the other Mustang was wearng a dark bue wndbreaker; whe
Ray's car had Aabama pates, the other car had Arkansas pates.
|328|
One s remnded of the contradctory testmony of Davd Snder and Mke Moroz,
who saw two Ryder trucks on the mornng of Apr 19, but wth dfferent occupants.
Another nterestng parae s that whe McVegh's Mercury reportedy had Arzona
tags, a whte Okahoma tag was seen by Gary Lews dangng from one bot as the
car sped away from the scene.
In spte of the numerous dscrepances, t seemed that by a convenent strng of
assocatons, a carefuy paced tra of evdence, and a carefuy panned and
executed operaton, Tmothy McVegh was mpcated as prme suspect number
one n the pot to bow up the Afred P. Murrah Budng.
Lke Lee Harvey Oswad, who was decared the "one assassn" wthn weeks,
Tmothy McVegh woud be decared - aong wth Terry Nchos - the "one
bomber" wthn days. On the ndctments, the |ustce Department woud
89
gratutousy add, "wth others unknown." Yet these "others unknown" woud fade
from offca memory as the so-caed "|ustce" Department wthdrew the |ohn Doe
2 sketch and the subsequent reward offer.
After hs arrest, Lee Harvey Oswad announced to the teevson cameras, "I'm a
patsy!"
After his arrest, Tmothy McVegh tod the 3ondon Sunday Times he was "set up"
for the bombng by the FBI because of hs extreme potca vews.
|329|
Never snce the frame-up of Lee Harvey Oswad has the meda gone out of ts way
to portray a suspect as dangerous and magnant. Whe the manstream press
took ther cues from the FBI, they contradcted ther own |ournastc common
sense. The government and ther manstream meda ap dogs have based ther
theores of Tmothy McVegh upon the fmsest of pretenses, whe gnorng the
more obvous facts. The manstream press, wng to take the Federa
Government's word as gospe, has succumbed, and perpetrated, the most obvous
propaganda. In so dong, they have voated every prncpa of thorough and honest
|ournasm, and have become nothng but a wng too of the
corporate/ntegence estabshment.
As Stephen |ones sad, "Before ths nvestgaton s a over wth, the government
w have Tm McVegh standng next to Lee Harvey Oswad."
|330|
Yet unke Oswad, who was summary executed by mob-connected poce offcer
|ack Ruby, McVegh has quety and safey setted nto hs newfound
crcumstances. As the drama of hs tra(s) unfod n a day dspay of evdence and
wtnesses, Tmothy McVegh may truy beeve that |ustce w preva.
Next | Prevous | Contents | Text Verson
6
Terry -ichols: "-on-&esident /lien"
The mage of Tmothy McVegh - the stone-faced ker - woud fade n the wake
of court appearances and meda ntervews, as Stephen |ones sought to portray hs
smng and chdng cent as the smpe boy next door.
The engmatc fgure of Terry Nchos, however, woud haunt pubc percepton, as
hs attorney |eaousy guarded the mysterous, broodng fgure from pryng eyes.
It was the oder, quet, bespectaced Nchos, some theorzed, who was the "brans"
behnd the bombng, gudng hs young frend n the snster and deady pot.
Nchos' ex-wfe, Lana Pada, doesn't agree. "I beeve that Terry bought hs home,
brought hs famy there. truy, truy. wanted to have a famy and |ust get on
wth hs fe. I |ust don't thnk ths man coud have done ths. I |ust don't thnk wth
any knowedge he coud have done ths."
|331|
90
Neghbors Bob and Sandy Papovch, ong-tme frends, wrote the press that Terry
Nchos s a "knd, gente, generous man absoutey ncapabe of voence." As
Papovch tod the author, "I've known Terry for over 15 years, and I've never heard
ths man utter the word "he" or "damn".. Terry doesn't want to hurt anybody..
And a these peope want me to beeve that ths man s capabe of murderng
hundreds of nnocent peope. It an't possbe."
|332|
Terry Nchos tod Federa Pubc Defender Steve Gradert, "Heck, I've got kds, too,"
n response to the bombng.
|333|
A peacefu person, Nchos reportedy oved
chdren, ncudng hs son |osh, whom he mantaned a cose reatonshp wth. One
day, the astute thrteen-year-od tod hs mother he had to ca the FBI. He was
frantc. "I've got to te them!"
"What do you got to te them, Pada asked?"
"I've got to te them that my dad woudn't do that. He oves chdren. He woudn't
do that to those chdren."
|334|
Yet the press woud pant Terry Nchos wth the same broad brush that they had
used to pant Tmothy McVegh - focusng on the fact that Nchos came from a
broken home, had dropped out of coege, worked a seres of odd |obs, and was
ant-government. Lke McVegh, the meda, ant-mta actvsts, and scores of
pseudo-experts woud do ther best to cast Nchos n the same extremst mod - a
man, authortes camed - capabe of kng 169 nnocent peope
The thrd of four chdren, Terry Nchos grew up on a farm near Lapeer, Mchgan.
Hs father, Robert - quet and soft-spoken - abored hard on the famy's 160-acre
farm. Lke hs son, he aso worked a seres of odd |obs, dong constructon, seng
encycopedas, and puttng n shfts at the Pontac and Buck pants, n an effort to
keep the famy afoat n a county where farmng had become ess and ess
prosperous.
Hs mother |oyce was a sharp contrast. Hard-drnkng, often voent wth exposve
fts of temper, she had once rammed Robert's tractor wth her car, and had
threatened the oca sherff wth a chan-saw. After 24 years of dffcut marrage,
the coupe fnay dvorced. Pada sad Terry took t hard.
|335|
Nchos dreamed of gong to medca schoo but hs grades weren't good enough
for most pre-med programs. He enroed at Centra Mchgan Unversty, but after
hs parents' dvorce n 1974, he dropped out at the request of hs mother, who
needed hep on the famy farm n Decker. However, Nchos tod frends he woud
never be a farmer.
|336|
Yet, ke McVegh, Nchos was an ntegent man. He passed a dffcut test for a
securtes cense wth a mnmum of study and preparaton, but tod frends he was
bored wth coege, whch he found no more chaengng than hgh-schoo.
91
Whe n Decker, Nchos met hs frst wfe, Lana Pada, and they marred n 1981.
Two years ater, they had a baby boy, |oshua. Shorty thereafter, Pada's sster
Ke marred Terry's brother |ames, and the four ved together at |ames's Decker,
Mchgan farmhouse.
Not satsfed wth farm fe, Nchos tred a number of dfferent occupatons. He
deved nto penny stocks, went on to se nsurance and rea estate, managed a
gran eevator, and worked occasonay as a carpenter. Nothng hed hs nterest.
"No matter what he tred to do, every tme he tred to break away, he ended up
back on the farm tryng to hep hs mother and |ames," sad Pada.
|337|
Whe Pada devoted tme to budng her rea estate career, Nchos cooked,
ceaned house, and cared for the kds. Yet he grew ncreasngy restess and
depressed.
"Terry got rea down on fe," sad hs father. "He ddn't care what he had done..
He ost hs vtaty."
|338|
One afternoon Pada brought home pamphets from the oca Army recrutng
offce, and ad them out on the tabe. When she came back, the pamphets were
gone. Lke many men uncertan about ther future, Nchos decded to try a career
n the mtary.
"He was |ust searchng for a career, somethng he en|oyed," Nchos' frend Sandy
Papovch tod the "allas Mornin% News. "He thought he woud ke t."
|339|
It was an unusua career move for a 32-year-od man wth chdren. Yet Nchos
hoped he woud be abe to rse qucky through the ranks, and Pada thought the
experence woud strengthen Terry and save ther marrage.
On May 24, 1988, Nchos was assgned to Fort Bennng, Georga for basc tranng.
"He sad the government had made t mpossbe for hm to make a vng as a
farmer," recaed assstant patoon eader Gen "Tex" Edwards. He hated the Unted
States government. I thought t strange that a 32-year-od man woud be
companng about the government, yet was now empoyed by the government.
Nchos tod me he sgned up to pu hs 20 years and get a retrement penson."
|340|
Because of hs age and maturty, Nchos was qucky made patoon eader. The
obvous dscrepancy n years earned hm the nckname "Od Man."
"The dr sergeant sad that because Nchos was oder than the rest of us, he
woud hopefuy be more mature and abe to ead the younger guys n the unt. He
aso had some coege background and came nto the Army as a PFC," sad
Edwards.
|341|
92
It was at Fort Bennng that Nchos woud meet Tmothy McVegh. The two men had
ensted on the same day. Accordng to an account n the )ost7
Wam "Dave" Dy, who was McVegh's roommate for about a year n the servce,
sad McVegh and Nchos "ht t off from the start, ke Terry was hs bg brother.
Tm was rea fra and unsure of hmsef. Terry was the odest guy and rea sure of
hmsef."
But the two men found they had a ot n common. McVegh too came from a
broken, bue-coar home and had an abdng nterest n frearms and far-rght
potcs. Both men fanced themseves as survvasts, and both oved to spend tme
on the rfe range. Both were ookng for fetme careers n the servce. They
qucky became frends.
|342|
Another one of ther frends was Mchae Forter, who |oned Nchos and McVegh at
Fort Rey. The three woud spend free tme together, gong fshng, shootng, and
sharng ther potca beefs.
Yet whe McVegh woud rse qucky through the ranks, Nchos' Army career
staed. It seemed hs patoon eadershp status had been rescnded due to a prank
he and McVegh had pued.
Around the same tme, Pada fed for dvorce, and made pans to move her rea
estate busness to Las Vegas. On May 15, 1989, after 11 months n the servce,
Nchos put n for a hardshp dscharge due to a "famy emergency" that was never
pubcy expaned. Yet t apparenty had nothng to do wth hs dvorce. He tod
Pada t was to take care of hs son |osh. As Pada ater wrote, Nchos aready
had |osh wth hm at Fort Rey, where the par ved n a house off-base. As Pada
wrote n her book, $y $lood $etrayed7
I've aways wondered |ust why he was reeased, ess than a year after enstng,
and have aways been tod t was because he had to take care of |osh. But ths
theory never washed wth me because he'd had |osh wth hm a aong. I reay
beeve that |osh was |ust a convenent excuse and that Terry had become
dsusoned wth the Army because he beeved he woud never rse through the
ranks.
|343|
Perhaps Nchos' "hardshp dscharge" was smar to Lee Harvey Oswad's
"hardshp dscharge" from the Marnes that never was expaned. And that of
Thomas Martnez, the FBI nftrator nto the Sent Brotherhood (The Order), who
was gven an honorabe dscharge durng basc tranng, whch was never
expaned.
|344|
Even more nterestng s the parae to McVegh's dscharge after "fang" hs
Speca Forces try-out n Apr of 1991. McVegh's sudden and mysterous departure
from the Army, ke Nchos', was never fuy expaned. As suggested prevousy,
93
McVegh's sudden decson eave a brant mtary career behnd may have
resuted from hs beng "sheep-dpped" as an ntegence operatve.
Yet manstream meda psycho|ournasts nssted that Nchos' departure from the
Army was nothng more than the nevtabe resut of a consstent strng of fe-ong
faures.
Gen "Tex" Edwards put a sghty dfferent spn on the matter. Edwards sad that
shorty before he eft the Army, Nchos nvted hm to be part of a "prvate army"
he sad he was creatng. "He tod me he woud be comng back to Fort Rey to
start hs own mtary organzaton," recaed Edwards. "He sad he coud get any
knd of weapon and any equpment he wanted."
Nchos aso sad he ntended to recrut McVegh, Forter, and others. "I can't
remember the name of hs organzaton, but he seemed pretty serous about t,"
Edwards sad, addng that he reported Nchos' offer to the FBI shorty after the
bombng.
In spte of the famboyant taes about recrutng a prvate army, Nchos returned to
hs od fe n Mchgan, workng for a tme as a carpenter, then movng back to the
farmhouse n Decker. In spte of hs short career n the Army, or perhaps because
of t, Nchos deveoped a deep dstrust of the Federa Government.
It was a feeng that was shared by hs brother |ames, who, as a farmer, had
suffered through the worst of the foods of the ate '70s and eary '80s, and bamed
the Federa Government for fang to provde adequate dsaster reef. Nchos,
aong wth hs Sanac country neghbors, wtnessed dozens of farm forecosures as
a resut. It was the Federa Government's poces that ed to the rse of such far-
Rght groups as the Amercan Agrcutura Movement and the ant-tax Posse
Comtatus. As the )ost wrtes:
Many resdents around Decker sad they share Terry and |ames's angry potcs,
but are ess voca because they fear government retrbuton. "Much of what the
Nchos brothers beeve s not that dfferent or radca from what ots of peope
around here thnk," sad oca truck drver |ack Bean. "We fee our bertes and
freedoms are beng chpped away at and we want a ths authorty off our backs.
The dfference between the Nchos and others n ths communty s that they are
|ust not afrad to say what they thnk, to chaenge what s wrong."
|345|
In spte of ther dfferences, Terry and |ames had a ot n common. Both were
fathers, had marred ssters, and had suffered through dffcut dvorces. Both
shared an deoogca dstrust of the Federa Government.
|ames studed the Consttuton, Back's Law Dctonary and the Unform
Commerca Codes. He read the works of |efferson and Pane and was partcuary
nspred by |efferson's maxm, "The tree of berty must be refreshed from tme to
tme wth the bood of patrots and tyrants." Perhaps not concdentay, ths
94
passage was dscovered n McVegh's car upon hs arrest. It woud ater be read
nto evdence at hs tra.
Both Terry and |ames aso hed a vew shared by many beeaguered farmers: that
the Federa Reserve was not empowered to con money, and that U.S. currency
prnted after 1930, when the naton went nto debt, was vaueess. Foowng the
advce of fnanca books that warned of an mmnent crash, the brothers put ther
money nto precous metas such as sver and god.
Yet ther actvtes took st more dramatc turns. In 1990 |ames tred to renounce
hs ctzenshp, and pastered hs car wth ant-government and Second
Amendment bumper stckers.
Terry purchased a pck-up truck and decded not to regster t, nstead, makng hs
own tag and pacng t on front. Both men renounced ther drver's censes.
In March of 1994, Terry sent a dramatc affdavt to the Evergreen Townshp
camng hmsef to be a "Non-Resdent Aen" prvate ctzen not bound by the aws
of the U.S. government. (See Appendx) He aso renounced hs votng rghts due to
".tota corrupton n the entre potca system from the oca government on up
through and ncudng the presdent of the Unted States of Amerca, George
Bush."
|346|
Whe he may have been rght n prncpe, hs actvty was not condoned by the
oca authortes. In 1992, Chase Manhattan Bank went after Nchos for rackng up
$17,860 n unpad credt card debts. The argey out-of-work farmer had spent over
$35,000, usng Chase and Frst Depost Natona Bank cards, on farm equpment,
persona effects, and arne tckets.
He attempted to pay off the debts wth hs own "Certfed Fractona Reserve
Check," a bogus check dstrbuted wdey among farmers by a group caed Famy
Farm Preservaton. He sgned the check, "Expcty reservng a my rghts, Terry L.
Nchos." He then sent the bank a etter retroactvey revokng hs sgnature from
the credt card contract.
"There are two sdes to that man, maybe many more," sad Denns Red, a
Sandusky, Mch., awyer who has observed Nchos and hs brother, |ames, durng
court proceedngs n Mchgan. "|m to me I reay expect s knd of a sssy. He was
aways shakng when he'd go nto the courtroom and spout off," attorney Denns
Red sad. "Terry seemed to be more eve-headed. He was st sayng thngs that
were strange, but he was certany more cod and more cacuatng."
|347|
Terry defntey ddn't seem "eve-headed" when he went to court to answer the
awsut by Chase. He refused to come before the bench, shoutng to |udge Donad
Teepe from the back of the room that the court had no |ursdcton over hm.
Durng the hearng, the btter and sarcastc defendant accused the bank of fraud.
"They knowngy and wngy know how to make credt out of nothng and make
95
nterest on t and actuay stea peope's hard earned money," he tod the |udge.
"They gave me vaueess nothng for somethng they want to take from me that
has vaue. That's not rght, s t?"
He camed to have determned that the bank's busness was based upon "fraud
and msrepresentaton, couson, coor of aw, conspracy, entcement,
nducement, seducton, duress, coercon, mstake |and| bankruptcy," and he fed a
countercam aganst Frst Depost and ts attorneys for $50,000 or 14,200 ounces
of sver. Nchos charged the bank wth "menta and emotona damage, oss of
happness and the un|ust destroyng of credt hstory. by wanton acts when no
probabe cause exsted."
|348|
The |udge was not mpressed. He accused Nchos of payng wth words and
ordered hm to pay the debt. Nchos ddn't pay.
When FBI agents questoned Lana Pada after Nchos' arrest, they asked her a
curous queston: Dd Nchos ever dye hs har? The Bureau had been nvestgatng
a strng of bank robberes throughout the Mdwest. One of the robbers had dyed
hs har, and was Nchos heght and weght.
The group, known as the Mdwest Bank Bandts, had robbed over a quarter-of-a-
mon doars from more than 22 banks between |anuary, 1994 and December,
1995 n a spree that took them across sx states, ncudng Kansas. The bandts
were ted to a group of men who made ther temporary home at Eohm Cty, a far-
Rght regous compound n Southeastern Okahoma. McVegh and hs frend
Mchae Forter were known to have vsted the compound. Some of the men were
aso seen n Kansas wth the bombng defendants. (See Chapter 4)
If the FBI's queston came as a shock to Pada, she woud turn pae when she
opened her ex-husband's storage ocker on December 15, 1994, and dscovered
wgs, masks, and pantyhose. The Md-West Bank Bandts had worn masks.
Coud Nchos have been robbng banks? "Not the Terry I knew," sad Pada. "I was
|ust specuatng, but everythng that has come out about that sde of Terry was a
tota. maybe I |ust turned my face and never notced t, never wanted to notce t,
but. I never thought of hm. of course I never woud have thought of hm
seepng wth a gun under hm ether."
|349|
Yet consderng Nchos' hatred of banks and hs rayng cry aganst the monetary
system, t woud not be too far-fetched a scenaro. Such specuaton s bostered by
the fact that McVegh sent hs sster a etter n December of '93 nformng her that
he was part of a group that had been robbng banks. Athough he hmsef ddn't
admt to takng part n any of the robberes, he asked her to "aunder" three $100
bs that "they" had stoen.
McVegh returned to Decker, Mchgan n the Sprng of 1993 to see hs od Army
frend Nchos. |ust back from Waco, where he had wtnessed the carnage nfcted
96
upon the Branch Davdans, McVegh was nsted wth a new sense of urgency and
rage. At the Nchos farm, he woud fnd ke-mnded sous who shared hs
frustraton.
By the Fa of '93, McVegh was vng at the farmhouse, hepng wth the chores,
and reportedy urgng the Nchos brothers onto more mtant actvtes. The men
practced target shootng and settng off sma bombs on the property.
"You know how tte boys ke to pay wth thngs that bow up?" recaed |neghbor
Ph| Morawsk. "That was what they were ke. And everythng they mxed out
there n the cornfeds seemed to work."
The government woud focus heavy on ths actvty ater on.
Accordng to Mchgan Mta members, the Nchos brothers aso began attendng
meetngs, but the mta found ther rhetorc too strong. Mchgan Mta member
|ohn Smpson recaed: "Terry came to one of our meetngs and wanted to tak
about a tax revot, havng to have a drvers cense and emnatng the
government. We dd not beeve n hs tactcs - partcuary the stuff about a
revot."
|350|
|ames reportedy taked about the "necessty" of takng on poce
offcers, |udges and awyers. Apparenty, McVegh accompaned Nchos to some of
the meetngs.
Accordng to Time magazne, McVegh and the Nchos brothers went on to
organze ther own mta:
.the three men formed ther own ce of the "Patrots," a sef-styed paramtary
group that |ames Nchos had been affated wth snce 1992 when he began
attendng meetngs n a nearby town. The tro decded to recrut members and
estabsh other ces around the area, but determned that for securty reasons no
unt shoud grow arger than eght members.
|351|
If ths account s accurate, t woud tend to |ve wth what Nchos tod Army buddy
Gen "Tex" Edwards about "recrutng" hs own prvate army. Perhaps one of
Nchos' recruts was Crag O'Shea, who ved |ust off Hghway 77 n Herrngton. A
frend of Nchos who was kcked out of the servce, O'Shea used to work for
Barbara Whttenberg, who owns the Sante Fe Tra Dner n Herrngton.
Whttenberg descrbed O'Shea as a "demotons expert," and sad she saw hm
occasonay wth Nchos. "He's a very voent man," sad Whttenberg, who sad
O'Shea had once threatened to k her and her husband.
|352|
In March of '94, Nchos took a |ob at the Donahue ranch n Maron, Kansas.
Co-worker Tm Donahue recaed that Nchos worked ong hours, sometmes sx
days a week, wthout compant and appeared to en|oy hs |ob, whch he dd we.
Nchos woud grouse about taxes and the government consprng to seze peope's
97
frearms. One day when Nchos and Donahue were takng about the use of
fertzer n farmng, Nchos mentoned that he knew how to make a bomb.
|353|
Four months ater, n August of '94, Nchos gave Donahue 30 days notce. Hs
dream of settng up a prvate army metamorphoszed nto smpy suppyng that
army. He tod Donahue he was gong nto the army surpus busness wth a frend.
On September 30, that frend - Tmothy McVegh - showed up to hep hm pack.
It was durng ths perod that hs ex-wfe began pckng up strange sgnas from her
former husband.
Earer n the month, he had caed her from Kansas. "He was very upset," she sad.
"He was very emphatc. He taked about Waco and that shootng at the Whte
House (where a Coorado Sprngs man fred a gun toward the Whte House). He
sad, 'You know, that guy wasn't a wrong. There's gong to be some cv unrest n
ths country.'"
|354|
Durng one of hs frequent vsts to Pada's house n Las Vegas, Nchos dspayed
hs Gock .45. "I never knew hm to carry a gun," Pada tod the "ener )ost. "He
ked guns and coected them, but ths was new. He acted ke he was afrad for hs
fe. He sept wth t on."
|355|
Traveng the gun show crcut wth McVegh, Nchos was now a vrtua nomad,
vng out of hs pck-up. Hs few remanng possessons were stored n a ocker n
Las Vegas. He aso tod Pada that he was he was swtchng the benefcary of hs
fe nsurance pocy from her to hs new wfe, Marfe.
A 17-year-od Fpno ma-order brde, Marfe Torres met Nchos through Paradse
Sheton Tours, of Scottsdae, Arzona. The young woman ooked forward to eavng
her fe of poverty n Cebu Cty, Phppnes, where the unempoyment rate often
topped 40 percent. After a year of exchangng heartfet etters, they marred on
November 20, 1990 n a sma restaurant n Cebu Cty. Yet t took over four months
of bureaucratc hasses and red tape to arrange Marfe's entry nto the U.S.
"That one epsode soured Terry on government," hs father recaed. "He orgnay
tod me t woud take sx weeks for her to come here. but t was red tape, red
tape, red tape."
At frst the newyweds tred fe on the Decker farm, where |ason, Marfe's son by a
former boyfrend, was born on September 21, 1991. Yet Marfe found hersef
"workng ke a mad," cookng and ceanng for "three husbands," Terry, |ames,
and Tm, who often stayed at the house. She wrote her frend Vma Euenberg that
she thought the pace was haunted, and resented McVegh, who she thought was a
bad nfuence on her husband.
The coupe eventuay moved to warm, sunny Las Vegas, but Marfe mssed her
Phppne home. To accommodate hs new wfe, Nchos moved to Cebu Cty. But
98
the nose, heat and smog was too much for hm, and n md-1993, after barey a
month n the Phppnes, they moved back to the States, shuttng back and forth
between Mchgan and Nevada.
Ncoe, ther frst common chd, was born on August 1, 1993.
Two months ater, on November 22, tragedy struck, when 26-month-od |ason
accdentay suffocated to death n a pastc bag. Whe Marfe wondered f Terry
was capabe of kng a chd, Pada assured her he was not, then hnted darky n
her book that McVegh may have been responsbe for the death.

She negected to
menton the fact that McVegh and |ames had tred to revve the youngster for
neary haf-an-hour, then caed the paramedcs.
A month ater, the coupe moved to Las Vegas, where they rented a condomnum
for $550 a month. It was durng ths perod that Marfe began traveng to the
Phppnes to fnsh her physca therapy degree. Accordng to Pada, Terry aso
traveed to the Phppnes about four tmes a year over a four year perod. She
wrote that he sometmes traveed to Cebu Cty wthout takng Marfe, whom he
occasonay eft behnd.
"Sometmes he went when Marfe was n Kansas. It ddn't make sense, but I never
asked why."
|356|
Pada subsequenty tod me n |uy of 1996, "I have not known hm to eave her
here and |ust go to the Phppnes. If he made a trp by hmsef, t was because she
was aready there."
|357|
Whchever account s true, Nchos dd trave to Cebu Cty n ate November to
meet wth "potenta busness partners." Accordng to Pada, Nchos was makng
arrangements to brng back "butterfes."
"One tme he brought back butterfes - tte butterfes that they make over there
- he brought them back here to se."
|358|
Butterfes. Curous merchandse for a man tryng to set hmsef up n the mtary
surpus busness.
|359|*
Then on November 22, 1994 Nchos made a fna vst to the Phppnes to vst
Marfe. Hs partng words to |osh eft the 12-year od convnced he was never gong
to see hs dad agan. As he got nto the car wth Pada after droppng hs father off
at the arport, he started cryng.
"What's the matter?" Pada asked.
"I'm never gong to see my dad agan. I'm never gong to see my dad agan."
99
"Of course you w," Pada sad reassurngy. "He's gone to the Phppnes a ot of
tmes. You know he aways comes back."
"Ths tme s dfferent," he burted through bg tears.
|360|
Nchos caed hs ex-wfe from Los Angees severa hours ater. "Had a tte
exctement at the arport after you eft," he sad, aughng. He tod Pada that
arport securty had stopped hm for tryng to sneak a par of stun guns through the
meta detector. They caed the cop on duty who ran Nchos' name through the
computer. Athough he had severa outstandng traffc warrants, the poce et hm
contnue on hs way.
|ust why was Nchos attemptng to carry stun guns on an nternatona fght?
Accordng to Bob Papovch, Terry was afrad of the hgh crme rate n poverty-
strcken Cebu Cty. He aso sad that Nchos was afrad of Marfe's ex-boyfrend.
|ason, her son by ths man, had ded whe n Nchos' custody. The ex-boyfrend
had aegedy threatened to k hm shoud he return.
Yet Pada doesn't thnk the story s credbe. "I thnk t's somethng they dreamed
up," she sad. Yet upon hs return he tod Pada that he coud get "ked down
there" and he was never gong back.
|361|
Obvousy, somebody was out to hurt Terry Nchos, possby k hm. When he
departed for Cebu Cty, he eft a mysterous package for hs ex-wfe, sayng, "If I'm
not back n 60 days, open t and foow the nstructons." At frst, Pada dd as she
was tod. But her nstncts eventuay took over.
"I was uneasy about hs warnng, and |osh's, 'I' never see my dad agan' kept
echong n my bran."
|362|
Pada had secured the package n her offce safe. Now she spped quety nto the
conference room, opened the ock, and ad the mysterous brown paper bag on
the tabe. It stared omnousy back at her. As she rpped t open, neary a dozen
keys sd out onto the tabe. She ddn't recognze any of them.
There was Terry's fe nsurance pocy wth a note sayng he had changed the
benefcary from her to Marfe, and two handwrtten sts sayng "Read and Do
Immedatey." One of the sts drected her to a storage ocker n Las Vegas:
A tems n storage are for |oshua. The round tems are hs when he turns 21, a
ese now..
The note aso nstructed her to remove a sma pastc bag taped behnd a utens
drawer n Nchos' ktchen:
A tems n pastc bag are to be sent to Marfe, for Ncoe, f for any reason my fe
nsurance doesn't pay her. Otherwse, haf goes to |osh and haf to Marfe.
100
She removed a etter to McVegh's sster, |ennfer. Insde the etter to |ennfer was
another one stamped and addressed to McVegh:
Tm:
If you shoud receve ths etter, then cear everythng out of CG 37 by 01 Feb 95 or
pay to keep t onger, under Ted Parker of Decker. Ths etter has been wrtten &
seaed before I eft (21 Nov 94) and beng maed by Lana as per my nstructons to
her n wrtng. Ths s a she knows. It woud be a good dea to wrte or ca her to
verfy thngs. |address redacted| |ust ask for Lana (card encosed). Your on your
own. Go for t!!
Terry
Aso Lqudate 40
At the bottom t read, "As far as I know, ths etter woud be for the purpose of my
death."
"Why woud he wrte that etter?" asked Pada. "He has been there so many tmes.
Never - ever, has he wrtten a etter ke that. Never - ever."
|363|
Two weeks ater, on December 15, Pada and her odest son, Barry, drove to
Nchos' apartment. Foowng Nchos' nstructons, Barry reached behnd the
ktchen drawer and pued out a pastc bag. It was crammed fu of twentes and
hundreds - a tota of $20,000 cash.
Aready n a state of shock, the par drove to the AAAABCO storage facty and
nervousy fumbed wth the ock. They were stunned when they opened the door.
.there were wgs, masks, panty hose, freeze-dred food, and varous god cons
(obvousy the .round. ob|ects for |osh), aong wth god bars and sver buon
stacked neaty n boxes. There were aso some sma green stones that appeared
to be |ade. I estmated at east $60,000 street vaue n precous metas!
|364|
There was aso a arge rng wth what appeared to be safe depost box keys.
Two months ater, on |anuary 16, Nchos returned from the Phppnes, ave and
we. "Where's the package?" he asked Pada.
"I opened t," she stated body.
"Why?!" he excamed. "You betrayed my trust. I tod you not to open t for sxty
days."
"Because I was frghtened. I thought somethng terrbe had happened to you. I
thought you were dead. And where dd you get a that money?"
101
The coupe then argued over fnances, but Nchos woudn't expan the mysterous
etters, or where he had gotten the cash, the god, and the safe depost box keys.
She ddn't ask about the wgs, the masks, and the pantyhose, and he ddn't te
her. But she was worred nonetheess.
"I thnk those etters were wrtten because there s somebody bgger than any of
us w ever know nvoved n ths," sad Pada. "Why dd he change hs benefcary
on hs fe nsurance? It wasn't because her boyfrend mght take a pot-shot at
hm. and then he sad n that etter not to say a word to |osh unt t's a taken
care of. what the he s he takng about? It sn't the boyfrend."
|365|
If the boyfrend story s untrue, perhaps Nchos' "butterfy" partners were out to
get hm.
Or perhaps t was someone ese, someone bgger and more dangerous. Such
payers aren't hard to come by n Cebu Cty, home to a number of terrorsts groups
such as the Lberaton Army of the Phppnes, the Communst Huk, and the Abu
Sayyaf, an organzaton wth cose tes to the Mu|ahadeen and Word Trade Center
bomber Ramz Yousef.
Was Nchos meetng wth terrorsts n the Phppnes? Incredby, FBI 302 reports
and nvestgatons conducted by McVegh's defense team ndcate that Yousef,
Abdu Hakm Murad, Wa Khan Amn Shah, and severa other terrorsts met n
Davao, on the Isand of Mndanao, n ate 1992 or eary 1993, to dscuss the
Okahoma Cty bombng pot.
One of the men at the meetng, recaed an Abu Sayyaf eader, ntroduced hmsef
as "a farmer."
|366|
When the "farmer" returned from hs November, 1994 trp, and dscovered that
Pada had opened the package and read the etter, he turned "whte as a ghost,"
then mmedatey began makng a seres of desperate cas to a boardng house n
Cebu Cty.
Curousy, Nchos woud ca hs party, have a bref 34-second conversaton, then
hang up and mmedatey reda the number 14 consecutve tmes, ettng t rng
each tme. Ths he repeated on |anuary 31, wth nne cas and one 14-mnute
conversaton; then on February 14 he paced 22 cas wthn a 40-mnute tme-
perod, wth one 23-mnute conversaton; then on the 28th he made 31 cas wthn
three hours, wth no conversatons; then fnay on March 7 and 14 he made two
cas, speakng 24 mnutes each.
|367|
Snce Nchos ddn't tme-out these consecutve cas (as one woud tend to do f
there was no answer or the ne were busy), but made one ca rght after the
other, s t possbe he was sendng some sort of sgna or code?
|368|
102
Heen Maauan, who runs the boardng house, tod me Nchos was probaby tryng
to reach Marfe, who she sad was stayng there at the tme. Her brother Ernesto
aso sad that boarders from the sand of Mndanao often stayed at the house. The
Abu Sayyaf, concdentay, s headquartered n Mndanao. Was Nchos usng
Marfe to send a message to someone ese?
In February of '95, Terry and Marfe moved to Herrngton, Kansas, where Nchos
purchased a modest home for $25,000.
"We a thought he was |ust a tte bt dfferent," Herrngton rea estate agent
Georga Rucker sad. "We had to pry any nformaton out of hm."
|369|
In Herrngton, Nchos appeared to sette down. He attended army surpus auctons
at nearby Fort Rey and tred to make a vng seng army surpus gear.
"He spent the mornng of Apr 19, around Herrngton, pckng up busness cards,
regsterng hs truck wth the state, and cang on a coupe of oca shops, askng
about ther nterest n buyng government surpus," sad Pada. "Those are not the
actons of a guty man."
|370|
But are they?
On September 30, the same day that Nchos qut the Donahue ranch, someone
usng the name "Mke Havens" purchased 40 50-pound bags of ammonum ntrate
from the Md-Kansas Co-op n McPhearson. Athough empoyees never postvey
dentfed Nchos as the customer, a recept wth McVegh's fngerprnt was found
n Nchos' home. The FBI asserts that the fertzer was kept n a storage shed n
nearby Herrngton, rented by Nchos under the aas "Shawn Rvers."
|371|
Then, that same weekend, 299 dynamte stcks, 544 bastng caps, detonator cord,
and a quantty of an exposve caed Tovex were stoen from the Martn Maretta
Aggregates rock quarry |ust north of Maron. Maron County Sherff Ed Daves
testfed at McVegh's tra that he found meta shavngs and tumbers on the
ground n front of the magaznes. FBI Agent |ames Cadga, an FBI frearms and
too marks dentfcaton specast, sad that a dr bt n Nchos' home matched
the sgnature of the hoe dred nto the ock.
Fnay, Lor Forter, Mchae Forter's wfe, testfed that McVegh tod them that he
and Nchos had broken nto the quarry.
|372|
On October 18, 1994, 40 addtona 50-pound bags of ammonum ntrate were
purchased from the Md-Kansas Co-op by "Havens." Havens was reportedy drvng
a dark-coored pckup wth a ght-coored camper top - the knd owned by Terry
Nchos. (Another verson of the story has a red traer attached to the truck, whch
ddn't appear to be Nchos') The FBI beeved the fertzer was stored n a ocker n
Counc Grove - number 40 - rented the prevous day by "|oe Kye." Ths
103
apparenty was the "qudate 40" that Nchos referred to n hs mysterous note to
McVegh.
|ennfer McVegh ater testfed that when her brother vsted Lockport n November
of '94, he confded to her that he had been drvng around wth 1,000 pounds of
exposves. Coud these "exposves" have been the ammonum ntrate purchased
at the Md-Kansas Co-op?
Then on November 5, 1994, severa masked men robbed gun deaer Roger Moore.
The 60-year-od Moore was surprsed by two men carryng shotguns, wearng
camoufage fatgues and back sk masks, who bound hm wth duct tape. They
proceeded to ransack hs house, makng off wth a arge coecton of weapons,
pus a number of god and sver bars, and a safe depost box key.
Interestngy, Moore (AKA: Bob Anderson) knew McVegh, who once stayed at hs
house. Moore had met McVegh at a gun show n Forda n 1995.
For hs part, McVegh had a sod ab. He was n Kent, Oho on November 5, at a
gun show. Yet after the bombng, Forter reportedy tod the FBI that McVegh
caed hm after the robbery and sad, "Nchos got Bob!" Some of the guns were
ater pawned by Forter at the behest of McVegh, accordng to the FBI, whch
contends that the proceeds were used to fnance the bombng.
Interestngy, Nchos was seen n Sedaa, Mssour on February 10 and 11, the
same weekend that gun deaer Wam Mueer was robbed. Mueer's Ty,
Arkansas home, 150 mes south of Sedaa, was burgarzed of $40,000 worth of
sver cons, gun parts, survva gear, and 30 cases of ammunton.
What makes ths even more nterestng s that Nchos had checked nto the Mote
Memory the evenng of February 10, after a ong drve from Kansas, teng owner
Php Shaw he was there for the gun show. Yet Nchos had mssed the frst day of
the two-day show.
The next mornng, whe Nchos was apparenty at the show, Shaw's wfe Betty
opened hs room and saw dozens of boxes of ammunton scattered across the
foor. The presence of such a arge quantty of ammunton puzzed oca
nvestgators, who knew there was too sma a proft margn n egay-purchased
ammo for gun show deaers to bother messng wth t. Moreover, f Nchos had
panned on seng the ammunton, why had he eft so much of t n hs room?
Tragcay, Mueer, hs wfe, and ther 8-year-od daughter, Sarah, were found
murdered on |une 28, 1996. Ther bodes were by pued from the Inos Bayou
after a fsherman dscovered a porton of a eg. The famy had been handcuffed,
ther heads covered wth pastc bags wrapped wth duct tape. They were found n
20 feet of water, ted to a heavy rock.
104
Unaccounted for was some $50,000 the Arkansas ,a-ette reported the Mueers
were beeved to have receved ony days before they dsappeared.
Whe Tmothy McVegh had known Roger Moore, hs frend Mchae Bresca, and
his frend and roommate Andy Strassmer had met B Mueer at a Fort Smth,
Arkansas gun show earer that year. As reported n the Mc!urtain ,a-ette7
.Mueer then tod |Gene| Wergs that he remembered the two because he
beeved they mght be connected wth hs home's burgary - or even the ATF.
Wergs aso reported that Mueer showed hm a spra notebook where the
exhbtor had gone so far - so great was hs concern - as to wrte down the two
men's names.
|373|
Both Bresca and Strassmer, who aso knew McVegh, ved at Eohm Cty, the
whte separatst compound near Mudrow, Okahoma. Two other part-tme
resdents of Eohm Cty, 24 year-od Cheve Kehoe and hs brother Cheyne, opened
fred on poce durng a traffc stop n February of '97. The par was ndcted by a
Federa Grand |ury n Ltte Rock on murder, racketeerng and conspracy charges,
stemmng from the Mueer murder.
Guns stoen from the Mueers wound up at a Spokane, Washngton mote. The
manager tod the FBI that he s 75 percent certan that McVegh vsted hs mote n
ate '94 or eary '95 when Cheve Kehoe was vng there. He sad that Kehoe
showed up 45 mnutes before the Apr 19 bombng wth a request to watch CNN,
and seemed eated when he earned of the tragedy.
|374|
Mchae Bresca was ater arrested for hs aeged roe n the robbery of a Madson,
Wsconsn bank - part of the strng of robberes commtted by the Md-West Bank
Bandts. As prevousy mentoned, some of the robbers made ther temporary
homes at Eohm Cty.
After the bombng, the FBI questoned Pada about the tems found n Nchos'
home and storage ockers. Among those tems were arge quanttes of ammunton
and a safe depost box key beongng to Roger Moore. As of ths wrtng t s not
known whether the FBI traced the ammo to Mueer.
Aso found n Nchos' home, accordng to ATF Agent Larry Tongate, were 33
frearms, fve roes of 60-foot Prmadet detonator cord, non-eectrc bastng caps,
contaners of ammonum ntrate, a fue-meter, and four 55-gaon bue and whte
pastc drums.
Not exacty the everyday stuff of an ordnary guy from a sma town n Kansas.
Smar tems were found n |ames Nchos' farm, ncudng bastng caps, safety
fuses, ammonum ntrate, and dese fue. Nchos, who was taken nto custody the
same day as hs brother, dened any wrongdong, and authortes dropped a
charges. As for hs brother, he commented, "My gut feeng. I ddn't do anythng.
105
He ddn't do anythng." When asked by a reporter, "How about Tmothy McVegh?
he reped, "I want to see some facts."
Yet the facts aganst Terry seemed to be png up.
On Apr 15, 1995, Barbara Whttenberg served breakfast to three men at the
Sante Fe Tra Dner: Terry Nchos, Tm McVegh, and a thrd man wth dark
features. She aso recaed seeng a Ryder truck outsde, and asked the men where
they were headed. Suddeny, she sad, t was "as f ce water was thrown on the
conversaton."
|375|
The men eft before 7:00 a.m. Later that afternoon, as Whttenberg and her son
were drvng to nearby |uncton Cty, they saw the truck parked at Geary State
Fshng Lake - where authortes orgnay camed the bomb was mxed. The
truck was st there when they drove past around 3:00 or 4:00 p.m. Whttenberg's
son recaed seeng three men aong wth what he descrbed as a Thunderbrd wth
Arzona tags.
Later that day Nchos vsted a Conoco staton n Manhattan, Kansas, and a
Coasta Mart n |uncton Cty, and bought over 30 gaons of dese fue. Nchos'
pck-up has a dese motor, accordng to hs brother, and Nchos' had been a
reguar dese customer for over two months pror to the bombng, accordng to
Shan Woods of Kepper O Co., purchasng between $20 to $30 worth of dese fue
"two or three tmes a week." Recepts were agan found n hs home.
|376|
The next day, Nchos purchased an addtona 21 gaons from the |uncton Cty
Conoco staton.
Then, on the evenng of Apr 17, 1995, a Ryder truck was seen parked behnd
Nchos Herrngton home. A Ryder truck was seen that same week backed up to a
storage shed that Nchos rented.
On the mornng of the 18th, severa wtnesses agan saw the Ryder truck parked at
Geary Lake. Parked next to appeared to be Nchos' pck-up. When the FBI
subsequenty nspected the area, they aegedy recovered bts of ammonum
ntrate and strands of detonator cord, and saw sgns of dese fue.
That same day, or possby the day before, a convoy pued n for gas at the Easy
Mart n Newkrk, 100 mes north of Okahoma Cty. It was a Ryder truck
accompaned by a bue pck-up wth a camper top. Manager |err-Lynn Backhous
recaed seeng three men. The passenger n the pck-up was dark sknned wth
back har, average heght, and had a "rea muscuar bud," she sad. He was
wearng a t-shrt and sun-gasses, and "ooked |ust ke the |ohn Doe 2 sketch."
|377|
Backhous aso saw a refecton of the person n the Ryder truck. He was a short
man wth cose cropped, dark har and gasses, she sad. Empoyee Dornda |.
"Wendy" Hermes wated on the thrd man - Terry Lynn Nchos - who came nto
106
the store and bought food for the others. Hermes partcuary recaed Nchos'
pck-up. "It caught me funny because t had street tres on t, but t was a muddy,"
she sad.
|378|
But perhaps most nterestng was the recoecton of Nchos' son |osh, who
accompaned McVegh and hs father on the rde back to Kansas that Sunday.
McVegh asserts that he caed Nchos from Okahoma Cty because hs car had
broken down, and asked Nchos to pck hm up. On the way back, accordng to
|osh, McVegh made hs nfamousy cryptc remark: "Somethng bg s gong to
happen."
Nchos reportedy asked hm, What, are you gong to rob a bank?"
"Somethng bg s gong to happen," McVegh stocay reped.
A curous statement. If McVegh and Nchos had conspred to bomb the Murrah
Budng, woudn't Nchos already know that "somethng bg" was gong to
happen?
Or was the statement nvented by Nchos to excupate hmsef from the pot n the
eyes of nvestgators? Gven the fact that the statement was reayed to the FBI by
Nchos' 12-year-od son, ths seems unkey.
And f Nchos was nvoved n the pot, there s evdence that n November of '94
he wanted out. Among the documents prosecutors handed over to the defense s
testmony from Lor Forter that McVegh began to soct hep from her husband
because Nchos was "expressng reuctance."
It shoud be noted however that the FBI and the "|ustce" Department s nfamous
for framng peope, and they brought enormous pressure on the Forters,
threatenng them wth knowedge of a terrorst pot, weapons voatons and other
charges f they dd not testfy aganst Nchos and McVegh. Federa prosecutors
subsequenty coached Lor Forter heavy before McVegh's tra, havng her
practce her testmony n two mock tras.
Yet f Nchos had no nvovement n the pot, what was he dong wth arge
quanttes of ammonum ntrate, bastng caps, detonator cord, and a coecton of
55-gaon drums? Why the purchases of dese fue? Were these tems panted by
the FBI?
If Nchos was nvoved n the bombng, why ddn't he make any attempt to hde or
dspose of these ncrmnatng tems before Apr 19, or even by the 22nd? Why
woud a man,who had aegedy |ust bown up a budng, kng 169 peope, pany
eave a recept for the so-caed bomb ngredent n hs ktchen drawer?
107
In fact, Nchos ddn't attempt to hde any of these tems, before he casuay
waked nto the oca poce staton on Apr 22, after hearng hs name on TV. Such
do not seem ke the actons of an ntegent, cacuatng, cod-booded ker.
But, then there were the mysterous trps to the Phppnes. Those trps, and
Nchos' candestne meetngs wth some mysterous payers n Las Vegas, woud
begn to ntrgue a handfu of |ournasts and nvestgators, as the Okahoma Cty
bombng pot took them down an even darker and more nsdous road.
'
Millar3s &ent-/--a7i
Authortes have postuated that McVegh's "obsesson wth Waco," and Nchos'
hatred of the Federa Government were the drvng forces that ed them to bomb
the Federa Budng. Ther aeged assocaton wth mtas and other paramtary
groups, authortes camed, was the key nfuence that guded them aong ther
snster path to ther fna, vcous act of revenge.
These numerous pseudo-experts aso theorzed that McVegh hmsef was nspred
by the Turner "iaries, wrtten by former physcs professor Wam Perce. In ths
fctonazed account of whte race-warrors' overthrow of the Zonst Occupatona
Government (ZOG), the "heroes" demosh the FBI budng n Washngton, D.C.
wth a fertzer bomb at precsey 9:00 a.m.
The dea for bombng a federa facty s hardy new. In the md-1970s Okahoma
resdent Harawese Moore was convcted of pantng an ncendary devce outsde
both the Federa Courthouse and the Afred P. Murrah Budng - a case,
concdentay, defended by Stephen |ones.
In 1983, members of the Covenant, Sword and the Arm of the Lord (CSA), a whte
supremacst group based n northern Arkansas, panned to truck-bomb the Afred
P. Murrah Budng. In 1988, former CSA eader |ames Eson turned states'
evdence and testfed that CSA member Rchard Wayne Sne and others had
partcpated n the pot. Sne was btter toward the government, Eson camed,
because the IRS and FBI had sezed hs property.
Other defendants ncuded Rchard Grnt Buter, chef of the Aryan Natons; Robert
E. Mes, a former Ku Kux Kansman; and Lous Beam, |r., former Grand Dragon of
the Texas Ku Kux Kan, and Aryan Natons "Ambassador at Large" - who ed a
campagn of terror aganst Vetnamese-Amercan fsherman.
|379|
Eson, who fanced hmsef "Kng |ames," was surrounded at hs CSA compound
near the Mssour-Arkansas border on the prophetc date of Apr 19 (ten years to
108
the day of the Okahoma Cty bombng), eadng to a four-day standoff aganst 200
heavy-armed agents. Eson ater testfed at hs sedton tra that at Sne's
request, he had cased severa budngs, ncudng the Afred P. Murrah Budng.
"He took me to some of the budngs and asked me to go n the budng and check
the budng out," Eson sad. Accordng to hs testmony, rocket aunchers were to
be "paced n a traer or a van so that t coud be drven up to a gven spot, parked
there, and a tmed detonaton devce coud be trggered so that the drver coud
wak away and eave the vehce set n poston and he woud have tme to cear
the area before any of the rockets aunched."
|380|
Eson woud ater deny ths. Yet on October 22, 1996, the Canadan Broadcastng
Company (CBC) payed a cp of Eson, where the former CSA eader admtted hs
nvovement n the pot:
Ellison: ...Wayne Sne had been... had made a trp to Okahoma Cty, and Wayne
came back and tod me about dfferent budngs that he had seen, wanted to know
f I woud ook at them wth hm sometme. And Steve taked to me and gave me a
descrpton of these budngs and asked me to desgn a rocket auncher that coud
be used to destroy these budngs from a dstance... heavy, arge budngs.
In the CBC pece, former CSA member Kerry Nobe states: "I st ook at thngs ke
ths and reaze how cose we were, and, you know, that ths coud have been me
havng done ths." The reformed Nobe, now a crtc of the mtant extreme-Rght,
spoke openy about the pot wth CBC's Trsh Wood:
-oble: It was one of the targets that we had taked about at |the| CSA n '83. The
day t happened, as soon as I heard t on the news, I sad, the Rght-wng's done t
- they fnay took that step.
Nobe expaned that the Murrah Budng was a target because t was a ow
securty compex that housed many dfferent federa agences. He sad the potters
thought t woud have more effect on the country "than f you dd a budng, say, n
New York Cty or somethng."
|381|
Wood: Do you thnk - and I know ths s a guess - that Sne or Eson tod
|Reverend Robert| Mar about the eary pans to bow up the Murrah Budng n
Okahoma Cty?
-oble: .I thnk that probaby Mar knew that somethng ma|or was gong to
happen. Now, whether he knew the exact detas, chances are he probaby dd not,
because he woud not want to know specfc detas at frst. But I thnk he knew
somethng ma|or was gong to happen.
Eson ater setted at Eohm Cty at the behest of Mar, who cams to dsavow
the bombng. "If I knew somethng ke that was takng pace then or today," sad
109
the Chrstan Identty mnster, "I'd do everythng I coud do to prevent t and, f
necessary, ca n government agents to hep stop t."
Whe a 14 defendants n the orgna 1983 bombng pot were acqutted, Sne
was executed on the ever-prophetc date of Apr 19, 1995, the very day that the
Murrah Budng was bombed. Sne was convcted of kng a back state trooper n
1984, and a pawn shop owner he thought was |ewsh. Whe under arrest, Sne
caed hmsef a "prsoner of war," precsey what authortes camed McVegh sad.
Before hs death, Sne had tme to watch scenes from the bombng on hs |a-room
TV. Mar, who was wth the 64-year-od Sne durng hs fna hours, sad he was
appaed at the destructon. Yet accordng to Arkansas prson offca Aan Abes,
"Sne chucked and aughed as he watched teevson coverage of the Okahoma
Cty dsaster."
Both Mar and Sne's wfe contend that the convcted murderer was saddened by
the bombng. Yet Nobe thnks McVegh was n some way nspred by Sne.
Wood: Dd you ever thnk that t was a concdence that Tm McVegh - f, n fact,
he dd t - chose that budng?
-oble: No, I don't thnk t's any concdence. When you brng that nto account
wth the decaraton of war that we made, the pressure that the oder eaders of
the groups are puttng on the younger foowers to do somethng n a ma|or way
before they de - no, t's no concdence.
Wood: How woud McVegh have known about the earer pans for the Murrah
Budng?
-oble: It's very feasbe and key that he woud have kept n communcaton wth
certan peope and sad... you know, then f somebody sad, we, what woud you
recommend as a startng pace - t's very key he coud have sad, we, ths s
what we had pcked out.
Interestngy, Abes tod the "ener )ost, "Sne repeatedy predcted that there
woud be a bombng or an exposon the day of hs death."
/bles: A few days before the executon I began to hear thngs from the drector,
the wardens, |ust tak n the offce, that strange thngs were gong on, Sne was
takng strangey, he was, you know, makng statements that were a tte scary.
catastrophc events, thngs were gong to happen. Ths date, Apr 19th, was gong
to be somethng that the governor woud regret perhaps.
Sne's partng words before eavng ths Earth were, "Look over your shouder,
Governor, |ustce s comng. I woudn't trade paces wth you or any of your crones.
He has vctory. I am at peace."
110
Wood: Are those the ravngs of a man about to be executed or are they the
comments of a man wth a pan?
-oble: I thnk a man wth a pan, I thnk a man who s takng the satsfacton that
hs death may mean somethng after a and that t may be the catayst that puts
somebody over the ne to do what he hmsef ddn't get the chance to do.
|382|
A smar bomb pot surfaced a year after the Okahoma Cty bombng, when
Rchard Ray Lampey, 65, hs wfe Ceca, and frend |ohn Bard were convcted of a
pot to bomb the ADL offce n Houston, the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) n
Montgomery, and varous gay bars and aborton cncs. Lampey made hs
ntentons known at one of Denns Mahon's WAR meetngs. A former Grand
Impera Dragon of the KKK, and number three man n WAR, the Tusan was a
frequent vstor to Lampey's pace, and to Eohm Cty.
A sef-procamed "Prophet of God," Lampey cams he was entrapped by Rchard
Schrum, an FBI nformant. Schrum was sent by the Bureau to nftrate the
Okahoma whte separatst compound, but when he found nothng ega there, he
nftrated Lampey's group nstead.
Accordng to defense attorneys, t was Schrum who ran the mta ce to whch
Lampey beonged, and threatened to eave when t appeared Lampey was
waverng. "If anyone formed any knd of conspracy, t was Rchard Schrum,"
defense awyer Mark Green sad. Defense attorney Warren Gotcher backed up
Green, statng "Ths conspracy to bud a bomb s totay on the orders of Rchard
Schrum." Schrum tod Lampey that he had a brother n the Speca Forces at Fort
Bragg, NC, who woud provde ogstc support when the "New Word Order"
nvason came.
|383|
The bomb, a mxture of homemade C-4, was supposed to tested at Eohm Cty.
|384|
Whatever the reaty of that case, t provdes a unque nsght nto the characters
and payers of the whte supremacst communty of Southeastern Okahoma - a
communty that drew to t ke a magnet some of the key payers of the Okahoma
Cty bombng conspracy.
Led by the 71-year-od Mar, Eohm Cty (Hebrew for "Cty of God") s a 1,100-acre
Chrstan Identty compound near Mudrow, Okahoma. Founded n 1973 by the
Canadan-born Mennonte, the communty s home to approxmatey 90 resdents,
about haf of whom are drect descendants of Mar.
Chrstan Identty adherents beeve that whte Ango-Saxons, not |ews, are God's
chosen peope, beng descendants of the 12 ost trbes of Israe, and that Amerca,
not Israe, s the Promsed Land. Ths sanctfed doctrne aso hods that |ews are
the spawn of Satan, and non-whtes are a "pre-Adamc," sub-speces.
111
Ony whtes are the "true soveregn ctzens" of the Repubc, and a others are
"Fourteenth Amendment ctzens" - the creaton of an egtmate "ZOG."
Beevers of ths odd mx of theoogy not ony beeve that the end tmes are near,
but that a great messah w arse to ead these "hoy warrors" n a terrbe fna
batte aganst the ev ZOG.
Those who montor Rght-wng extremst groups say Mar s probaby the most
nfuenta Chrstan Identty eader n the Great Pans.
|385|
As Mar expaned t:
"We are opposed to governmenta msuse of tax money.. We are opposed to
some of the actons of government. We're not ant-government... Our peope are
a sef-empoyed, and we a pay taxes.. "We are racst," Mar sad, "but we
aren't ant-Semtc. I thnk t's better for races and cutures... to have reatonshps
wthn ther own ethnc group. That doesn't mean soatonsm, but t means
separatsm."
|386|
Yet the group does mantan connectons to whte supremacst and neo-Naz
organzatons, ncudng WAR, the somewhat defunct CSA, and the voent but
argey dsbanded Order. The Chrstan Identty adherents aso formed aances
wth Rchard Buter, Chrstan Identty "mnster," and head of the Aryan Natons n
Hayden Lake, Idaho. The Hayden Lake compound served as a nexus for whte
supremacst groups from a over the country, ncudng the KKK, Posse Comtatus,
Wam Perce's Natona Aance, and Robert Mathews' Order. It was Mathews'
group, nspred by Perce's Turner "iaries, that went on to commt a strng of bank
robberes, counterfetng, bombngs, and murder throughout the Md- and
Northwest n the 1980s.
|387|
Amassng between $2 and $4 mon from robberes and hests of armored cars,
the group dstrbuted the proceeds amongst the whte supremacst movement.
They aso purchased and n northern Idaho for paramtary tranng, but moved to
northern Arkansas, nkng up wth the CSA when they found the harsh cmate
unsutabe for ther purposes.
The Order's expots came to an end n November of '84, when Mathews ded n a
shoot-out wth poce and federa agents on Whdby Isand off the coast of
Washngton. It's members who managed to escape fed across the country,
ntegratng themseves nto dfferent whte supremacst groups, or went
underground atogether.
Rchard Lee Guthre, |r., the son of a CIA empoyee, who was dscharged from the
Navy for pantng a swastka on the sde of a shp and threatenng superors, hs
chdhood frend Peter K. Langan, and Shawn Kenny, went on to form the nuceus
of a group known as the Mdwest Bank Bandts. The group stoe more than
$250,000 from 22 banks between |anuary of '94 and December of '95 n a spree
that ed them across Oho, Wsconsn, Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, and Mssour. The
four-member group woud often wear FBI |ackets agents to taunt the Bureau, and
create dversons to fo poce, ncudng eavng behnd nert ppe-bombs to sow
112
pursut. The bandts even had a macabre sense of humor, wearng a Santa Caus
sut durng a hod-up around Chrstmas, and an Easter basket wth a god panted
ppe-bomb eft nsde a bank n Des Mones.
"Wd B" Guthre aso admtted to a West Vrgna sherff that he had heped
Buter's Aryan Natons rase another quarter mon doars through fraud. Both
Guthre and Langan were reguar vstors to the Hayden Lake compound.
The seeds for the mens' daance wth the paramtary extreme-Rght was sown n
1991, when Shawn Kenny, a frend of Langan and Guthre, began dscussng ther
pans to further the "cause."
Interestngy, the Secret Servce recruted Langan as an nformant n August of
1993 to keep an eye on hs frend Guthre, who had made threats aganst the ves
of Presdents Cnton and Bush. Langan was reeased from hs Georga |a ce
(where he was servng tme for robbng a Pzza Hut wth Guthre) and set up n a
house n Oho, where he was to assst the Secret Servce n ocatng hs od frend.
The dea soon went sour.
Secret Servce Agent Dck Rathne summed up the fasco ths way: "Our man
nterest was to fnd f there was an nterest to harm the Presdent or overthrow the
government.... We ddn't know they were these bank robbers."
|388|
Langan went south on the Secret Servce sx weeks ater, and soon ocated hs od
frend Guthre. The two set themseves up n a safehouse n Pttsburg, Kansas, from
whch they were aeged to have aunched ther notorous crme spree.
In November of '94, Mark Thomas, the oca Aryan Natons representatve, unted
the two wth others of ther knd. Thomas' farm, ocated rather appropratey next
to a toxc waste dump, has been the ste of skn-head and neo-Naz raes such as
Whte Prde Day and the annua Hter Youth Festva, where partcpants en|oyed
such whoesome actvtes as pagan rtuas and cross burnngs.
Thomas ntroduced the par to Pennsyvana natve Scott Stedeford, a rock
muscan and artst, and Kevn McCarthy, a bassst n a whte-power band named
"Day of the Sword." Thomas was nstrumenta n hepng the men form an aance
whch they woud ca the Aryan Repubcan Army (ARA).
Takng the monker of "Commander Pedro," Langan became the group's eader.
Accordng to testmony provded by Kenny at Stedeford's tra, Langan boasted
that the gang was modeed after The Order.
"Learn from Bob |Mathews|," Langan s heard sayng on a home-made recrutment
vdeo. "Learn from hs mstakes. Study your enemy. Study hs methods."
|389|
The Pennsyvana Posse Comtatus eader woud aso ntroduce Stedeford and
McCarthy to Mchae Bresca, a Phadepha natve and rock muscan who woud
113
go on to form a speed meta band wth McCarthy and Stedeford, caed "Cyande."
The rock 'n ro bank robbers decded to recrut the 24-year-od La Sae Unversty
student after pannng the hest of a arge bank n Madson, Wsconsn, whch the
tro robbed on August 30, 1995.
The three men came to know "Grandpa Mar" at Eohm Cty courtesy of Thomas,
and Bresca was soon engaged to Mar's granddaughter, Ester. Bresca wound up
vng at the recusve compound for two years. It was there that he woud meet hs
new roommate, Andreas Kar Strassmer, the mysterous German who setted there
n 1991. It was aso at Eohm Cty that Bresca woud meet Tmothy McVegh. As
ATF nformant Caro Ezabeth Howe recaed:
"Sometme before Chrstmas |of 1994| a ot of guys showed up at EC (Eohm Cty).
One that I reca was Tm |McVegh|, who I ony knew as Tm Tutte. He was there
wth a guy who used the name Fontane, a person I now recognze as Mke Forter."
Referrng to McVegh, she sad, "I never even spoke to hm. He was consdered a
'good soder' by the members of the ARA, but not a eader; he was |ust someone
you sent out on |obs, because he was reabe."
|390|
Were McVegh and Nchos nvoved n bank robberes? Had the robberes fnanced
the bombng? It was a queston that has dsturbed Nchos' ex-wfe Lana Pada,
who dscovered masks, nyon stockngs, and wgs n her former spouse's storage
ocker. Nchos was known as a vehement crtc of the bankng system, had been
on the osng end of a arge credt card awsut, and had decared the Federa
Reserve corrupt.
McVegh hmsef sent hs sster |ennfer three $100 bs, teng her they were the
proceeds from a bank robbery. Whe there was no proof that the par had actuay
partcpated, authortes woud ponder the sgnfcance of the assocatons. As the
,a-ette wrtes:
A reabe source famar wth the nvestgaton confrmed that admtted co-
consprator Mchae Forter tod the FBI that ex-army buddy Tm McVegh sad n
February 1995 that he (McVegh) was gong to Coorado to |on "The Order."
|391|
Interestngy, what s not known s |ust where McVegh was on the days
mmedatey before and mmedatey after 11 of the robberes.
What s known s that Bresca, Strassmer, and McVegh became frends, attendng
gun shows, traveng the whte supremacst crcut, and crashng hgh-schoo
partes n Kansas, not far from Terry Nchos' house. Neghbors recaed seeng men
who ft the genera descrpton of McVegh and |ohn Doe 2 at Nchos' Herrngton
home.
For hs part, Strassmer cams he'd "never been n Kansas," then admtted, ".we,
once, drvng through."
|392|
114
Catna Lawson's roommate, Lndsay |ohnson, dated Bresca, and Lawson was cose
frends wth McVegh. Both she and Lawson recaed seeng Strassmer, Bresca,
McVegh and Forter at the Kansas partes around the Summer of '92. The young
women aegedy referred to the handsome young Bresca as "Mke Breezy."
It s Bresca, some nvestgators cam, who s the mysterous |ohn Doe 2 orgnay
sought by the FBI. Bombng vctm Genn Wburn, aong wth nvestgator |.D. Cash,
earned of Bresca's reatonshp to Strassmer and McVegh after takng to peope
at Eohm Cty and others n the whte supremacst underground. The famy fed a
$30 mon awsut aganst McVegh, whch ncudes Strassmer, and named Bresca
as |ohn Doe 2.
Robert Mar nssts that Bresca, who s engaged to Mar's granddaughter, s not
|ohn Doe 2, but smpy a "ceancut, coege type boy."
|393|
Yet severa wtnesses n Kansas camed that Bresca cosey matches the FBI's
wanted sketch. Lke |ohn Doe 2, Bresca has a tattoo on hs eft arm. Curousy
though, Bresca's tattoo s crcuar - a cross nsde a whee - the embem of the
Aryan Natons. The tattoo seen by Mke Moroz and other wtnesses on |ohn Doe 2
more cosey resembed a dragon, an anchor, or a snake. But then agan, accordng
to numerous wtnesses, there s more than one |ohn Doe 2.
Whe Bresca's connecton to Eohm Cty centered around hs reatonshp wth
Ester, t was Strassmer who was hs roommate. A German natona, the 38-year-
od Strassmer s the son of Gnter Strassmer, former Paramentary Secretary of
State to German Chanceor Hemut Koh. Strassmer's unce s n the German
parament, and hs brother Aexander sts on the Bern Cty Counc. Lke Langan,
Strassmer's father aso reportedy has connectons to the CIA.
Andreas served as a eutenant n the German Panzer Grenaders (the equvaent of
our Speca Forces), had forma mtary ntegence tranng, and dd a stnt as a
ason offcer wth the Wesh Guards. He tod the 3ondon Sunday Tele%ra*h that
part of hs work was to detect nftraton by Warsaw Pact agents, and then feed
them dsnformaton. "If we caught a guy, we'd offer hm amnesty. We'd turn hm
and use hm to feed fase nformaton back to the Warsaw Pact."
|394|
Whe
Strassmer woud not admt t, t s reported that he s an agent for the German
natona ant-terrorst poce, the GSG-9.
|395|
"Andy the German," as he became known, arrved n the U.S. n May of 1991,
wthout beng documented by the INS (Immgraton and Naturazaton Servce),
and ved on a credt card provded by sources unknown. He soon became Eohm
Cty's Drector of Securty.
|396|
Accordng to Strassmer, hs path crossed McVegh's at a Tusa gun show n Apr of
'93. Strassmer stopped by McVegh's tabe and bought a few mtary souvenrs
and dscussed events at Waco. He then gave McVegh hs card bearng the
nscrpton "Eohm Cty." In an ntervew n Soldier of Fortune, Strassmer professed
115
never to of heard of McVegh, though he ater recanted hs story for the Tele%ra*h..
"I met the guy once at a gun show," he sad. "We spoke for fve mnutes, that's
a."
|397|
It woud seem the reatonshp goes deeper than that however. Strassmer
reportedy met McVegh agan at the frst annversary of the Waco massacre n
Apr of '94. And accordng to |ournast Wam |asper, sources cose to the
nvestgaton reveaed that McVegh vsted Eohm Cty on at east 20 occasons.
Traffc records show McVegh was stopped for speedng on October 12, 1993, two
mes north of Cederve, Arkansas, ess than 10 mes from Eohm Cty, on a
remote road eadng to the compound. ATF nformant Caro Howe aso recaed
seeng McVegh and Forter at Eohm Cty durng the wnter of '94.
Yet possby the most reveang connecton surfaced n the form of two phone cas,
one paced by McVegh from the Impera Mote n Kngman, Arzona to Strassmer
on Apr 5, |ust two weeks before the bombng. It was |ust mnutes after McVegh
had aegedy caed |uncton Cty to reserve the Ryder truck. Accordng to Mar's
daughter-n-aw |oan, who answered the phone, the caer asked to speak to
"Andy." Andy wasn't n. McVegh eft a message sayng, "Te Andy I' be comng
through."
Robert Mar, Eohm Cty's "sprtua eader," camed gnorance of McVegh or the
phone ca.
|398|
He ater recanted hs story.
Then one day before the bombng, McVegh caed Strassmer's U.S. attorney, Krk
Lyons, ookng for Andy. Not fndng hm there, he engaged Lyon's assstant, Dave
Hooway, n a 15-mnute conversaton about Waco, Lyons cams, and the need to
"send a message to the government." It seemed McVegh aso needed to send a
message to Strassmer.
For hs part Strassmer cams McVegh never vsted Eohm Cty. "I don't know why
McVegh was tryng to contact me," he sad.
Catna Lawson, who was cose frends wth McVegh for two years, remembers
seeng Strassmer at the |uncton Cty partes. "He was |ust someone you'd see
every once n a whe," sad Lawson, who, aong wth frends, woud meet and party
wth the soders from nearby Fort Rey. "He was ta, sknny and pae, wth
crooked teeth and sunken eyes surrounded by dark crces. And he had ths accent.
."
|399|
Larry Wd and hs wfe Kathy aso reca seeng Strassmer on one of ther fshng
trps to Cameron Sprngs Lake, near Fort Rey. The Wds remember seeng
Strassmer wth two other men wth an od Ryder truck one week before the
bombng. |ust who those two other men were they coudn't say. Wd dd reca
speakng wth Strassmer though. "I sad, 'Your daect s reay dfferent. Are you a
soder?' He sad, 'No.' I sad, 'Do you work for the government?' He |ust knd of
aughed."
116
Yet st more wtnesses reca seeng the two men together. At east fve dancers
reca seeng McVegh, Nchos, Bresca, and Strassmer at Lady Godva's, a strp
|ont n Tusa, whch the men vsted on Apr 8, 1995. In an ntervew wth CBC's
Trsh Wood, the dancers, who wsh to reman anonymous, were "postve" of
Strassmer and McVegh's presence |ust eeven days before the bombng:
Wood: You saw ths man n here?
8nidentified: Yes.
Wood: And how do you remember? What makes you remember seeng hm n here
that nght?
8nidentified: From one of the grs. I |ust heard her say somethng about a coupe
of guys, there were a coupe of werd guys, she wanted somebody to go st wth
them.
As dscussed earer, McVegh bragged to one of the grs that "somethng bg" was
gong to happen. "On Apr 19, 1995, you' remember me for the rest of your fe,"
McVegh sad.
|400|
Aso present that nght was an od, faded Ryder truck, seen by the bouncer. The
truck appeared to be prvatey-owned, addng further proof that at east two trucks
were used n the bombng. It was ths truck whch was seen by wtnesses at Geary
State Park, severa days before authortes aege that McVegh rented hs. |.D.
Cash specuates that McVegh few to Fort Smth from hs mote room n Kngman
on Apr 7 to pck up the truck and meet hs comrades, then the men stopped by
Tusa on ther way back to Kansas.
If they stopped by Tusa, maybe t was to check out the Indan Terrtory Gun Show.
It aso mght have been to meet Denns Mahon. The WAR offca, Natona Socast
Aance (NSA) eader, and former KKK Impera Grand Dragon traveed frequenty
to the recusve compound where he kept a traer, "to vst and feowshp and do
some target shootng and mtary maneuvers," he sad. Mahon was cose frends
wth Bresca and Strassmer, both of whom he "oved ke brothers."
|401|
In what may seem ke an even more bzarre twst, Mahon cams he was funded by
the Iraqs durng the Guf War. Lke Order eader Robert Mathews, who was
reportedy offered fundng by the Syrans, Mahon receved $100 a month, for a
tota of $4,800, from the Iraqs to str up opposton to the Bush/UN-mposed
sanctons. Mahon, operator of the Da-a-Racst hot ne, aso produced severa
vdeotapes whch he dstrbuted to pubc access statons, expressng hs dssentng
vew on the U.S. pocy.
|402|
Mahon started recevng Iraq funds shorty after he began hodng ant-war raes,
he sad. ".t's comng from the same zp code where the Iraq Embassy s, but
they don't say t's from the Iraq Embassy."
|403|
117
|eff Stenberg, an nvestgator for the LaRouche Foundaton, says such a scenaro s
not at a unusua. "Ths knd of stuff happened a the tme," says Stenberg. "In the
'70s, they had peope who's |ob t was to show up at every sort of Left-wng ray."
Yet why woud the Iraqs gve money to an avowed whte supremacst ke Mahon?
"Hatred of the |ews," says Stenberg. "Some ow-eve person at the embassy gves
t out to these guys, and you'd be surprsed at who they gve t to - they're not
that brght."
|404|
In McVegh's Petton for Wrt of Mandamus, fed one week before McVegh's tra,
Stephen |ones made note of the fact that three members of the Amercan
Agrcutura Movement aso met wth Iraq offcas. Ther purpose was to work wth
the Iraqs to negotate a peacefu wthdraw from Kuwat. "We wanted to get a
daogue gong and stop a shootng war," sad one member. "As Amercans, that's
what we tred to do."
|405|
Yet t seemed the meetng between the farmers and the Iraq ambassador wasn't
the ony meetng that took pace. |ones stated that Terry Nchos, who he refers to
ony as "Suspect I," made cas to two Kansas-based Posse Comtatus members -
Davd Ophant and Buddy Snead. Lke Nchos, Snead s marred to a Fpno
woman. It s not known whether he met her through the same ma-order brde
servce as Nchos.
|406|
A CIA source contacted by |ones ndcated that two members of the Posse
Comtatus (t s not known who) vsted wth an Iraq dpomat n New York Cty
around the same genera tme. Whe the author was unabe to ocate these two
ndvduas to confrm the story, t s possbe they met wth the dpomat to
express ther horror over Bush's "Desert Massacre."
It s aso possbe that the Iraqs vewed the meetng as an opportunty to
strengthen ther tes to the whte supremacst movement. As w be seen,
coaboraton between Arab states, Md-East terrorsts, and neo-Nazs s a ong and
we-documented one.
Unfortunatey for Denns Mahon, the Iraqs severed ther tes wth hm after the
bombng. ".they cut me off, a month after the bombng - bastards!"
|407|
It s aso key that Mahon, who traveed to Germany to recrut young sknheads for
the KKK, may have met up wth Mchae Khnen. A promnent neo-Naz, Khnen
formed the Ant-Zonst League, whch preached hatred of |ews, and sought to form
a common bond between Nazs and ther Arab brethren. Khnen aso negotated
wth the Iraqs, provdng them wth 200 German, Amercan and Brtsh sknheads
to fght aongsde Iraq troops. There s reportedy a vdeotape of these storm
troopers n S.S. unforms beng greeted by Iraq Informaton Mnster Abde Lateef
|assem.
|408|
118
Khnen's successor, a name named Hubner, has connectons to Krk Lyons,
Andreas Strassmer's North Carona-based attorney. Lyons aso spoke wth Hubner
at meetngs of the group "Deutsche Aternatve." Lke Mahon, Lyons traveed the
German whte supremacst crcut. Strassmer and Mahon were cose frends, unt
Mahon and hs brother Denns reportedy caed Germany wth orders to k
Strassmer.
Another frend of Mahon's s Gary Lauck of Lncon, Nebraska. The eader of the
neo-Naz Natona Socast Worker's Party, Lauck wrote a 20-page manfesto
entted, "Strategy, Propaganda and Organzaton," about ntegratng wordwde
extremst groups nto a tght network, and "mtary educaton wth terrorst ams."
Lauck has reportedy had frequent contact wth Arab terrorst groups accordng to
McVegh's defense counse.
Fnay, there s the Lbyan government, wdey reported to have funded both the
Irsh Repubcan Army (IRA) and U.S. ctzens, ncudng a Chcago street gang
caed the E Rukns - convcted of conspracy to commt terrorst acts throughout
the U.S.
"Upon hearng that Lous Farrakhan had receved $5 mon from the Lbyan
government, the eader of the E Rukns actvey sought sponsorshp from Lbya n
exchange to an n-knd amount of money. Members of the E Rukns actuay
traveed to Lbya to meet wth mtary offca of the Lbyan government."
|409|
Farrakhan, the eader of the Naton of Isam (NOI, or "Back Musms"), carres forth
a unque hstorca precedent. Hs predecessor, E|ah Muhammad, nvted
Amercan Naz Party eader George Lncon Rockwe to address an NOI ray on
|une 25, 1961 n Washngton, D.C. There s a photo of Rockwe's Nazs n fu
regaa (ncudng Swastka arm bands) seated n the front row, wth the Back
Musms seated drecty behnd them.
|410|
Rockwe appeared at an NOI ray n Chcago one year ater, where he announced,
"E|ah Muhammad s to the so-caed Negro what Adoph Hter was to the German
peope.."
In September of 1985, the NOI nvted Tom Metzger, former Grand Dragon of the
KKK and current eader of WAR to ts forum n Ingewood, Caforna, and accepted
a sma fnanca contrbuton from the notorous whte supremacst. Metzger
decared that hs aance wth the NOI was a "ogca one: They want ther terrtory
and that's exacty what we want for them and for ourseves. They speak aganst
the |ews and the oppressors n Washngton."
|411|
It therefore comes as no surprse that Lbya funded the NOI to the tune of $5
mon doars. The motve behnd Arab fundng of Western racst and dssdent
groups was - and s - to forment revouton and destabze the "Great Satan."
|ust as Lbyan Presdent Muammar a-Oaddaf serves as the nspraton behnd
many mtant Back Musms, so the IRA served as the sprtua nspraton behnd
119
the Aryan Repubcan Army, the group founded by Rchard Guthre and Peter
Langan, whch ncuded Mchae Bresca.
As Stephen |ones eoquenty states, "These peope are targeted because ther
deoogca compass s preset aganst the Federa Government.. Athough the
whte supremacst communty are dametrcay opposed to that of Back Musms,
t s a we known fact that both share a common hatred for the Federa
Government."
When the ARA was eventuay dsbanded, the FBI dscovered an IRA terrorst
manua caed the "Green Book," terature on Ireand, Gaec anguage tapes,
Semtex exposves, a shouder-fred rocket auncher, and 11 ppe bombs.
|412|
Semtex s normay used by Md-East terrorsts, usuay beng supped by Russa,
Chna and North Korea.
It seems the connecton goes deeper. Denns Mahon cams he actuay provded
advce to the IRA, encouragng them to murder "top Brtsh offcers and poce
offcas" but avod kng cvans. That statement tes-n to others Mahon has
made, ncudng the dea of bowng up the Okahoma Federa Budng at nght,
when no one was around, and other methods whch "are egtmate to save your
naton."
It seems the IRA may have returned the favor. Accordng to Caro Howe, the
outawed Irsh resstance group supped the detonator used n the Okahoma Cty
bombng. The author s not qute sure why the bombers woud need to go to the
IRA for a detonator, or exacty how such a connecton woud be arranged, but t
seems rather dubous. Snn Fen (the potca arm of the IRA) Presdent Gerry
Adams caed the cam "preposterous rubbsh."
|413|
It may seem even more preposterous n ght of the fact that Adams had won the
potca favortsm of Presdent Cnton, havng been the guest of honor at a recent
Whte House recepton.
Yet Howe aeged that Andreas Strassmer was the key nk between the ARA and
the IRA. Interestngy, the "u+lin Sunday Times reported on |uy 13, 1997 that
Strassmer has ndeed assocated wth Snn Fen:
Strassmer moved to Dubn ast February and s vng n an apartment n the cty
owned by George Maybury, genera secretary of the assocaton of Garda
Sergeants and Inspectors. He has been workng on constructon stes and has
attended Snn Fen meetngs and soca events.
|414|
Furthermore, federa nformant Cary Gagan, who met wth |ones after the
bombng, tod the author he met wth an IRA bomb expert whe n Mexco Cty,
who nstructed hm on the use of tmers. Gagan cams to have been deepy
mmersed n the Mdde Eastern ce nvoved n the bombng. (See Chapter 5)
120
When FOX News reporter Rta Cosby asked Robert Mar f there was any Mdde
Eastern connecton to Eohm Cty, he answered, "No, not that I can even dream
of." Strassmer kewse dened any Mdde Eastern connecton to the bombng n an
ntervew wth the author.
|415|
As of ths wrtng, former ABC 20/20 nvestgator
Roger Chares was checkng a ead that Mdde Eastern ndvduas were ndeed
traned at Eohm Cty. It has not yet been confrmed.
|ust what Andreas Strassmer was dong n the U.S. s not atogether cear. In a
fve-part ntervew n the Tele%ra*h, Strassmer sad that he came to the U.S. n
1989 to work on a "speca assgnment" for the |ustce Department. "I dscussed
the |ob when I was n Washngton. I was hopng to work for the operatons secton
of the DEA," he expaned. "It never worked out."
The former German ntegence offcer was recommended for these postons by
Vncent Petruske, a retred U.S. Ar Force coone. Strassmer tod attorney Mke
|ohnston, who few to Bern to ntervew hm, that Petruske s "a former CIA guy
who my father had known snce he (Petruske) was statoned n Bern durng the
Cod War."
In an ntervew wth New American edtor Wam |asper, Petrusk dened any CIA
connectons:
As for the CIA connecton, "That's totay wrong," nssted Petruske. "I'm a retred
Ar Force offcer, that's a." Accordng to Petruske, he was a speca agent for the
Ar Force Offce of Speca Investgaton (OSI), and retred as a coone after servng
from 1954 to 1975. Was he a frend of Andreas' father? "I've never met hs father;
we've ony spoken over the phone."
|416|
How had Petruske come to know the younger Strassmer? Andreas arrved n the
ate 1980s wth some other German ads for the reenactment of the Batte of
Gettysburg. The German vstors had authentc perod unforms, rfes, bayonets,
etc. and an amazngy detaed knowedge of the batte. But they apparenty had
not done ther homework concernng economc reates of contemporary Amerca
and so were short of cash for vng accommodatons and had no credt cards wth
whch to rent a vehce. That s when a mutua frend put them n touch wth
Petruske, who put them up for a whe at hs home.
Strassmer was "a mxed-up kd, a very mmature 34-year-od when he came over
here," recaed Petruske. "Andy wanted to work for the U.S. government - DEA,
|ustce - undercover. |He| thought hs background wth mtary and German
government woud hep. I expaned he'd need a green card, educaton, and set
hm down wth some peope n Washngton who expaned that t wasn't that
smpe. I thnk he went down to South Carona and then to Texas to go to
schoo."
|417|
In an ntervew wth the Oklahoma ,a-ette, Petrusk once agan attempted to
dstance hmsef from Strassmer. "Ths kd s what we woud ca a putz," he sad.
121
An nterestng descrpton for a former ntegence offcer and eutenant n the
ete Panzer Grenaders.
|418|
Petrusk aso cams that Strassmer's |ob wth the DEA "fe through." Is one
serousy supposed to accept the premse that a man wth Strassmer's
background, nfuence, and connectons came to the U.S. on the off-chance of
fndng a |ob wth the DEA? That he traveed a ths way to run around payng toy
soder for a coupe days? And that Petrusk |ust "happened" to meet hm at a
batte reenactment at Gettysburg?
More key, Gettysburg was a necessary cover-story to nftrate Strassmer nto
the country. Appearng to be a mtary enthusast makes t easer to nftrate the
extreme-Rght. And Petrusk's tae about hs DEA |ob fang through s a "mted
hang-out," |ust enough nformaton reveaed to satsfy nosy |ournasts, wth
enough dsnformaton mxed n to steer them away from "unapproved" areas. And
whe Petrusk sad that Strassmer never got a |ob wth the DEA, he never sad he
didn1t get a |ob wth the ATF, FBI, or CIA.
|419|
Wth hs cover-story frmy n pace, Strassmer then "drfted" nto the far-Rght
crces of the unatc frnge, stoppng ong enough to pck an ordnary |ob as a
computer saesman to further enhance hs mage as an nnocent drfter.
"Andy the German" was now ready to nftrate the neo-Naz cques of the far-
Rght. Wth hs German background and accent, t was easy to convnce whte
supremacsts of hs egtmacy. In 1991 he setted n Eohm Cty, where he
estabshed hmsef as Chef of Securty and weapons tranng.
Accordng to a report from the Okahoma State Bureau of Investgaton (OSBI),
Strassmer traned patoon-szed groups consstng of 30 to 40 ndvduas from
throughout the U.S. every three months at the recusve compound. Accordng to a
aw enforcement source ntervewed by the Mc!urtain ,a-ette, they conssted
prmary of members from the Aryan Natons, and ncuded Tmothy McVegh.
|420|
As the ,a-ette reported:
"Strassmer went out and repaced a our deer rfes wth assaut weapons," sad
|resdent Zara| Patterson. "Next, he wanted us to start dong ega stuff. a ot of
ega stuff. I kept teng Andy that we were defensve here, and we ddn't want
any probems from the aw. Durng the md-'80s, we had a standoff wth the feds. I
tod hm to keep us out of troube."
|421|
Was Strassmer attemptng to nftrate Eohm Cty? "If the agent penetrates the
group," Strassmer sad n an ntervew wth the author, "the frst thng they do s
try to se them weapons." When asked f that wasn't exacty what he dd, he
reped, "I |ust advsed them about weapons, as an experenced soder. That's
what I dd for years and years. I was an nfantry man - I |ust gave advce. But, I
aways obeyed the aw." He then admtted that he "ddn't know the aw. I'd have to
consut my awyer."
122
Accordng to nformaton obtaned by the Tele%ra*h, Strassmer nftrated the
Texas Lght Infantry mta between 1988 and 1989, and set up some ega gun
purchases. They soon suspected that Strassmer was a ATF nformant. When some
members foowed hm to a federa budng one nght, they observed hm enterng
t usng the budng's combnaton key-pad.
|422|
ATF agent Angea Fney-Graham, the agent who supervsed ATF nformant Caro
Howe, had aera surveance photos of Strassmer wth an assaut weapon, and
photos of concrete bunkers at Eohm Cty. In fact, n 1992, some 960 yards of
concrete were transported to the compound, presumaby for bunkers and weapons
storage factes.
|423|
Law enforcement offcas aso receved reports that the compound was beeved to
be generatng ncome through the sae of ega drugs. A source famar wth the
communty tod me that Bruce Mar, Robert Mar's son, was supposedy "strung
out" on Methamphetmnes. Speed s a hghy popuar drug among the neo-Naz
crowd, and was n fact nvented by the Nazs durng WWII to boster the fghtng
abty of ther front-ne troops.
Severa weeks before the bombng, n md-February, the Tusa offce of the ATF
passed on nformaton to the Okahoma Hghway Patroman Ken Stafford, who put
out a BOLO (Be On The Lookout For) on Strassmer:
ANDREAS STRASSMEIR, W/M, 5/17/59, heavy German accent. Back Har/ Bue
Eyes. 1" scar on chn, wears cammo fatgues. Possbe Tennessee drver's cense.
Came to USA n 5/91, passport was good unt 8/91. He never eft the country. INS
says he does not have an extenson of hs VISA. Possby n bue Chevy, ate mode,
tag BXH 346 (not on fe), usuay has someone drvng hm. Carres a .45 auto
psto at a tmes. He s an ega aen, ATF wants to be notfed f he s stopped
and has the gun on hm. They w fe the charges. Contact: Agent Angea Fney,
ATF. Offce: 918-581-7731 (or) Pager: 918-672-2755.
What's odd s that the BOLO was for an INS voaton, not exacty the |ursdcton of
the ATF. Moreover, accordng to a Tusa poce ntegence source, the INS was tod
not to make any effort to focus on vsa voatons due to manpower shortages.
The Mc!urtain ,a-ette, whch uncovered the BOLO, thnks t was put out by the
ATF to provde cover for Strassmer - an ad for hs extracton from Eohm Cty.
The OHP subsequenty typed up the BOLO, whch was eventuay "eaked" to
varous sources, ncudng the resdents of the rura communty. Accordng to Genn
Wburn, the BOLO was crcuated wth the stpuaton that Strassmer not be
arrested.
|424|
Curousy, when Fney-Graham attempted to get a warrant for Strassmer's arrest,
she was stonewaed by the INS. A Tusa poce ntegence source tod me that
Fney "was out to get the whoe pace." Ths fact was confrmed by nformaton
obtaned by McVegh's defense counse durng dscovery.
|425|
123
Ths s aso nterestng n ght of the fact that the INS and ATF had orgnay
panned a |ont rad on the compound - a pan whch suddeny came to a hat n
ate February of '95. As one INS memo stated:
Investgaton pendng - no arrest or warrant as of yet - Northeastern Okahoma
- request partcpaton. Rad - next month.
|426|
It seems the ATF and INS weren't the ony ones nterested n Eohm Cty. As a
report of Fney-Graham's dated February 28 states:
On 22 February 1995, ths agent met wth OHP Trooper Ken Stafford to exchange
certan nformaton regardng ths nvestgaton. Trooper Stafford ndcated that the
FBI aso had an ongong nvestgaton regardng Eohm Cty. On ths same date,
RAC Davd Roberts met wth the Unted States Attorney for the Northern |udca
Dstrct of Okahoma, Steve Lews, to dscuss ths nvestgaton.
On February 23, 1995 RAC Davd Roberts was contacted by FBI supervsor, Marty
Webber, who stated that FBI Speca Agent n Charge, Bob Rcks, woud be
avaabe durng the week of February 27 through March 03, 1995 to meet wth ATF
Speca Agent n Charge, Lester Martz. RAC Roberts then contacted Daas Dvson
to request SAC Martz meet wth SAC Rcks to dscuss the nvestgaton of Eohm
Cty.
|427|
As an nterestng hstorca precedent, |former| FBI agent |ames Rodgers had
deveoped a massve FBI rad on Eohm Cty n 1988, but t was caed off for
reasons that have never been made cear.
One month before the bombng Howe got "fed up" wth Eohm Cty and the ATF's
atttude towards the nvestgaton. "Ange hadn't made any arrests ether," Howe
tod the ,a-ette, "and that was frustratng, so I qut gong out there... unt after
the budng got bown up!"
|428||429|
Three days after the bombng, the ATF's Washngton headquarters pued the Tusa
offce off the case, and the FBI requested them to turn over a ther fes on Eohm
Cty.
The queston s, |ust who was Strassmer reportng to? The CIA? The Tusa ATF
offce, whch has |ursdcton over Eohm Cty, may not have been nformed f
Strassmer were reportng to a hgher authorty, a dfferent agency, or was a
confdenta nformant (CI) on a natona eve.
Strassmer's cover-story that hs |ustce Department |ob "never worked out" aso
smacks of McVegh's story that hs try-out for the Speca Forces ddn't work out
due to a "bster." Perhaps Strassmer - a seven-year German Army veteran -
faed hs ndoctrnaton due to a "nose-beed."
124
In spte of hs vehement denas, Strassmer practcay admtted to the Tele%ra*h
that he was an undercover agent. "The Rght-wng n the U.S. s ncredby easy to
penetrate f you know how to tak to them," he tod the Tele%ra*h. "Of course t's
easer for a foregner wth an accent; nobody woud ever suspect a German of
workng for the Federa Government."
Ths certany appears to be no ordnary sp of the tongue. How woud Strassmer
know the extreme-Rght s "ncredby easy to penetrate" uness he had penetrated
them? Hs statement that 'nobody woud ever suspect a German' s practcay an
admsson that he was dong so.
On February 28, 1992 Strassmer was arrested and hs car mpounded by the OHP
for drvng wthout a cense. When the poce opened hs brefcase, they found a
number of documents, ncudng some n German. There were statements from
foregn bank accounts, fase dentty papers, and a copy of The Terrorist 8and+ook.
Accordng to the tow-truck drver, Kenny Pence, Strassmer soon brought heavy
pressure to bear. "Boy, we caught he over that one," he sad. "The phone cas
came n from the State Department, the Governor's offce, and someone caed and
sad he had dpomatc mmunty.."
|430|
Accordng to Strassmer, the entrety of the story amounts to a par of cops who
were out to harass hm and hs frend Peter Ward (reca that Howe dentfed Ward
as |ohn Doe #1). Interestngy, federa prosecutors fed a moton requestng that
|udge Matsch bock efforts by McVegh's defense team who was seekng
government fes on Strassmer's actvtes. It was eventuay reveaed to |ones
through dscovery that Strassmer hed a tourst Vsa wth the desgnaton "A O".
Nether |ones nor Ambrose Evans-Prtchard, who reported extensvey on
Strassmer, coud earn what the desgnaton meant. The INS dened any
knowedge of ts meanng. Curousy, the entres, whch appeared on a of
Strassmer's INS fes, suddeny vanshed n March of 1996. Somebody had earased
them.
|431|
A tod, these are strange crcumstances for a former German ntegence offcer
- the potcay we-connected son to a top ade n Chanceor Hemut Koh's
government. It seems unkey that ths ordnary "computer saesman" and "neo-
Naz" wth dpomatc mmunty, backed up by the State Department and the
|ustce Department, brought federa pressure to bear n order to have a mnor
traffc voaton ceared.
More key, Strassmer was n danger of havng hs cover bown by unsuspectng
aw enforcement agents. The stuaton had to be corrected, and qucky.
After the bombng, wth the ncreasng attenton of nvestgators, and hs cover
amost bown, Strassmer fed to Germany, takng a crcutous route through
Mexco and Pars - a route commony used by spes. Strassmer's attorney, Krk
Lyons, detaed hs cent's escape, statng that t was aded by Germany's vaunted
125
counter-terrorsm unt, GSG-9, the equvaent of our Deta Force. Curous that GSG-
9 woud assst n Strassmer's retreat. Were they hepng one of ther own?
|432|
To hep mantan hs cover, the |ustce Department questoned Strassmer n North
Carona at hs attorneys offce, then caed hm n Bern to ask about hs aeged
tes to McVegh. "The FBI asked where I was on the day of the bombng," he tod
the Tele%ra*h.. "They wanted to hep debunk the rumors spread about me."
|433|
Why the FBI woud be n the busness of debunkng rumors, uness t s about them,
s uncear. In ths case, snce any tes between Strassmer and the |ustce
Department woud ead drecty back to the them, t seems that s exacty what
they are tryng to do.
|434|*
If Strassmer had any tes to McVegh, or to McVegh's companons, or to those who
had panned the 1983 bombng of the Murrah Budng, the |ustce Department
shoud have served hm wth a grand |ury subpoena or a warrant. Yet a the FBI dd
was ca Strassmer on the phone to "debunk the rumors" spread about hm.
As one aw enforcement offcer tod the Mc!urtain ,a-ette, "We found the axe
from the truck that ed to |uncton Cty and McVegh. Our Hghway Patroman
arrested McVegh. And that arrest ed to Terry Nchos and Mke Forter. Snce
then, nothng n ths nvestgaton has accompshed anythng. But we're tod by
the Bureau that Strassmer and hs buddes are not mportant. Bu-sht!"
|435|
The ,a-ette aso uncovered an ntegence buetn ssued by the Dpomatc
Securty Dvson, Counter Terrorsm Unt, of the Department of State on March 18,
1996 concernng Strassmer's aeged crmna actvtes n the U.S.
The cabe states that Strassmer overstayed hs vsa n 1991 and was known to
have been the mta tranng offcer for a whte separatst group caed WAR.
Ouotng the cabe, "He (Strassmer) has been the sub|ect of severa nvestgatons
for purchasng weapons, and makng the weapons fre on fu automatc.
Strassmer shoud not be aowed to return to the U.S."
Yet ths cabe makes t appear as though the FBI ddn't know anythng about
Strassmer - who was apparenty under the protecton of the State Department.
Was ths another cover poy to protect ther nformant, or was Strassmer workng
for the CIA, who wasn't communcatng wth the FBI and ATF?
Interestngy, the FBI woud cam they weren't aware of Caro Howe's status as an
nformant ether. Durng her |uy, 1997 tra (the resut of trumped up charges by
so-caed the |ustce Department), FBI agent Pete Rcke tod the |ury that he spoke
to Howe n the Sprng of 1996, when she requested protecton, companng that
her cover had been bown. "We were nterested to see f there mght be any
further nformaton we coud gather about actvtes nvovng peope at Eohm Cty
who may have been connected wth the bombng," sad Rcke. Yet the agent
126
nssted he had no dea of who Howe reay was when the FBI raded her home n
December of '96.
|436|
ATF Agent Angea Fney-Graham kewse camed she was unaware that an FBI
rad was panned on Howe's home. Yet as the Mc!urtain ,a-ette reported, ths
premse was destroyed when FBI Speca Agent Chrs Peters took the stand:
After expanng hs roe n the rad on the Howe resdence, Peters was asked by
defense attorney Cark Brewster durng cross-examnaton who he was marred to.
"Angea |Fney| Graham," Peters reped.
|437|
Strassmer's own cover woud fnay be bown when the ,a-ette reported on |uy
14, 1996, that "a hghy-paced source at the FBI has confrmed that Andreas Car
Strassmer was a pad government nformant sent by the Bureau of Acoho,
Tobacco and Frearms to nftrate Eohm Cty.."
|438|
For hs part, Strassmer cams he was at work reparng a fence near Eohm Cty
on Apr 19. Yet Strassmer hasn't exacty hed tght to hs story. Accordng to Genn
Wburn, who has ntensvey nvestgated the connecton, Strassmer camed he
stopped workng when t started to ran, then went home and watched the
bombng on TV. When Wburn checked the weather reports for the area that day,
he found that t hadn't begun to ran unt much ater. Strassmer then camed the
farmer he was workng for was George Eaton, a frend of the murdered Mueer
famy. Later, accordng to Wburn, Strassmer stated that he coudn't reca
exacty what he was dong unt he taked to hs attorney, Krk Lyons.
"Andy has been damaged," excamed Lyons, angry refutng the aegatons
aganst hs cent. "Anybody who puts out the e that he was nked to the
Okahoma bombng n any way s gong to pay for t."
|439|
Lyons cams hs cent had been dragged nto the conspracy by McVegh's defense
team - a poy, he sad, to muddy the waters by pantng a vast conspracy
nvovng neo-Nazs n Europe and terrorsts n the Mdeast. "I ca t the Space Aen
Evs Presey theory, and t's been fueed by nut cases and conspracy theorsts."
Obvousy, Lyons hmsef s no nut case, merey a hardcore racst and neo-Naz.
The smpe "country awyer" marred the sster of a promnent member of The
Order. The ceremony was performed by Aryan Natons "pastor" Rchard Buter at
the group's compound n Hayden Lake.
At the 1988 Aryan Natons Word Congress, Lyons suggested formng an ACLU of
sorts for the extreme-Rght, and attended the annua event n Hayden Lake as
Lous Beam's representatve. Not that Lyons was desperate for cents. He happy
defended the Confederate Hammer Sknheads of Daas, the Natona Socast
Sknheads of Houston, the Whte Vkngs of Chcago, and WAR eader Tom Metzger,
who was accused of nctng the murder of a back student from Ethopa. Lyons
127
aso defended Hoocaust revsonst Ernst Znde, who camed that the Naz
genocde was a |ewsh nventon, and other so-caed "prsoners of conscence."
|440|
Lyons was aso the guest of honor at the Brtsh Natonast Party n London, where
he appauded the Party's stance on whte power, and ke Wam Perce, predcted
a future race war. The erudte, ever-socay conscous attorney was aso quck to
defend Lous Beam, the Texas Grand Dragon of the Ku Kux Kan. Beam fed to
Mexco after beng ndcted for conspracy to overthrow the government. As
dscussed, Beam was charged wth harassng Vetnamese fshermen aong the
coast of Texas.
|441|
Interestngy, when Terry Reed was n Guadaa|ara on behaf of the CIA, workng
wth Over North's "Enterprse," Beam mysterousy showed up as hs neghbor.
Wth the hep of Lyons, Beam was acqutted after hs wfe shot and ked a Mexcan
Federa.
Lyons has kewse vehementy defended Strassmer's roe n the bombng, and
cams he s not a government agent. Interestngy, Lyons arranged Strassmer's
stays n Knoxve, Houston, Eohm Cty, and even Lyon's own home n North
Carona.
One thng that can be deduced from a ths s that Strassmer and Lyons aren't
very good ars.
Accordng to Stephen |ones, Denns Mahon made statements to the effect of, "If a
person wanted to know about the bombng, then they shoud tak wth Andy
Strassmer because he knows everythng."
For hs part, Strassmer cams he's not a government agent. In hs Tele%ra*h
ntervew, he states, "I've never worked for any U.S. government agency, and I've
not been nvoved n any ntegence operaton snce my dscharge from the
German army n 1988. Ths famy (the Wburns) s on a fshng expedton."
Yet n the very same artce, Strassmer admts that the bombng was the resut of
a government stng gone bad - a stng nvovng agents of the ATF. Consderng
the reveang nature of Strassmer's nformaton, the artce, entted "Dd Agents
Bunge U.S. Terror Bomb?" mght |ust as we have been caed "Thank You Andy."
As Strassmer states:
"The ATF had an nformant nsde ths operaton. They had advance warnng and
they bunged t," he sad. "What they shoud have done s make an arrest whe the
bomb was st beng made nstead of watng t the ast moment for a pubcty
stunt."
Asked f he thought the aeged nformant woud ever speak out, he reped wth
passon: "How can he? What happens f t was a stng operaton from the very
begnnng? What happens f t comes out that the pant was a provocateur? What f
128
he taked and manpuated the others nto t? What then? The country coudn't
hande t. The reatves of the vctms are gong to go crazy, and he's gong to be
hed responsbe for the murder of 168 peope. Of course the nformant can't come
forward. He's scared shtess rght now." Before and after ths outburst he kept
repeatng that he was not makng veed references to hmsef.
|442|
When I ntervewed Strassmer, he nssted that he had been quoted out of context.
That statement, he camed, was made to hm by a former ATF agent. "He made
some hnts that the ATF probaby knew that ths was comng down," sad
Strassmer. The source, he sad, was "pretty reabe," athough he was quck to
quafy t by statng that he wasn't certan of the nformaton.
|443|
Referrng to the stng, he sad, "What knd of gves me a bad taste, s that a the
ATF agents were apparenty not n the offce durng the bast, a of them." As to
|ust what the stng nvoved, Strassmer camed he ddn't know. But regardng |ohn
Doe 2, he sad, "For some reason they don't ook for ths guy anymore. That, for
some reason, I thnk s very strange."
|444|
If Strassmer was nvoved n a stng operaton, t may have been to stop the fow
of Naz propaganda emanatng from the U.S. Such nfuences have made ther
presence fet n an unsettng way n Germany n recent years. It s key that the
FBI requested the assstance of the Bundeskrmnaamt (BKA), the German FBI, and
the Bundesnachrchtendenst (BND), the German CIA, to hep gather ntegence
on such groups as Mchae Khnen's Ant-Zonst League, and ther connectons to
both Arabs and Amercan neo-Nazs.
FBI Drector Lous Freeh had announced a |ont U.S.-German ntegence gatherng
operaton on neo-Naz groups as far back as 1993. Freeh pedged to work
aongsde German aw-enforcement to stem the spread of Nazsm emanatng from
the Unted States.
On Apr 20, 1995, the Amercan Natona Socast Worker's Party announced that
the Secret Servce and ATF had been nvestgatng Gary Lauck, eader of the
domestc NSDAP/AO. Lauck, who pubshes the neo-Naz newsetter N0S0 4am*ruf,
had been a ma|or nfuence n Germany and was an ob|ect of concern among
German authortes (German sedton aws forbd the pubcaton of Naz terature).
|445|
It seems that certan nformaton provded by Strassmer resuted n Lauck's arrest.
Wth Strassmer's hep, the "Farm Bet Fuhrer" was arrested n Copenhagen and
extradted to Hamburg. The arrest concded wth ma|or rads by German poce of
NSDAP/AO ces a over Germany.
Lauck wasn't the ony one beckonng young Germans to |on the whte supremacst
movement. Research conducted by McVegh's defense team ndcates that Denns
Mahon traveed to Germany to recrut ndvduas nto the Ku Kux Kan. A vdeo
reportedy shows Mahon n Germany n fu KKK regaa, ghtng a cross. Mahon
129
hmsef |oked that f he was fned the usua 1,000 Deutsche Marks for every tme
he gave the Naz saute, he woud owe 10,000,000 Marks.
|446|
Ony a few weeks before the Okahoma Cty bombng, Mahon receved a phone ca
from Lauck. "Yeah, I got a ca from Lauck sometme before the bombng... He tod
me that he was makng another trp to Europe. I tod hm he was too hot, and he
shoudn't go." Shakng hs head, Mahon says now, "He shoud have stened."
Dd the authortes know Lauck was comng? "We, I dd te Strassmer about the
trp," sad Mahon. (Or dd Mahon te the government hmsef?)
Wth Lauck's European arrest, the NSDAP noted, "U.S. offcas have been dong
extensve surveance of Lauck's contemporares n Okahoma, Kansas, Nebraska
and north Texas. These surveance actvtes were beng coordnated out of the
OKC offces, accordng to our sources."
Interestngy, the newsetter added that "the OKC offce of the ATF had pans to
serve search warrants 'by the begnnng of Summer' on severa we-known whte
supremacsts."
It seems the warrants were never ssued.
|447|
Interestngy, Lyons tod the German magazne Volkstreue7 "There are many spes
wthn |the Kan| and most of ts best eaders have eft the Kan to do more
effectve work wthn the movement.. The man who s many responsbe for the
success of the Kan n Germany - Denns Mahon - has eft the Kan."
Apparenty, Mahon s st concerned enough about hs responsbty to the whte
supremacst movement to have teephoned Germany wth orders to k Strassmer.
Accordng to a conversaton overheard by Cash, "|Mahon| wanted Andreas shot n
both kneecaps and a confesson ected from hm, then hod a 30-mnute tra and
then execute hm."
|448|
Investgator |eff Stenberg takes ths one step further, beevng that Mahon hmsef
may be an ATF operatve. He says the ATF had hm on a charge then dropped t.
"He may have been turned," sad Stenberg.
Obvousy, Strassmer wasn't the ony nformant at Eohm Cty. Mahon, who knew
Guthre, McCarthy, Stedeford, and Langan, had ntroduced hs new-found frend
Caro Howe to the whte separatst communty. It was there that the attractve 24-
year-od daughter of a promnent Tusa busnessman woud meet Strassmer. As
Howe tod the ,a-ette7
"I knda had a reatonshp wth hm for a whe. We taked about reatonshps
once, and he sad he wasn't nterested n settng down wth a woman. A he
wanted to do was bow up federa budngs. It was aso at that same meetng that
130
he shoved hs hand down my dress and I thought, we, he was dong somethng
ese, but now that I thnk about t, I thnk he was feeng for a wre."
Howe aso sad she overheard Mahon and Strassmer dscuss pans to bomb the
Okahoma Cty Federa Budng. As Howe reated t:
"I started gong to as many of ther meetngs as I coud and met a ot of peope
who were very secretve. But sometme n November there was a meetng and
Strassmer and Mahon sad t was tme to qut takng and go to war, and tme to
start bombng federa budngs."
"I reported a ths to Ange."
|449|
Accordng to her attorney, Howe provded teephone numbers, cense tags,
names, famy trees, (ncudng the ocaton and desgn of tattoos) drawngs of
budngs, pctures, and descrptons and sts of ndvduas who were nvoved n
crmna actvty.
In fact, Confdenta Informant 53270-183, or CI-183 (whose neo-Naz hande was
"Freya" and "Lady MacBeth") made over 70 reports to Fney-Graham durng 1994-
95 tme frame. Fney pad Howe $120-a-week to provde the ATF reguar updates
on the actvtes at Eohm Cty, and those of Strassmer and Mahon n partcuar.
Fney-Graham fed her premnary ROI (Report of Investgaton) on Caro Howe on
August 30, 1994. Entted "Whte Aryan Resstance, W.A.R." It states, n part:
On August 24, 1994 ths agent met wth CI-183 n the Tusa ATF Fed Offce and
dscussed n great deta the federa frearms and conspracy voatons of the
Whte Aryan Resstance, "W.A.R.".
W.A.R. s descrbed brefy as beng radca, paramtary, Neo-naz, ant-
government, and voent. W.A.R. has natona and nternatona affates to ncude
the KKK and a racst foowng n Germany..
W.A.R. has severa tranng stes n Okahoma. The prmary tranng ocaton s
caed Eohm Cty whch s n a rura area near the border of Okahoma and
Arkansas n Adar County, Okahoma. The members of the regous organzaton,
The Covenant, Sword and Arm of the Lord ve at Eohm Cty. The The Covenant,
Sword and Arm of the Lord s a separatst organzaton that con|onty trans wth
and exchanges weapons wth W.A.R..
Regardng statements by Mahon that were secrety vdeotaped by Howe, Fney-
Graham wrtes:
Mahon has made numerous statements regardng the converson of frearms nto
fuy automatc weapons, the manufacture and use of sencers and the
manufacture and use of exposve devces. Mahon has stated both the knowedge
and abty to manufacture a range of exposve devces. Mahon ntends to
131
manufacture and use any or a of the above when he deems necessary. Mahon
and hs organzaton are preparng for a race war and war wth the government n
the near future and t s beeved that they are rapdy stockpng weapons.
|450|
Mahon responded to Howe's aegatons n the Villa%e Voice7 "Ths woman has got
some sht on me. They're es. But t's my word aganst hers.."
Some sht ndeed.
It was after Mahon and Howe had a romantc fang-out that the 24-year-od Howe
swtched from beng an avowed whte supremacst to a ATF nformant. A
temporary protectve order was ssued aganst Mahon by a Tusa court n August of
'94 after Howe aeged that Mahon threatened to "take steps to neutraze me," by
breakng her knees f she tred to eave the whte supremacst movement.
|451|
"I was contacted by Denns Mahon after I ordered some terature from ths group
caed Whte Aryan Resstance," Howe tod the Mc!urtain ,a-ette. "He wanted to
have a coser reatonshp than I dd, and ater he threatened me when I tred to
get away from hs group.
|452|
It was after Howe sought the restranng order that Fney-Graham recruted her
nto the ATF. Mahon cams t was Howe-the-nformant who advocated most of the
voence. Depctng hmsef as the fa-guy n the affar, he tod the press, "They
want to drag me nto ths thng and I barey remember even meetng Tm McVegh.
It was Strassmer who was meetng wth McVegh, not me."
|453|
Curousy, Mahon ater sent a vdeotape to McVegh's prson ce expressng hs
vews on the "movement." McVegh's defense team was concerned about the
vdeo, not knowng whether the ntended message "was to encourage the
Defendant to 'sacrfce' hmsef for the eventua '|ustce' of the cause or was a
subte threat ntended to remnd the Defendant that members of hs famy were
vunerabe."
|454|
Whe Mahon vehementy dened Howe's aegatons, the ATF's ROI of |anuary 11,
1995 (three months before the bombng) states, n part:
Durng the Sabbath meetng, Mar gave a sermon soctng voence aganst the
US government. He brought forth hs soders and nstructed them to take
whatever acton necessary aganst the US Government. It s understood that ATF s
the man enemy of the peope at EC.. He expcty tod 183 that they were
preparng to fght a war aganst the government..
|455|
Howe reported to Fney-Graham that |ames Eson aso panned to reconstruct the
CSA. Her report aso stated that Mar panned to consodate hs compound wth
groups n Texas, Mssour, Arkansas and Okahoma to prepare to fght a war wth
the government. Posse Comtatus members from Pennsyvana aegedy ent a
hand by hepng Eohm Cty resdents convert ther weapons to fu automatc.
|456|
132
"These peope have the means and the desre to start a terrbe war n Amerca,"
wrote Howe n a etter to her father n August of 1994. "They must be stopped, one
group at a tme."
|457|
To precptate that war, Strassmer was apparenty wng to procure grenades, C-4
and other exposves.
|458|
Ths s hardy surprsng. In 1979, ATF nformant Bernard Butkovch and FBI
operatve Edward Dawson ed a group of KKK and Naz Party members on a
shootng spree durng a parade n Greensboro, North Carona, whch ed to the
deaths of fve members of the Communst Workers Party.
|459|
Interestngy, the Washin%ton )ost reported how Butkovch "urged members to buy
equpment to convert sem-automatc guns to fuy automatc weapons, and
offered to procure exposves (ncudng hand grenades)."
Accordng to the New 'ork Times, wtnesses reported that Butkovch, a veteran
demotons expert, aso offered "to tran them n actvtes such as makng ppe
bombs and fre bombs," and that "the Nazs take weapons to the |Communst| ray
n the trunks of ther cars."
|460|*
Wth a map of the parade route supped by Greensboro Poce Department
Detectve |erry Cooper, Dawson, Butkovch, and ther KKK and neo-Naz comrades
were abe to seect the most advantageous ste for ther ambush.
Accordng to Stephen |ones's appea bref, Fney-Graham's handwrtten notes
confrmed a report from Howe that Denns Mahon had bomb-makng expertse,
ncudng aegedy expodng a 500b ammonum ntrate bomb n Mchgan fve
years earer.
|461|
Howe aso tod the agents that Strassmer and Mahon cased the Tusa IRS budng
and the Okahoma Cty Federa Budng n November and December of 1994, and
once durng February of '95. Interestngy, Mahon tod reporters that as a
"revoutonary," he woud ndeed bow up the Federa Budng, but do t at nght,
when no one was around.
Shockngy, most of ths nformaton was provded to the ATF +efore the bombng.
|462|
|.D. Cash, reportng for the Mc!urtain ,a-ette, camed to have receved
nformaton from an ntermedary that a source at the headquarters of the Aryan
Natons n Hayden Lake, Idaho, sad that Mahon was "one of the rng eaders n the
group that bombed the Federa Budng." Cash, who ntervewed Mahon on
numerous occasons by posng as a whte supremacst, wrote the foowng n the
,a-ette7
133
And he (Mahon) ndcated that the resuts of the bombng were not as he
antcpated. He fet ke ths woud cause a comng together of radcas around the
country who woud begn a campagn of terrorsm. In retrospect, he fees ke the
IRS budng shoud have been bombed nstead of the Murrah Budng and
probaby shoud have been bombed at nght. The day care center and the kng of
the chdren was havng a negatve effect.
For hs part, Mahon cams he has an ab for the mornng of Apr 19. Yet
Brcktown wtness Davd Snder s sure the drver of the Ryder truck whch sowy
made ts way past hs warehouse that mornng was Denns Mahon. Athough the
drver had ong har and was wearng sungasses, Snder s adamant. He showed
the Okahoma County Grand |ury a vdeo showng Mahon wearng the same
sungasses he was wearng on the mornng of the bast.
|463|
(See drawng)
Mahon, who sad he beeves there were others nvoved wth McVegh, tod the
"aily Oklahoman, "I have never been n downtown |Okahoma Cty|. I am squeaky
cean."
|464|
Interestngy, Mahon aso camed hmsef to be a make-up artst, and descrbed
hmsef as "the master of a dsguses." In a somewhat startng statement, Mahon
tod Ambrose Evans-Prtchard of the 3ondon Sunday Tele%ra*h7
"I aways dever my bombs n person, n dsguse," he sad mschevousy. "I can
ook ke a Hspanc or even a Negro. I'm the master of dsguse."
|465|
Reverend |ohnny Lee Cary, a reformed Ku Kux Kansman who aso testfed before
the County Grand |ury, tod the "aily Oklahoman7 "There s no mstake that the ps
and chn and faca features |of the man Snder saw| s Denns Mahon n one of
those dsguses."
"He aways bragged he s the master of dsguse," sad Cary, who cams to be an
ordaned mnster n Tusa. Mahon "used to dress up ke Mexcans and Orentas or
ke backs."
|466|
Howe, who was debrefed by the ATF and FBI after the bombng, tod agents
Banchard and Fney-Graham that the sketches of the suspects who rented the
Ryder truck appeared to be Eohm Cty resdents |and Mahon and Strassmer
assocates| Peter or Sonny Ward. She aso reportedy tod the agents, ".no one n
the word ooks more ke the sketch of |ohn Doe 2 than Mchae Bresca." Howe's
report to Fney-Graham stated, n part:
SA BLANCHARD and SA ANGIE FINDLEY, ATF, taked wth SA FINDLEY's confdenta
source "CAROL." CAROL stated she beeves n 1994, she saw an ndvdua
resembng the composte of UNSUB # n a whte separatst paramtary camp
caed "Eohm Cty" (phonetc) (EC). Ths camp s ocated around Stwe,
Okahoma. CAROL knows ths person as "PETE." CAROL has seen an ndvdua
134
named "TONY" resembng the composte of UNSUB # 2. TONY s PETE's brother,
and s not we ked at EC. TONY woud do as hs brother drected however.
When CAROL saw the teevson pctures of TIMOTHY |AMES MCVEIGH, she sad
MCVEIGH doesn't ook ke "PETE." CAROL recaed that she dd see a person who
ooked ke MCVEIGH n a photograph n a photo abum she saw at a 1994 Kan
Ray.
NBC, puttng the offca |ustce Department spn on the story, camed Howe's
reports contaned no specfc nformaton regardng the pot. Yet accordng to the
,a-ette, "Howe was routney poygraphed by the government durng the tme she
was makng her monthy reports. The government's own documents ndcate she
passed, 'showng no decepton on her part n any poygraph examnaton.'"
|467|
As
Fney-Graham testfed durng Howe's pre-tra hearng:
Bre*ster: "Now, you were nterested n knowng as much as you coud about Mr.
Strassmer, weren't you?"
9raham: "Yes."
Bre*ster: "What knd of guns he had?"
9raham: "Yes."
Bre*ster: ''And the knd of threats he made about wantng to bow up federa
budngs? You were nterested n that, weren't you?"
9raham: "I was nterested n anythng I coud fnd out about any voaton."
Bre*ster: "And Ms. Howe tod you about Mr. Strassmer's threats to bow up
federa budngs, ddn't she?"
9raham: "In genera, yes."
Bre*ster: "And that was before the Okahoma Cty bombng?"
9raham: "Yes."
At the tme of ths wrtng, federa authortes were st nsstng that Howe's
reports contaned no specfc warnngs of any pot to bomb any federa budng.
They aso camed that they were ony aerted two days after the bombng, when
they debrefed ther nformant.
|468|
Yet seems Howe's reports were specfc enough to warn the ATF not to be n the
offce the day of the bombng. No ATF empoyees were among the 169 ked.
135
Nevertheess, federa prosecutors st nssted, after Howe went pubc, that the
nformant coudn't have had any specfc nformaton about the bombng, because
she was "termnated" on March 27, three weeks before the attack.
Aso "termnated" t seems, was the ATF's December, 1994 report regardng
Howe's actvtes at Eohm Cty. That report, sources tod The New American,
contaned specfc warnngs about the pendng attack on the Afred P. Murrah
Budng. Had ths report, ke so much of the ATF's evdence concernng ther and
the FBI's atroctes at Waco, convenenty "dsappeared?"
Unfortunatey for the ATF, the records whch show that Howe remaned an actve
nformant unt |anuary 9, 1996, hadn't dsappeared. As Fney-Graham's ROI of
|anuary 31, 1996 states:
It s requested that CI 53270-183 be retaned as an actve nformant. It was
requested by the Daas Dvson offce that ths nformant be retaned as an actve
nformant for the duraton of the Okahoma Cty bombng nvestgaton.
On Apr 22, Fney-Graham sent the foowng memo to Lester Martz, SAC of the
Daas Fed offce:
Ths nformant s nvoved wth the OKC bomb case whch s pendng prosecuton n
Denver and was the key n dentfyng ndvduas at Eohm Cty, whch s ted to
the OKC bomb case.
|469|
In addton to denyng her empoyment wth the ATF, the bureau attempted to
cam that Howe was "unstabe," her emotona state and her "oyaty" to the ATF
beng n queston. Yet once agan, the offca records, whch descrbe Howe as
"stabe and capabe," contradct these cams. As the ATF's ROI of Apr 22, 1996
notes:
|Ths agent has| known CI 53270-183 for approxmatey two years and can assert
that ths nformant has not been overy paranod or fearfu durng undercover
operatons.
As 24-year ATF veteran Robert Sanders tod The New American, "Howe was 'a very
good nformant. She s obvousy ntegent, resourcefu, coo and convncng under
pressure,' and has a good sense for 'the knd of detaed nformaton that s most
hepfu' to aw enforcement and prosecutors."
|470|
Yet the feds woud make every attempt to dstance themseves from ther own
nformant n the aftermath of the bombng. Not surprsngy, ths was the same
ruse the FBI used n the aftermath of the Word Trade Center bombng - pung
undercover operatve Emad Saem off the case two weeks before the tragc attack
(whch he had aso warned them about) then camng that he was "unreabe."
136
Yet the FBI reactvated Saem after the bombng, |ust as they dd wth Howe,
sendng her back to Eohm Cty to gather addtona nformaton on Mahon,
Strassmer, and the others. Her new contract rased her pay from $25.00 per day
to $400.00.
Curousy, nether the ATF nor the FBI offered Howe any protecton. FBI agent Pete
Rcke admtted durng subsequent court testmony that Howe had come to hm n
May of '96 seekng protecton, but he had offered none. In fact, Rcke sad he
ddn't even make a note of ther conversaton.
Not ony dd the FBI fa to protect what the ATF caed ther "key" wtness nkng
Eohm Cty to the bombng, but the FBI went one step further, eakng a
confdenta report to the press. As Fney-Graham wrote n her Apr 1, 1996 report:
On March 29, 1996 ths agent receved a teephone ca from S/A Harry Eberhardt.
S/A Eberhardt stated that the dentty of CI 53270-183 had been severey
compromsed. S/A Eberhardt stated that a report by FBI agent |ames R. Banchard
II contaned the forma name of CI 53270-183 and enough nformaton to revea
the dentty of CI 53270-183 wthout hs/her name beng used. S/A Eberhardt
stated that he had attempted to reay ths matter to FBI ASAC |ack McCoy,
however ASAC McCoy showed tte concern and dened that S/A Banchard was at
faut. S/A Eberhardt stated that he became rate because t was apparent that
nothng was gong to be done n an effort to rectfy the probem or at east provde
hep for the safety of CI 53270-183.
Fney-Graham "mmedatey teephoned CI 53270-183 and nformed hm/her that
ther name had been dscosed and that he/she shoud take every precauton for
ther safety.... Ths agent tod the CI that anythng and everythng w be done to
nsure hs/her safety." It seems the government was fuy aware of the danger
posed to ther nformant, as Fney-Graham's report of Apr 22, 1996 notes:
Indvduas who pose mmedate danger to CI 53270-183 are: (1) Denns Mahon, (2)
members of Eohm Cty, and (3) any sympathzer to McVegh.... Ths agent
beeves that s/he coud be n serous danger when assocates dscover hs/her
dentty.
In fact, one of Fney-Graham's nta reports ndcates that Denns Mahon "stated
that he woud k any nformant." Mahon subsequenty sent Howe on a "nght
reconnassance msson" to a secuded area - straght nto the arms of a back
gang, whose members psto-whpped her and cut her wth a knfe. In what ooked
ke a deberate attempt to rd tsef of an embarrassng nformant, Howe was
provded wth no protecton by the government whch she had so oyay and
courageousy served.
137
When pubc crtcsm and aze a' fare attempts to make Howe "dsappear" faed,
the government resorted to sencng her on phony, trumped up charges.
The "|ustce" Department found t expedtous to ndct Howe |ust n tme for
McVegh's tra, puttng her safey behnd bars. The charge? Compng a st of
bomb ngredents, acqurng photographs of federa offces n Tusa, and usng her
home teephone to dstrbute racst nformaton - a undercover actvtes
commtted on behaf of her empoyer - the ATF. Howe was unanmousy
acqutted.
|471|
Attorney Stephen |ones beeves that Howe was ndcted "for the purposes of
'everage' aganst her n order to keep her mouth shut about what she knows
about the actvtes of Mahon and Strassmer," and her empoyer, the ATF.
|472|
As
the reader w soon dscover, ths s not be the tme the Federa Government woud
seek to sence and dscredt one of ts own nformants.
Perhaps most surprsngy, durng a |uy, 1997 pre-tra hearng for Howe, FBI agent
Pete Rcke reveaed that "Grandpa" Mar was a confdenta FBI nformant! When
asked f Mar had been a source of government nformaton or an nformant,
Rcke reped, "generay, yes."
It now appeared that there were at east three government nformants nsde
Eohm Cty - Howe, Strassmer, and Mar, the ater two who were nctng a war
wth the Federa Government. Add to that the probabty of Bresca, Mahon, and
McVegh beng nformants, and Eohm Cty begns to ook ke one great bg
government-run neo-Naz tranng camp.
Accordng to a former government nformant ntervewed by the ,a-ette, "It s
typca for agences such as the CIA, FBI and ATF to pace mutpe 'moes' nsde a
pace ke Eohm Cty and pay one resource off the other, wthout ether one
knowng the dentty of the other." Federa aw enforcement, even dfferent offces
of the same agency, often do not share nformants' names uness the msson cas
for t.
"The reasons are obvous. Frst, there s no way a aw enforcement agency s gong
to rsk exposng the fe of one of ther assets shoud the other 'resource' succumb
to torture or decde to doube-cross the agency. And, of course, the montorng of
nformaton can best be verfed f nether resource knows who the other s. That's
the ony way ths game works, and t's the ony way t succeeds."
And what of Mchae Bresca? Was he aso an nformant? Gven the cose, often
reveang nature of a roommate reatonshp, t s key that an undercover agent
woud room wth another agent, even f nothng more than one mght overhear the
other takng n hs seep.
138
Strassmer hmsef admtted the dffcuty of gong "deep cover," and havng to
keep your guard up 24 hours-a-day. "If you were an undercover agent," sad
Strassmer, "you have to keep your guard up, you can't get cose."
Is that why he roomed wth Bresca, so he woudn't have to mantan hs guard?
Not accordng to Strassmer: "I woud be very surprsed f he (Bresca) was an
undercover agent. He's a very honest, straghtforward guy."
Strassmer, aong wth frends Peter and Sonny Ward, fed Eohm Cty n August of
'95, after McVegh defense team nvestgators began ookng nto actvtes at the
secretve compound.
Bresca eft Eohm Cty around the same tme as Strassmer, wth hs fanc Ester,
traveng to Canada, and remanng mosty underground. He subsequenty returned
to hs parents' house n Phadepha, where he was actvey sought by the meda.
Curousy, ke hs frend Strassmer, Bresca was competey gnored by federa
authortes for hs possbe roe n the bombng. He was fnay arrested for the
Wsconsn bank hest n February of 1997. Was t a egtmate bust, or dd the
arrest serve to sence hm for hs roe n the bombng as the government tred to
do wth Caro Howe?
Shawn Kenny gave the FBI the tp that ed to the arrest of Guthre, who was
apprehended after a hgh-speed chase outsde of Cncnnat n |anuary of 1997. He
was found dead n hs ce n Covngton, Kentucky sx months ater, on |uy 12,
hanged wth a bed sheet. Authortes qucky rued hs death a sucde. Accordng to
a note found at the scene, Guthre was apparenty feeng guty over hs turncoat
atttude, and ddn't want to endanger hs famy.
"Sometmes t takes somethng ke a sucde to sette a probem," he'd wrtten to
hs attorney. "Especay one that's ke. mne."
|473|
Yet Denns Mahon tod Villa%e Voice reporter |ames Rdgeway he beeves Guthre
was murdered because he had threatened to revea nformaton about the
proceeds of the oot, whch was beeved to have gone to the Aryan Natons and
other neo-Naz groups. Guthre was found dead ony a few hours after teng a
reporter from the 3os An%eles Times that he ntended to wrte a te-a book that
"woud go a ot further nto what we were reay dong."
|474|
He was aso |ust days
away from appearng before a grand |ury.
Wth Guthre's hep, Stedeford was arrested on May 24 at the Upper Darby
recordng studo where he worked as a gutarst, and McCarthy was captured n the
Busteton secton of Phadepha. Thomas was eventuay arrested n con|uncton
wth severa robberes as we.
|475|
Langan was arrested at hs rented house n Coumbus, Oho severa days after
Guthre, n a fusade of buets fred by over-eager FBI agents. The wanted
139
fugtve, who had fred no shots, kened the arrest to an assassnaton attempt.
Another sencng attempt perhaps? (The FBI camed they were warned that
Langan woudn't be taken ave.)
Ironcay, durng hs tra, the sef-styed revoutonary shouted hackneyed phrases
such as "Power to the Peope!" and tod the |udge that the ARA's msson was to
overthrow the government and "set free the oppressed peope of North Amerca."
Except, apparenty, for Backs, |ews, and homosexuas.
|476|
Yet eyebrows everywhere rased when Langan showed up n |a wth pnk-panted
toenas and ong mancured fngernas. Langan's over, a transsexua named
Chere Roberts, appeared at the tra and excamed durng a scene wth U.S.
Marshas, "I can't even tak to my wfe!"
Roberts, who met Langan at a Kansas Cty group caed "Crossdressers and
Frends," caed the neo-macho revoutonary bank robber by hs charmed pet
monker, "Donna."
|477|
In a "recrutment" vdeo confscated durng a search of Langan's house, "Donna"
appears n a back sk-mask, exhortng potenta revoutonares to eradcate a
non-whtes and non-Chrstans from the country, and emnate federa "whores."
"In sodarty wth our Serban brothers we understand the meanng of ethnc
ceansng. To us, t's not a drty word." Apparenty, preoperatve transsexuas were
not ncuded n Langan's targeted popuaton group.
The 107-mnute propaganda fm, entted "The Aryan Repubcan Army Presents:
The Armed Strugge Underground," pays out ke a bad Monty Python skt. Langan
shouts orders n Spansh from behnd a desk festooned wth hand grenades and
bank booty, whe hs "troops" goose-step n the background. "Our basc goa s to
set up an Aryan Repubc on the North Amercan contnent," states "Commander
Pedro."
|478|
The neo-revoutonares aso expound ther phosophy and tactcs, whch ncude,
not surprsngy. bowng up federa budngs. "We have endeavored to keep
coatera damage and cvan casuates to a mnmum," announces ther eader,
"but as n a wars, some nnocents sha suffer. So be t."
The vdeo was competed n |anuary, 1995, four months before the bombng of the
Afred P. Murrah Budng. Langan, for hs part, says he had nothng to do wth the
bombng. "Most of my famy, my sbngs work n federa budngs," he tod the
Washin%ton )ost.
|479|
Yet gven Langan's connectons to Bresca, Strassmer and Mahon, and ther
connectons to Nchos and McVegh, and the group's tes to the voent neo-Naz
underground, t s snguary curous why the FBI hasn't serousy pursued these
eads.
|480|
140
Then there s the CSA's 1983 pot to bow up the Okahoma Cty Federa Budng,
and Sne's strangey fortutous statements about Apr 19, 1995.
What s even more shockng s why the ATF apparenty gnored warnngs from t's
own nformant, Caro Howe. Had they fgured they coud ensnare the bombers n a
hghy pubczed bust?
"Eohm Cty s not a current sub|ect of nterest," a aw enforcement offca n
Washngton tod the Assocated Press, amost two years after the bast.
|481|
Was Eohm Cty of so tte nterest to authortes because t was a government-
nftrated spook center, kept on hand for contngences, much as eements of the
KKK were by the FBI's |. Edgar Hoover?
And what of Iraq's connectons to Denns Mahon? Is ths a sub|ect of nterest? Was
t |ust an nnocent busness reatonshp, or, ke the Syran's offer of fundng to
Robert Mathews, was t somethng more?
:
Teflon Terrorists
In the wake of the bombng, the meda was abuzz wth reports of a Mdde-Eastern
connecton. Reporters were reportng cams of Musm extremsts, and takng
heads were takng about a famar modus operand. Then on Apr 21, ess than 48
hours after the bombng, the FBI announced that they had snared ther eusve
quarry, an angry whte guy named Tmothy |ames McVegh. The foowng day, the
Bureau announced that they had captured angry whte guy number two: Terry
Lynn Nchos.
The manstream meda, havng ther nformaton spoon-fed to them by the FBI,
qucky aunched nto n-depth anayss of the two "prme suspects." A other
nformaton qucky became bured n the great coectve memory snk hoe. It was
as f, wth the "capture" of McVegh and Nchos, a other nformaton became
suddeny rreevant and obsoete. The |ustce Department waved ther magc wand,
Presdent Cnton wnked at the Mdde-Eastern communty, and a the word was
set rght agan.
What remaned hdden behnd the offca curtan of decet however, were scores of
wtness accounts, offca statements, and expert opnons regardng a Mdde-
Eastern connecton. For 48 hours after the bombng, FBI offcas and terrorsm
experts poured forth ther opnons and anayses:
141
Robert Hebe, a former FBI counter-terrorsm expert, sad the bombng ooked ke
the work of Mdde East terrorsts, possby those connected wth the Word Trade
Center bombng.
|482|
Speakng on CNN, ATF drector |ohn Magaw sad: "I thnk any tme you have ths
knd of damage, ths knd of exposon, you have to ook there (Mdde East
terrorsts) frst."
"Ths was done wth the attempt to nfct as many casuates as possbe," sad
terrorsm expert Steven Emerson on CBS Evenng News. "That s a Mdde Eastern
trat and somethng that has been, generay, not carred out on ths so unt we
were rudey awakened to t n 1993."
Former Unted States Representatve Dave McCurdy of Okahoma (former
Charman of the House Integence Commttee) tod CBS News that there was
"very cear evdence of the nvovement of fundamentast Isamc terrorst
groups."
|483|
Former FBI counter-terrorsm chef Over "Buck" Reve tod CBS Evenng News, "I
thnk t's most key a Mdde East terrorst. I thnk the modus operand s smar.
They have used ths approach."
Ex-CIA counter-terrorsm drector Vnce Cannstraro tod the Washin%ton Times,
"Rght now, t ooks professona, and t's got the marks of a Mdde Eastern group."
Av Lpkn, a former Israe Defense Integence specast on the Prme Mnster's
staff, n Okahoma Cty at the tme of the bombng, tod nvestgator Crag Roberts,
"ths s a typca Arab Terrorst type attack."
|484|
It was aso reported the Israes gave the Amercans a "genera warnng"
concernng the bombng.
|485|
CBS News stated that the FBI had receved cams of responsbty from at east
eght dfferent organzatons. Seven of the camants were thought to have Mdde
Eastern connectons:
An FBI communqu that was crcuated Wednesday suggested that the attack was
carred out by the Isamc |had, an Iranan-backed Isamc mtant group, sad a
securty professona n Caforna who decned to be named. the communqu
suggested the attack was made n retaaton for the prosecuton of Musm
fundamentasts n the bombng of the Word Trade Center n February, 1993, sad
the source, a non-government securty professona.. 'We are currenty ncned to
suspect the Isamc |had as the key group.'
|486|
|ames Fox, former head of the New York FBI offce, tod CBS News, "We thought
that we woud hear from the regous zeaots n the future, that they woud be a
thorn n our sde for years to come."
142
On |uy 2nd, shorty after Shek Omar Abde Rahman's surrender to U.S.
Immgraton authortes, the Egyptan |ama a' Isamya (the group mpcated n the
Word Trade Center bombng) ssued a statement sayng that f the Shek was
prosecuted or extradted to Egypt, they woud begn a word-wde terror campagn
aganst the Unted States.
On Apr 21, 1995, the 3ondon Tele%ra*h reported: "Israe ant-terror experts
beeve the Okahoma bombng and the 1993 Word Trade Center exposon are
nked and that Amercan nvestgators shoud focus on Isamc extremsts."
The same day, the 3ondon Sunday Times carred a report that suggested Presdent
Saddam Hussen of Iraq may have been nvoved n both the Word Trade Center
and the Okahoma Cty bombngs:
Iraq was furous wth Amerca ast week at ts Unted Natons move to fo efforts to
overturn Guf war economc sanctons. Ramz Ahmed Yousef, the recenty-
captured aeged mastermnd of the 1993 attack on the Word Trade Center n New
York, was drecty funded by Baghdad, accordng to CIA and FBI documents - and
evdence so far deveoped about the atest bomb ndcates some smartes n the
pannng.
|487|
If those n Baghdad were angry over the bruta and reentess attack on ther
country by U.S. forces durng the Guf War, they had addtona reason for anger
when Presdent Cnton aunched a retaatory rad aganst Iraq ntegence
headquarters n Baghdad. The |une 26 Cruse Msse strke was drected aganst
the compex after an aeged pot was uncovered to assassnate former presdent,
crook, and mass murderer George Bush durng hs recent vst to Kuwat.
|488|
The
rad merey destroyed some of the compex, and eveed about a dozen
surroundng homes, kng approxmatey sx cvans. Syndcated coumnst
Chare Reese caed t "hgh-tech terrorsm."
The Net News Serice reported the next day that the government-backed Al-
Thawra newspaper charged that Cnton had carred out the attack ony to boster
hs "eroded popuarty and credbty... domestcay." Both Al-Thawra and Genera
Saber Abdu-Azz Dour, head of the Iraq ntegence servce, ndcated that the
Iraq government had vowed vengeance aganst the Unted States.
Backng up Dour's cams was former head of Iraq mtary ntegence, Genera
Wafq a-Sammara', who tod the London (nde*endent that the |une, 1996
bombng of the U.S. mtary housng compex n Dhahran, Saud Araba, whch
ked 19 servcemen, "strongy resembed pans drawn up by a secret Iraq
commttee on whch he served after the nvason of Kuwat. He says operatons
consdered by Iraq, but not carred out at that tme due to shortage of reabe
agents, ncuded expodng arge bombs near budngs where Amercan soders
were vng."
|489|
One month ater, the Washin%ton )ost reported:
143
Eary on |uy 6, Co. Mohammar Oaddaf of Lbya ssued a warnng that Presdent
Cnton and the Unted States had 'bundered' n the recent msse attack on
Baghdad, and that the Unted States shoud expect 'a ot more terrorsm' n the
near future. Oaddaf spoke of ncreasngy voent and spectacuar acts to be
perpetrated expressy for broadcast on the natona and nternatona teevson.
|490|
Shorty after the bombng, KFOR, Channe 4 n Okahoma Cty receved a ca from
the Naton of Isam, takng credt for the bombng. Interestngy, the NOI has been
drecty funded by Lbya.
The )ost1s |ack Anderson added that a drect attack aganst the U.S. woud be
unkey, and that counter-terrorst anaysts feared that the ony vabe avenue for
Hussen's revenge woud be through the use of terrorsm. "A preferabe revenge for
Iraq woud nvove havng a 'surrogate terrorst' carry out a domestc attack that
Hussen coud prvatey take credt for.
Accordng to Dr. Laure Myroe, Ph.D., a Mdde East expert at the Center for
Securty Pocy, and an authorty on the Word Trade Center bombng, Iraq agents
such as Ramz Yousef had nftrated the orgna Word Trade Center ce, resutng
n the constructon of a more powerfu, sophstcated bomb.
Dr. Myroe noted that on September 27, 1994, as Iraq troops tested Amercan
resove by preparng a new assaut aganst Kuwat, Saddam Hussen decared: "We
w open the storehouses of the unverse" aganst the Unted States. Two days
ater, $a+il - a newspaper n Iraq owned by Saddam's son, Uday - ampfed,
sayng: "Does the Unted States reaze the meanng of openng the stores of the
word wth the w of Iraq peope?...Does t reaze the meanng of every Iraq
becomng a msse that can cross to countres and ctes?"
|491|
Myroe notes that there may be other Iraq ntegence agents at arge n ths
country, known as "seepers," watng to carry out far more deady acts of revenge
aganst the U.S. One such ce, panted by the Abu Nda organzaton, was
dscovered n 1986. Four of ther Paestnan members were arrested eght years
ater after one of them murdered the daughter of an FBI agent.
|492|
On |anuary 28, 1991, the Washin%ton )ost reported:
If Saddam s serous about terrorzng Amercans at home, there are severa aes
he coud ca on for hep. The most dangerous terrorst Organzaton n the word,
the Abu Nda organzaton, now based n Baghdad, has a rudmentary
nfrastructure of about 50 peope n the Unted States. A of them, accordng to FBI
sources, are under surveance..
"Among the terrorsts who are takng or woud take orders from Saddam," added
the )ost, "are Abu Ibrahm, a poneer bomb maker who desgned the barometrc
pressure bomb that bew up Pan Am Fght 103, and Ahmed |br, who
mastermnded the Pan Am bombng on a contract from Iran."
|493|
144
Ironcay, U.S. nterventons abroad have permtted the entry nto Amerca of
extremst and even terrorst organzatons that have subsequenty ganed
foothods n ethnc communtes across the country. Texas and Okahoma, n fact,
are ma|or centers of Isamc actvtes n the U.S.
Steven Emerson was quoted on CBS Evenng News as sayng, "Okahoma Cty, I
can te you, s probaby consdered one of the argest centers of Isamc radca
actvty outsde the Mdde East."
|494|
Emerson chronced the rse of radca Isam n Amerca n a 1994 PBS documentary
whch showed how fundamentasts had aunched a recrutng campagn across the
md- and southwest. An Okahoma Cty meetng n 1988 was attended by members
of Hamas (Isamc Resstance Movement), Isamc |had (Hoy War) and the Musm
Brotherhood, each notorous for ther sponsorshp of terrorsm. The meetng was
hed ony bocks from the Federa Budng.
As Stephen |ones stated n hs March 25th Wrt of Mandamus:
The Murrah Budng was chosen ether because of ack of securty (.e. t was a
"soft target"), or because of avaabe resources such as Iraq POWs who had been
admtted nto the Unted States were ocated n Okahoma Cty, or possby
because the ocaton of the budng was mportant to Amercan neo-Nazs such as
those ndvduas who supported Rchard Sne who was executed n Arkansas on
Apr 19, 1995..
Secret workshops have reportedy been hed n the U.S., where HzbAah and
Hamas members have been taught bomb makng technques and sma arms
practce. HzbAah, the Iranan-sponsored and Syran-backed "Party of God," s
beeved to be behnd a seres of bombngs n |uy of 1994 that took 117 ves n
Argentna, Panama, and Brtan. HzbAah s the same Lebanon-based terrorst
group that perpetrated the October 1983 bombng of the U.S. Marne barracks n
Berut.
|495|
The most notorous U.S. terrorst ce was n |ersey Cty, ed by Shek Omar Abde-
Rahman, the group responsbe for pottng the destructon of the UN budng and
the Hoand Tunne. Three of Rahman's foowers were convcted for bombng the
Word Trade Center. One of ther eaders, E-Sayyd Nosar, speed out hs pans to
terrorze the Unted States: "We have to thoroughy demoraze the enemes of
God.. by means of destroyng and bowng up the towers that consttute the
pars of ther cvzaton such as the tourst attractons they are so proud of and
the hgh budngs they are so proud of."
|496|
Another nfuenta fgure n Isamc radca crces - Shek Mohammad a-As, the
regous eader of the Isamc Educaton Center n Potomac, Maryand, was quoted
on PBS as sayng:
145
"If the Amercans are pacng ther forces n the Persan Guf, we shoud be creatng
another war front for the Amercans n the Musm word - and specfcay where
Amercan nterests are concentrated. In Egypt, n Turkey, n the Indan
subcontnent, |ust to menton a few. Strke aganst Amercan nterests there."
Whe the Arab underground structure n the U.S. s generay based on the PLO,
not a of ts members are Paestnan. Many may emgrate from Iran, Iraq, Syra,
Sudan, and Lbya, the fve natons most often connected wth terrorsm. Accordng
to former Israe ntegence offcer Wam Northrop, the orgna PLO structure
shfted n 1991, after the PLO/Israe peace process began. As Northrop wrtes:
The Texas Ce s based n Houston and s supported by severa sub-ces, one of
whch s based n Okahoma Cty. Ths Texas Ce was ted nto the Word Trade
Center bombng on 26 February 1993.
The Okahoma Cty sub-ce orgnated wth the Paestnan students who were sent
from varous Arab countres to study Petroeum Engneerng at OU n Norman. (the
current Deputy Petroeum Mnster of Iran s an OU graduate.)
|497|
Ther members may aso come from a broader phosophc meu, and unke the
PLO, have a wder range of targets, ncudng not ony Israe, but secuar regmes n
Musm countres and those states that support them.
Notes Mdde East anayst |ames Phps: "Because they are motvated by
apocayptc zea, and not sober potca cacuatons, ther choce of possbe
targets s much wder and more ndscrmnate than that of other terrorsts."
|498|
The goa of ths new breed of terrorst was not amed at nfuencng U.S. or word
opnon over the Paestnan ssue, but to prove the strength of the Musm
fundamentast cause. As former Daas Speca Agent n Charge Over "Buck"
Reve sad:
"...If you sten to what |the Isamc extremst terrorsts| are reay sayng, they're
not |ust amed at the Israes, they are not |ust amed at the |ewsh state. Ther
goas are competey and totay to eradcate any opposton to Hamas and to Isam
and to move aganst the Unted States utmatey."
|499|
Obvousy, these |ournasts and experts hadn't deveoped ther theores n a
vacuum. The evdence was cear, and the warnngs were mmnent. Aan Denhan
wrote n AS) Newsletter that a |ordanan Integence offca had passed a "target
st" to an Amercan busnessman two months pror to the bombng, and the
Murrah Budng was on that st. Athough ths nformaton s unconfrmed, t makes
perfect sense, snce |ordan has a ong-standng ntegence reatonshp wth the
CIA.
In March of 1995, Israe's Shn Bet (Genera Securty Servces, Israe's equvaent to
the FBI), arrested approxmatey 10 Hamas terrorsts n |erusaem, some of whom
146
had recenty returned from a trp to Ft. Lauderdae, Forda. Accordng to Northrop,
nterrogaton of those suspects was thought to have reveaed nformaton
concernng the pot to bomb the Murrah Budng. "The Shn Bet fed a warnng
wth the Lega Attach (FBI) at the Amercan Embassy n Te Avv as a matter of
course," wrote Northrop.
|500|
On Apr 20, the Israe newspaper 'ediot Arhonot wrote:
Yesterday, t was made known that over the ast few days, U.S. aw enforcement
agences had receved ntegence nformaton orgnatng n the Mdde East,
warnng of a arge terrorst attack on U.S. so. No aert was sounded as a resut of
ths nformaton.
|501|
Northrop aso sad that the German Bundesnachrchtendenst (BND, the equvaent
of the Amercan CIA), aso sent a warnng to the U.S. State Department. That was
foowed by a warnng from the Sauds. "A Saud Ma|or Genera. nformed former
CIA Counterterrorsm Chef Vnce Cannstraro, who n turn nformed the FBI. There
s a 302 (FBI report) n exstence."
|502|
The agent Cannstraro passed the nformaton to was Kevn L. Foust, one of the
FBI's eadng counterterrorsm agents. Ironcay, the nformaton was gven to
Foust on the same day as the bombng.
Accordng to the nformaton obtaned by Stephen |ones, the Saud Araban
Integence Servce reported that Iraq had hred seven Pakstan mercenares -
Afghan War veterans known as the Mu|ahadeen - to bomb targets n the U.S.,
one of whch was the Afred P. Murrah Budng. They aso advsed the FBI that - as
s often the case - the true dentty of the sponsor may not have been reveaed to
the bombers.
|503|
Interestngy, Northrop stated that three Israes were n Okahoma +efore the Apr
19th attack to .kee* an eye on thin%s0. Av Lpkn and Wam Northrop were two
such ndvduas.
|504|
In addton to these warnngs - as we as the mghty armada of U.S. ntegence
agences, anaysts, and surveance technoogy whch woud have undoubtedy
been montorng the stuaton - at east one oca nformant tred to warn
authortes n advance. Hs warnngs went unheeded.
The 2r,g Connection ;nformant
After the bombng, Cary Gagan stepped forward to te |ones that he had been
present at a meetng of bombng consprators ncudng Mdde-Easterners,
Caucasans, and Hspancs whch took pace n Henderson, Nevada.
|505|
In depostons and ntervews wth |ones and n numerous ntervews wth the
author, the government nformant and former drug courer descrbed a number of
147
meetngs at the Sovet Embassy n Mexco Cty. In 1980, the Sovets asked Gagan
to assst them n procurng mtary secrets from Dan Howard, a contact of Gagan's
who worked at Martn Maretta, a arge defense contractor n Waterton, Coorado.
The Sovets had been watchng Howard. Gagan was a frend. He nformed the FBI.
|506|
In |une of 1986, the Sovets agan asked Gagan's hep - ths tme, to assst ega
Iranan mmgrants needng fase IDs. The sma-tme huster and counterfeter met
hs contact, a man named "Hamd" who worked at Stapeton Internatona Arport
n Denver, and secrety recorded the conversaton. He turned the tapes over to FBI
Agent B Maten, and Kenny Vasquez of the Denver Poce Integence Bureau.
|507|
The 51-year-od government nformant supported hmsef by ferryng Cocane
between Mexco and Coorado for Coombans posng as Mexcans, vng n Denver.
It was through hs assocaton wth these Coombans that Gagan met "Omar" and
"Ahmed," n Las Vegas n March of '94.
"They tred to frst pay themseves off as Coombans, " sad Gagan "but I knew
they were Iranans. or Mdde-Easterners. They were mut-ngua, wth bg-tme
fundng.
It was at ths meetng that the drug deaer earned he was to transport kos of
cocane from Mexco to Denver. He nformed DEA Agent Robert Todd Gregory. "I
tod Gregory ths dude ooked ke a banker to me. They had heavy cash. They took
care of me. They had a knds of connectons."
On May 16, 1994, Gagan met hs new contacts at the Western Mote n Las Vegas,
where hs brother worked as a pt-boss. There were eght men at the meetng, fve
of whom were Mdde Eastern, ncudng Omar and Ahmed. "Two of them ddn't say
a word," recaed Gagan, "but they ooked ke Coombans to me - you know,
Latn."
One of the Mdde Easterners was from Okahoma Cty. He appeared to be the
eader. The Eghth man was Terry Nchos. In a sworn deposton, Gagan tod
McVegh's attorney:
9agan: "I met wth some Arabs, and n that group, and I dd not know t at the
tme, but n that group was Nchos."
<ones: "Terry?"
9agan: "Terry Nchos."
|508|
Gagan frst recaed seeng Nchos n the parkng ot of a bngo paror the men had
stopped at. "He was wearng a pad, short seeve shrt and dockers.. I remember
gong, 'That's knd of a drty ookn' dude.' That's a I sad. I thought, you know, he
ddn't ft n the pcture here. He ooked ke a scentst."
|509|
148
The men snorted cocane at the Western Mote and dscussed ther pans, then
drove to an apartment compex n Henderson caed the Payer's Cub. It s not
known whom they met wth. As far as Gagan knew, they were a there to dscuss
drug deang. It wasn't exacty cear what the Coombans were dong wth the
Arabs.
|510|*
Gagan woud soon fnd out though. Omar and Ahmed, who had been payng Gagan
wth counterfet money (mosty counterfet Iranan $100 bs), wanted hm to take
part n a pot to bow up a federa budng n Denver, usng a ma truck packed
wth exposves.
"I was gong to be part of t because I coud move through. because I'm Ango and
I'm a U.S. ctzen and, you know, I woudn't draw attenton.. I'm n and out of that
federa budng every day."
The truck, purchased from a government aucton, was panted to resembe a
workng ma truck. On |anuary 14, 1995, Gagan pcked up the truck at the Metro
Bar & Gr and drove t to the Marott Hote, |ust outsde of Goden, Coorado.
"Omar came out wth me, showed me where the truck was, and sad, '|ust get n t
and drve down I-70, and here's where you park t. And as soon as you make the
devery, make ths ca..' And I gave the FBI the pay phone number sayng t was
there. And I stayed n there and had a drnk - n the bar, and came wakng out,
and the sucker was gone."
Gagan says he taked to the FBI duty agent from a pay phone at 9th and Logan for
over 35 mnutes. "I sad 'Hey, I need you to te what to do here.' And they never
caed back."
In the back of the truck were approxmatey thrty duffe bags of ammonum ntrate
marked "U.S. ma," and boxes from Sandex Exposves |n Las Vegas| marked
"Hgh Exposves."
Gagan boarded a bus and went home. He sad the agents never showed up.
"Can you magne f I'm drvng ths truck and t bows up n the cty of Denver?"
sad an ncreduous Gagan.
Aso n the back of the truck was a Ley farm mxer. Gagan recas that t was
approxmatey four feet hgh, two feet across, and "shaped ke a damond."
Interestngy, ths was the same descrpton gven by wtness Davd Kng. Kng, who
was stayng at the Dreamand Mote n |uncton Cty - where McVegh stayed -
saw a Ryder truck wth a traer attached to t n the parkng ot on Apr 17. Insde
the traer was an ob|ect secured by a canvas tarp. "It was a squarsh shape, and t
came to a pont on top," sad Kng. "It was about three or four feet hgh."
149
In |une, Gagan dscovered pastc exposves n an athetc bag packed wth cocane
he was to dever to Denver. The bag, Omar sad, was to be eft at the Posta
Center, a shppng and recevng facty owned by George Coombo, who aso
operated a Ryder truck easng center across the street. A frend of Gagan's,
Coombo woud occasonay et hm stay at an apartment he mantaned when
thngs got too heavy.
|511|
Thngs were defntey gettng heavy for Gagan. When the casua cocane user
decded to open the bag and hep hmsef to a tte "bow," he dscovered pastc
exposves wrapped n brown paper. "And I'm thnkng, '|esus, how the he dd ths
get by the arport'? So I packed t up, and I'm thnkng, 'I'm gong to the feds,'
because you know. I'm a feon, ths s C-4. I'm gong |down| forever."
Gagan asked Coombo to hod the bag for hm. He then caed the Denver Poce
Integence Bureau and met them at a Burger Kng n Aurora. Gagan sat n the
unmarked car, as hs frend By, a cab drver, watched from nearby.
"I sad, 'Look, there's some C-4.' I'm feeng them out. I gve them some names,
you know, what the dea was n Las Vegas. I te them I'm n contact wth the DEA
- Robert Gregory and a that. They don't say anythng. Ths s |une, md-|une of
'94. They say they' get back to me."
Three weeks ater, after contactng the FBI, the poce caed Gagan back. "They
te me quote, 'Snce you're the source of the nformaton Gagan, we're not gong
to nvestgate.'"
Gagan then caed Gregory at the DEA. Gregory tod Gagan, "Hey, we can't take
you on.'"
The nformant cams he contnuay chaenged the poce and the FBI to charge
hm f hs nformaton was fase. "If a ths was a bg e, they coud have charged
me wth yng, but they ddn't."
Whe the FBI and the Denver Poce were debatng the merts of Gagan's
credbty, Omar pcked up the bag from Coombo and eft.
Three months ater, n September, Gagan was approached by Omar and Ahmed
agan. "They sad 'It's gong to nvove terrorsm, do you have a probem wth that?'
I sad 'no.' I asked them, 'What knd of money are we ookng at?' They sad 'a
quarter of a mon doars.' I sad 'up front?' They sad 'Yes.'
Gagan accepted the money, whch he beeves was pad out of the Ca Carte. "The
FBI knew t," sad Gagan. "They never got back to me."
Were Latn Amercan drug deaers consprng wth Arab terrorsts to bow up the
Federa Budng? Sad 25-year DEA veteran agent Mke Levne: "When you
consder terrorst actons ke TWA 800 (or Okahoma Cty), and you omt any drug
150
traffckng nvovement, t's nsane - t doesn't make any sense.. You know you
take for exampe two years or three years ago the La Banca pane that was bown
out of the sky - t was attrbuted to drug traffckers. I can thnk rght off the top of
my head of another case n Coomba of a pane bown up wth a ot of passengers
to k one person, and probaby many, many more."
Levne, a hghy decorated DEA agent, and the DEA's former Argentne Staton
Chef, tod me that countres such as Bova, Paraguay, and Coomba are fu of
Arabs dong busness wth Latnos, ncudng drug deang. "The frst thng you have
to keep n mnd s that drug traffckng s now a haf a tron doar busness
around the thrd-word," sad Levne, "and t's many a thrd-word busness. The
top drug traffckers around the word have more power than presdents. The
Mu|ahadeen for nstance, whch we supported, were aways top heron smuggers.
They were rated one, two and three by DEA as a source, and they rght now
support every Musm fundamentast movement on the face of the earth.."
|512|
The parae may be more than specuatve. Shorty after the bombng, on May 8,
Tusa poce veteran Crag Roberts receved nformaton from a aw enforcement
source n Texas that "|uan Garca Abrego was nvoved n the bombng as a 'cash
provder' for the event. The source sad that Abrego had sent two Mexcan
natonas to Okahoma Cty wth a satche fu of cash to fnance the bombng."
Abrego was a Mexcan Mafa cheftan nvoved n the cocane and heron traffckng
through Mexco from Guadaa|ara to Texas. He aegedy was the ground
transportaton nk durng the Iran-Contra/Mena affar.
Ths nformaton was forwarded to both the FBI and the DEA who were asked for
each to check ther fes and/or computers, usng varous spengs, to see f they
had heard of such an ndvdua. Nether reped back that they had knowedge and
no further acton was taken..
|513|
Consderng the FBI's apparent ack of knowedge, s curous that Abrego was at
the top of the FBI's "Ten Most Wanted" st snce March, a month before the
bombng and amost two months before Robert's orgna nqury.
It seemed the FBI's ack of nterest n Robert's nformaton was suspcousy smar
to ther ack of nterest n Gagan's.
|514|
What s aso nterestng s that ther frst
effort to dscredt Gagan - a drug runner on the perphery of the Iran-Contra drug
network - concded wth the Iran-Contra affar becomng pubc.
|515|*
"In my opnon, peope were pad massve amounts of dope to carry ths thng out,"
sad Gagan. The nformant's beef that he was pad by the Ca Carte may be
sgnfcant n ght of Robert's nformaton that Abrego funneed money to the
bombng consprators.
Was the FBI's attempt to repudate the Mdde Eastern connecton ted to ther
refusa to ook at the Abrego ead?
151
As Levne sad: "The mnute you start takng about terrorst actons, and you
emnate drug traffckng, we, then. you're |ust not credbe. It's |ust very
unreastc to ook at a stuaton - any terrorst stuaton - and not ook at a drug
traffckng ange anymore. In my opnon, and I thnk there's penty of
substantaton eventhough the government won't tak about t, you can say, ths
vast ocean of money traveng around the word - ega untapped money - pays
for an enormous amount of terrorst actvty."
If the Ca Carte and Gagan's Arabs were connected, and n turn ted to a tentace
of the Iran-Contra Octopus through Abrego, t's ony natura that the FBI - whch
payed ts own roe n coverng up Iran-Contra - woud tend to ook the other way.
In spte of the FBI's apparent refusa to act on Gagan's nformaton, and ther
subsequent attempts to dscredt hm, on September 14, 1994, Gagan was granted
a Letter of Immunty by the U.S. Attorneys Offce n Denver. The mmunty was
arranged through Federa Pubc Defender Raymond Moore.
|516|
(See Appendx)
The nformant was tod to stay wth the group and report back to the Bureau. On
March 17, Gagan met wth hs Arab frends at the Hton Inn South n Greenwood
Vage, Coorado. On the ta+le were the construction *lans for the Alfred )0 Murrah
$uildin%/ +earin% the name J0W0 $ateson !om*any of "allas/ Te#as.
St, Gagan aeges that federa agents ddn't foow up on any of hs eads.
"I knew, when they dd not contact me after the truck. when I was movng
exposves, I knew somethng was up. I knew. I fgured from that pont on, wthout
a doubt, they had a government agent n ths rng. Because they cannot et me do
that type of stuff.
"And then, after the March 17th meetng, I wated for them to contact me, because
I |ust had a feeng that the dude that had come up |from Okahoma Cty| - the
new guy on the scene there - was an agent. The way he acted and taked. I |ust
fet dfferent than I dd around the other dudes.. That's |ust my persona
feeng."
|517|
Dd the feds gnore Gagan's warnngs because they had ther own agent n the
bombng ce and wanted to obtan more nformaton to "stng" the bombers ater
on? Gagan beeves ths s a possbty. Yet whe Gagan had the opton of pung
out, he reazed t woud be too rsky to suddeny dsappear from the scene. Omar
and Ahmed were watchng hm.
On Apr 4, 1995, Omar pued up at the Western Mote n Las Vegas, where
Gagan's brother worked. "Come on," sad Omar to a somewhat started Gagan, "I
want you to drve wth me to Kngman."
The two men then drove to Arzona, where they devered a package to a man
watng on the corner of Northern and Serra, wearng a cowboy hat and drvng a
152
rusty brown pck-up. Coud ths mystery fgure have been Steven Garrett Cobern,
who owned the brown pck-up seen stopped ahead of McVegh when he was pued
by Trooper Hanger over after the bombng? The descrpton of the man matched
Cobern's heght and bud. But Gagan dd not know who he was at the tme, or
what was n the package.
On the way home, Gagan recaed Omar sayng, "we're takng down a budng n
two weeks."
|518|
On March 27 and 28, Gagan made over fve cas to the U.S. Marshas Offce. None
were ever returned. Agent Mark Hotsaw of the FBI's Domestc Counter terrorsm
Squad, tod me, "I can assure you that any nfo was thoroughy checked out..
There are thngs that go on n the background that the ndvdua s not aware of."
But, Hotsaw added, "there s no statutory obgaton to get back to an ndvdua
regardng our nvestgaton and ts status."
|519|
Gagan doesn't buy Hotsaw's expanaton. The FBI's procedures regardng
nformants requre that they be controed and supervsed. "How do you nvestgate
a thng f you don't contact me?" asked Gagan. "So they ether had another agent
or another nformant nsde the group."
Gagan was gettng nowhere wth the Marshas, the U.S. Attorneys, and the FBI. It
was now ess than two weeks before the bombng. On Apr 6, Gagan drafted a
etter and devered t to Tna Rowe, head of the U.S. Marshas Offce n Denver.
Whe Gagan wated outsde, hs cab drver frend dropped t off. The etter read:
Dear Ms. Rowe:
After eavng Denver for what I thought woud be for a ong tme, I returned here
ast nght because I have specfc nformaton that wthn two weeks a federa
budng(s) s to be bombed n ths area or nearby. The prevous requests I made
for you to contact me, 25th & 28th of March 1995 were gnored by you, Mr. Ason
and my frends at the FBI. I woud not gnore the specfc request for you personay
to contact me mmedatey regardng a pot to bow-up a federa bdg. If the
nformaton s fase request Mr. Ason to charge me accordngy. If you and/or your
offce does not contact me as I so request heren, I w never agan contact any aw
enforcement agency, federa or state, regardng those matters set out n the etter
of mmunty.
|520|
Cary Gagan.
Ca 832-4091 (Now)
Rowe dd not respond. When she was confronted by KFOR-TV n Okahoma Cty,
she sad that she had never receved Gagan's etter. (See Appendx)
153
Yet Gagan's frend gave New American edtor B |asper a sgned affdavt showng
that he personay devered the warnng to the U.S. Marshas.
|521|
Accordng to Rowe, the pont s moot, because the coege graduate and former
pubc schoo teacher has a hstory of "psychoogca probems." It seems that
Gagan was sent to the Coorado State Menta Hospta n September of 1986 by Dr.
Erwn Levy, at the behest of the feds.
|522|*
"That was because I wasn't cooperatng wth my attorney," he sad, referrng to a
1986 theft case n Arapahoe County. "You te somebody you're nvoved n
esponage wth the Sovets, and that's what they do, send you down to the |ames
Bond ward."
|523|
Accordng to Gagan, the Coorado State Menta Hospta's Dr. Green pronounced
Gagan sane, and he seemed eve-headed when Representatve Key and I
ntervewed hm n March of '97.
Others thnk the nformant sn't reabe. A frend of Gagan's who's known hm for
30 years tod me he thnks Gagan's "fu of sht," and "not n touch wth reaty."
Another, a Federa Pubc Defender who represented Gagan, tod me, "Cary has an
encycopedc memory, of events, paces and tmes." She sad that Gagan was
"brght |and| we-ntentoned," athough she added, "My gut sense s that the pure
facts may be rght, but I sometmes questoned the ega sgnfcance of some of
t." Overa, she sad she "ked" the nformant.
|524||525|
Moreover, f Rowe's aegatons regardng Gagan's credbty are vad, why then
dd U.S. Attorney Henry Soano grant hm a Letter of Immunty? If the feds thought
Gagan was ncompetent, they had a fu decade of experence wth hm |as dd the
Denver Poce| from whch to estabsh hs credbty or ack thereof.
"If I had a hstory of menta ness," expaned Gagan, "they coudn't take me on as
an nformant."
The feds' opnons may have stemmed from a 1983 ncdent where the nformant
was backsted by the DEA due to aegatons he provded fase nformaton to the
beneft of severa drug deaers. Yet Gagan cams he redeemed hmsef by
obtanng senstve DEA-6 fes that had been stoen from ther offce. Gagan sad
the DEA noted the nformant's assstance on hs record.
|526|*
Then n 1986, whe Gagan was n |a for nsurance fraud, he was vsted by Kenny
Vasquez, B Maten, and two FBI agents: Php Mann and Staney Mer. They
offered to get hm eary reease f he woud work agan as an nformant. Gagan
decned. "They wanted to take me out of |a, and brng me back at nght," sad
Gagan. "I Ddn't want any part of t."
154
In |anuary of 1989, Agents Mer and Mann agan asked Gagan to assst them n a
|ont FBI/Customs counterntegence stng operaton known as Operaton Aspen
Leaf. Ther nterest centered on one Edward Bodenzayer, a Sovet spy whom
Gagan had met n Puerto Vaerta n 1982. Bodenzayer had been exportng
cassfed technoogy to Russa through hs mport/export company.
Fnay, on September 14, 1994, the |ustce Department granted Gagan hs
mmunty. The agreement, prnted on an offca U.S. |ustce Department
etterhead, read |n part|:
Ths etter s to memoraze the agreement between you and the Unted States of
Amerca, by the undersgned Assstant Unted States Attorney. The terms of ths
agreement are as foows:
1. You have contacted the U.S. Marshas Servce on today's date ndcatng that
you have nformaton concernng a conspracy and/or attempt to destroy Unted
States court factes n |redacted| and possby other ctes.
2. The Unted States agrees that any statement and/or nformaton that you
provde reevant to ths conspracy/conspraces or attempts w not be used
aganst you n any crmna proceedng. Further, the Unted States agrees that no
evdence derved from the nformaton or statements provded by you w be used
n any way aganst you....
|527|
In spte of the senstve nature of Gagan's nformaton, and the Letter of Immunty,
"In the perod of one year, from September 14, 1994, to the frst week of
September, 1995," sad Gagan, "not one agent recontacted me, not one U.S.
offca of any knd recontacted me except |FBI SAC| Dave Shepard n Vegas."
Naturay, the FBI dened any wrongdong.
Assstant U.S. Attorney |ames Ason was quoted n the August 12, 1995 ssue of
the Rocky Mountain News as sayng, "Why woud I grant somebody mmunty and
then not speak wth hm?"
When ths author contacted Ason, he sad, "I'm not gong to dscuss who s or
who sn't a federa nformant."
Yet U.S. Attorney Henry Soano, Ason's boss, granted an ntervew wth Lawrence
Myers of Media $y*ass magazne, voatng the nformant's confdentaty
agreement, pacng Gagan n danger. In the October, 1995 ssue, Myers prnted
Gagan's etter whch had been hand devered to U.S. Marsha Tna Rowe. When
Myers reprnted the etter - whch was faxed to hm by Soano - "Apr 6" was
changed to "Apr 1," a weekend, n an attempt to show that Gagan coudn't
possby have devered the warnng. It s not cear whether Soano or Myers
changed the date.
155
Dscharged from a menta hospta n 1980 wth a personaty dsorder, Myers was
convcted of extorton n 1985 and was ater asked by FBI Agent Steve Brannon to
work as an nformant. Myers dened workng for the FBI.
Yet n 1991 he showed up at the tra of Leroy Moody, workng as an "exposves
expert" on behaf of the defense. Curousy, he then turned around and fed
confdenta nformaton to the FBI and the state prosecutor.
|528|
Interestngy, Myers camed to have worked for the CIA n Centra Amerca,
apparenty at the behest of Wackenhut, a CIA propretary nfamous for gatherng
ntegence on U.S. ctzens. Even more nterestngy, he wrote severa books on
exposves for Paadn Press, another CIA propretary, ncudng !ounter+om+/
Smart $om+s, and (m*roed Radio "etonation Techni9ues. One Myers tte, caed
S*ycomm, nstructs readers on the "drty trcks of the trade" regardng "covert
communcaton technques."
Myers aso showed up at ex-spook Chares Hayes' home n London, Kentucky on
the premse of wrtng a fatterng story on the CIA agent turned whste-bower.
Hayes subsequenty wound up n |a on a murder conspracy charge - a charge he
adamanty denes.
Hayes says he thnks that Myers was workng for the government when he came to
Kentucky to wrte a fatterng profe of Hayes for the magazne Media $y*ass, then
prvatey tod FBI agents that Hayes was ookng for someone to k hs son.
|529|
Were Soano and Myers part of a coordnated effort to dscredt Gagan? Sad a
prvate nvestgator and retred Army CID offcer regardng Myers: "I got the
mpresson he was probaby Counterntegence. |ust by knowng these parts. The
peope he mentoned - the peope he knew - tod me that he was probaby n the
C.I.C. (Counterntegence Corps) at one tme."
|530|
Conetta Wamson, an nvestgator for the Tennessee Attorney Genera's offce,
descrbed Myers n court testmony as "a professona and pathoogca ar."
|531|
Myers aso wrote a pece about Federa Grand |uror Hoppy Hedeberg, the ony
grand |uror who dared queston the government's ne. In fact, Hedeberg never
consented to be ntervewed by Myers, who had obtaned the content of a
prveged attorney/cent ntervew of Hedeberg surrepttousy. The nformaton
was then crafted nto an "ntervew" and pubshed n Media $y*ass, utmatey
resutng n Hedeberg's dsmssa from the grand |ury.
It seemed that Myers, usng Media $y*ass as a cover, had managed to put a
government whste-bower n |a, dscredt a federa nformant who had
embarrassng nformaton mpcatng the government n the bombng, and cause
the dsmssa of a troubesome grand |uror.
156
If the feds were so ntent on dscredtng ther own nformant, why had they
granted hm a Letter of Immunty? Not ony dd Soano grant Gagan mmunty, but
the nformant had retaned t for a fu 17 months. If Gagan was actuay
ncompetent, why ddn't Soano revoke the mmunty nstead of ettng Gagan
contnue workng wth terrorsts?
"It doesn't make much sense does t?" sad Gagan.
|532|
It appears that the |ustce Department had granted Cary Gagan mmunty so they
woudn't ook bad. After a, Gagan had aready nformed Dave Foyd at the U.S.
Marshas offce n September about the meetng wth Omar and Ahmed.
The cat was out of the bag.
Gagan beeves he was granted the Letter of Immunty as part of a more snster
scheme - a pan to aow hm to proceed wth the bombng pot unhndered - at
whch pont the Letter of Immunty was revoked.
"What f at that tme I was tod to go n and get mmunty by the terrorsts, and
somebody workng wth the terrorsts. ke the U.S. Government?" sad Gagan. "I
can't get prosecuted, can I? |The terrorsts| knew that they woud gve me a Letter
of Immunty and they knew that the FBI woud cut me oose. So what's that enabe
them to do? If there needs to be somethng moved, and I'm the one that's movng
t, I can't be prosecuted. I can hau as much sht as I want, and I have mmunty, as
ong as I ca the FBI, and et them know."
As a Forda poce detectve who's nvestgated connectons between Arab-
Amercans, the PLO, and the Ca Carte tod me, "Who has the best route for
gettng somethng across? Drug deaers."
|533|
Was Cary Gagan part of some snster pot by the feds? Or was he merey used as a
"mue," aowng the terrorsts to move money, drugs, and exposves whe another
government agent montored the stuaton from wthn? Perhaps the new man from
Okahoma Cty who appeared on the scene n March?
Was Cary Gagan a "throwaway?"
Reca that Gagan had transported a duffe-bag fed wth C-4 and cocane, and
had drven a truck aden wth exposves across the state at the behest of hs
terrorst frends. He cams the FBI dd nothng to stop hm.
"You got to understand somethng here," sad Gagan. "Federa aw *rohi+its me
from dong what I was dong. You cannot go out as an nformant - I'm not an
agent - I cannot take drugs and exposves from pont A to pont B.."
Yet t seems that permttng the nformant to commt such ega acts woud focus
more ght on the government's roe - whether t nvoved foreknowedge or an
157
actua conspracy - as Gagan began to go pubc wth hs story. But Gagan, who
beeves he was schedued to be "termnated" after the bombng, dsagrees. The
nformant dspayed medca records showng that he was bady beaten, and cams
to have been the vctm of a drve-by shootng.
|534|
Whatever the case, t s nterestng to note that authortes aeged that the
bombng conspracy began n September of 1994, the same month that Gagan
receved hs Letter of Immunty and began nformng the FBI.
On Apr 10, four days after he devered the warnng etter to Tna Rowe, Gagan
receved a note nstructng hm to appear at the aw brary of the U.S. Courthouse.
"I |ust gave the U.S. Marshas a bombng warnng," sad Gagan. "They ddn't ca
me back. I had to go somewhere to cover my ass. I came back, I got a note sayng,
'We need to see you; come to the U.S. Law Lbrary.' I thought t was the U.S.
Marshas or the FBI."
When Gagan arrved at the aw brary, he met hs contact: an "athetc ookng
dude, 40s, short har," dressed n a bue Nke cap and |umpsut. "I get there and
say, 'Hey, you got the sht?' He sad, 'Hey, we've got everythng taken care of. We
need you to do ths..'"
The man was not one of Gagan's Arab frends. "He was government," sad Gagan.
"He was probaby CIA."
The mysterous fgure asked Gagan to drve a traer to |uncton Cty, Kansas. In the
traer was the same Ley mxer that Gagan had drven to Goden on |anuary 14.
Ths mxer - the one that was drven to the Marott at the behest of an Arab
terrorst - was now on ts way to |uncton Cty at the request of a government
agent!
The date was now Apr 11, three days before Tmothy McVegh checked nto the
Dreamand Mote n |uncton Cty. As prevousy mentoned, Davd Kng, who was
stayng at the Dreamand, recaed seeng a Ryder truck wth a traer attached to t
n the parkng ot on Apr 17. The traer contaned a "squarsh ob|ect about three
or four feet hgh that came to a pont on top," secured by a canvas tarp. Ths was
the exact descrpton Gagan gave of the Ley mxer.
|535|
On Apr 13 Gagan drove to Okahoma Cty, he sad, to case the Murrah Budng.
Three days ater, Gagan says he drove a van from Denver to Trndad, Coorado,
that was pcked up by Omar and Ahmed.
Accordng to Gagan, t wasn't unt three months after the bombng, n |uy of '95,
that Las Vegas FBI Agent Dave Shepard agreed to meet hm. "We're sttng n the
car behnd the Sahara, and Shepard tes me we're not nterested n pursung the
ead."
|536|*
158
That ead - was the two Arab suspects seen runnng from the Murrah Budng
towards a ate mode brown Chevy pck-up mnutes before the bast - the same
suspects that the FBI had ssued an A Ponts Buetn (APB) for on Apr 19:
".Mdde-Eastern maes 25-28 years of age, sx feet ta, athetc bud, Dark har
and a beard - dark har and a beard. Break."
|537|
"And these two Mdde Eastern dudes that were seen runnng from the scene -
that's the same descrpton I had gven," sad Gagan. "Gray n the beard, you know
- Omar and Ahmed - to the FBI. on September 14."
Gagan had provded that nformaton to the FBI si# months +efore the bombng.
After the bombng, Gagan contacted Soano and sad, "Isn't that amazng. You
know, these are the |same| two dudes.."
In a etter to Gagan dated February 1, 1996, Soano and Ason wrote:
Attempts by federa aw enforcement offcers to meanngfuy corroborate
nformaton you have aeged to be true have been unsuccessfu.... Therefore, the
mmunty granted by the etter of September 14, 1994 s hereby revoked..
You are warned that any statement you make whch woud ncrmnate you n
ega conduct, past, present or future can be used aganst you. You are no onger
protected by the mmunty granted by etter on September 14, 1994.
Reca that after ATF nformant Caro Howe had reveaed that her knowedge of the
bombng pot was reported to federa authortes +efore Apr 19, they tred to
dscredt her, camng that she was "unstabe," |ust as they had done wth Gagan.
Whe they revoked Gagan's Letter of Immunty, they ndcted Howe on spurous
charges.
Howe aso reported a subsequent bombng pot by neo-Naz actvsts, but, ke
Gagan's warnngs both before and after the bombng, she camed her cas weren't
returned.
|538|
Interestngy, Howe was aso tod by her ATF hander, Angea Fney-Graham, not to
report her nformant payments, and was ed to beeve that her debrefngs were
not beng taped when they were. Both are a voaton of C.I. (Confdenta
Informant) procedures. Was ths a way to dscredt Howe n case they needed to
dstance themseves from her ater, as they attempted to do wth Gagan?
One year ater, Gagan fed a awsut aegng that numerous federa offcas had
faed to uphod ther agreement wth hm; faed to exercse proper procedures n
regards to the handng of an nformant; faed to nvestgate a terrorst conspracy
aganst the Amercan peope; faed to warn the pubc; and faed to propery
nvestgate the crme after t occurred.
159
It s not surprsng that offcas woudn't take Gagan's warnng serousy. On
December 5, 1988, a Paestnan named Samra Mahayoun warned authortes n
Hesnk that a Pan Am 747 eavng Frankfort was to bombed wthn two weeks.
|539|
Two weeks ater, on December 21, Pan Am fght 103 was bown out of the skes by
a terrorst's bomb. Two hundred and ffty-nne peope punged to ther deaths over
Lockerbe, Scotand, and 11 more ded on the ground.
State Department offca Frank Moss ater caed Mahayoun's warnng a "goush
concdence." Mahayoun, they camed, was |ust not credbe.
|540|*
Demonstratng the mts of absurdty the government w go to n order to cover
up ts compcty and neggence, the U.S. Marshas Servce was st nsstng -
after 169 peope ay dead n Okahoma - that Cary Gagan was st not credbe.
|541|*
Yet ths s not the frst tme the government has gnored vabe warnngs. Pror to
the Word Trade Center bombng, the FBI's pad nformant, Emad E Saem, had
penetrated Shek Omar Abde-Rahman's |ama a Isamya and had warned the FBI of
ther pans. The agent n charge of the case, |ohn Antcev, dsmssed the former
Egyptan Army Coone's warnngs, cang hm "unreabe." On February 26, 1993,
a arge bomb detonated underneath the twn towers, kng sx peope and n|urng
1,000 more.
At the same tme as "unreabe" peope ke Cary Gagan were warnng federa
authortes n Denver about the pendng attack, The Star 3ed%er, a Newark, New
|ersey newspaper, was reportng:
U.S. aw enforcement authortes have obtaned nformaton that Isamc terrorsts
may be pannng sucde attacks aganst federa courthouses and government
nstaatons n the Unted States.
The attacks, t s feared, woud be desgned to attract wordwde press attenton
through the murder of nnocent vctms. The Star 3ed%er has earned that U.S. aw
enforcement offcas have receved a warnng that a "fatwa," a regous rung
smar to the death sentence targetng author Saman Rushde, has been ssued
aganst federa authortes as a resut of an ncdent durng the tra ast year of
four persons n the bombng on the Word Trade Center n New York.
The dscosure was made n a confdenta memorandum ssued by the U.S.
Marshas Servce n Washngton cang for stepped-up securty at federa factes
throughout the naton..
Accordng to the source, Iranan-supported extremsts have made t cear that
steps are beng taken to strke at the "Great Satan," a phrase that has been used
to descrbe the Unted States.
160
Even more strenuous securty precautons are beng taken n New York, where 12
persons, ncudng the bnd fundamentast Shek Omar Abde-Rahman, are
currenty on tra on charges of consprng to wage a war of urban terrorsm aganst
the Unted States by bowng up the Unted Natons, FBI headquarters and the
tunnes between New York and New |ersey.
The memo, ssued by Eduardo Gonzaes, drector of the 20S0 Marshals Serice,
warns that attacks may be desgned to "target as many vctms as possbe and
draw as much meda coverage as possbe" to the fundamentast cause.
The terrorsts, possbe sucde bombers, w not engage n negotatons," the
memo warned, and sad "once the press s on the scene, the new pans ca for
bowng everyone up.
|542|
If that ast statement s true, t coud expan the presence of a box of exposves
found n the Murrah Budng wth a tmer on t set for ten mnutes after nne. The
nta bomb(s) bew up at two mnutes after nne.
The U.S. Marsha's Servce - the federa agency charged wth the task of
protectng federa factes - had cear warnng from at east two dfferent
undercover nformants. Why then was there no securty at the Murrah Budng on
Apr 19?
It was aso reported that the Israes, the Sauds, and the Kuwats a warned the
U.S. about an mpendng attack. Whatever the U.S. Marshas Servce fet about
Cary Gagan's warnng, Gonzaes apparenty fet hs other sources were reabe
enough to ssue a naton-wde aert. Perhaps that memo, ke the one ssued by the
FBI n 1963 to ts fed offces warnng of an attempt on the fe of Presdent
Kennedy, |ust "dsappeared."
/ Trail of Witnesses
On Apr 19, Abraham Ahmed, a |ordanan, was detaned by authortes as a
possbe bombng suspect as he attempted to fy from Okahoma Cty to Amman,
|ordan. Amercan Arnes personne observed Ahmed "actng nervous," pror to hs
fght, and notfed securty personne, who n turn notfed the FBI.
Agents detaned Ahmed n Chcago, where the Okahoma Cty resdent expaned
that he was on hs way to hs father's weddng, and was schedued to return to the
U.S. n |uy.
Yet Ahmed's story changes. He tod reporters aternatey that he had gone back to
|ordan: a) for a weddng, b) to bud a house, c) to repace the youngest son who
had moved out, and d) to attend to a famy emergency.
161
After beng questoned for sx hours, the FBI aowed Ahmed to contnue on hs
way. Yet he was detaned n London the foowng day, where he was questoned
for another fve hours, then handcuffed and put on the next pane back to the U.S.
In the meantme, Ahmed's uggage contnued on to Rome, where authortes
dscovered a sutcase fu of eectronc equpment, ncudng two car rados, scon,
soder, sheded and unsheded wre, a sma too kt, and, ncredby enough, a
photo abum wth pctures of weapons and msses! Securty sources at London's
Heathrow Arport aso sad that a par of bue |oggng suts and a tmng devce was
found n one of hs bags.
|543|
When asked what he was dong wth these tems, Ahmed expaned that they were
for hs reatves n |ordan, who coud not obtan good-quaty eectrca components.
Ahmed aso had a bue |oggng sut smar to what a Mdde-Eastern suspect was
wearng at the Murrah Budng on the mornng of the bast. Accordng to an
account n the 3ondon Tele%ra*h, Ahmed was reportedy n Okahoma Cty on
Wednesday - the day of the bombng.
|544|
If Ahmed had been ceared by U.S. authortes for the worst domestc terrorst
attack n U.S. hstory, why dd Brtsh authortes refuse to aow hm nto the
country? Dd they know somethng the U.S. dd not?
The |ustce Department's Car Stern downpayed the breakthrough sayng ony,
"There are a number of good, sod eads n ths nvestgaton."
|545|
Yet n FBI agent Henry Gbbons' affdavt, speca menton was made of the tems n
Ahmed's sutcase, and hs concdenta Apr 19, 10:43 a.m. departure tme, and
Gbbons stated he consdered Ahmed's testmony n front of the Federa Grand |ury
vta.
One FBI source ntervewed by KFOR's |ayna Davs admtted that he ddn't thnk
Ahmed was teng the truth on a poygraph test. Yet Ahmed was smpy aowed to
go on hs way, and ke so many other suspects and wtnesses, was never caed
before the grand |ury.
Interestngy, the Mdde Eastern communty was apoogzed to by Presdent
Cnton. Ths s very nterestng comng from a presdent that faed to apoogze to
Randy Weaver, the Branch Davdans, and the thousands of peope wrongy
accused, mprsoned and murdered each year by U.S. aw-enforcement personne.
A possbe expanaton may be found n the bombng of Pan Am 103. In February of
1989, a prme suspect n the case, |ordanan bomb maker Marwan Kreeshat,
admtted n a statement provded by |ordanan ntegence that he had
manufactured at east fve hghy sophstcated, powerfu bombs for PFLP-GC
(Popuar Front for the Lberaton of Paestne-Genera Command) eader Ahmed
|br, by cevery conceang them n portabe rados - the same type whch
destroyed fght 103. |ordanan ntegence offcas, who have mantaned a cose,
162
ong-standng reatonshp wth the CIA, admtted that the |ordanan natona was
actuay an undercover agent, and was aso an asset of U.S. ntegence.
|546|
Coud ths expan why the FBI reeased Ahmed?
|547|
Tayor |esse Cear, a retred State Department Counter-Terrorsm expert who has
studed the case, dsagrees wth ths anayss. Cear beeves that Ahmed's
conspcuousy tmed departure, compete wth nervous act and a sutcase fu of
eectronc gear, was a dverson. "They wanted to nocuate the meda to the Arab
connecton," expaned Cear. Lettng Ahmed get caught wth a sutcase fu of that
stuff, then dscoverng he was nnocent, nocuated everybody to the Mdde
Eastern connecton. Then they coud come back, beat ther chests, and say, 'ook
what you dd to the Arab communty.'"
|548|*
Yet the brown Chevy pck-up seen speedng away from the Murrah Budng was
traced to an Okahoma Cty busness run by a Paestnan, wth possbe PLO tes.
That man. s a good frend of Abraham Ahmed's. Accordng to a wtness who
worked for the Paestnan, Ahmed was seen drvng the pck-up n the weeks
before the bombng.
Numerous wtnesses aso pace McVegh n Okahoma Cty n the days before the
bombng wth a frend of Ahmed's - an Iraq - a man who bares a strong
resembance to the mysterous, stoc passenger seen n the Ryder truck by Mke
Moroz on the mornng of Apr 19 at |ohnny's Tre Store.
KFOR reporters Brad Edwards and |ayna Davs broke the story on |une 7, 1995 wth
a seres of ntervews wth wtnesses who saw McVegh wth the Iraq, frst n a bar,
then n a restaurant, then n a pawn shop.
One of the wtnesses, a barmad at the Roadrunner Tavern on South May Avenue,
saw McVegh buyng beer for the man on Saturday, Apr 15. "He was dark, knd of
muscuar, he had on a ba cap," sad the barmad. "He taked ke they do over n
Iran or Iraq, or whatever durng Desert Storm, when you woud hear the way they
taked on TV."
When Davs asked her how sure she was that the man they had been trackng was
the man she saw wth McVegh, she reped, "I'm sure."
The tavern owner aso saw the Iraq a few days after the bombng. He pcked hm
out from a group of photos. Whe the Iraq camed he was never n any bar on NW
10th Street, a co-worker ntervewed by KFOR sad he had drank wth hm at a bar
on NW 10th and Indana, and n fact he was arrested for drvng under the
nfuence around the corner, at NW 8th and Backweder n eary |une.
|549|
In another ntervew, three women who worked at a pawnshop stated that McVegh
and two other men came nto ther shop twce: ".on Apr 14 and agan on Apr
17, |ust two days before the bombng."
163
"It had to have been McVegh," sad the pawn shop owner. "If t was not McVegh, t
was hs twn brother."
"They spoke n a foregn anguage," sad one of the pawn shop empoyees. "They
hudded together and they a three spoke secretvey to one another, and t was a
foregn anguage."
A restaurant owner down the street aso remembered McVegh and the Iraq.
"|McVegh acted| ke a contractor comng n and buyng hs hand unch, that was
the mpresson I had," recaed the propretor.
As prevousy mentoned, restaurant worker Physs Kngsey recaed a Ryder truck
pung nto the H Way Gr at SW 104 and Portand on Apr 16. Accompanyng the
truck was a whte ong-bed Chevy pck-up, and a darker pck-up, possby bue or
brown. She recas Tmothy McVegh strong n and orderng two "trucker burgers"
and fres to go. Accompanyng McVegh was a short, stocky man of about 5'2",
ether Mexcan or Amercan Indan (or Arabc) descent, wth back, cury har. She
sad the man cosey resembed the FBI sketch of |ohn Doe 2, but wth sghty
thnner features. Kngsey recaed that the man spoke brefy wth McVegh.
|550|
Watress Lnda Kuhman descrbed hm as havng straghter har and beng sghty
taer. She descrbed hm as wearng green army fatgue pants and a whte t-shrt.
Kuhman, who grew up around trucks and hot-rods, s postve that one of the
trucks was a Chevy ong-bed, most key an '87 mode. When shown photos,
ncudng the Iraq and Mchae Bresca, they came cose to pckng out the Iraq,
but coud not postvey dentfy ether man. The passenger n the Ryder truck, they
sad, a man wth ongsh wavy, permed-out brown or drty bond har and gasses,
never got out.
|551|
Denns |ackson, a VA worker, recaed seeng two or three Arabc men n the
Murrah Budng the foowng day, Apr 17. "There was a dstnct ar about them,"
recas |ackson. "We were workng ate that day, the offce had cosed, and they
were |ust knd of hangng around the Soca Securty offce. I thought that was knd
of unusua. They mght have been there for Soca Securty, but I hardy thnk so."
|ackson's co-worker Crag Freeman recaed one of the men as a short, stocky
Arabc man, about 5' 2'', 150 pounds, wearng khak mtary stye pants, combat
boots and a whte T-shrt - the same combnaton seen on the Mdde Eastern
suspect descrbed by Lnda Kuhman.
In a bzarre twst, a whte Chevy pck-up showed up a Freeman's house severa
days after the bombng. Freeman recas a Caucasan ookng man n the truck,
whch was parked near hs house on two consecutve days. "It was rght before and
rght after the FBI and OSBI (Okahoma State Bureau of Investgaton) came and
ntervewed me," recas Freeman. "I coud te ths guy was watchng me because
164
when I waked by, he sort of turned away and hd hs face. I'm a former Ar Force
Master Sergeant and a thrd degree back bet, and I'm traned to be observant."
|552|
Coud the man Freeman saw have been there to ntmdate hm?
The barmad at the Road Runner Tavern aso tod KFOR's Brad Edwards that after
her ntervew ared, the Iraq pued up by the open back door of the tavern and
stared menacngy at her. What s nterestng s that the Iraq's Paestnan boss
owns a whte pck up truck - a Nssan, however, not a Chevy. Freeman and Lnda
Kuhman are postve the truck they saw was a Chevy.
Yet another wtness to a post-bombng ncdent nvovng the Paestnan camed
that he aso was foowed by the man, who was drvng a whte pck-up.
Back n |uncton Cty, the manager of the Great Western Inn was watchng TV wth
two reporters when the sketch of |ohn Doe 2 fashed on the screen. The manager
mmedatey recognzed the man as the person who had stayed n room 107 on
Apr 17. "He spoke broken Engsh," sad the manager. "|He| gave a foregn name
and was drvng a Ryder truck."
The man's name woud never be reveaed, however, because the FBI confscated
the hote's og book.
|553|
Severa months ater, Newsweek reporter Lese |orgensen uncovered nformaton
that severa men had stayed at the Radsson Inn n Okahoma Cty the day before
the bombng. The men were dressed n Arab garb, but accordng to an empoyee,
were not Arabs. At the same tme, phone cas were paced from the Radsson to
one of Tmothy McVegh's frends - a man n Idaho assocated wth the Aryan
Repubcan Army.
A few days earer, across town, two men had checked nto the Paza Inn. They tod
desk cerk Tffany Harper they were Spansh vstors from Mexco. But Harper
thought they were Arabs because of the way they taked.
Accordng to empoyee Ruby Foos, another man checked nto the mote a day or
two ater, went to hs room, then emerged wearng fowng Arab robes. As far as
Foos coud te, the man was not connected wth the other two men.
|554|
Whe t may not be unusua for Arab-garbed ndvduas to be n Okahoma due to
ts connecton wth the o ndustry, Dougas Boyer, the securty guard at the Paza,
sad a yeow Ryder truck was parked out front. A of the men checked out a day or
two before the bombng.
Interestngy, two Mdde Eastern men were spotted drvng from Okahoma Cty to
Daas mmedatey after the bombng. The men stopped to ask drectons from an
Okahoma Hghway Patroman. When the offcer ran ther pate, he dscovered that
t ddn't match the vehce. The pate beonged to a rented bue Chevy Cavaer,
165
whch was ater found at a mote n Okahoma Cty. The drver of that vehce, Asad
R. Sddqy, a cab drver from Oueens, aong wth the other two men, Ans Sddqy
and Mohammed Chaf, were taken nto custody.
|555|
Whe the men were utmatey questoned and reeased, a bue Chevy Cavaer
woud be spotted by a wtness n downtown Okahoma Cty - aong wth a Ryder
truck, a yeow Mercury, and a brown Chevy pck-up - the other vehces n the
bombng convoy.
On the mornng of the bast, a woman was rdng the eevator n the Murrah
budng, when she notced a young Arab man wearng a backpack, hurredy
pushng the buttons as f tryng to get off. As prevousy mentoned, she foowed
hm outsde, not suspectng anythng was amss. Moments ater, she was sent
sprawng to the sdewak as the budng bew up behnd her.
Gary Lews, a pressman for the Journal Record newspaper, had |ust stepped
outsde to smoke hs ppe when he remembered he had eft somethng n hs car.
As he waked down the aey, a yeow Mercury peeed away from ts spot near the
Murrah Budng, |umped a concrete barrcade, swerved to avod httng a
dumpster, then bore down on hm, forcng hm up onto the curb. Lews got a good
ook at the drver, descrbng hm as one Tmothy |ames McVegh, and hs
passenger as resembng the sketch of |ohn Doe 2. He sad the car had an
Okahoma tag whch was dangng by one bot.
Severa mnutes ater, Lews was thrown to the foor as the Journal Record budng
rocked wth the mpact of the bast. As he pcked hmsef up, another, more
powerfu exposon sent hm sprawng agan. As he and hs feow workers rushed
outsde, he notced a pecuar sght: an Arab man standng nearby, starng at the
Federa Budng, grnnng from ear to ear.
"It unnerved me," sad Lews, who descrbed how the man seemed out of pace
among the throng of battered and boody peope. He seemed "enraptured."
As dscussed earer, another wtness saw two men runnng from the area of the
Federa Budng toward a brown Chevy truck |ust pror to the bast. The wtness
descrbed the two men as "maes, of possbe Mdde-Eastern descent,
approxmatey sx feet ta, wth athetc buds." One of the men was descrbed as
approxmatey 25-28 years od, havng dark har and a beard. The second person
was descrbed as 35-38 years od, wth dark har and a dark beard wth gray n t -
the same descrpton Cary Gagan gave. He was descrbed as wearng bue |oggng
pants, a back shrt, and a back |oggng |acket. The wtness aso descrbed a thrd
person n the pck-up.
|556|
Was ths the same pck-up seen by Leonard Long and hs daughter? Long was
drvng east on 5th Street at approxmatey 8:00 a.m. when he was forced to
swerve out of the way by a erratcay-drven brown pck-up wth tnted wndows.
As the truck pued up aongsde, the passenger, a stocky, dark-sknned, dark-
166
hared man began hurng raca epthets at the back coupe. Long sad the drver
was a ta, thn whte man wth sharp features, a descrpton not unsmar to that
gven by |ames Lnehan. The truck took the I-35 ext and headed south.
|557|
Approxmatey 50 mnutes ater, as Margaret Hohmann and her frend Ann Domn
were pung nto a parkng spot n front of the Murrah Budng, a brown pck-up
peeed away from ts parkng spot, burnng rubber as t tore down 5th Street.
"Where's the cops when you need them?" Hohmann thought to hersef.
|558|
A few bocks away from the Murrah Budng, Debra Burdck and her daughter were
on the way to the doctor's offce. As she stopped for a ght at 10th and Robnson,
she notced three vehces parked on the north sde of the street between a church
and a garage. One was a brown pck-up, one was a bue Chevy Cavaer, and the
other was a yeow Mercury.
"I ooked across," sad Burdck, "and there was that ght bue car, t had a whte
nteror, and there were three men n t. They were dark, but they were not back.
I woud say they were Mdde Easterners. There was a brown pck-up, but I coudn't
see n (because of the tnted wndows), and behnd t was the yeow car wth the
cream top.
"Now, I notced the three men n the car, that guy sttng n the mdde was knd of
starng out.. I sad 'Huh, I wonder what they're ookng at?' and as I turned
around, I sad 'there's nothng there but budngs.'"
|559|
A few moments ater, the bomb(s) went off. Hohmann and Domn, who were nsde
one of the Murrah Budng's restrooms, were sent crashng to the foor. At the
same moment, Debra Burdck and her daughter went skddng to the sde of the
road. When she ooked back, the three vehces were gone.
Fve bocks south of the Murrah Budng, at Robnson and Man, Kay H. had |ust
raced out of her offce. As she stepped on to the merdan, she was neary run over
as the brown pck-up came careenng around the corner. The near mss gave her
an opportunty to get a good ook at the occupants.
"The drver - I made eye contact wth hm," recaed Kay. "He ooked ke he was
n hs twentes - ate twentes. |He| had an angry ook on hs face. I' never forget
the ook on hs face. It |ust was fu of hate and anger. It reay struck me, because
everyone ese - peope were comng out and they ooked scared and confused,
and he |ust ooked fu of anger."
|560|
Kay recaed that two of the three peope n the truck were Mdde-Easterners.
When she was shown photos, she pcked out the Iraq - the same one seen wth
McVegh - as the drver.
Davd Snder, the Brcktown worker who had spotted one of the Ryder trucks that
mornng, ran outsde after the bomb went off, and saw the brown pck-up as t few
167
past. "They were dong about 60 mph," recaed Snder. "They turned north and
headed over the Wanut Street Brdge."
|561|
An a-ponts-buetn (APB) was qucky put out on the pck-up:
2ispatcher: "Be on the ookout for a ate mode amost new Chevroet fu-sze
pck-up - fu sze pckup brown pck-up. W be brown n coor wth tnted wndows
- brown n coor wth tnted wndows. Smoke coored bug defector on the front of
pck-up."
".Mdde-Eastern maes 25-28 years of age, sx feet ta, athetc bud, Dark har
and a beard - dark har and a beard. Break."
Officer: "Ok, Is ths good nformaton, or do we not reay know?"
2ispatcher: "Authorzaton FBI."
|562|
Strangey, the FBI canceed the APB severa hours ater, refusng to say why and
demandng that t not be rebroadcast. When KPOC's Davd Ha asked the FBI why
they canceed t, they dened ever puttng t out. But when Ha payed back hs
copy for the FBI man, he suddeny had "no comment."
|563||564|
Soon after, Brad Edwards receved a tp that the pck-up had been seen severa
tmes before the bombng at Sahara Propertes (not ts rea name), a rea-estate
busness n northwest Okahoma Cty. The owner of Sahara Propertes, an Israe-
born Paestnan named Sam Khad (not hs rea name), was the Iraq's empoyer.
|565|*
Not ong after KFOR's reports began arng, the Iraq sued the staton, then hed a
press conference camng that he was not a suspect n the bombng, and that he
had a sod ab for the mornng of Apr 19. Hs name was Hussan a-Hussan, and
he was at work, he sad, pantng a garage on NW 31 Street. Yet Avn Devers, a
neghbor ntervewed by Davs, camed no one was workng on the house that day.
"I ddn't see anybody," sad Devers. "I'd remember.."
In addton, Hussan's co-worker, Erne Cranfed, sad Hussan's ab for the
mornng of Apr 19 - a tme sheet statng he was at work at 8:08 a.m. - was
patenty fase. Cranfed tod Davs that Hussan was workng at a dfferent house
+y :;7;; a0m., sx bocks away, but wasn't there at 8:30 a.m.
"They was out there actng ke they was pantng on that garage a mornng,"
Cranfed tod me. "They ddn't know I was aready there before.."
|566|
Moreover, accordng to Cranfed, Sahara Propertes doesn't use tme sheets: "They
use a tme cock. They started about fve months ago - fve, sx months ago. I've
seem them cockng n every mornng." Davs ater earned that Khad's daughter
Heather had concocted Hussan's "tme sheet" at the request of her father.
|567|
168
Hussan aso camed that he worked a second |ob as at the Western Szzn
restaurant - as a |antor, three days a week, from 10:00 p.m. to 8:00 a.m. -
whch woud have kept hm too busy to be at the Murrah Budng on Apr 19. Yet
when Davs checked wth |eff |ohnston, the assstant manager, she was tod
Hussan hadn't worked from Apr 17 through Apr 20.
Accordng to Khad's secretary, none of Hussan's Iraq co-workers, who started
workng for Khad n November, showed up on the 17th. Was t merey concdenta
that Crag Freeman and Denns |ackson saw a suspcous group of Arab men n the
Murrah Budng on the afternoon of the 17th?
Interestngy, Hussan a-Hussan reapped for hs |ob at the Western Szzn n
May, then qut n |une, sayng that he ddn't need a |ob. Khad's secretary sad that
Hussan aso purchased a Cadac after the bombng. Had he suddeny come nto
a arge amount of money?
When KFOR shared ther evdence wth the FBI, they downpayed ther fndngs. FBI
spokesman Dan Voge sad that eyewtness accounts are "notorousy naccurate.
Ther credbty must be checked out, ther stores corroborated."
Yet KFOR was abe to corroborate ther story wth at east eght dfferent wtnesses.
They not ony paced McVegh wth Hussan n at east three dfferent ocatons n
Okahoma Cty, they were abe to trace the brown pck-up to the busness where
Hussan worked - to a busnessman that had been nvestgated by the FBI for PLO
tes. They determned that Hussan had a tattoo exacty as descrbed by the FBI,
and that hs ab for the mornng of Apr 19 was patenty fase.
Strangey, the FBI decded to back up Hussan's story, teng KFOR that t mght be
dffcut to pace Hussan near the Murrah Budng on the mornng of the 19th.
Apparenty the government had not counted on a oca TV staton stumbng onto
Hussan. After KFOR's story broke, a ma|or damage contro apparatus went nto
moton. KWTV, KOCO, the "aily Oklahoman, and the Oklahoma ,a-ette a
rdcued KFOR's reportng.
|568|
Interestngy, when Hussan appeared before TV cameras on |une 15 to dspe the
"rumors" about hm, t was Abraham Ahmed who appeared as hs nterpreter!
The ,a-ette and KOCO aso both camed that Hussan coudn't speak Engsh,
mpyng that he coudn't have been takng wth McVegh. Yet KFOR earned that
he spoke broken Engsh, and a poce D.U.I. report ndcated that he reped n
Engsh when questoned.
|569|
"The nformaton quoted on Channe Four s not true," FBI Agent |effrey |enkns tod
the "aily Oklahoman. Though |enkns ater dened sayng that, he admts that "he
crnged when he saw the KFOR report."
169
Perhaps |enkns crnged when he saw Hussan on TV because the news staton
had, qute accdentay, uncovered the FBI's confdenta nformant. Why ese woud
the FBI act so patronzng towards KFOR, who had ceary estabshed a nk
between Hussan and McVegh?
The FBI woudn't say f they had checked out Hussan. Nor woud they cear hm.
They tod KFOR that they were "not n the busness of cearng suspects." Yet, as
|ayna Davs ponted out, they dd cear numerous other |ohn Doe 2 suspects,
ncudng Robert |acks, Gary Land, and Todd Buntng, the Army prvate seen at
Eott's Body Shop. Interestngy, they then used the Buntng ncdent to say that
|ohn Doe 2 had been a red herrng a aong. |ohn Doe 2, the FBI camed, had
never exsted.
|570|
|ust why woud the FBI ssue a banket "no comment" on a suspect who was seen
by numerous wtnesses wth Tmothy McVegh, and was seen speedng away from
the bombng?
For hs part, Hussan cams he was an offcer n Iraq's ete Repubcan Guard, and
was mprsoned for dstrbutng ant-Saddam terature. Accordng to the ,a-ette1s
account, he was reeased after servng eght years of a 13-year sentence.
|571|
But the story changes. Accordng to KWTV, he escaped durng a prson uprsng at
the end of the war, and after searchng for hs famy, he "ran to Amercan soders
and asked for hep." He was then nterned n a Saud refugee camp, where he
spent the next four years, unt he was reocated to the U.S. n 1995.
|572|
The probem wth ths story s that U.S. forces ddn't get wthn 200 mes of
Baghdad, whch means that f Hussan "ran to Amercan soders," he woud have
had to run across severa hundred mes of open dessert.
Yet accordng to hs boss, Sam Khad, Hussan was neer n the Repubcan Guard
at a. A Shte Musm, he was mprsoned for hs ant-Saddam beefs, and forced to
serve as cannon fodder on the front nes, as the Repubcan Guard wthdrew.
|573|
Yet the story changes once agan. Accordng to Wam Northrop, Hussan served
n the Hammurab Dvson of the Repubcan Guard, and "was captured by the
Amercan 24th Mechanzed Infantry Dvson n a fght on Hghway 8, west of Basra,
a few days after the war ended." Northrop stated that the Iraqs encountered the
U.S. force, and, thnkng t was merey a probe, opened fre. The Iraqs were bady
beaten n the ensung frefght, and Hussan was wounded. He cams Hussan was
never n an Iraq prson.
|574|
If Hussan was tryng to concoct a cover-story, he apparenty wasn't dong a very
good |ob.
|575|
Accordng to Northrop:
Ths ad was no ordinary soldier. |He| came to the Unted States around November
of 1991. He trggered a "watch" on the Iraq communty n Boston and shorty
170
thereafter, moved to Okahoma Cty. I understand that he s currenty resdng n
Houston.
Northrop aso states that "Ramz Ahmed Yousef (The 'mastermnd' behnd the
Word Trade Center bombng) served n the Hammurab Dvson of the Repubcan
Guard durng the Guf War.."
|576|
Whe t s not known how accurate ths nformaton s, there s evdence tyng
Yousef - a Pakstan Bauch born n Kuwat - to Iraq ntegence. The Bauch,
who are Sunn Mosems, oppose the cerca Sha regme of Tehran, and had forged
cose nks wth Iraq ntegence durng that country's 10-year war wth Iran.
Accordng to Dr. Myroe, Iraq used the Bauch to carry out acts of terrorsm aganst
Iran.
|577|
Aas Abdu Bast Mahmud Abdu Karm, Yousef arrved n the Unted States
carryng an Iraq passport.
Both Yousef and hs partner n the Word Trade Center bombng, Ahmed A|a|,
worked for Edwards Ppene Testng and Technca Wedng Laboratores n
Houston, whose CEO s Mauna Bha|at, a cose assocate of Ishan Barbout - an
nternatona Iraq arms deaer who but Lbya's chemca weapons pant at Rbta.
Barbout's son Hadar (ke Hussan) aso ves n Houston. Accordng to Lous
Champon, who went nto busness wth Hadar, "Hadar Barbout s an Iraq
agent."
|578|
It was Barbout who fnanced Champon's Product Ingredent Technoogy through
hs son Hadar. Wackenhut (a company wth ong-standng tes to the FBI and CIA)
provded the securty. Accordng to Champon, Barbout (wth perhaps a tte hep
from the secretve and mysterous Wackenhut) secrety draned thousands of
gaons of ferrocyande - a naturay occurrng Cherry extract used to make
cyande gas - from Champon's pant.
Barbout's abty to procure U.S. weapons technoogy for sae to Lbya and Iraq
wasn't exacty hndered by U.S. offcas. Whe the Bush admnstraton was
pubcy decryng Hussen's use of chemca weapons on the Kurds, the potassum
ferrocyande was shpped to Iraq to manufacture chemca weapons for Iraq's
army, wth the fu knowedge and compcty of the Bush admnstraton.
Sad Champon, "Not one U.S. agent - not one offca, ever questoned Hadar
Barbout - for evason of taxes, where he got hs money from, hs nvovement.
n shppng cyande outsde the P.I.T. pant. nothng. I was tod - and ths s a
quote from U.S. Customs |agent Martn Schram| - "Ths matter s hghy potca.
Hadar Barbout cannot be ndcted, and f he were, he woud never be
convcted."
|579|
The key that aowed the Iraq "busnessman" (Barbout doesn't ke to be caed an
arms deaer) to nterface wth the CIA was one Rchard V. Secord, an ntegra
171
payer n the Iran-Contra arms-for-drugs network. Secord, t shoud be noted, was
aso a busness partner of Vang Pao, the Laotan Genera who ran a heron
smuggng rng out of Long Ten Arbase durng the Vetnam War, and Monzer a-
Kassar, the Syran arms and drugs deaer who was nvoved n the Pan Am 103
bombng - another crme that was successfuy covered up by the CIA and the FBI.
Accordng to Rchard Babayan, a former CIA contract empoyee, "Barbout was
paced n the hands of Secord by the CIA, and Secord caed n Wackenhut to
hande securty and trave for Barbout and hs export pans."
|580|
Mke |ohnston, the attorney who sued Barbout on behaf of TK-7, an Okahoma Cty
company, ran nto the same sort of stonewang by the |ustce Department. As
|ohnston was tod by the federa team nvestgatng ths tte corner of Iraqgate,
"Mr. |ohnston, you don't understand, we have to mt the ob|ectve of the
nvestgaton so we can get on wth the busness of runnng the government."
"Gong nto the nvestgaton. was a dsgused whtewash," |ohnston ater tod me,
echong what U.S. Customs agent Martn Schram tod Lous Champon.
Former CIA asset Chares Hayes sad the CIA-connected Wackenhut was hepng
Barbout shp chemcas to Iraq, "Suppyng Iraq was orgnay a good dea," he
mantans, "but then t got out of hand."
|581|
Sad Champon, "I can assure you, that f drums of cyande eft our pant, Dr.
Barbout had hs reasons, ether to be used aganst Amercan troops or terrorst
acts aganst the Unted States at home."
|582|
Cyande s a necessary ngredent n
the deveopment of nerve gas. One thousand grams of cyande ater wound up n
the Word Trade Center bomb, constructed by Iraq agent Ramz Yousef.
Yousef's partner, Ahmed A|a|, a member of the Egyptan-based A-Gama'a a-
Isamya, ved n Texas. A Texas hamburger stand was reportedy used to reay
teephone cas between the Word Trade Center bombers as a means of avodng
detecton. It was owned by some Paestnan frends of A|a|, and Yousef and A|a|
used the number for conference cas whe A|a| was n prson.
The records may aso ndcate a te between A|a| and Hussan's boss, Sam Khad.
Records obtaned durng TK-7's cv sut aganst Ishan Barbout show a phone ca
to one of Khad's propertes n Houston. The person who made ca was Ahmed
A|a|.
|583|
Yet Barbout wasn't |ust tryng to procure matera and technoogy from U.S.
companes on behaf of Iraq. Barbout aso but the bunkers used to house Saddam
Hussen's Mg |et fghters durng Desert Storm. It was durng TK-7's sut aganst
Barbout that the Amercans earned of these bunkers. Barbout's London head of
Securty, Tony Davsson, decded to se the Amercans the bueprnts. It sn't cear
whether Davsson had a fang out wth Barbout, or was smpy beng patrotc.
The pont may be moot, as Barbout was apparenty dead. The Iraq arms deaer
172
ded (or faked hs death) around the same tme the Israe Mossad knocked off hs
contemporary, Gerad Bu, the deveoper of the -fated Iraq "Super-Gun."
|584|
Davsson caed TK-7's attorney, Mke |ohnston, who few to London, where he
purchased the pans for $2,700, and prompty turned them over to the CIA. Wth
the pans for Saddam's underground bunkers, the U.S. Arforce was abe to
practcay wpe out Iraq's entre feet of Mg fghter |ets at the start of the war.
Ths ddn't exacty make Saddam happy. In the parance of the Arab word, ths
equated to pay-back tme. If Hussen thought Barbout was responsbe for the
destructon of hs ar force, he may have nssted the arms deaer cooperate n an
act of revenge aganst the Unted States.
Yet the destructon of the Hussen's ar force wasn't the ony motve Iraq had for
seekng revenge aganst the U.S. Whe Amercans were busy tyng yeow rbbons
on ther front porches for our boys n the Guf, these same brave boys were
saughterng enemy soders and hepess cvans by the thousands. As reported
by Mke Erch of the Mtary Counseng Network at the March-Apr, 1991
European Parament hearngs on the Guf War:
.hundreds, possby thousands, of Iraq soders began wakng toward the U.S.
poston unarmed, wth ther arms rased n an attempt to surrender. However, the
orders for ths unt were not to take any prsoners.
The commander of the unt began the frng by shootng an ant-tank msse
through one of the Iraq soders. Ths s a msse desgned to destroy tanks, but t
was used aganst one man.
At that pont, everybody n the unt began shootng. Oute smpy, t was a
saughter.
|585|
The government-controed santzed meda campagn beamed nto our vng
rooms, repete wth scenes of hgh-tech "smart-bombs" whstng through the
wndows of enemy command centers, merey beed the terrbe and deberate
carnage nfcted upon thousands of hepess cvans.
On February 13, 1991, a U.S. Ar Force Steath Bomber dropped two 1,000-pound,
aser-guded bombs onto the roof of the A-Amra ar rad sheter n Baghdad. Two
hundred and nnety four peope - mosty women and chdren - ded n what the
U.S. mtary caed a "mtary surgca strke."
Accordng to Wam Bum, author of 4illin% 8o*e7 20S0 Military and !(A
(nterentions Since World War ((, the bombng of the A-Amra ar rad sheter
wasn't accdenta, t was deberate:
The Unted States sad t thought that the sheter was for VIPs, whch t had been at
one tme, and camed that t was aso beng used as a mtary communcatons
173
center, but neghborhood resdents nssted that the constant aera surveance
overhead had to observe the day fow of women and chdren nto the sheter.
Western reporters sad they coud fnd no sgns of mtary use.
|586|
An Amercan |ournast n |ordan who vewed unedted vdeotape footage of the
dsaster, whch the Amercan pubc never saw, wrote:
They showed scenes of ncredbe carnage. Neary a the bodes were charred nto
backness; n some cases the heat had been so great that entre mbs were burned
off.. Rescue workers coapsed n gref, droppng corpses; some rescuers vomted
from the stench of the st-smoderng bodes.
|587|
Sad Whte House spokesman Marn Ftzwater after the bombng of the sheter: It
was "a mtary target. We don't know why cvans were at ths ocaton, but we
do know that Saddam Hussen does not share our vaue for the sanctty of fe."
|588|
Ths so-caed "vaue for the sanctty for fe" shown by Amercan forces and auded
by the Bush admnstraton, ncuded not ony attacks such as the one at A-Amra,
but the bombng and strafng of unarmed cvans who tred to fee to the
|ordanan border.
Buses, taxs, and prvate cars were repeatedy assauted, teray wthout mercy,
by rockets, custer bombs and machne guns; usuay n broad dayght, the targets
ceary cvan, wth uggage ped on top, wth no mtary vehces or structures
anywhere to be seen, surrounded by open desert, the attackng panes fyng
extremey cose to the ground. busoads of passengers ncnerated, and when
peope eft the vehces and fed for ther ves, panes often swooped down upon
them frng away..
"You're kng us!" cred a |ordanan tax drver to an Amercan reporter. "You're
shootng us everywhere we move! Whenever they see a car or truck, the panes
dve out of the sky and chase us. They don't care who we are or what we are. They
|ust shoot." Hs cry was repeated by hundreds of others...
|589|
Mke Ange, a GI from North Carona, descrbed the carnage:
I actuay went up cose and examned two of the vehces that bascay ooked ke
refugees maybe tryng to get out of the area. You know, you had ke a tte Toyota
pck-up truck that was oaded down wth the furnture and the sutcases and rugs
and the pet cat and that type of thng, a over the back of the ths truck, and those
trucks were taken out |ust ke the mtary vehces.
|590|
"The U.S. mtary consders the murderng of our chdren nothng more than
'coatera damage," sad A Kassy, an nformaton offcer at the Iraq Interests
secton of the Ageran Embassy n Washngton. "They have never apoogzed or
even admtted ther mstake."
|591|
174
At the same tme, the Amercan pubc, fed a day dose of propaganda generated
n Pentagon meda brefng rooms, coud not understand how terrorsts coud bomb
a cvan budng n the heartand of Amerca.
Whe the estmate of Iraq forces ked runs as hgh as 250,000, the actua number
of Iraqs ked, ncudng cvans, runs much hgher. Amercan panes deberatey
destroyed Iraq's power pants, ts sewage systems, and ts hosptas. The economc
embargo severey compounded the stuaton, forcng an entre popuaton to
strugge amdst massve epdemcs of starvaton and dsease. Ther nfrastructure
decmated, wthout santaton, food and medca suppes, hundreds of thousands
of cvans suffered horrbe, ngerng deaths - a caused by the U.S. mtary, the
greed of Bg O, and ther fe-ong frend, George Herbert Waker Bush.
The peope of Baghdad have turned the rubbe of the A-Amra ar rad sheter nto
a shrne, compete wth mementos and pctures of the chdren who pershed.
In Okahoma Cty, vctms paced mementos of ther dead reatves on a chan-nk
fence surroundng the remans of the Afred P. Murrah Budng and asked, "Who
coud do such a thng? Who coud k nnocent cvans?"
Whe the Word Trade Center and Okahoma Cty bombngs may have been the
resut of Iraq revenge, what utmatey ay behnd the New York and Daharan
bombngs appeared to stem from a broader-based aance of Isamc mtants
from Iraq, Iran, Syra, Saud Araba, Pakstan, and other countres commtted to the
expuson of U.S. troops from the regon and an a-out attack on the "Great
Satan."
|592|
It has been reported that groups rangng from the Paestnan-based Isamc |had,
Hamas, the Sudanese Natona Isamc Front, the Pakstan-based a-Fuqra, and
groups funded by Saud Araban Osama bn-Laden were nvoved n the Word
Trade Center bombng and reated pots.
In fact, as eary as 1990, Word Trade Center consprators E-Sayyd Nossar,
Mahmud Abouhama, and a-Fuqra member Cement Rodney Hampton-E (an
Amercan Back Musm) had met n New York Cty wth Shek Abd-a-Azz Awadah,
who s aeged to have been a senor commander engaged n the coordnaton of
terrorst operatons wth Iranan, Paestanan, and Hzboah eaders.
|593|
Such aances were aso refected n a ma|or terrorst conference hed n Tehran n
1993, where t was decded the terrorsts' war aganst the U.S. woud ncude
"targetng budngs for bomb spectacuars."
|594|
Another ma|or terrorst conference was hed n Tehran on |une 20-23, 1996, durng
whch t was announced that there woud be ncreased attacks aganst U.S.
nterests. Two days ater, on |une 25, the mtary housng compex n Dhahran,
Saud Araba, was bombed, camng the ves of 19 servcemen. The Movement for
175
Isamc Change, whch had aready camed credt for the Ryadh bombng, took
credt.
Ths was foowed by another terrorst conference at the Northwest Fronter
Provnce town of Kon, near the Afghan border n Pakstan on |uy 10-15, 1996.
The meetng saw some of the most mportant mtant Isamc eaders come
together under one tent. They ncuded Osama bn Ladn, a Saud Araban who
funded the Mu|ahadeen, was mpcated n the Ryadh and Dhahran bombngs, and
was a cose assocate of Shek Omar Abde Rahman, Ahmed |br of the PFLP-GC
(who carred out the Pan Am 103 bombng on orders from Teheran), Abdu Rasu
Sayyaf, a senor representatve of Iranan ntegence, senor Pakstan ntegence
offcers, and senor commanders of Hamas, HzbAah, and other groups. A
resoved to use whatever force was necessary to oust a foregn forces statoned
on Isamc hoy and.
|595|
One Arab observer wth drect knowedge of the conference sad the partcpants'
resouton was "a vrtua decaraton of reentess war" on the U.S.-ed West.
|596|
A
gmpse of that conference can be seen n "efense and Forei%n Affairs7
Rasu Sayyaf stated that "the tme to sette accounts has arrved." The senor
representatve of Iranan ntegence decared that "attack s the best means of
defense." He urged a combned offensve, both n the Musm word, partcuary
the Persan Guf and Araban Pennsua, and at the heart of the West. He repeated
Iran's commtment to the cause and reterated Tehran's wngness to provde the
Isamsts wth a possbe ad.
Another commander concurred, addng that "there s an mperatve need for an
ntegrated pan to dea a fata bow to the nternatona forces of arrogance." A UK-
based commander from a Persan Guf state stressed that gven the mmense
strategc mportance of the Persan Guf to the U.S. and ts aes, the ony way to
compe the West to wthdraw was through the nfcton of so much pan on these
countres, that ther governments woud fnd t mpossbe to toerate the pubc
outcry and be compeed to wthdraw as the ony way to stop the Isamst terrorsm
at home.
|597|
On |uy 16, one day after the Kon conference, the U.S. Senate passed sanctons
aganst Iran and Lbya. Wth ther contnued sanctons aganst the nnocent
cvans of Iraq, and now Iran, the U.S. was budng to a confrontaton wth the
mtant Isamc communty. As Ronad W. Lews wrote n the November, 1996
edton of Air Forces Monthly7
On the foowng day (after the Kon conference), |uy 17, the Movement for Isamc
Change sent a chng fax to the London-based Arab newspaper al-8ayat, warnng:
"The word w be astonshed and amazed at the tme and pace chosen by the
Mu|ahadeen. The Mu|ahadeen w dever the harshest repy to the threats of the
foosh Amercan presdent. Everyone w be surprsed by the voume, choce of
pace and tmng of the Mu|ahadeen's answer, and nvaders must prepare to depart
176
ave or dead, for ther tme s mornng and mornng s near." That fax, and a
warnng by Israe ntegence that Iran was key to aunch an attack aganst a
U.S. arcraft, were gnored.
At 8:31:10 p.m. (0031:10 GMT) that evenng, nobody coud dsmss the horrendous
exposon of TWA Fght 800 off the coast of Long Isand, New York. Attack number
three had |ust been carred out.
|598|
That excerpt appeared n a U.S. mtary newspaper. But Lews wasn't the ony
observer cognzant of these facts. As Dr. Laure Myroe noted regardng the |uy 17
attack on TWA fght 800, t occurred precsey on Iraq natona day. The day of the
bombng, Saddam Hussen had made hs own threats, teng the U.S. that they
woud be unabe to avod "the sweepng food and famng fre that s burnng
under ther feet.."
|599|
The bombng of the Word Trade Center occurred on the second annversary of
Iraq's surrender to coaton forces n the Guf.
Whe reports from the State Department and such nsttutons as the Hertage
Foundaton decry the use of Arab state-sponsored terrorsm aganst the West, the
truth s that the West - and especay the U.S. - has been exportng terrorsm n
the form of economc sanctons, assassnatons, coups, death-squads, and
covert/overt wars n amost every part of the word snce the begnnng of the
century.
|600|
To the Musm word, and especay terrorst groups such as the PLO, Isamc |had,
Hzboah, and Hamas, the U.S. assaut on ts ay Iraq represented a turnng pont
n Isam's strugge aganst the West. The Guf War marked the frst tme the Unted
States had used an a-out, fu-scae mtary assaut on an Arab country, wth
devastatng resuts.
Under the nfuence of regous fgures such as Shek Omar Rahman, the
Mu|ahadeen (the Afghan freedom fghters who had been traned by the CIA) and
ther aes became staunch opponents of the Unted States. Thousands of Musms
from amost 40 countres focked to Afghanstan and Pakstan durng the war, and
thousands reman there, tranng for the day when Isam w rse up n ts fna
great |had aganst the West.
|601|
To these groups, the Guf War marked the sgna for a new escaaton n ther war
aganst the U.S. The bombng of the Word Trade Center, the Federa Budng n
Okahoma, the A-Khubar mtary compex n Daharan, and possby the shootdown
of TWA 800, were a expressons of ths rage aganst the Unted States.
On |anuary 25, 1993, ess than one month before the Word Trade Center attack,
Mr Ama Kans, a Pakstan, vented hs rage by openng fre wth an AK-47 outsde
CIA headquarters n Langey, Vrgna. Two CIA empoyees were ked and three
others were wounded. Lke Ramz Yousef, Kans was a natve Bauch. He was
177
nvoved wth the Pashtun Students Organzaton, the student wng of Mahmood
Khan Achakza's Pakhtoon Khwa Awam M Party, whch camed the CIA's sudden
pu-out of Afghanstan resuted n mons of deaths at the hands of the Sovets.
Kans camed the CIA had betrayed hs father.
|602|
Yousef hmsef spent consderabe tme n Bauchstan. Located n western
Pakstan, Bauchstan s a nexus for the Musm |had, and a ma|or arms and drug
network. Pakstan has served not ony as a tranng center for the Mu|ahadeen, but
a haven for Phppne terrorst groups such as Abu Sayyaf and the Moro Lberaton
Front, who have used the free-fowng Pakstan arms and drugs nexus n an effort
to promote and fnance ther actvtes.
|603|
Support n the form of arms and drugs fowed from Pakstan and Afghanstan to
mtant Isamc groups around the word, aded by the CIA, rogue ntegence
offcers, and senor U.S. offcas n for ther pece of the acton - |ust as Over
North's "Enterprse" woud do wth the Contras n Ncaragua. In fact, many of the
same ndvduas were nvoved.
Yousef next showed up n the Phppnes wth a Lbyan mssonary named
Mohamen abu Bakr, eader of the Lbyan Muah Forces. It was there that he |oned
forces wth an Afghan named Wa Khan Amn Shah and hs od frend from Kuwat,
Abdu Hakm Murad. They were there to tran the Abu Sayyaf.
Headquartered on the Phppne sand of Mndanao, the 400-member strong Abu
Sayyaf has conducted over 10 ma|or terrorst attacks n the ast sx years n ts bd
for autonomy, and s strongy aed wth other Isamc revoutonary groups, such
the Phppne-based Moro Lberaton Front. Abu Sayyaf's fundng and support
comes from hgh-profe Isamc eaders such as Lbyan Presdent Muammar
Oaddaf, and weathy Isamc fnancers such as Tarq |ana, a Pakstan
busnessman, and Osama bn Laden.
Consdered by the State Department to be one of the word's preemnent sponsors
of Isamc radcasm, bn Laden's threats to wage |had on Amercans n the Mdde
East mmedatey preceded the November, 1995 bast at a U.S. mtary facty n
Ryadh, Saud Araba, n whch fve Amercans and two Indans were ked. Eght
months ater, a massve truck-bomb ked 19 servcemen and n|ured 400 at
Dhahran.
In a March, 1997 ntervew wth the 3ondon (nde*endent from hs Afghan hdeout,
bn Laden warned of addtona measures aganst U.S. forces n Saud Araba, and
sad he had obtaned the support of thousands of Pakstans.
|604|
Readers w aso reca that Genera Wafq a-Sammara', the former head of Iraq
mtary ntegence, tod the 3ondon (nde*endent a year earer that the 1996
Dhahran bombng "strongy resembed pans drawn up by a secret Iraq commttee
on whch he served after the nvason of Kuwat.."
|605|
178
Not surprsngy, n February of 1995, U.S. authortes named bn Laden and hs
brother-n-aw, Mohammad |ama Khafa among 172 unndcted co-consprators n
the Word Trade Center bombng and reated pots to bow up New York Cty
andmarks, ncudng the |avtz Federa Budng and the Unted Natons. Those
pots were strongy nked to Iraq.
|606|
Khafa aso ran an Isamc center n the Phppnes nked to smar organzatons
n countres such as Iraq and |ordan. Gven Abu Sayyaf's cose tes wth bn Laden,
Khafa, and ther connectons wth the Mu|ahadeen, t s ony natura that Ramz
Yousef, a Pakstan who s consdered an Iraq agent, woud be nvoved wth the
group.
Abu Sayyaf's former mtary strategst, Edwn Angees, who surrendered to
Phppne authortes n February of '96, admtted that the Abu Sayyaf was n fact
nked to Yousef and Murad - both of whom recenty went on tra n New York for
ther roe n "Pro|ect Bo|nka" - a dramatc pan to bow up 12 U.S. arners n a
snge day. The pot was foed when poce raded Yousef's Mana apartment on
|anuary 6, 1995, after a fre caused by the par mxng bomb-makng chemcas n a
snk. Whe Murad was captured, Yousef escaped, makng hs way to Pakstan,
where he was captured by poce n February.
|607|
Nne of hs accompces - sx of them Iraqs - were rounded up one year ater
aong wth pastc exposves, bastng caps, detonatng cords, tme fuses, and fake
passports. The terrorsts, ncudng a Sudanese and two Sauds, were part of a pot
to bomb varous Western targets and assassnate Pope |ohn Pau II durng hs
|anuary, 1995 Phppne vst.
|608|
Before hs capture however, Yousef, an engneerng graduate of Brtan's Swansea
Unversty, had tme to try out hs new bomb - an expermenta form of
ntrogycern. The sma test-bomb, taped under a seat on Phppne Ar fght 434,
ked one |apanese tourst and n|ured 10 others. Before the exposon, Yousef had
safey departed the pane n Cebu Cty.
Another temporary resdent of Cebu Cty was Terry Nchos. As dscussed, Nchos
had moved to Cebu Cty wth hs new wfe, Marfe Torres, a ma-order brde whom
he met there n November of 1989. After tryng fe n Mchgan and Nevada, the
coupe moved back to Cebu Cty n eary 1993, where they ved for a short tme.
Accordng to Nchos' ex-wfe Lana Pada, her former husband had traveed to the
Phppnes about four tmes a year snce meetng Marfe. Athough some of the
vsts were to see hs new brde and make arrangements for her entry nto the U.S.,
he occasonay traveed aone.
|609|*
"Sometmes he went when Marfe was n Kansas," wrote Pada. "It ddn't make
sense, but I never asked why."
|610|
179
Nchos tod Pada he was traveng to Cebu Cty to meet "potenta busness
partners." The Mchgan farmer was makng the mut-thousand doar trps, he
sad, to brng back tte paper "butterfes" - curous merchandse for a man ntent
on settng hmsef up n the mtary surpus busness.
|611|
It s aso curous why Nchos carred two stun-guns on hs ast trp, why he eft
$20,000 taped behnd a drawer for hs son, and a note to McVegh teng hm
"You're on your own," and "go for t!" n case he ddn't come back, and why hs son
cred, "I'm never gong to see my Dad agan.."
Perhaps Nchos had reason to worry. Accordng to FBI 302 reports and
nvestgatons conducted by McVegh's defense team, Abu Sayyaf eader Edwn
Angees spoke of a terrorst meetng n the vcnty of the De Monte abeng
factory n Davao, on the Isand of Mndanao, n ate 1992 or eary '93. It was there,
Angees sad, that Ramz Yousef, Abdu Hakm Murad, Wa Khan Amn Shah, and
severa others dscussed the Okahoma Cty bombng pot.
|612|*
One of the men at the meetng, recaed Angees, ntroduced hmsef as "a
farmer."
|613|
When the "farmer" returned home from hs ast vst to the Phppnes on |anuary
16, 1995, and dscovered that Pada had opened the mysterous package and
read the contents, he turned "whte as a ghost."
|614|
On Apr 19, 1995, Abdu Hakm Murad was sttng n hs New York |a ce when the
word went out that the Okahoma Cty Federa Budng had been bombed. Murad
casuay admtted to a prson guard that the Lberaton Army of the Phppnes - a
group connected to Abu Sayyaf - was responsbe.
Abu Sayyaf eader Edwn Angees ater corrected Murad for the record: "It was the
Paestne Lberaton Army and/or the Isamc |had whch Murad was referrng to,"
he sad. "Ths army s assocated wth Hamas and based n Lebanon.."
However, gven the fact that Saud ntegence nformed the FBI that Iraq had hred
Pakstans who mght not have known they were operatng on behaf of Iraq, t s
hghy possbe that Murad (a Pakstan) and Angees were unaware of ther true
sponsor. As the Washin%ton )ost1s |ack Anderson reported n 1991: "A preferabe
revenge for Iraq woud nvove havng a 'surrogate terrorst' carry out a domestc
attack that Hussen coud prvatey take credt for.."
As Stephen |ones wrote n hs March 25th Petton for Wrt of Mandamus:
Ths terrorst attack was "contracted out" to persons whose organzaton and
deoogy was frendy to poces of the foregn power and ncuded dske and
hatred of the Unted States government tsef, and possby ncuded was a desre
for revenge aganst the Unted States, wth possbe ant-back and ant-Semtc
overtones. Because Iraq had tred a smar approach n 1990, but had been
180
thwarted by Syran ntegence nformaton gven to the Unted States, ths tme
the nformaton was passed through an Iraq ntegence base n the Phppnes.
|615|
|616|
The sghtng of Terry Nchos wth Isamc terrorsts n the Phppnes dovetas wth
Cary Gagan's sghtng of Nchos wth hs "Iranan" frends - Omar and Ahmed - n
Henderson, Nevada. Gagan recaed how Nchos ooked "out-of-pace" among hs
Arab comrades at the May '94 meetng.
Was Terry Nchos assocated wth Word Trade Center bomber Ramz Yousef, a
reputed Iraq agent? Was Tmothy McVegh assocated wth Hussan a-Hussan, a
former Iraq soder? Were Yousef and Hussan part of a terrorst network set up by
Iraq to nftrate the Unted States?
On |anuary 28, 1991, the Washin%ton )ost reported that an Iraq terrorst network
was beng sponsored and panned by Saddam Hussen. The artce stated n part:
Hghy cassfed US ntegence reports say that the Unted States has receved
nformaton that Saddam has aready dspatched more than 100 terrorsts, both
experenced and novce, to try to nftrate the Unted States. One report, quotng
sources nsde Iraq, ctes a specfc number of terrorsts - 160 - who have been
sent off wth mssons n Amerca.
That concdes wth reports that at east two and possby as many as four Iraq
dpomats n ther embassy n Washngton were montored as they attempted to
set up terrorst ces n the capta and esewhere n the Unted States..
.A recent ntegence report says that Saddam has deposted money n severa
Swss bank accounts that w automatcay be pad out to terrorsts no matter
what happens to Saddam. Iraqs vng n the Unted States who support Saddam
strongy enough to resort to voence woud probaby be used to provde bank
accounts, safe houses and materas for the experts who sneak nto the country.
Accordng to Northrop, nformaton from a London banker "Sayann" (source)
showed that severa mon doars was transferred from the Bank of Iraq, through
the SWIFT nternatona bankng system n Brusses, Begum, to a bank n
Kngman, Arzona under the account name of "Nayaad." Attempts by Northrop to
confrm ths nformaton were unsuccessfu.
|617|
What s aso nterestng s that Cary Gagan camed to have receved $250,000
from hs Arab frend Omar, who wanted to set up an account for hm. Omar and
Gagan had aso traveed to Kngman. The mon doar account was to be wred
from a Swss bank and deposted nto the Bank of Cherry Creek n Denver.
Part of the pan was to aow Omar and Ahmed to purchase the Posta Center, a
shppng and recevng store n Denver owned by George Coombo, who aso
operated a Ryder truck easng operaton across the street. Omar had asked Gagan
181
to broker a dea to buy the facty from Coombo. He beeves they were nterested
n the ma and truck renta facty. For some reason, the dea fe through.
Whe Gagan cams he was pad by Omar, there s no drect evdence that McVegh
or Nchos were funded by Gagan's Arab contacts. Yet there s crcumstanta
evdence that the two bombng defendants met wth Sam Khad, who spent
consderabe tme n Las Vegas. The Arab hgh-roer frequented Bnyon's
Horseshoe, the Gtter Guch, and the MGM casno, where Nchos woud
occasonay take hs 12-year-od son |osh.
|618|
As Northrop sad, "gambng s a favorte pastme of Sunn Mosems.." Was Omar
smpy there to gambe, or dd he have another agenda?
Accordng to Gagan: "Omar and Ahmed were wrng money n and out of MGM.
They used to get money - huge amounts of money - they were usng these wre
transfers."
Former hgh-rankng CIA operatve Gunther Russbacher tod author Rodney Stch
<"efraudin% America= that Bnyon's Horseshoe was one of the casnos used for
money aunderng and potca payoffs. Khad s a reguar at Bnyon's Horseshoe.
Two other frequent vstors to Bnyon's Horseshoe, t appears, were Terry Nchos
and Tmothy McVegh. The two men attended the Caude Ha Gun Show n Las
Vegas n November and |anuary of 1994, stayed at Pada's house, and reportedy
frequented Bnyon's and a strp |ont next door caed the Gtter Guch, where
Khad s aso a reguar.
|619|
Whe no one at the casnos woud cooperate n pacng Khad wth the two
bombng suspects, Pada sad that Nchos had met wth "Mdde Eastern" men
whe n Las Vegas.
|620|
That nformaton dovetas wth Cary Gagan's testmony. As stated earer, the
federa nformant sad he met wth approxmatey eght men - fve of whom were
Mdde Easterners - at the Western Mote n Las Vegas on May 16, 1994. There
was an Arab man from Okahoma Cty who Gagan referred to as the "eader."
The Eghth man was Terry Nchos.
The queston remaned, who was Omar, and was he connected wth Sam Khad?
Interestngy, Khad's aas s "Omar."
|621|
In an attempt to track Khad's whereabouts n Las Vegas, KFOR's |ayna Davs hred
a securty guard and part-tme P.I. named Lous Crousette. Crousette had worked
at the Gtter Guch. In a transcrpt of the conversaton, Davs asks Crousette f
Ange (not her rea name), Khad's favorte strpper, recognzed hm:
182
Cro,sette: "She knew who he was. Her eyes. her. her. how do I want to say
ths? Her whoe demeanor changed. She went from beng a cam person to beng a
scared tte rabbt."
2ais: "A rght. And she sad she ddn't want to get nvoved."
Cro,sette: "Does the word gettng up and runnng and eavng the pace te you
anythng?
2ais: "Okay. So."
Cro,sette: "She eft. She got up and eft. She eft her money and eft. She
grabbed her stuff and was out the door."
Accordng to Crousette, Ange aso descrbed an Arab man n the Gtter Guch
actng as a "recruter," who ntroduced Khad to a par of "sknny whte guys."
Coud these two sknny whte guys have been Tmothy McVegh and Terry Nchos?
Ange decned to say, teng Davs that she'd "wnd up at the bottom of Lake
Meade" f she taked.
|622||623|*
But |ust who was ths "recruter" that Crousette spoke of? Crousette saw hm
hobnobbng n a weathy part of town wth a man n a whte BMW. |ust who was n
the car wth hm wasn't cear. However, the nformaton s curous n ght of
Gagan's report that he and hs Arab frends met at the Payer's Cub, an upscae
apartment compex n a Las Vegas suburb.
Aso mentoned n Crousette's phone conversaton s "|affer," an apparent
reference to |affer Oshan (not hs rea name). Oshan, who sometmes goes by the
name Ossan |affar, s an eectrca engneer who works for Khad, and transates
for hs rusty Arabc.
Oshan was reportedy the target of FBI surveance at the same tme Khad was
beng ndcted for nsurance fraud. Lke Abraham Ahmed, Oshan dsappeared |ust
before the bombng, traveng to |ordan. And ke Ahmed, he gave a smar story,
teng Erne Cranfed he was gong to the Mdde East to attend to famy matters
- n ths case - hs own weddng. Accordng to Cranfed, he dd not marry.
A natve |ordanan, Oshan showed up n KFOR's surveance photos wth Khad and
Hussan a-Hussan. Crousette showed the photos to hs "ntegence" source:
Cro,sette: Three peope that I know of that went n servce - two feds and two of
them were ex-company (CIA). They know who these guys are. When I showed
them these pctures they ooked at me and tod me, "Get the he out of t. What
the he are you dong dong ths?"
2ais: Dd they te you they were Iraq Integence?
183
Cro,sette: Two of them dd, yes.. The feds know who dd t.
2ais: And they're not arrestng them?
Cro,sette: I'm not gonna' get nvoved.
2ais: Are they Mdde Eastern?
Cro,sette: I'm not gettng nvoved on ths. Okay. I'm sendng n my b. I'm
gettng out of t now..
|624|
Crousette has snce avoded a attempts to contact hm. Gordon Nove, an
nvestgator who used to work for Dstrct Attorney |m Garrson, spent a week n
Las Vegas attemptng to tak wth the former securty guard. "He was rea adamant
about not wantng to be taked to," sad Nove.
As a frustrated Nove was about to eave, a arge goon appeared at hs hote room
wth an automatc tucked n hs bet and some words of advce: "You betta' stay da
fuck out odda Okahoma thng," he warned. "Work on da Waco thng f ya wanna,
but stay out odda Okahoma thng. There's a odda sand out dare where no one w
ever fnd ya."
"He had a very serous bg gun," sad Nove, "and he wasn't a cop - I don't know
what he was."
|625|
Why woud an apparent Mob mue be concerned about steerng an nvestgator
away from a Las Vegas connecton to the Okahoma Cty bombng? Was Khad
connected to the Mob?
KFOR frst bumped nto Sam Khad when reporter Brad Edwards receved a
mysterous phone ca from Sharon Twey. Twey was workng at the tme for
Khad's rea-estate busness, Sahara Propertes, whch he owned wth hs ex-wfe
Caro, who ded n the bombng. A three-year empoyee, Twey dd a varety of
|obs for Khad, ncudng bookkeepng and actng as renta agent for hs 500-pus
propertes.
Twey tod Edwards and Davs that she had seen her boss n the company of
Abraham Ahmed, who had been detaned by the FBI as a possbe suspect on Apr
19 as he attempted to fy from Okahoma to |ordan.
Accordng to Twey and Erne Cranfed, Ahmed had been seen drvng the brown
Chevy pck-up seen speedng away from the bombng, back and forth to Khad's
pace n the days pror to the bombng. Ahmed's ncreasngy frequent vsts
concded wth the arrva of Hussan a-Hussan and fve other Iraqs n November.
Twey aso sad that Khad began actng very secretve after the arrva of the sx
men, and woud ony speak to Ahmed n Arabc.
184
Yet, perhaps most ncredby, both Cranfed and Twey had seen a yeow Mercury
Marqus parked at Khad's offce; Twey sad she saw Abraham Ahmed n the
passenger seat.
|626|
The presence of Ahmed wasn't the ony thng that rased eyebrows at Sahara
propertes n the days foowng the bombng. Cranfed tod the FBI and Edwards
that he saw one of Khad's Arab empoyees, a man named Hader a-Sad, actng
strangey ebuent after the bombng.

"When the news reports frst came about some Isamc group beng responsbe,
we Hader knd of aughed about that," recaed Cranfed. "I heard they found
three babes that was dead from the bast, and I went and tod the guys. and |ohn
Doe 2 (Cranfed's reference to Hussan) started cryng. He went out on the porch
to cover hs face and he stood by the wa cryng. He was upset that chdren got
hurt. He was reay upset. And Hader was aughng because he was cryng."
|627|*
To make thngs even stranger, Khad decded to vst Las Vegas on the evenng of
Apr 20, the day after hs ex-wfe Caro was ked n the bombng. It seems Khad
had asked her to hep hm wth hs taxes on Monday, her reguary schedued day
at the Department of Agrcuture. Consequenty, she went nto work on
Wednesday, her day off. As news reports showed Dr. Espe, Caro's boss, beng
carred down a adder by rescue workers, Khad's daughter Heather began cryng.
She knew her mom worked n that offce.
"We was a sttng around the offce watchng the news," sad Cranfed. "And when
they showed Espe beng carred down that adder, she (Na|aya, Khad's current
wfe) |ust burst out aughng. Heather was cryng, and Na|aya was aughng."
|628|
Some mght consder t odd that a gr's stepmother woud burst out aughng upon
earnng that her mother had been ked. Some mght consder t stranger st for a
man to be partyng on the eve of hs ex-wfe's death.
Was there a motve? Dd Khad know there woud be a bombng on Wednesday?
Dd he know Caro woud go nto work on Wednesday to make up for her day off?
"It was set up," sad Cranfed. "I know t was set up. He got rd of her because of
the taxes she fed."
Accordng to Cranfed, Khad reported to the IRS that hs empoyees were sub-
contractors, thus avodng havng to pay benefts. Khad's steady worker of nne
years aso tod me that hs boss made up busness cards for the empoyees that
purported to show ther "ndependent" status.
It was Caro on whom fe the responsbty of preparng the returns. Cranfed
caught a gmpse of her on Monday, two days before her death.
185
"She ddn't ook happy that mornng when she was dong hs taxes," recaed
Cranfed. "She dd not ook happy at a. 'cause he was fuckng the government
over the taxes."
|629|
At the tme of ths wrtng there was a case pendng aganst Khad for tax fraud.
Caro most key woud have testfed aganst hm n that case.
The crcumstances at Sahara Propertes n the days after the bombng were too
much for Cranfed. "I eft the |ob ste and went to the offce and sad 'I want my
money.' I tod them I ddn't want to work for no terrorsts. I was so. I feared that
these peope were nvoved, and them workers were nvoved n ths. And wth a
the strange thngs that was gong on, I wasn't gong to take no chances. And when
they found Abraham |Ahmed|, that was t. That was a I needed to know. That's a
I wanted to know. I wanted to get the he out of there!"
The brown Chevy pck-up that Ahmed had been seen drvng was found abandoned
the Tuesday after the bombng at the Woodscape Apartment compex on Route 66.
Resdent |eanne Royer recaed a heavy-set Mdde-Eastern man gettng out of the
truck whch was eft near a storage shed. The man gave Boyer a hard ook that
sad, "You'd better forget what you |ust saw."
The man showed up a week ater and foowed Royer whe she was out wakng her
dog.
|630|
When shown a photo of a heavy-set Mdde Eastern suspect by KFOR (one
of Khad's workers), she sad, "It sure does ook ke hm. I woud sure ke to see a
cose-up of hs eyes. Those eyes of hs were frghtenng!"
|631|
The abandoned pck-up, ncdentay, had been panted yeow, and the sera
numbers ground off. "You coud see the yeow over-spray a over the chrome
fender," sad |oe Royer. The FBI then towed the truck to ts mpound ot, and
nothng has been heard about t snce.
|632|
What s even more nterestng (or concdenta, dependng on your pont of vew) s
that Khad owns the property on whch a body shop s ocated - Route 66 Auto
Coson - a nondescrpt, run down pace on the far sde of town. Route 66,
curousy, s two mes drecty due west of the Woodscape Apartments.
A body shop woud be a very convenent pace to pant a pck-up.
Khad bought the property n 1994 at a tax aucton. The sae was dsputed by the
current owner, Rex Carmchae, and as of ths wrtng, the case was n court. "I'm
sure t wasn't panted there," sad Carmchae. "Khad hasn't hadn't had anythng
to do wth that body shop.. he's tred to get t, he's tred to own t, he's tred to
possess t from me.."
|633|
Interestngy, an anonymous caer to Okahoma State Representatve Chares Key
who camed to be a frend of the brother of a man nvoved n the bombng, tod
hm that a meetng of bombng consprators took pace at a garage on Northwest
186
39th Street. Athough he ddn't state the name, Route 66 s ocated rght on
Northwest 39th Street.
|634|
After the bombng, Route 66 changed t's name to Tom's, but s not sted n the
phone book or the nformaton drectory under ether name. KFOR's P.I., Bob
|erow, tod me he staked the pace out for fve days but never saw anybody go n
for an estmate. "It's probaby a chop-shop," sad a retred poce offcer.
|635|
If so, t may ft nto what Cranfed tod me next: "They (Khad and hs empoyees)
woud aways buy cars, then I found out that they was takng them and runnng
them to Mexco, runnng trps to Mexco and seng the cars.. Wthn two weeks to
a month, everyone of them was drvng a dfferent car. They woudn't have t but
ess than a month, then they'd be rd of t, and you woudn't see t agan.
"I seen them many tmes up there at ths garage (Route 66). It was the same guys
that came n |n November|. The same sx that came n. |ust them - them sx."
One of the sx was Hussan a-Hussan.
The date November, 1994 may be prophetc. Three wtnesses n Stwater, about
an hour's drve north of Okahoma Cty, saw a man who cosey resembes Ramz
Yousef n ate October, eary November, 1994. The man, who caed hmsef Y.T.,
was managng Boomer's Used Auto Saes n Stwater, aong wth a man who
resembed |ohn Doe 2. He drove a yeow Mercury Marqus smar to Tmothy
McVegh's, abet wth a vny roof.
Ronne Whte (not hs rea name), who was workng as a mechanc for Boomer's at
the tme, sad the men ran a "shoddy" operaton and were "hoste" towards
customers. The busness, he sad, was buyng used cars and shppng them
overseas, possby to Kuwat. whe n tsef not an unusua practce, Whte sad he
saw as much as $100,000 pass through per month, whch is unusua for such a
sma operaton.
Whte says the two men suddeny departed for Oho the ast week of October,
1994. They tod hm "Don't te anybody where we're gong." They eft no
forwardng address and no way for the customers to pay ther bs. (Concdentay
perhaps, Tmothy McVegh was n Kent, Oho on October 5.)
Sad customer Mchae Reed, "They were some pretty strange peope. They were
supposed to be runnng a car ot, but they were aways gone." They returned from
ther supposed car-buyng trp the frst week of November, wth one used Honda.
Whte went to the FBI when he saw Yousef's wanted poster n the oca poce
staton. Lke many wtnesses, the FBI appeared to show no nterest.
|636|
Was the man these wtnesses saw reay nternatonay wanted fugtve Ramz
Yousef? A Washngton source famar wth Yousef and the Word Trade Center
187
bombng doesn't thnk t key that Yousef reentered the county after the 1993
attack. The FBI put Yousef n the Phppnes n November and December of '94,
|ust n tme to aunch an -fated attack on Presdent Cnton durng hs APEC vst,
but hs exact tmene was never estabshed.
Yousef hmsef s a chameeon. One FBI photo depcts hm as a thn, haunted-
ookng crmna, the other a boysh-ookng foregn exchange student. Yet a three
wtnesses n Stwater are adamant. "I was shocked," sad Mchae Reed, "t ooked
|ust ke hm."
|637|
Had the Arab ce nvoved n the bombng rensted the ad of expert bomb maker
Ramz Yousef for the Okahoma Cty attack? A U.S. Marsha tod |ayna Davs that
he beeved the Word Trade Center and Okahoma Cty bombngs were nked.
Other sources expressed smar opnons.
Fnay, the |ustce Department's Offce of Inspector Genera report on the
Okahoma Cty bombng ndcates that ntrogycern was was found at the scene.
As prevousy stated, Yousef had been expermentng wth a new form of
ntrogycern.
If Y.T. was Ramz Yousef, he ddn't seem too concerned that he was operatng n
the U.S. as a wanted fugtve.
Samr Khad, who by now was beng nvestgated by KFOR and surveed by
|erow, apparenty ddn't seem too concerned he was beng watched ether. At one
pont he casuay stroed up to |erow and Edwards, who were stakng out hs
house, rapped on ther wndow, and sad "What do you want wth me?" |erow, hs
hand on hs gun, watched n amazement. Later, Khad caed hm on the phone.
"Whch country hred you to nvestgate me," Khad demanded to know, "and how
much are they payng you?"
A curous queston. If Khad wanted to know what country had hred |erow, t
woud subsume, at east n hs mnd, that the U.S. woud have no reason to
nvestgate hm. Why woud he assume such a thng? Was Khad an operatve or
an nformant for the U.S. Government?
When Han Kama, a Lebanese/|ordanan busnessman, occasona FBI nformant,
and ong-tme acquantance of Khad's was shown KFOR's surveance photos by
OCPD offcer Don Brownng, he reportedy became frghtened and sad, "You have
to eave ths aone. Ths s the Mossad. You do not know what you're messng
wth." After that, Kama woud no onger tak to the cop.
|638|*
|erow's sources aso came up dry. When the P.I. asked hs phone company source
to pu Khad's records, they had mysterousy "dsappeared." An attorney frend of
|erow's who had some deangs wth Khad tod hm, "Khad s a dangerous
motherfucker. You stay away from hm." He ddn't expan why.
|639|
188
Hs warnng may have been we-founded however. Three months after the
bombng, on |uy 3, a man matchng Khad's descrpton, and drvng hs truck,
showed up at Sharon Twey's house, pued out a psto, and fred four shots. Two
of the buets went nto Twey's bedroom, one went nto her car, shatterng the
wndshed, and another odged under a neghbor's wndow.
A terrfed Sharon Twey roed out of bed, cutchng the phone n her hand, and
daed 911. She then ran over to neghbor Genn Moore's house. "He knows where I
sept!" she tod Moore, who had watched the scene from hs wndow. "He coud
have ked me f he had wanted to!"
|ust why Khad woud want to scare Sharon Twey teray to death s an
nterestng queston. Ths excerpt from the poce report may shed some ght on
the motve:
Twey stated she worked for the suspect unt after the bombng of the Murrah
budng when the F.B.I. came out and questoned her about the suspect's actvty.
The next day she was fred. Snce that tme the suspect has tred to kck her out of
hs rent |sc| house. He had refused to accept her check & had taken her to dstrct
court & the |udge ordered hm to serve a 30 day notce. Twey stated that snce
that tme her resdence was burgarzed and then ths ncdent of the shootng took
pace. Twey stated the F.B.I. had spoke |sc| wth her a few tmes snce she was
fred & then t a started. Twey stated Khad was furous when he found out she
had spoken to the F.B.I.
|ust what had Twey tod the FBI? When I ntervewed the OCPD detectve who
wrote the report, he tod me that Twey had seen "some new dea he was nto,"
and was "nervous."
"She ddn't want hm to know that she had taked to the FBI," sad the detectve.
"She was defntey afrad."
|640|
FBI agents |ames Strckand and Dave Swanson's names aso appeared on the
report. Why woud the FBI take an nterest n a oca assaut case? Athough Khad
ater admtted to the author that he had been ntervewed and poygraphed by the
FBI n regards to the bombng, Strckand woudn't comment.
|641|

In spte of the buet hoes n Twey's house and car, and Moore's eyewtness
account, the OCPD dd tte. Assstant DA Sherry Todd decned to prosecute the
case on "ack of evdence." The poce report stated t as foows:
Moore stated on the mornng on 7-3-95 at approx. 3:30-4:00 he heard gun shots.
Moore got up & ooked out the wndow and saw a dark sknned mae runnng from
the house. I asked hm f t was Mr. Khad. Moore stated "I thnk t was hm, but I'm
not sure. It ooked ke hm but I'm not postve. He was drvng the same whte
Nssan pck-up that he drves. But I'm not sure.
189
Moore seemed a bt more certan when I spoke to hm. "He was a short guy that
smokes a cgar," sad Moore. "|He| ooked rea aggravated. He was randomy
shootng; he shot four tmes."
In fact, the poce report had prevousy stated Moore's dentfcaton n more
postve terms:
Moore recognzed the suspect as the andord who rented the house out pror to
Twey vng there & knew hm as havng a whte Toyota pck up & he sad that
was hm, meanng the suspect.
As f to add more grst to the m, Khad and an assocate had shown up at
Twey's house the prevous day and had smashed a brck through her wndow.
Moore tod me he recognzed Khad by hs baseba cap, cgar, and whte pck-up.
I began to suspect that Todd's refusa to prosecute came from DA Robert Macy,
who had bndy cooperated wth the |ustce Department by refusng to pursue a
oca nvestgaton of the bombng. Todd dsmssed that noton. "It's very, very rare
when he's nvoved n the decne or acceptance of charges," she sad, then added,
"I fet there were some probems wth the wtnesses statements."
|642|
Athough ntay pote, when I suggested that Khad mght be nvoved n the
bombng, and that she shoud re-open the case, she turned suddeny hoste, and
sad, "I'm gonna' go back to work. Ths case s cosed," then abrupty hung up.
Some tme ater, Mke |ohnston, a oca attorney famar wth the case, ran nto
Assstant U.S. Attorney Ted Rchardson n the courthouse. |ohnston rased the ssue
of Sam Khad. "Oh you must have been takng to that guy from San Francsco,"
Rchardson reped, referrng to the author. When |ohnston sad that he had
geaned hs nformaton from other sources as we, and suggested that Rchardson
ook nto the matter, Rchardson ooked at hs watch and sad, "We Mke, that's an
nterestng theory. I gotta' run."
|643|*
As for Genn Moore, he tod me he was beng foowed by Khad and ddn't want to
get nvoved. And Sharon Twey? Moore sad she was scared and had probaby
moved back to Georga.
Was Khad guty of assaut wth a deady weapon? Was he nvoved n the
bombng? Hs attorney, Francs Courbos, put t eoquenty when he sad, ".he s
typca of those mmgrants who work hard to acheve the opportuntes Amerca
offers."
Indeed.
In 1973, Khad was convcted of Grand Larceny.
190
In 1991, he was ndcted n Federa Court on eght counts of nsurance fraud, whch
ncuded settng fres to some of hs 500-pus propertes. He served nne months
out of a year at E Reno Federa Prson.
|644|
Robert Kuck, a former empoyee of Khad's, tod the FBI that Khad had
nstructed hm to set fres to four of hs propertes. When agents questoned Kuck
and hs wfe about Khad's assocatons, Mrs. Kuck burted out, "We don't want to
get Sam |Khad| n any troube," whereupon the agents mmedatey advsed
Kuck of hs Mranda rghts.
Kuck ater |umped bond and fed to Caforna after camng he had receved
"threatenng phone cas." He ddn't say from whom.
|645|*
Yet the FBI's nterest seemed to ay more n Khad's connectons to the PLO than n
arson. Accordng to Northrop, the FBI nvestgated Khad for aeged PLO actvty n
1991. Khad's attorney nssted that t woud have been precsey the FBI's nterest
n Khad - "the mcroscope under whch he, as a Paestnan, has been montored"
- whch woud have reveaed any wrongdong.
For a ntents and purposes, Sam Khad appears to be |ust what hs awyer says he
s, a hard-workng mmgrant out to acheve the opportuntes Amerca has to offer.
A 56-year-od Paestnan, Khad was born Samr Abdu-Ghan Sharf Khad, and
emgrated to the U.S. from Kuwat n 1968.
|646|
He receved hs M.A. from
Okahoma Cty Unversty n 1975, hs Ph.D. n psychoogy from O.U. n 1979, and
went on to teach at pubc schoos and at nearby Tnker Ar Force base. He aso dd
a bref stnt n the Okahoma Department of Human Servces.
|647|
Khad cams to have reatves n |ordan, Saud Araba, and Iraq, who provded the
money for hs educaton and rea-estate nvestments. In 1982, Khad qut teachng
and devoted hmsef fu-tme to hs burgeonng rea-estate busness. By 1995 he
had acqured over 500 propertes, mosty through HUD, the federa agency
beseged wth corrupton n the ate '70s and eary '80s.
|648|
Han Kama was surprsed when I tod hm Khad owned over 500 propertes: "In
the '70s ths son-of-a-btch dd not have a dme to hs name. He coudn't survve.
He used to ask me for money. Where dd he get 500 propertes? Where dd the
money come from?"
Kama, who camed to have worked wth the Insurance Fraud Dvson of the FBI
(Brownng sad he was merey an nformant), beeves Khad s a money aunderer.
"Khad shoud be a monare wth that much property," excamed Kama, "but he
ves n a dapdated shack on 32nd Street." Sure enough, Khad makes hs home
n a run-down, ow-ncome part of town. It s Kama's opnon that Khad s |ust an
"errand boy," and somebody ese reay owns the propertes.
Northrop agrees. He says the money to fund ths burgeonng rea estate empre
comes from the PLO, whch nstructs hm on how to ve for appearance' sake.
191
Northrop aso ndcated that Khad's cam of numerous reatves - an apparenty
fase cam - merey provdes a cover for the funneng of money to hs busness.
Do these argey crcumstanta facts make Sam Khad a terrorst? That depends
on who you tak to. Accordng to Northrop:
|By nformaton and beef| Khad s a ong-standng partcpant n PLO fund-rasng
actvtes n the Unted States. He s most probaby a sub-ce eader, part of the
nteectua frnge that gude the ce, a cassc Russan Nhstc Terrorst structure.
The destructon of the frin%e leadershi* can be seen n the so-caed S*ook War
between the Israes and the PLO that took pace n Europe and the Mdde East
between 1972 (the Munch Massacre) and 1986 (the death of Abu |had).
Khad fts the pattern of the we-funded, we-educated father fgure who takes
care of hs fock, remanng outside the center core of sub-ce foot soders (the hel
n the Nhstc structure).
|649|
A West 57th Street documentary descrbed how fund-rasng by nsurance fraud s
a cassc PLO technque. The May, 1989 epsode, entted, "Paestnans: Drty
Busness," focused mosty on nsurance fraud n Mam n the eary to md-'80s.
Sunrse, Forda Poce detectve Don Cannon sad the money was "beng sent back
to fund the PLO or the PFLP or the (ntifida0.
The prncpas of ths fund-rasng scheme, CBS reported, haed from the West
Bank town of Der Dbwan. Reporter Karen Burnes receved confrmaton from the
FBI that a number of scams were gong on throughout the U.S. at the tme.
|650|
One method of rasng money nvoved sma store owners who woud open
busnesses, buyng merchandse on credt, then qucky cose shop and vansh wth
the proceeds. There were other scams. Caforna nsurance awyer Gordon Park
tod CBS, "What they woud do s throw a brck through ther front wndow and say,
'Ok, gosh, I got burgarzed.'"
|651|
In Brookyn, nvestgators dscovered a phony coupon redempton center run by
Mahumud Abouhama - currenty servng 240 years n prson for hs roe n the
Word Trade Center bombng.
|652|
"Insurance scams frst surfaced n the Unted States n the md-1970's," wrote
Northrop, "when Caforna authortes busted a PLO ce n Los Angees." The Israe
sad that Khad traves to Israe at east once a year, and avods any contact wth
the PLO, but communcates through a "cut-out," a member of hs famy. Northrop
aso stated that Khad had been transferrng funds from the Bank of Okahoma n
Tusa to Bank Hapom, an Israe bank n |erusaem:
The sgnatory on ths partcuar account n Israe s a member of the Nashashb
can, a promnent Paestnan famy who ve n |erusaem and the surroundng
192
area (West Bank). These funds have been used to hep fnance 'Paestnan
aspratons" (and a that mpes).
|653|
Whe ths nformaton n tsef s argey crcumstanta, t begns to ook ess
excupatory when combned wth other evdence.
In May of 1996, U.S. Customs agents n Los Angees sezed a shpment of weapons
- Semtex pastc exposves and sma arms - bound for Forda. The North
Korean-manufactured ordnance had been shpped through Mana, and was bound
for a Hamas group n Mam.
The co-founder of Isamc |had - a cose cousn of Hamas - Fath Shkak, had
been assassnated n Syra by the Shn Bet (Israe Secret Servce) n October of
1995. Isamc |had now needed a new eader, and they sought hm n Professor
Ramadan Abduah Shaah, an ad|unct potca scence teacher at the Unversty of
South Forda n Tampa.
Shaah co-founded the Word and Isam Study Enterprse (WISE), nked to the
Isamc Commttee for Paestne, both of whch have been accused by federa
authortes of frontng for terrorst groups.
Whe Shaah vehementy dened these aegatons, he suddeny appeared n Syra
n November of 1995 as the new head of Isamc |had.
Cary Gagan cams to have seen Shaah n ate 1994 and February of '95 at
Caesar's Paace and The Racetrack - two Las Vegas casnos. "Who s ths dude?"
Gagan asked Khad about the short, fat, badng man wth a mustache and beard.
Gagan was smpy tod he was a professor from Forda.
Shaah aso appeared n Teheran n |une of 1996 as HzbAah Internatona was
organzng ts |ont workng commttee to coordnate nternatona terrorst attacks.
Authortes ater dscovered that Shaah had been |had's number two man n
Tampa.
|654|
Whe the Forda group had made threats over the extradton of one of ther
operatves - Mousa Mohammed Abu Marzuk - to Israe, the FBI and the |ewsh
communty hadn't taken them serousy. After the Okahoma Cty bombng
however, and the ntercepton of the arms shpment n May, the scenaro changed.
The FBI and the |ewsh communty were now takng a keen nterest n the Mam
group.
Back n Houston, Northrop was checkng nto some PLO suspects. He punched up
an nqury nto the Aman (Israe mtary ntegence) computer on Hussan a-
Hussan. It came up empty.
But the FBI had a st of 27 PLO and Hamas operatves n Forda and Okahoma.
Ten of those ndvduas had prevousy been arrested by the Israes n March of
193
'96, and the FBI needed ther hep. When an Israe agent n New York named Av
ran the names through the computer, he notced Northrop's nqury on Hussan.
He caed Northrop and asked hm to fy to Mam.
What Northrop dscovered when he arrved was that the same group he had been
nvestgatng n Okahoma and Houston had been seen n Mam. Hussan a-
Hussan, Sam Khad, |affer Oshan, and Hader a-Saad - sx to seven n a -
were postvey ID'd by Israe Sayanm n Ft. Lauderdae. They were there,
accordng to sources, meetng wth members of Hamas.
It appears that the Khad famy's actvtes n the terrorst underword date back at
east to 1982. Accordng to Army CID (Army Crmna Investgaton Dvson)
records, Khad's brother Mke, (AKA: Ahmed Khad, Mke Yousf, Wahd S. Yousf),
was nvoved wth a group of Iranans n Huntsve, Aabama who were romancng
oca femae ensted personne n an attempt to procure mtary secrets.
|655|
Yousf/Khad's msson was to court a woman named Waker from Tuskumbee, AL,
whom he had met n Okahoma Cty n ate 1982, when they worked together at
Shotgun Sam's Pzza Paror. Waker's brother, |mmy, was the pot for Genera
Robert L. Moore, Commander of the Redstone Arsena U.S. Army Msse Command
n Huntsve. As commander, Moore had responsbty for the Army's msse
program worldwide.
|656|*
"What he had wanted, accordng to her," sad a retred Army crmna nvestgator
who wshes to reman anonymous, "was a knds of nformaton about Genera
Moore."
|657|
Moore aso recaed the case. He tod me the Army had stepped up securty around
hm durng ths tme. Interestngy, ths was around the same tme that attacks on
U.S. mtary nstaatons were occurrng n Europe.
|658|
The Army nvestgator aso recaed that "Huntsve, Aabama, at that tme, was a
hotbed of esponage. There were 27 known KGB agents n Huntsve. They were
known. They were known to the Bureau (FBI); they were known to mtary
ntegence."
Ths esponage actvty was due to the cose proxmty of Redstone Msse
Command, NASA's Marsha Space Fght Center, and smar hgh-tech factes
ocated throughout the area. The nvestgator has no doubts that the Iranans and
the KGB were cooperatng.
Ths account aso |ves wth Gagan's story. The Sovets had asked Gagan's hep n
obtanng cassfed nformaton from hs frend at Martn-Maretta. Later, the
Sovets ntroduced the nformant to a man named Hamd who needed fake
documentaton for ega Iranans enterng the country.
194
"Back at the tme we had a bg probem wth Iranans," sad the former CID
nvestgator, "a bg probem. They were aways tryng to nftrate the arsena. A
number of them were attendng Aabama A&M Unversty under student vsas, but
most of them ddn't go to schoo. They were nvoved n a ot of dfferent crmna
enterprses, drugs, stoen property, prosttuton, a sorts of thngs.."
The suspects were aso nked to a strng of convenence stores. Interestngy,
Northrop beeves that Sam Khad s a "money man" for Arab mmgrants wshng
to open busnesses - namey convenence stores. Those wshng to do so must
spt the profts wth the "money man" ffty-ffty. Coud ths be another PLO fundng
scam?
CID opened ther case on Yousf/Khad n September of 1982. "Durng the course of
a ths, to verfy that the guy was rea, we got hs phone number. and I caed the
number one nght, and I asked for Ahmed Khad, and ths guy got on the phone
and sad, 'I don't know hm.' And I sad, 'We, t's got to be you. I got to tak to you
- t's mportant.' Twenty-four hours ater that guy was n Tuskumbee, AL."
Lke hs brother Sam, Wahd was never prosecuted. "The FBI |offcay| took no
nterest.. Another CID nvestgator got reprmanded by our SAC, because he went
and dd ths (ntervewed Waker). That was the tota gst of the FBI's
nvovement."
|659|
The Army nvestgator's experences paraeed that of Gagan's. "That's a pretty
common thread when you dea wth them (the FBI)," Gagan expaned. "You brng
them nformaton, and you never hear another word about t."
Forda poce who nvestgated Arab nks to nsurance scams and organzed crme
receved the same treatment from the FBI. "Peope ddn't want to nvestgate ths,"
sad a poce detectve I spoke wth. "Thngs weren't rght. It was as f someone was
ookng at ths and sayng, 'stay away from t.'"
|660|*
In spte of the FBI's stonewang, the Army nvestgator remembers the case we:
"The femae soders woud go out at nght to the dfferent cubs and dscos and
stuff. we caught one out there, and he supposedy ran a convenence store.. And
we caught hm on the arsena..
"Hassan Nakossary - he was the bg eader of ths gang. He was assocated wth a
oca gangster named Dewy Brazeton, who ran a cub caed the Push Horse. He
had a ot of Cosa Nostra connectons nto New York - a ot. Hassan worked for
hm."
|661|
Mdde Eastern terrorsts nvoved n esponage wth the KGB, assocated wth the
Mob? The Army nvestgator sad Nakossary traveed frequenty to Las Vegas, a
known Mob town. So does Wahd's brother, Sam Khad. A reguar hgh roer,
Khad reportedy shows up wth at east $10,000 n hs pocket.
195
As Han Kama ponted out, the Cosa Nostra has cooperated wth Iranans n money
aunderng n the past. Coud ths expan Khad's frequent vsts to Las Vegas?
Were hs trps part of a money aunderng operaton?
As Gunther Russbacher expaned, severa Las Vegas casnos, ncudng Bnyon's
Horseshoe, are pay-off ponts for potca and |udca sush-funds. Federa |udges
and others are aegedy pad off through Shamrock Deveopment Corp. n Ireand,
va off-shore banks and Las Vegas Casnos. The brbe recpents coect ther money
n the form of gambng chps, then cash them n.
Is Khad recevng money ths way? It's hard to say, but t s worth notng that the
CEO of Shamrock, Donad Lutz, was on the management staff of Sverado Savngs
& Loan, the S&L case tred by |udge Matsch, who woud ater try McVegh and
Nchos (Ne Bush, a board member of Sverado, waked).
And what about Omar's trp(s) to Kngman? It was there that Omar and Gagan
drove from Las Vegas, two weeks before the bombng. Why woud a hgh-roer ke
Omar drve to the dusty, soated desert town of Kngman? One possbe reason
may have been to make contact wth Tmothy McVegh, who was hoed up n the
Impera Mote at the tme.
Another reason may have revoved around drugs. Reca that Gagan's orgna
reatonshp wth Omar was under the guse of drug deang. "I brought some back
from Puerto Vaerta for hm," sad Gagan, "usng a camper wth a fase top.
through San Dego. At one tme I saw 10-15 kos. That's qute a bt of dope."
Reca that Gagan had devered a bag of cocane from Kngman to Denver (whch
contaned pastc exposves), and he beeves the $250,000 Omar pad hm came
from the Ca Carte.
|662|
As mentoned earer, on Apr 4, 1995, Gagan and Omar devered a package to a
man n a cowboy hat n Kngman, drvng a rusty brown pck-up. Authortes
reported that a brown pck-up, beongng to Steven Garrett Cobern, was caught on
Trooper Hanger's vdeo camera as he stopped McVegh on I-35 an hour and-a-haf
after the bombng.
|663|*
A chemst who knew McVegh under the aas of "Tm Tutte," Cobern had recenty
been spotted wth a bag of ammonum ntrate n hs truck. Hs roommate, Denns
Mazac, was beng hed on charges of arson for a sma exposon that had
damaged a house n town two months earer. That house was owned by Rocky
McPeak, a frend of McVegh's. Cobern, who shared a mabox n Kngman wth
McVegh, was absent from work four days pror to and ten days after the bombng.
He camed he was n Caforna vstng hs parents.
|664|
Interestngy, FBI agents dggng n the desert outsde Kngman for evdence, found
more than 150 pounds of ammonum ntrate bured n the sand.
|665|
196
Cobern was arrested n May of 1995, and reeased on Apr 23, 1997, after servng
tme n Lompac Federa Prson on ega weapons charges.
|666|
Despte the ncrmnatng connectons, Cobern dsappeared from the offca radar
screen amost as qucky as he had appeared. The Okahoma Hghway Patro vdeo
showng the brown pck-up - ke the numerous surveance tapes showng the
actvty at the Murrah Budng on the mornng of Apr 19 - was "sezed" by the
FBI.
Was Cobern the man to whom Omar devered the mysterous package on Apr 4?
Was the t meant for Tmothy McVegh?
Dd Khad meet Terry Nchos n Las Vegas n May of 1994? Were Nchos and
McVegh the "two sknny whte guys" he met at the Gtter Guch n November?
Was McVegh's yeow Mercury at Sahara Propertes as Erne Cranfed camed?
And was McVegh wth Hussan a-Hussan at the pawn shop and the Roadrunner
Tavern n Okahoma Cty as KFOR's wtnesses sad?
Utmatey, were McVegh, Nchos and ther frends n fact pottng wth Arab
extremsts to bow up the Afred P. Murrah Budng?
"He (McVegh) had mentoned before that he wanted to become a mercenary n
the Mdde East, because they pad the most," recaed former Army buddy Greg
Henry, "But we |ust took t as a |oke. But he's the knd of person that woud have
become that."
|667|
Was McVegh some sort of ntermedary between neo-Naz groups and Arab
terrorsts? Whe ths may sound bzarre, as prevousy noted, cooperaton between
such groups has been we documented.
The orgns of Arab-Naz coaboraton go back to WWII. The Muft of |erusaem, who
was Hter's guest, actuay rased Musm SS unts for the Naz war effort, cued
from Bosnan Musms and Arabs.
ODESSA, the Naz organzaton formed to funne support to ex-SS members,
arranged rendezvous wth representatves of varous Arab organzatons after the
war, as part of the Dues/McCoy/OSS Ratnes. Ths secret CIA operaton aso
funneed Nazs to varous Latn Amercan countres, where they set up "securty
servces" (death squads) for ther respectve government empoyers.
One ODESSA member, former Gestapo Chef Genera Ernest Rhemer, setted n the
Mdde East, where he set up ntegence operatons for severa Arab countres,
ncudng Syra and Egypt. Rhemer, who s currenty actve n the "Revsonst"
scene, for severa decades payed a key roe n coordnatng German Rght-wng
actvty wth the Arab word.
197
Aos Brunner, Adoph Echmann's chef, who murdered 128,500 peope durng the
Naz Hoocaust, payed an eary roe n Arab-Naz couson.
|668|
Aso payng a roe n Arab-Naz cooperaton was Hter's "favorte commando," Otto
"Scarface" Skorzeny, who heped nsta Game Abdu Nasser as Egyptan presdent
wth the assstance of an ete corps of former SS storm troopers. Skorzeny aso
heped tran eary PLO groups for commando rads nto Israe. The ardent Naz, who
convenenty mssed hs day at the Nuremberg tras courtesy of the U.S.
Government, was statoned n Egypt at the behest of the CIA.
|669|
One of Skorzeny's subordnates, a Swss Naz named Franos Genoud, served wth
Skorzeny's troops n Egypt. Genoud aso befrended A Hassan Saameh, the eader
of Back September, the group whch murdered nne Israe athetes durng the
1972 Munch Oympcs. Currenty a banker n Geneva, Genoud reportedy
mastermnded severa arpane h|ackngs for the PLO.
A cose frend of Genoud's, French attorney |acques Vergs, defended severa
members of the Popuar Front for the Lberaton of Paestne (PFLP), and spoke as a
"character" wtness on behaf of the notorous Gestapo chef Kaus Barbe (the
"Butcher of Lyon"), who murdered hundreds of French resstance fghters, and
deported 7,000 |ews to the death camps.
And as recenty as the eary 1980's, a neo-Naz named Odfred Hepp was
responsbe for attacks aganst at east four U.S. mtary and NATO nstaatons, as
we as German nghtcubs frequented by U.S. servcemen. Hepp worked wth the
PFLP, and was aso fnanced by Yasser Arafat's A Fatah, who n turn was supported
by Franos Genoud.
As another exampe of Arab-Naz coaboraton, when members of Abu Nda, and
Abu Abass' Paestne Lberaton Front (PLF) h|acked the Greek cruse shp Achille
3auro n 1985, they demanded Hepp's reease. "I know Hepp qute we," Abass tod
the French day 3i+eration n 1985. "He s a frend."
|670|
The German magazne "er S*ei%el reported on a group of neo-Nazs caed
Kampfsportgruppe, headed by a man named Hoffmann (a Hoffmann member had
bown hmsef up, aong wth 11 others, at the Oktoberfest ceebraton n Munch n
1981). Kampfsportgruppe, t seemed, was connected to terrorst groups n Berut.
|671|
At the same tme, a number of German terrorsts have reportedy been traned
n Paestnan camps n |ordan, South Yemen, Syra, and Iraq.
Iraq arms deaer Ishan Barbout met wth former Naz scentst Voker Wesshemer
n order to recrut other former Nazs to work on Lbyan and Iraq chemca
weapons pro|ects.
|672|
The Syrans - who are we-known sponsors of terrorsm - offered fundng to
Robert Mathews, the former eader of The Order, aso known as "Der Buders
Schwegen" (The Sent Brotherhood). Mathews, who was ked n a shoot-out wth
198
poce n 1984, had ssued a "Decaraton of War" aganst the so-caed "Zonst
Occuped Government, ncudng |ews, backs, Hspancs, Asans and whte "race
trators" who ddn't agree wth whte supremacst goas. Mathews' Order was
responsbe for a strng of armored car robberes and the machne-gun kng of
|ewsh tak show host Aen Berg n Denver.
As dscussed earer, reports of other Mdde-Eastern "terrorst" states such as
Lbya fundng or offerng fundng to neo-Naz and other dssdent groups such as
the Back Musms and the E Rukns has been reported. One of Lbya's prmary
benefcares was the Naton of Isam (NOI), whose eader, Lous Farrakhan,
receved $5 mon doars from Lbyan Presdent Muammar a-Oaddaf.
As prevousy dscussed, Farrakhan's predecessor, E|ah Muhammad, had formed a
pact wth the KKK and Amercan Naz Party n 1961. Ths unusua aance stretched
rght up to the present day. In the fa of 1992, WAR eader Tom Metzger appeared
on the Whoop Godberg Show preachng the benefts of young backs |onng the
NOI.
In 1985, Metzger and Farrakhan spoke together n Los Angees, and n October of
1996, Davd Irvng, a Brtsh Naz Hoocaust Revsonst, showed up wth a par of
NOI bodyguards.
Twenty-fve year DEA veteran Mke Levne descrbed to me the unque connecton
between Nazs and Arab terrorsts: "Years ago I was undercover n the Amercan
Naz party, and t was an odd mx of peope that I ran nto. Frst of a, I'm very
dark, and my undercover I.D. sad I was Itaan - Mke Pcano. But, what I found
nterestng was that members of the Amercan Naz party were Arabs, you know,
|and| there were ght-sknned Latnos. There were Arab members of the
Amercan Naz Party gong a the way back to 1968, when I was a member. The
mutua hatred was the |ews and the backs.
|673|
As Levne says, the tes that bnd these two seemngy dsparate groups s a
oathng of the U.S. and hatred of "Word |ewry," whch they see as the domnatng
force behnd a word potca and fnanca power.
In Apr of 1991, Ahmed Ram, European correspondent for Al Shaa+ newspaper,
urged a "Western Intfada" aganst aeged |ewsh domnance. Ram's ca was
dupcated n severa Rght-wng German pubcatons, ncudng "eutsche
Rundschall/ Remer "e*esche, and Recht 2nd Wahrheit/ whch wrote:
One can say that the ony wnner of WWII was the organzed Word |ewry.
attaned through Auschwtz, a never-before exstng freedom to unrestrcted
deveopment of power. Today, |ews contro a mportant postons of power n the
U.S.A.
Smar twsted sentments were echoed by the Isamc Assocaton of Paestne,
whch pubshed a communqu urgng Musms to de n a hoy war aganst |ews,
199
who they ca "enemes of humanty, the boodsuckers, and the kers of prophets."
The prncpe Amercan support group of Hamas, s the IAP n Daas, Texas.
Accordng to ABC 20/20 reporter Tom |arre, aw-enforcement sources sad that
Iranans had emgrated to the U.S. for the purpose of "recrutng" Amercans for
homegrown terrorsm. The |anuary, 1996 epsode focused on Davd Befed (AKA
Daoud Saahuddn), a young back man who became dsenchanted wth Amercan
soca and economc fe and was drawn to the mtant Isamc movement.
In 1980, Saahuddn assassnated a former Iranan Embassy offca, A Tabataba,
who had advocated the overthrow of the Ayatoah Khoman. Lke Cary Gagan's
"Iranan" frends who had panned to bomb a federa budng usng a posta truck
packed wth exposves, Saahuddn used a posta |eep to gan entry nto the
offca's home. He then fed the U.S. and assmated hmsef nto the Arab terrorst
underground. Accordng to the report, Saahuddn was typca of many young back
maes ndoctrnated nto the Isamc fath by Iranan agents, who convnced them
that terrorsm was a egtmate means of protest.
Wth the hep of Washngton, D.C. prvate nvestgator Car Schoffer, ABC 20/20
nvestgators were abe to obtan poce ntegence reports whch estabshed that
"the Ayatoah had estabshed a recrutng and tranng program wthn the U.S. for
home-grown terrorsts."
Cang themseves the Isamc Guerras n Amerca (IGA), the group, orgnay
comprsed of approxmatey a dozen young back men, became nvoved n
murder, bank robbery, and threats on the ves of |udges and prosecutors.
Regardng the assassnaton of Tabataba, Saahuddn tod 20/20, "I assume that
the decson came from what was the Revoutonary Counc n Iran, n Tehran.
That's my assumpton."
Another of Saahuddn's cose pas was Ceven Hot, who under hs Isamc name,
Isa Abduah, fought aganst the Israes n Lebanon and was seen extensvey
outsde the Marne Corps compound n Berut |ust before t was bombed n 1983.
Shoffer recas that Abduah was once arrested whe casng Ar Force One, the
Presdenta |et..
Accordng to Schoffer, "There are cear sgns that constant recrutment's gong on.
."
|674|
Some of ths recrutment was for a group known as a-Fuqua, whch cams
between 200 and 300 operatona members. A spnter from the Da'ar a-Isam
sect, a-Fuqra was founded n Brookyn n 1980 by a Pakstan cerc named Shaykh
Mubark A Gan. A-Fuqra's nternatona headquarters s n Lahore, Pakstan, and
they mantan strong tes to both Pakstan ntegence and the Mu|ahadeen.
|675|
200
The group, whch s based on the cassca terrorst ce structure, s thought to
have at east fve operatona ces n the U.S., and s suspected of 17 bombngs
and assassnatons throughout the country, ncudng the murder of at east 12
peope.
|676|
In September of 1989, the FBI confscated the contents of a storage ocker n
Coorado Sprngs owned by a-Fuqra members, ncudng 30 pounds of exposves
(three ppe-bombs, homemade pastc exposves, hand-grenades, mnes, fuses,
mercury swtches and tmng devces), weapons (10 handguns and sencers),
mtary manuas, bomb-makng nstructons, a photo of Shek Omar Abde Rahman,
target-practce shouettes wth such headngs as "FBI Ant-Terrorst Team" and
"Zonst Pg." Aso ncuded n the ot were pans to attack Coorado mtary
nstaatons, and Coorado uttes and avaton nfrastructures.
|677|
Cary Gagan was aready famar wth A Fuqra from hs tme n prson. Omar had
asked Gagan to "take care of" an a-Fuqra member named "Edde," shoud he ca.
Gagan beeves the man was Edward Fnton, a Coorado-based a-Fuqra member
charged wth conspracy to commt murder n the August 1984 frebombng of a
Hare Krshna tempe, and the February 1993 murder of Rashd Khafa, an Iman of
a Tucson mosque.
|678|
In August of 1995, sx months after the bombng n Okahoma Cty, "Edde" caed.
Gagan met the a-Fuqra member, and the two aegedy dscussed pans to
detonate car bombs outsde the Governor's Manson, the Attorney Genera's offce,
the Department of Labor and Empoyment, and the Coorado Bureau of
Investgaton (CBI).
|679|
The pan ncuded not ony bowng up budngs - but assassnatng a federa
|udge - Lews Babcock. Babcock was one of severa |udges and federa agents on
the terrorsts' ht st.
"He was my guy up here," sad Gagan. "I was to take hm out."
The dea was to take Babcock's upstars neghbor, |ohn Strader, hostage, te hm
up, then pant a bomb n hs apartment. Apparenty, ths tme the U.S. Marshas
took Gagan's warnng serousy. A ca to Babcock and Strader confrmed that the
|udge had extra securty around hm durng ths tme. Nevertheess, Gagan sad
Agent |ames Tafoya ddn't want to foow up.
|680|
On October 20, 1995, Gagan returned to Denver at the behest of hs "Hzboah"
contact, where he met two Amercans named "Pau" and "Dane" at the Broadway
Paza Mote. "I had |ust come back from Kngman, where I dropped off money to a
mta-ookng dude," sad Gagan. The men dscussed bombng targets n Denver
and Phoenx. "Dane deas wth these dudes (a-Fuqra)," sad Gagan. "They were
connected to Hzboah."
|681|
201
Athough the agences targeted for the attacks stepped up securty at these
factes, the FBI began a concerted effort to dscredt Gagan.
Then n eary February, Gagan says he met at the Tomahawk Truck Stop n
Watkns, Coorado, where he heped oad approxmatey 300 pounds of hgh-grade
exposves aegedy stoen from Exposves Fabrcators. Aso oaded nto a van
were ant-tank weapons stoen from the Army, eectronc crcutry, and boxes of
chemcas marked Ammonum Scate. Gagan says he drove the van to Denver,
whereupon he contacted Agent Matt Traver of the ATF.
Gagan sad he nformed FBI Agents |ohnson and Hotsaw and U.S. Attorneys
Ason and Soano. Gagan tod Hotsaw he woud take a Poygraph test, requested
that he confrm the status of hs Immunty Letter, and meet wth hs famy to
assure them that precautons woud be taken for ther safety. Gagan aeges that
Hotsaw refused, and ceased a contact wth hm. The FBI cams that Gagan
refused to take a Poygraph, and was therefore unreabe.
Yet Gagan's nvovement wth a-Fuqra s sgnfcant n ght of severa factors. Frst,
Cement Rodney Hampton-E and Ear Gant, both a-Fuqra members, were ndcted
n the Word Trade Center bombng and the subsequent pot to bow up four New
York Cty andmarks by Shek Omar Abde Rahman's |ama a Isamya. Hampton had
fought wth Gubaddn Hekmatyar's Hzb-I-Isam (Isamc Party) durng the Afghan
War, and asssted n the testng of exposves for the New York Cty bombngs,
athough he ddn't actuay take part n the fna pot.
|682|
Second, a-Fuqra s agned, not ony wth Pakstan ntegence, whch supports the
Mu|ahadeen (Word Trade Center bomber Ramz Yousef s a Pakstan who
reportedy fought aongsde the Mu|ahadeen), but to the HzbAah Internatona
through eaders such as Gubaddn Hekmatyar. A-Fuqra's contacts aso ncude
Hamas, and the Moro Lberaton Front, based n the Phppnes, where Terry
Nchos and Ramz Yousef aegedy rendezvoused.
Thrd, an ndvdua camng to be the brother of the frend of a man nvoved n
the pot caed Okahoma State Representatve Key to provde hm wth nformaton
after the bombng. Accordng to the anonymous caer, one of the bombers was a
back Musm. He spoke of a man named "Coone Hardn" from Arzona, whose
"supposed to be deepy nvoved n ths, aong wth some wth some Mdde Eastern
and some back Musms."
The reader shoud take note that ths conversaton occurred before any dscusson
of Mdde Eastern nvovement became pubc as a resut of Stephen |ones' Wrt or
other nvestgatons:
Caller: So, accordng to hm there was nne peope that he knows of that was
supposedy nvoved n ths. Now there was. there was two whte guys and a back
dude. And he sad that he thought one of the whte guys coud possby be a short-
hared gr that she ooked ke she mght be from the Mdde East or somethng.
202
But the second tme that he saw the car, he sad t was about ten mnutes before
the bombng, he sad they drove up to hm and tod hm to get the he out, that
there was gonna' be a bomb. And he sad t was the same car ony that t had the
whte guy and the back dude n t. The other person, he sad thought mght be a
femae wasn't n the car at that tme. Now ths about ten mnutes before..
And ths back dude-he's a member of the Naton of Isam, but he's aso pror
servce mtary. And ths stupd asshoe, he supposedy caed Channe Four after
the bombng, camng credt for t.
Key: We I heard that. I forget who caed n to where but somebody caed n and
sad, you know, t was the Naton of Isam.
Caller: We, he was supposed to have been the one. And another thng. Channe
Four sad ate ast nght that ths eg was supposed to have had some PVC
embedded t. And, you know, you use PVC ppe to pack pastc exposves n. It
greaty ncreases the detonaton of t and the shear power of t, and t's aso a tdy
way of handng t.
|683|
Fnay, there s the undentfed eg found n the rubbe of the Murrah Budng. The
severed eg, aegedy beongng to a back femae, was cothed n combat boots,
two pars of socks, and an ove mtary-ssue bousng strap.
Authortes eventuay camed the eg beonged to 21-year-od Ar Force Arman
Lakesha Levy, who was n the Soca Securty offce at the tme of the bast.
|684|
What s strange s that there were eght bodes wth mssng or severed mbs. If
the eg was cothed n mtary garb, t shoud have been a smpe task to match t
wth Levy, who kewse woud have been wearng a mtary unform. Eventhough
Levy was bured before ths eg was found, t shoud have been a smpe task to go
back and see whch of the bodes wth severed mbs beonged to mtary
personne wearng mtary unforms. Yet authortes orgnay bured a dfferent eg
wth Levy before fndng ths one on May 30.
The State Medca Examner's Offce orgnay camed the eg beonged to a whte
or ght-sknned mae, most key under 30 year of age. Ths fndng was ater
recanted by the FBI, who "decded" that t beonged to Levy. Of course, By statng
the eg beonged to Levy, the FBI convenenty removed a specuaton as to whom
the eg reay beonged to. As Stephen |ones stated, "|Perhaps| the experts are
more nterested n provng the non-exstence of a dfferent bomber at the scene
than vadatng the Okahoma Medca Examner."
|685|
Coud the undentfed eg have actuay beonged to the rea bomber - a back
Musm prepared to sacrfce hmsef or hersef for the cause? Perhaps ths expans
why authortes aegedy recovered no bodes that matched ths eg. It s possbe
the eg beonged to an addtona bomber who was dsntegrated by the bast. Ths
coud aso expan the confused ook Dana Bradey wtnessed on |ohn Doe 2's face
203
after he waked to the back of the Ryder truck. Perhaps upon openng the door, he
was confronted wth a comrade who ordered hm away, then set off the devce,
neaty severng hmsef or hersef n the process.
Whe the Naton of Isam (NOI) are supposedy enemes of A Fuqra, t shoud be
ponted out that the NOI has forged nks wth the KKK, the Amercan Naz Party,
and Tom Metzger's Whte Aryan Resstance (WAR).
The Tusa, Okahoma eader of WAR, Denns Mahon, freey admtted to Wam
|asper and other |ournasts that the Iraqs pad hm $100-a-month - $4800 tota
- between 1991 and 1995, to str up dssent among the neo-Naz/Whte
Supremacst communty aganst the Guf War sanctons. (At east Mahon beeves
the money came from the Iraq embassy.)
|686|
A former Grand Dragon of the Ku Kux Kan, Mahon had vsted Germany n an
effort to recrut young Germans nto the KKK. Aso reca that durng the Guf War,
the Ant-Zonst League's Mchae Khnen, workng wth hs od mercenary frend
Mche Fac, negotated a contract to provde 200 German, Amercan and Brtsh
neo-Naz vounteers to fght aongsde Iraq troops.
As prevousy dscussed, Khnen was succeeded by a man named Hubner, who has
spoken wth Krk Lyons at meetngs of the group "Deutsche Aternatve." Lyons'
cent was Mchae Bresca's roommate Andreas Strassmer, a good frend of Denns
Mahon's. A frequent vstor to Eohm Cty, Mahon was cose frends wth Bresca.
He amost certany knew Bresca's frend, Tmothy McVegh.
Agan, the queston must be asked: Were McVegh, Nchos, and ther comrades n
fact pottng wth Arab extremsts and ther back Musms counterparts to bow up
the Federa Budng, and was Iraq behnd t?
As the Washin%ton )ost1s |ack Anderson stated: "A preferabe revenge for Iraq
woud nvove havng a 1surro%ate terrorist1 carry out a domestc attack that
Hussen coud prvatey take credt for."
Anderson's anayss may be rather prescent. States and ther ntegence agences
have beng usng terrorst groups as "cut-outs" for years n order to mantan
denabty. "efense 5 Forei%n Affairs, stated t thusy:
.despte the mportant evouton n the roe of the terrorst organzatons and
other enttes through the HzbAah Internatona, the actua contro over the
operatons themseves remans frmy n the hands of, and under the tght contro
of, the sponsorng states, beng perpetrated by operatves of ntegence servces.
.
It s through these "organzatons" that the sponsorng states n effect take credt
for ther terrorst operatons and have ther message cear and expct. Gven the
marked escaaton of nternatona terrorsm and the hgher stakes nvoved, the
204
mportance of the front groups "speakng" for the sponsorng states - partcuary
Iran and the goba Isamc Revouton t s runnng - s of growng mportance and
centraty to nternatona terrorsm.
|687|
Another exampe of such methodoogy was the Word Trade Center bombng. As
Ramz Yousef's accompce Mahmud Abu Hama put t, "The panned act was not
as bg as what subsequenty occurred.. Yousef showed up on the scene. and
escaated the nta pot.. Yousef used |Saameh and the others|. as pawns and
then mmedatey after the bast eft the country."
|688|
Some terrorsm experts thnk
Yousef was workng for Iraq.
Stephen |ones beeves a smar pan unfoded n Okahoma Cty. As he stated n
hs March 25th Wrt of Mandamus:
The pan was arranged for a Mdde Eastern bombng engneer to engneer the
bomb n such a way that t coud be carefuy transported and successfuy
detonated. There s no reported ncdent of neo-Nazs or extreme Rght-wng
mtants n ths country expodng any bomb of any sgnfcant sze, et aone one
to brng down a nne (9) story federa budng and k 168 persons.. Ths terrorst
attack was "contracted out" to persons whose organzaton and deoogy was
frendy to poces of the foregn power and ncuded dske and hatred of the
Unted States government tsef, and possby ncuded was a desre for revenge
aganst the Unted States..
|689|
In November of 1994, Gagan sad he made a trp to Mexco Cty wth Omar, where
he ran nto a famar face amongst the terrorst crowd - Frank Terp. "I saw hm
down n Mexco Cty. wth Omar," recaed Gagan. "We met hm n the Zona Rosa
area."
A retred CIA communcatons specast, Terp had been convcted, aong wth
rogue CIA agent Edwn Wson, of seng 20 tons of C-4 pastc exposves and
50,000 eectronc tmers to the Lbyan government.
Terp had aso ned hs pockets by suppyng torture devces to Ugandan Dctator
Id Amn, and sophstcated detonators and communcatons equpment to the
Popuar Front for the Lberaton of Paestne. He and Wson had aso set up a
terrorst tranng camp n Lbya, and had recruted U.S. Green Berets to tran Arab
terrorsts n bombng and assassnaton technques.
After beng ndcted, Terp fed the country, and was ast seen hdng out n Cuba,
unt he showed up n Mexco Cty. wth Omar. "They met at the bar," sad Gagan.
"Terp and Omar spoke for about ffteen mnutes, aone."
"Who's that dude?" Gagan asked Omar as they eft the bar.
"An ex-CIA agent named Terp," came the answer. "He ves n Cuba."
205
"Frank Terp? I thought he was dead? What's up wth hm?"
"He ves n Cuba. He's hands-off.."
Consderng Terp's we-documented reatonshp wth Arab terrorsts, and hs
"wanted" status n the U.S., t s understandabe why he woud choose to meet
Omar n Mexco Cty.
Gagan hmsef was no stranger to Mexco Cty. As prevousy dscussed, the Sovets
had socted Gagan's hep n 1980 to procure mtary secrets from hs frend at
Martn Maretta. They requested hs hep agan n 1986 to assst ega Iranan
mmgrants who needed fase IDs.
Whe n Mexco Gagan had aso met an Austran, Eduard Bodenzayer, a Sovet spy,
and had been to the Russan embassy repeatedy. As he tod Stephen |ones, "My
contacts there were a guy named Vaery and Eya."
Dd Omar, Sam Khad, or ther assocates have contact wth the Russans?
Consderng Khad's reported tes to the PLO and Hamas, and the ong hstory of
Sovet-Arab cooperaton, t s hghy key.
Lke Nazs and neo-Nazs who've forged nks wth Arab terrorsts, the Sovets have
provded wde-rangng support to Arab terrorst groups throughout the years. As
|ames Phps of the Hertage Foundaton wrtes:
Durng the 1970s the Sovet Unon and ts satetes greaty expanded ther support
for terrorst groups. Moscow often used Mdde Eastern cent states such as Iraq,
Lbya, Syra, and the former Peope's Democratc Repubc of South Yemen as
ntermedares to mask Sovet arms, tranng, ntegence, and ogstca support for
a wde varety of terrorst groups.
|690|
If the Russans were sponsorng ther Arab frends n terrorsm, t s key the Arabs
may have wshed to mantan further denabty by engagng the assstance of
Amercan neo-Nazs. Ths possbty became more apparent as connectons were
drawn, not ony between Denns Mahon and Iraq embassy offcas, but between
Terry Nchos and Iraq terrorst Ramz Yousef, and between Tmothy McVegh and
former Iraq soder Hussan a-Hussan.
Ths kehood became cearer after ntervewng Mchee Torres, the daughter of a
former Communst Party offca (P.R.T. Party) n Mexco Cty. An ntegent young
woman, Mchee had been rased under the harsh regmentaton of a person
destned for a poston n the Communst Party, but had rebeed, and at age 17,
fed to the Unted States.
Torres recaed the numerous and strange faces that woud often pass through her
home and her father's offce. Arab men from |ordan, Paestne, Iraq. she was not
aowed to ask them ther names or ther busness.
|691|
206
Torres aso camed to have overheard conversatons between her father and PLO
representatves some years earer. The meetngs, she sad, nvoved dscussons of
a bombng pot to be carred out n the U.S.
It was the wnter of 1992, and Mchee's father, Hrram Torres, was workng n the
offce of the PLO n Mexco Cty. He was speakng wth a man from Paestne, and
another from |ordan or possby Iraq. In broken Engsh, Torres recounts the
conversaton:
Torres: They were sayng: "What do you thnk about the new pan?" And the other
man says: "We, we can. the Russan offcers tod us we can probaby bame the
fascsts." You know what I mean? "Amercans - the Amercan Patrots, and a the
stupd stuff wth the whte supremacsts and the neo-Nazs. So we can gve two
strkes at once."
5offman: Dd he expan what he meant by two strkes?
Torres: They ddn't expan t but I understood t.
5offman: Dd they say anythng about the Patrot Movement or the Mta
Movement?
Torres: They don't say anythng about mta. When they want to tak about
mta, they say fascsts or neo-Nazs. And when they speak about Patrots, or
Yankees. the way they say. They used to speak about whte supremacsts. a
Amercans. whte Amercans are whte supremacsts. Yankees and fascsts.
5offman: Te me what they meant by the two strkes at once.
Torres: They wanted. the Arab peope wanted. to make a terrorst act. They
needed to make a terrorst act. There was ke, some of the Arab eaders - wanted
to make - wanted to gve a strke to the Unted States. They ddn't even
understand why. But at the same tme, the Communst Party tes them that t was
a great dea to.
5offman: Now are you reatng the actua conversaton?
Torres: Yes. They were sayng that t was. a the tme they were takng about.
what the Russan offcers tod them to do. So that man who was takng was the
Paestnan man - my father tod hm that t was very good, and that they woud
probaby fnd an easy way - an easy way to bame that knd of peope. That he
was tryng. that he had tred to contact neo-Naz peope to hep hm.
5offman: Dd he say who?
Torres: Yes. He tred to contact any knd of Natona Socast peope (Amercan
Naz Party). I te you the way I heard t: "We can probaby use those neo-Naz
207
bastards. I tred to contact them, but they refused to do t, and they don't want to
get nvoved n that knd of stuff wth Communsts. And I don't thnk anyone can
get those fuckng dots, but I don't care." He sad somethng ke, "I don't care. We
are anyway gong to bame them."
5offman: We don't want to get nvoved wth Communsts and that knd of stuff
and what.
Torres: "But anyway can bame them. No matter f they want to cooperate wth us
or not." Then he tod me. he tod that guy that. he was gong to hre a whte
man.
5offman: To act as a neo-Naz? You mean to pay the part of a neo-Naz?
Torres: To pay the part of a neo-Naz. And. and to partcpate wth hs
comrades. he spoke about hs Arab comrades.
5offman: In what respect?
Torres: Hs Arab comrades. and he used to ca them brothers or some knd of
thng.
5offman: Your father spoke of them ths way?
Torres: Yes. But, we, he tod t n Russan, that he was - that boy who they were
gong to hre, was gong to work together wth the Tobarch (Russan for comrade).
Wth the Tobarch.
5offman: Do you remember any names - any specfc names of any peope -
anybody?
Torres: No. That tme, they were |ust gong to pan t. That was the pan.
5offman: Ths was n the wnter of '92?
Torres: Yes. They were |ust dscussng the pan. They ddn't even know the
names. My father was. by that tme my father was. decdng.
5offman: Now why do you thnk so ong ago? That's four years between now and
then.
Torres: They aways pan t n that way. They take ther tme, and aways a very
ong tme. They aways take a very ong tme.
5offman: Is there anythng ese about what they dscussed that you haven't tod
me that you thnk s mportant?
208
Torres: They sad they were gong to do t n the mdde of the country. And they
were gong to do t n a busness offce.
5offman: Dd they say how bg?
Torres: Yes, bg. And they wanted. chdren to be vctms of t. There must be
chdren there - t must be an offce where chdren were somehow. They had to
k chdren. Because t was a very mportant part of the emotona part of the
strke..
5offman: Dd they ever menton Pan Am 103 or the Word Trade Center bombngs
n reference?
Torres: They taked somethng about. trade centers. Anyway they spoke about
trade centers - about paces where busness were made, because Amercans
regard so much ther money and ther busness. That was the expanaton my
father gave to the Paestnan guy. They spoke about paces where busness were
made, and that t was not the ony strke they were gong to make.
You know one of the reasons I am not scared of ths conversaton (ths ntervew) s
because I heard - I sten to ths knd of conversaton a of my fe. My father - he
has ked a ot of peope - he has done a ot of wrong thngs. He was nvoved.
Whe Torres' menton of Russan ntegence seems to have a the makngs of a
Care Sterng nove, t shoud be mentoned that Mexco Cty s home to one of the
argest Sovet consuates n the Western hemsphere, wth ts attendant Sovet
ntegence apparatus.
It appears that what Torres was descrbng was more than a oose-knt group of
terrorsts, but a sophstcated centray-controed state-sponsored terrorst
apparatus. As "efense 5 Forei%n Affairs stated:
Despte the unprecedented roe of the HzbAah Internatona n the decson
makng process, a ma|or terrorst operatons reman state- controed. These
operatons are conducted by agences of states and n pursut of the ong-term and
strategc nterests of the controng and sponsorng states. The "names" and
"profes" of the organzatons and groups ssung the communqus and cams
consttute an ntegra component of the state sponsorshp mechansm. These
named enttes serve a specfc functon: statng the dentty of the nterests
nvoved n, and the outnng of the ogc and ob|ectves behnd, these operatons
wthout havng the sponsorng states assume forma responsbty..
Incredbe as t sounds, Torres' story may be the key pece of the puzze nkng the
Arab and neo-Naz contngents. Her story s sgnfcant n ght of the fact that
Denns Mahon was beng pad by the Iraqs to str up dssent amongst the whte
supremacst communty.
209
Her story aso tes nto the fact that Omar aegedy met wth Frank Terp n Mexco
Cty; and Terry Nchos reportedy met wth Ramz Yousef n the Phppnes.
Fnay, Tmothy McVegh, an aeged whte supremacst, was seen wth Hussan a-
Hussan, an Iraq.
|692|
Interestngy, wthn hours of the bast n Okahoma Cty, Radio Tehran n Iraq had
the answer. ".the perpetrators were Chrstan extremst mtas from Montana
and Okahoma observng the two-year annversary of the U.S. government kng
of 86 men, women, and chdren n the Branch Davdan Waco massacre."
|693|
Was Tmothy McVegh the "neo-Naz bastard" that Mchee's father taked about
hrng?
|694|*
And were the Russans usng Mdde Eastern terrorsts as proxes - who n turn
were usng Amercan neo-Nazs - to destabaze the West whe mantanng
denabty? Whe the apparent demse of the Sovet Unon convnced a ot of
peope that the ong-feared Communst threat was over, many wthn the
ntegence communty dsagree.
A recent Rueters report quoted Raymond Msock, Chef of the FBI's Natona
Securty Dvson, as sayng that the Russans "st are on the scene," and contnue
to empoy ntegence offcers n ths country. In fact, the FBI was nvestgatng
over 200 cases of suspected Russan esponage actvty at the tme of ths wrtng.
|695|
And what about Khad's empoyees trps to Mexco? Was Khad asonng wth
terrorsts there? Utmatey, the queston was, who was Khad workng for?
Athough Lous Crousette avoded any further attempts to contact hm, he eft
|ayna Davs wth one fna word of advce. Echong Han Kama's words of warnng
regardng Israe ntegence, Crousette sad, "You know who's your best bet to tak
to, f you haven't thought about t. the Mossad."
That fna adage ed me straght back to Northrop, who stated n hs report that
Khad "ft the roe" of a PLO operatve, and nssted that the bombng was the work
of Iraq terrorsts. But f Khad, Hussan, and Oshan were smpe Arab terrorsts -
and they had eft a tra of evdence a me ong - why were they st wakng
around?
In spte of Nove's and Davs' unsuccessfu attempts to postvey I.D. Khad wth
McVegh or Nchos, Gagan stated that he had seen Nchos wth Omar, at a
meetng whch took pace |ust outsde of Las Vegas.
The FBI had aso nvestgated Sam Khad for PLO fundrasng actvtes, and had
ooked nto the shootng assaut of Sharon Twey.
210
They had put out an APB on the brown pck-up drven by Hussan a-Hussan,
whch was seen speedng away from the scene of the bombng. And Hussan's ab
for the mornng of the Apr 19 was patenty fase.
KFOR's wtnesses who paced Hussan wth McVegh seemed perfecty credbe,
and KFOR had passed on ther nformaton to the FBI.
Khad had access to an auto body shop, and one of Khad's empoyees had been
seen abandonng the re-panted pck-up n a nearby apartment compex.
Then there was the mysterous dsappearance of Khad's phone records, and the
strange comments he made to Erne Cranfed when he was asked why Abraham
Ahmed had been seen hangng around Khad's pace n the brown pck-up.
Khad had been paced by Northrop's sources wth the same Hamas operatve n
Mam - Ramadan Shaah - that Gagan had seen n Las Vegas.
Fnay, Omar (Khad?) was seen meetng wth Frank Terp - a rogue CIA agent
who had supped Arab terrorsts wth severa tons of C-4.
Athough crcumstanta, the facts were suffcent to make an ncontrovertbe case,
and yet these peope seemed to wak through was. Coud the FBI be so nept?
Were ther agents so compartmentazed that they coudn't put two and two
together? Or had the |ustce Department's nvestgaton become so potczed that
bureaucratc nepttude had become the desred and nevtabe resut? It woud
seem a of the above, and yet ths st seemed too smpe an answer.
Even Northrop's report seemed a bt one-dmensona. Whe the former Israe
ntegence agent drew a pcture of Arab terrorsts forged n the fre of the PLO, the
mage that urked |ust beneath the surface, one drawn n nvsbe nk, was that of
ntegence operatves conceved n the secret chambers of the Mossad. or the
CIA.
Ths was the one remanng possbty that ent credence to the seemngy
rreconcabe facts whch presented themseves. After a, why had the FBI gnored
a vertabe mountan of dammng evdence? Why had they suddeny and
mysterousy canceed the APB on the brown pck up? And why, after 48 hours of
reportng nothng but Mdde Eastern connectons, dd the |ustce Department and
ther obedent ap dogs of the manstream press suddeny announce that no Mdde
Eastern connecton exsted?
Certany the capture of McVegh and Nchos dd not repudate the st-standng
Mdde Eastern connecton. Nor coud the sudden change have been the resut of
nformaton from ow-eve agents n the fed. No. It coud have ony been the
resut of one thng - a strategc decson from the |ustce Department, whch had
as ts bass, a potca drectve from the Whte House.
211
It was to Washngton that Khad traveed shorty after the bombng, accordng to
empoyees, to meet wth a Congressona representatve. The purpose? As an
emssary to dscuss the probem of "Musm bashng."
Yet KFOR's P.I., Bob |erow, cams he spoke to the Representatve's ade who
checked the Congressman's schedue and camed she never saw the name Khad.
If Sam Khad was a run-of-the-m Arab terrorst who had |ust payed a roe n the
bggest terrorst attack n U.S. hstory, why woud he attract attenton to hmsef by
frng shots at Sharon Twey? A convcted feon ke Khad woud easy earn a stff
prson sentence for possesson of a frearm and assaut wth a deady weapon.
Uness he was "protected."
Ths woud tend to expan why he acted so non-chaant towards Erne Cranfed,
Bob |erow, Brad Edwards, and the author. It woud kewse tend to expan the
FBI's ack of nterest n Khad.
If Khad and Hussan were run-of-the-m Arab terrorsts, what was Khad dong
meetng wth such hgh-eve U.S. offcas? It woud seem that Presdent Cnton's
pubcy teevsed admonshment not to bame the Arab communty aso served as
a handy excuse to cover up the Mdde Eastern connecton.
Yet why woud Cnton want to cover up ther connecton to the bombng? There
are two reasons: Frst, Cnton needs an excuse to crack down on the Patrot/Mta
communty, who represent a threat to Cnton's ant-consttutona pans for
Amerca, and the estabshment's pans for a "New Word Order." Ths Cnton dd
wth a vengeance. Once the |ustce Department had announced the capture of
McVegh and Nchos, the manstream meda, wth nformaton supped many by
the Ant-Defamaton League of the B'na B'rth (ADL), and the Southern Poverty
Law Center (SPLC), was abe to focus ther ant-mta spotghts, aunchng vtroc
attacks aganst anyone connected wth the far-Rght. Under the orchestraton of
the ADL, attacks on the Patrot/Mta movement contnued for months,
eventhough there was no documentabe proof of the suspects' connectons to the
mtas, or the mtas' connecton to the bombng.
Number two, Cnton and Bush were responsbe for brngng ndvduas ke
Hussan a-Hussan nto ths country. Between 1992 and 1995, over 18,000 Iraq
refugees and ther fames were resetted nto the U.S. under a argey unknown
and hoty debated program ntated by Presdent Bush and foowed up by
Presdent Cnton. They were part of a contngent of Iraq refugees that fooded the
Saud border durng and after the war, ncudng many former Iraq soders and
deserters.
Accordng to Okahoma Senator Davd Boren, approxmatey 950 of these former
soders were resetted n the U.S. n 1992 and 1993. Congressona Research
212
Servce fgures ndcate that an addtona 549 soders were resetted n 1994, and
219 n 1995.
A "Sense of the Congress" resouton ntated by Repubcans Don Manzua of
Inos and Cfford Stearns of Forda attempted to hat the resettement.
|696|
"We're rong out the wecome wagon to prsoners of war, yet our own veterans
who fought there are havng troube gettng any hep," Sterns sad. Some of the
refugees ncuded Sh'te Musms who were oppressed by Iraq Presdent Saddam
Hussen and n some cases rebeed aganst hm. Others ncuded Iraq soders who
Hussen vowed to execute because they ddn't fght to the death. "I'm sympathetc
wth the dea that peope who opposed Saddam Hussen shoud not be aowed to
be massacred," sad Tennessee State Repubcan Representatve |ohn L. '|mmy'
Duncan |r., "but we shoud gve the beneft of the doubt to our own peope and put
the burden of proof on the peope who want to come n."
|697|
In spte of the resoutons, the Whte House backed the program, offcay
admttng approxmatey 18,000 Iraq refugees nto the U.S. Accordng to
Manzua's offce, the fgure may be hgher. Some fgures put approxmatey 5,000
Iraqs n the Tusa and Okahoma Cty areas aone.
Others fear that such a resettement woud create a sort of "bowback." The U.S.
aready has Musm extremst ces, and t s dffcut to gather accurate ntegence
on a those admtted under the program. Accordng to the Congressona Research
Servce Report, ".there has been no contact wth Kuwat ntegence servces n
the effort to verfy that the refugees are not Iraq agents."
|698|
If Hussan a-Hussan, a former Iraq offcer, was resetted nto the U.S., t s
possbe - hghy possbe n fact - that he was recruted by the CIA or DIA as part
of a dea.
There s a precedent for such coaboraton. In 1949 and 1950 the Natona Securty
Counc ssued NSC Integence Drectve 13 and 14, whch expanded the CIA's
authorty to functon nsde the U.S. (n voaton of the CIA's charter.) One of ther
programs nvoved brngng "favored European exes" nto the country.
"Favored European exes" was a euphemsm for Naz war crmnas.
|699|
It may not be far to compare Iraq war refugees wth Naz war crmnas or Isamc
terrorsts. But gven the Unted States' precedent n usng expatrated Nazs and
Cubans for ther covert operatons, and the extremey ow-key nature of the
Bush/Cnton Iraq resettement program, one has to wonder what Hussan's rea
purpose was.
|700|
As former Pentagon nvestgator Gene Wheaton observes: "Every ma|or Mdde-
Eastern terrorst organzaton s under surveance and contro of the ntegence
213
agences n the U.S. None of these guys move around as freey as they'd ke you
to thnk."
If Hussan was workng for the Mossad, the FBI, the DIA, or the CIA, who have been
known to cooperate wth each other on "speca pro|ects," he may have been a
doube-agent, workng for Iraq at the same tme. Remember that Saddam Hussen
had threatened revenge aganst the Unted States ("Does the Unted States reaze
the meanng of openng the stores of the word wth the w of Iraq peope?...Does
t reaze the meanng of every Iraq becomng a msse that can cross to countres
and ctes?")
If an eement of the Unted States Government payed a roe n the destructon of
the Afred P. Murrah Budng, usng an Arab to do ts drty work woud prove far
easer than attemptng to recrut an Amercan ctzen.
Sam Khad's abty to montor the actvtes of a group of Mdde Easterners wth
dubous connectons (through hrng and rentng homes to Arab mmgrants), and
hs status as former feon, make hm a key canddate as an operatve or
nformant.
Was he payng both sdes of the fence?
Potcay, the government's refusa to concede the compcty of Iraq n the Word
Trade Center bombng, and possby to the Okahoma Cty bombng, may stem
from ts desre to hat any pubc outcry aganst U.S. poces. One ma|or exampe s
the government's refusa to face the consequences of ts mmora, bruta, and
devastatng actons n the Guf.
Dr. Laure Myroe beeves the Cnton admnstraton's faure to address the
probem es n ts refusa to face the specter of state-sponsored terrorsm. Instead
t chooses to adopt a mcrocosmc "aw-enforcement" approach to what she
perceves as an nternatona probem - hence the focus on "domestc terrorsts."
Moreover, the Whte House may not want to admt the specter of state-sponsored
terrorsm because t mght panc the popuace. Such s the case of a state-
sponsored boogca attack whch has been ncreasngy threatenng our
popuaton.
|701|
If Iraq ndeed proved to be behnd the Okahoma Cty bombng, t woud not fare
we for the Cnton admnstraton, who foowed up on Presdent Bush's Iraq
resettement program. It woud not fare we for Bush and hs busness and potca
crones - the same CIA/Iran-Contra cotere who armed and fueed Saddam
Hussen's mtary machne wth conventona and boogca weapons.
And t woud precude ths same nternatona arms/drugs caba from profteerng
by re-suppyng Iraq n the future. In short, t woud precude "busness as
usua."
|702|
214
Whatever the reason, certany the pubc wasn't beng tod the fu truth about the
Okahoma Cty bombng. They woud never be aowed to gmpse any evdence of
the Mdde Eastern connecton.
Yet ths was ony part of the pcture.
=
"-o !tone 8nt,rned"
.We will leae no stone unturned in our effort to %et to the truth0.
- Attorney Genera |anet Reno
.McVei%h and Nichols are %oin% to hell re%ardless0 (1m >ust lookin% forward to
sendin% them there a little sooner0.
- U.S. Attorney |oseph Hartzer
Amost from the begnnng, the |ustce Department and the manstream press
focused ther attenton on Tmothy McVegh, pantng hm as a spurned ex-soder
who was angry for fang to make the Speca Forces; an extremst Rght-wng
"Patrot" who hated the government wth a passon for ther atroctes at Waco.
McVegh, the angry msguded oner, t s aeged, conspred wth ant-government
tax protester Terry Nchos to teach the Federa Government a esson n Okahoma.
Lke the arrest of Lee Harvey Oswad, the "capture" of Tmothy McVegh was an
ncredbe stroke of tmng and uck. Lke Oswad, who was arrested for wakng nto
a move theater wthout payng, McVegh woud be arrested for speedng down the
hghway wth a conspcuousy mssng cense pate.
In both cases, the FBI was qucky notfed that ther "suspect" was n custody. Wth
ther extraordnary run of good uck, the FBI was abe to nstanty trace the sera
number found on the bomb truck to Ford, then to Ryder, then to Eott's renta
agency, then to a "Bob Kng," and fnay to "McVegh."
|703|
Lke Oswad's Manncher-Carcanno rfe, whch the FBI traced from ts entrance
nto the U.S., to an mporter, to Ken's Sportng Goods, to a sae to an "A.|. Hde,"
then to Oswad - a wthout computers and over a weekend - the FBI woud
qucky trace the Ryder truck to the one bomber.
Fnay, ke "one nut" Lee Harvey Oswad, "one nut" Tmothy |ames McVegh
woud be transferred from the Nobe County |a, paraded n front of onookers and
the press as the mass murderer. Whe there was no |ack Ruby to ntervene ths
tme, McVegh woud be ed away n a brght orange |umpsut, wthout a buet-
proof vest, whch he had specfcay requested.
215
Ironcay, hs departng words were, ".I mght be Lee Harvey Oswad, |r.. You
remember what happened wth |ack Ruby."
|704|
As n the arrest of Lee Harvey Oswad, the crcumstances surroundng the arrest of
McVegh and Nchos woud prove hghy questonabe. The meda wdey reported
that McVegh was stopped by Hghway Patroman Chares Hanger 78 mnutes after
the bast(s), headng north on I-35, near Perry. McVegh was drvng wthout a
cense pate. As Trooper Hanger's affvadt states:
".That I stopped the vehce and the defendant was the drver and ony occupant
of the vehce.. That as the defendant was gettng hs bfod from hs rght rear
pocket I notced a buge under the eft sde of hs |acket and I thought t coud be a
weapon.. That I then tod the defendant to pu hs |acket back and before he dd
he sad, 'I have a gun under my |acket..' That I then grabbed a hod of the eft
sde of hs |acket and drew my own weapon and ponted t at the back of hs head
and nstructed hm to keep hs hands up and I waked hm over to the trunk of hs
car and had hm put hs hands on the trunk.."
Yet accounts vary. Some actces stated that McVegh was speedng at 81 mes per
hour. Yet Hanger ony cted hm for no cense pate, no nsurance, and possesson
of a conceaed weapon. Were these accounts meant to suggest that McVegh was
tryng to make a fast get-away? If so, why woud a man who had |ust commtted
such a henous crme wsh to draw attenton to hmsef?
McVegh supposedy |ust bew up a budng and ked 169 nnocent peope - men,
women, and chdren - ncudng a number of federa agents. It s 78 mnutes
ater, and he s beng pued over by a state trooper. He has no tags, no nsurance,
and s carryng a conceaed weapon wthout a permt. He s most key gong to
|a, where hs name, Soca Securty number, and descrpton w be upnked to
the Natona Crme Informaton Center (NCIC) at the FBI - an FBI that s now on fu
aert.
McVegh s carryng a arge combat knfe, and a Gock mode 21 automatc psto
oaded wth deady hoow-pont buets. McVegh s a traned soder, a top
marskman, and a hardened combat veteran.
The cop s extng hs vehce and wakng over to McVegh's car. McVegh's fe
outsde the eectrc char s very key about to come to an end. What does
McVegh - ths hardened combat veteran, ths bruta ker of 169 nnocent peope
- do? He casuay nforms the cop that he has a conceaed weapon, and meeky
hands hmsef over for arrest.
|705|
Of course the manstream press woudn't make any attempt to anayze ths bzarre
nconsstency n McVegh's behavor, ony reportng that he was
"uncommuncatve," (Time), "cas hmsef a 'prsoner of war,'" (New 'ork Times),
and s refusng to cooperate wth nvestgators and prosecutors." (20S0 News 5
World Re*ort) - a story whch woud be repeated by numerous other papers.
216
Yet as McVegh stated to Newsweek, "I never caed mysef a prsoner of war."
|706|
McVegh's account s backed up by the 3os An%eles Times, whch obtaned
McVegh's arrest records. As the Times1 Rchard Serrano notes:
..They revea a McVegh sharpy dfferent from the one sources had earer
portrayed. He was not the sent soder who gave |aers ony hs name, rank and
sera number. Rather, he was often pote. And smooth.
|707|
Wth ony the sera number of a truck dfferenta and a sketch to work wth, the
FBI fanned out through |uncton Cty. Upon examnng the renta recept at Eott's
Body Shop, the FBI dscovered a the nformaton on t was fase. As Agent Henry
Gbbon's affdavt states:
The person who sgned the renta agreement dentfed hmsef as Bob Kng, SSAN
962-42-9694, South Dakota drver's cense number YF942A6, and provded a
home address of 428 Mape Drve, Omaha, Nebraska, teephone 913-238-2425.
The person sted the destnaton as 428 Mape Drve, Redfed, South Dakota. b.
Subsequent nvestgaton conducted by the FBI determned a that nformaton to
be fase.
Yet empoyees of Eott's Body Shop dd recognze the sketch of Unsub #1 as the
man who rented the truck used n the bombng. The FBI then took the sketch of
Unsub #1 to the Dreamand Mote, where they found that Unsub #1 had rented a
room from Apr 14 through the Apr 18. As the FBI affdavt states:
An empoyee of the Dreamand Mote n |uncton Cty, Kansas, dentfed Tmothy
McVegh as a guest at the mote from Apr 14, 1995, through Apr 18, 1995. Ths
empoyee, when shown a photo neup dentfed Tmothy McVegh's pcture as the
ndvdua who regstered at the mote under the name of Tm McVegh, sted hs
automobe as a Mercury bearng an Arzona cense pate, and provded a Mchgan
address, on North Van Dyke n Decker Mchgan.
|708|
On Apr 21, ony hours before McVegh was due to be reeased from the Perry
County |a, "Dstrct Attorney |ohn Maddox receved a ca from the FBI teng hm
to hang onto the prsoner.
|709|
As the New 'ork Times reported, ".a routne check of hs Soca Securty number
matched one fagged by the FBI as beongng to a suspect n the bombng."
|710|
Ths
subsumes that the FBI had obtaned McVegh's Soca Securty number from the
accurate regstraton nformaton at the Dreamand, not the fase nformaton at
Eott's.
Why woud Tm McVegh - who was bent on commttng such a terrbe crme -
use a fake name and address at the Ryder renta agency, yet use hs rea name
and address at a mote rght down the street?
|711|
Perhaps because, as w be
expaned beow, McVegh never vsted the renta agency.
217
Whe n custody, McVegh sted |ames Nchos as a reference. Why woud McVegh
st the brother of hs so-caed accompce as hs ony reference?
On Apr 21, Terry Nchos was busy wth chores around hs new home n
Herrngton. Unbeknownst to hm, a team of 11 FBI agents had aready staked out
hs house.
Later that afternoon, Nchos heard hs name beng broadcast as a possbe
suspect. At 2:42 p.m. he and Marfe got nto ther bue pck-up, and drove to the
Herrngton poce staton, wth the FBI on hs ta. Accordng to Marfe, Terry was
frghtened, and anxous to know why hs name was beng broadcast. Insde,
Nchos asked why hs name was beng mentoned on the rado n connecton wth
the bombng. The cops reped that they ddn't know, but they had some questons
for hm. "Good," Nchos sad, "because I have some questons for you."
Strangey, FBI agents then read Nchos hs Mranda rghts, somethng not normay
done uness someone s under arrest, and tod hm three tmes he was free to go.
In fact, Nchos wasn't free to go. An arrest warrant had been ssued fve hours
earer, but Nchos woudn't be nformed of ths unt amost mdnght. In the
nterm, he and Marfe were questoned by the FBI for over nne hours.
Back at hs house, a SWAT team had aready arrved, and agents were seang t
wth crme tape, and checkng t for booby traps. It was there that agents woud
cam to dscover 55-gaon barres, ros of prmadet detonator cord, non-eectrc
bastng caps, and a recept for 40 50-pound bags of ammonum ntrate wth
McVegh's thumbprnt.
If Terry Nchos was an accompce n the bombng, why woud he eave such
ncrmnatng tems n hs house? Woudn't he have attempted to hde the tems
before drvng over to the poce staton?
Moreover, f Nchos was a co-consprator n the argest domestc terrorst attack n
the hstory of the country, why woud he casuay stro nto the poce staton
askng why hs name was beng broadcast on TV? Ths makes about as much sense
as Tmothy McVegh casuay pung over for Offcer Hanger and meeky handng
hmsef over for arrest.
Severa days after McVegh's arrest, Hanger camed to have recovered a crumped
busness card from behnd the front passenger seat of hs patro car, where
McVegh had been sttng. The card for Pausen's Mtary Suppy of Antgo,
Wsconsn, contaned a handwrtten note: "Dave. TNT at $5 a stck. 708-288-0128.
Need more. Ca after 1 of May, see f I can get some more."
Had McVegh actuay eft such a note n the cruser? When McVegh defense team
nvestgator Marty Reed attempted to ntervew Hanger, he was tod by OHP chef
218
ega counse |ohn Lndsey, "The FBI has requested that no one ntervew Trooper
Chare Hanger."
And as n the Kennedy case, the evdence coected by the FBI n ther case, code-
named "OKBOMB," woud prove |ust as specous. The FBI qucky camed that they
had traced the Ryder truck from a sera number - 6 4 PVA26077 - found on ts
rear dfferenta, whch had fown 575 feet through the ar "ke a boomerang" and
anded on a Ford Festa. (For those confused about the FBI fndng the sera
number on the "axe," t was actuay on the axe housng.)
|712||713|
Curousy, whe Deputy Sherff Mevn Sumter tod me he had found the axe, an
Okahoma Cty Poceman, Mke McPherson, camed that he had n fact dscovered
t, as dd an FBI agent. These three accounts were contradcted by Governor Frank
Keatng, who camed that he had actuay found the axe.
The Ryder truck beongng to the axe, rented under the aas of "Bob Kng," the
FBI camed, was the nstrument of the deady destructon n Okahoma Cty.
But had t actuay been rented by Tmothy McVegh?
The "McVegh" Edon Eott descrbed to the grand |ury was 5' 10" to 5' 11", wth
medum bud, weghng between 180-185 pounds. Eott's mechanc Tom
Kessnger stated that the man had a "rough" compexon wth "acne," and
empoyee Vck Beemer sad he had a deformed chn.
Not ony s McVegh cear-sknned, he s a anky 6', 2", and weghs ony 160
pounds. He does not have a deformed chn.
|714|
Readers w aso reca that ATF nformant Caro Howe, who had penetrated the
Eohm Cty encave, tod ATF and FBI agents that the sketch of |ohn Doe 1 who
rented the truck appeared to be Eohm Cty resdent and cose Strassmer frend
Peter Ward.
|715|
Accordng to |.D. Cash, so dd Denns Mahon. Mahon tod the reporter that Ward
was "known at Eohm Cty as 'Andy's shadow'... Ward went everywhere Strassmer
dd and s dumb as drt." Mahon aso added, ".you know hs brother, Tony, has a
pocked compexon..."
|716|
Yet authortes nsst that t was McVegh who rented the truck on Apr 17. They
ntroduced surveance footage from a |uncton Cty McDonads, sghty over a
me from Eott's, showng McVegh wakng towards the casher at approxmatey
3:55 p.m. Yet McVegh was not wearng mtary attre as was "Kng." Nevertheess,
the prosecuton contends that McVegh eft the restaurant, waked the 1.3 mes to
Eott's durng a ght drzze, then showed up nce and dry, wearng competey
dfferent cothes.
219
Edon Eott woud pay aong for the prosecuton. In spte of hs prevous grand
|ury testmony, and the FBI 302 statements of hs empoyees, Eott testfed at
McVegh's tra that Tmothy McVegh was the man who rented the truck.
|717|
Interestng that he coud make such an asserton, when the FBI hadn't brought hm
before a ne-up eventhough they had questoned hm |ust 48 hours after the
bombng. In fact, the FBI ddn't show Eott a photo ne-up unt ?@ days later.
Durng McVegh's tra, Eott attempted to compensate for the dscrepancy n
McVegh's heght by statng that McVegh had "eaned" on the counter whe fng
out the reservaton form.
Had Eott been coached by the prosecuton?
|718|
"From hs body anguage, the way he acted nervous, avoded my questons, I coud
te he was under some sort of pressure," sad former Federa Grand |uror Hoppy
Hedeberg.
When defense team nvestgator Rchard Reyna went to ntervew Eott, he was
tod the FBI had nstructed hm not to tak to anyone about the case because "they
ddn't want to get thngs dstorted." He then handed Reyna the card of FBI Speca
Agent Scott Crabtree.
When Marty Reed and co-nvestgator Wma Sparks approached Eott a week
ater, he referred them to a man named |oseph Poe. Poe stated that he was
"workng for Ryder. ndrecty." He refused to speak wth the nvestgators and
excused hmsef, sayng he had to make a phone ca. When Sparks and Reed went
outsde, they notced a government car wth the cense number G-10 03822,
parked n front of the shop.
When they returned the next day, they were agan met by the mysterous "Ryder
empoyee" who ddn't produce a busness card. When they asked the body shop's
empoyees why the government car was there, they were tod t was beng worked
on. But the nvestgators saw no sgns of damage. Upon returnng the foowng
day, the car was parked between two campers, ostensby n an attempt to concea
t.
|719|
Was the FBI attemptng to nfuence a key wtness? A reporter who worked the
case ater tod me, "They were very hooked n wth the FBI. the Ryder securty
was obtaned through the FBI. and they're n constant touch wth the FBI for
brefngs, or they were. And I got that from the PR guy who's the Vce Presdent of
Ryder n Mam. A Newsweek reporter that I work wth got Eott on the phone,
and somebody ccked down the phone as he was takng to her. Eott was sayng
'et me |ust fnsh, et me |ust fnsh,' and a of the sudden, the phone went
dead."
|720|
Such a symbotc reatonshp between the FBI and Ryder shoudn't be surprsng.
Accordng to one bombng researcher, Ryder's CEO, Anthony Mtche, s a member
220
of the Tratera Commsson - the New Word Order foks. She aso uncovered the
fact that both the FBI and the ATF have easng contracts wth the company.
|721|
To rent hs Ryder truck, "McVegh" aegedy used hs pre-pad phone card,
obtaned n November of 1993 through the S*otli%ht under the name "Dary
Brdges," to ca Eott's and make the reservaton. Vck Beemer tod the FBI she
recaed speakng to a man named "Kng." Records supposedy ndcate the ca
was made on Apr 14, from a |uncton Cty, Kansas bus staton.
|722|
Yet the FBI had no way of provng that the ca paced to the Ryder agency under
the name "Kng" was actuay made by McVegh, or even that the S*otli%ht card
was used for the ca. OPUS Teecom, whch runs the system used for the pre-pad
card, mantans no records ndcatng exacty who paced a specfc ca.
|723|
As an exampe of the uncertantes promugated by the FBI, they orgnay
asserted the ca was made at 8:44 a.m. from a pay phone at Fort Rey. They ater
decded t was made at 9:53 a.m. from a pay phone n |uncton Cty. However,
Beemer, who took the ca, sad t came at 10:30 a.m.
At the tme the FBI aeged McVegh made the 9:53 a.m. ca, he was at a phone
booth down the street from a Frestone store, where he had been negotatng a
dea on a 1977 Mercury. The store manager who sod McVegh the car, Thomas
Mannng, testfed that hs customer excused hmsef, then came back 10 or 15
mnutes ater. The FBI contends that McVegh used ths perod to make two cas,
one to Terry Nchos' house, and one to Eott's. Yet, as the Rocky Mountain News
noted:
An eary verson of the FBI reconstructon showed two cas wthn two mnutes
from phones 25 mes apart, whch mped nvovement by someone other than
McVegh and Nchos, snce nether was then n the second ocaton.
But the ocaton of that ca ater was reassgned to a pace fttng the
government's case.
|724|
How convenent.
Moreover, as the defense ponted out, Mannng hadn't bothered to menton the
fact that McVegh eft the Frestone store for over a year-and-a-haf, despte beng
ntervewed by defense attorneys and FBI agents 11 dfferent tmes.
|725|
Addtonay, whe renta recepts and empoyee testmony ndcates "Kng" rented
hs truck on the 17th, a Ryder truck was seen days earer by |ames Sargeant and
other eyewtnesses. Sargeant reported seeng severa undentfed men crawng n
and out of the cargo area for three days, backed up to the ake so that no one
ashore coud see nsde. "I reay began to wonder about why someone woud be
wastng ther money on a renta truck out there... no one was ever fshng,
ether."
|726|
221
Barbara Whttenberg, owner of the Sante Fe Tra Dner n Herrngton, recaed
seeng a Ryder truck, aong wth McVegh, Nchos, and |ohn Doe 2, on Saturday,
Apr 15. The men had stopped by the restaurant for breakfast at 6:00 a.m., and
Whttenberg reported seeng a arge Ryder truck at Geary State Fshng Lake ater
that afternoon.
|727|
Lea McGown, owner of the Dreamand Mote n |uncton Cty, and her son Erc, both
reca seeng McVegh pu nto the mote wth his truck on the afternoon of Easter
Sunday, Apr 16, as dd resdents Renda Truong, Conne Hood, Davd Kng, and
Kng's mother, Hetta. The truck appeared to be an oder, prvatey owned Ryder
truck. McGown had |ust returned from Manhattan, Kansas, where he and hs
mother were havng unch. The tme was approxmatey 4:00 p.m. Truong testfed
she had seen t after Easter Sunday dnner, whch woud have been around dusk.
Yet under examnaton by the prosecuton durng McVegh's tra, Erc McGown
woud not testfy as to the exact date he saw the truck. Yet hs FBI 302 sad: "He
thnks the man came there wth a truck on Apr 16, 1995, and that the Ryder truck
sat at the mote a day on Apr 17, 1995."
|728|
Hs mother, ke both Hood and Truong, was certan t was the 16th. As she stated
n her FBI 302:
She s certan that the Ryder truck she saw parked at the DREAMLAND MOTEL and
n whch she observed TIM MCVEIGH sttng on one occason was drven nto the
mote grounds on Sunday, Apr 16, 1995.
She recas that the Ryder truck that was parked at the DREAMLAND MOTEL on
Apr 16, 1995, through Apr 18, 1995, dd not have the word Ryder on the back
doors as do other Ryder trucks she has seen. She recas the back doors of the
Ryder truck n whch she saw TIM MCVEIGH were a pan faded yeow coor, wth no
prntng vsbe on them.
|729|
Hetta Kng was aso sure t was Sunday the 16th. "There's no queston n my mnd
- t was Easter Sunday," Kng testfed.
The reader w reca that ths s the exact same day that Physs Kngsey and
Lnda Kuhman saw the convoy, ncudng "McVegh," |ohn Doe 2 and 3, and the
Ryder truck at the H Way Gr |ust south of Okahoma Cty. It was approxmatey
6:00 p.m.
The two ocatons are hundreds of mes apart - too far apart to drve n two hours.
Ths s aso the same day the FBI aeged Nchos drove from Kansas to Okahoma
Cty to pck up McVegh, who had eft hs Mercury Marqus near the YMCA as the
"get-away" vehce. Yet a wtness at the Dreamand recaed seeng McVegh's
yeow Mercury at the mote the next day.
222
Interestng that "McVegh" and hs car coud be n two paces at once.
Rea estate agent Georga Rucker and her son aso saw a Ryder truck at Geary
Lake days before "Kng" rented hs. Then on Tuesday mornng, as Rucker agan
drove by ake, she not ony saw a Ryder truck, but two other vehces as we. She
thought ths was "very suspcous."
|730|
On Monday, Apr 17, Conne Hood saw the Ryder truck agan. Ths tme, there
were severa men "fddng wth the back of the truck." Hood thnks one of those
men was Mchae Forter; she recas he had scraggy har and a beard. Those who
reca the photo of Forter taken after the bombng may reca that Forter had |ust
shaved off hs beard, eavng a ceary vsbe demarcaton ne.
Whe these are a batant dscrepances n the FBI's offca tmene, the Bureau
was apparenty nterested n McGown's testmony because the Dreamand s the
ony pace where McVegh, or someone purportng to be McVegh, sgned hs rea
name.
What s curous s that the FBI has consstenty promoted the dea that there was
ony one Ryder truck nvoved. Yet the statements of McGown, Brcktown
warehouse worker Davd Snder, and others ndcate that there were two Ryder
trucks nvoved. When a Newsweek reporter spoke to the securty guard at Eott's,
he sad "Thnk about two trucks."
|731|
Ths fact was reterated by grand |uror Hoppy Hedeberg. "A sma number of
peope testfed durng the grand |ury hearngs about two trucks," sad Hedeberg.
"McVegh pcked hs truck up on Monday. |ohn Doe 2 had hs truck the weekend
before. The fact that there were two trucks I'm very comfortabe wth."
|732|
If McVegh had rented hs truck on Apr 17, as the FBI contends, why dd wtnesses
report seeng a Ryder truck at Geary State Fshng Lake as eary as Apr 10? It was
at ths ake, on Apr 18, the FBI orgnay asserted, that the two suspects but
ther magc ANFO bomb. FBI agents reported fndng dese fue and strands of
detonator cord on the ground.
|733|
Yet at the tme wtnesses frst saw the truck at the ake, nether McVegh or Nchos
were n Kansas. As the "ener )ost reported:
Nchos was returnng from a gun show n Mchgan, and McVegh was hoed up n a
resdence hote n Kngman, Arzona. The government's key wtness, Mchae
Forter, aso was not n Kansas.
|734|
Interestngy, shorty before the start of McVegh's tra, the prosecuton dropped ts
contenton that the bomb was but at Geary Lake. It's possbe they dd so because
had the defense brought up the wtness sghtngs on the 10th, t woud have
confcted, not ony wth the prosecuton's carefuy constructed tmene, but the
fact that there were addtona suspects.
|735|
223
As w be seen, ths s not the frst tme the government excuded wtnesses who's
testmony ddn't ft wth ther carefuy crafted verson of events.
Nevertheess, t was ths truck, rented by "Kng" on Apr 17, authortes nssted,
that was oaded wth ammonum ntrate and guded by the one bomber to ts fna
and fatefu destnaton at the Afred P. Murrah Budng.
To bud ther magc ANFO bomb, the FBI reports McVegh and Nchos began
searchng for racng fue and detonator cord n September of '94. Usng the cang
card McVegh and Nchos had obtaned under the pseudonym of "Dary Brdges,"
ostensby nspred by the fm "Bown Away" starng |eff Brdges, McVegh aegedy
made over 22 cas to varous companes who suppy chemcas, racng fue, and
even one of the country's argest exposves manufacturers.
Hs frst ca was to Pausen's Mtary Suppy, |ust outsde of Madson, Wsconsn,
ookng for detonators. Accordng to authortes, McVegh eft Pausen's busness
card n the patro car upon hs arrest, that read, "Dave" (presumaby Davd
Pausen, Ed Pausen's son, who McVegh had met at a gun show), wth the notaton,
"More fve pound stcks of TNT by May 1."
|736|
A saesman at Fatgues and Thngs, a mtary store n |uncton Cty, sad McVegh
and another man bought a book entted (m*roised Munitions two weeks before
the bombng. The other man was not Terry Nchos.
Prosecutors aso caed an od frend of McVegh's, Davd Darak, who aegedy
receved a ca from hm n an attempt to obtan racng fue.
Another frend was Greg Pfaff, whom McVegh had met at gun shows. Pfaff testfed
that McVegh had caed hm seekng to buy det cord. McVegh was so eager to
obtan the cord, Pfaff sad, that he offered to drve to Vrgna.
Another of the cas refected on the mens' cang card was to Md-Amercan
Chemca. Lnda |uh, an empoyee of the company, remembered recevng a ca n
the Fa of 1994 from a feow n Kansas who wanted to purchase Anhydrous
Hydrazne, a rocket fue whch can be used to boost the power of an ANFO bomb.
The FBI aso reported that two ndvduas, one named "Terry Tutte," vsted
Thumb Hobbes, Etc. n Marette, Mchgan n md-December, 1993, ookng to buy
100 percent ntromethane mode arpane fue. Accordng to Sanac County Sherff
Vrg Stcker, the store cerk nqured about orderng t, then tod the customers
severa weeks ater that he coud not or woud not do so. The cerk sad that
"Tutte" reped that t was okay, that they had found another source.
|737|
Another ncdent not made pubc unt the County Grand |ury nvestgaton was the
recoecton of Gary Antene, who saw McVegh and |ohn Doe 2 at Danny's Hobby
Shop n Okahoma Cty the Saturday before the bombng. The two men asked hm
f Danny's carred 100 percent ntromethane fue.
224
"I expaned that no one n the RC (remote-controed) arpane hobby used 100
percent ntromethane as a fue, that at most we generay used nothng over 20
percent," sad Antene.
Antene reported the ncdent to the FBI a coupe of tmes, but was not caed to
testfy at McVegh's tra, probaby because hs account ddn't ft nto the FBI's
"offca" tmene.
|738|
On October 20, the FBI aeged that McVegh checked nto a mote n Paus Vaey,
Okahoma. The next day, he drove 170 mes to the Chef Auto Parts Natonas drag
race n Enns, Texas. Tmothy Chambers, an empoyee of VP Racng Fues, testfed
at McVegh's tra that he and co-worker Brad Horton sod a man resembng
McVegh three 54 gaon drums of Ntromethane racng fue for $2,775. The man
sad the fue was for hm and hs frends who race Hareys once a year n Okahoma
Cty. Chambers testfed t ddn't make sense for a few motorcyce racers to buy
that much fue, and had never seen anyone pay cash for that arge a purchase.
|739|
Interestngy, the FBI ddn't announce ths new ead unt one month before the
start of McVegh's tra, as other evdence, ncudng that from the FBI's crme ab,
began fang apart. The Rocky Mountain News reported that Gynn Tpton had
aerted the ATF to the strange purchase as far back as October of 1994.
|740|
Yet ths "new" evdence woud coaesce perfecty wth the government's emergng
case, now that many Amercans were convnced that a smpe ANFO bomb hadn't
destroyed the Murrah Budng. A bomb but wth voate, hghy-exposve racng
fue woud make the prosecuton's case much more convncng.
The startng dscovery of McVegh's racng fue purchases, ke the new reveatons
of Thomas Mannng, or those of Edon Eott, were remnscent of the sudden
dscoveres by Lockerbe nvestgators of Lbyan terrorsts. The 1988 bombng had
orgnay been attrbuted to Iran, contracted through former Syran army offcer
Ahmed |br of the Popuar Front for the Lberaton of Paestne-Genera Command
(PFLP-GC), n retaaton for the Amercan downng of an Iranan passenger ner a
year and-a-haf earer. Now that George Bush needed the cooperaton of the
Syrans for hs Guf War coaton, the bame needed to be shfted to someone ese.
Then, ten months after the bombng, Lockerbe nvestgators dscovered new
evdence. The owner of a cothng store on Mata suddeny remembered to whom
he had sod some baby cothes that had been found n the bomb sutcase onboard
the pane. In fact, not ony had he recaed the customer, he remembered the
precse date of the purchase, and recaed the man ceary enough for artsts to
render a sketch. He was Abu Tab, a PFLP-GC member who was known to have
vsted Mata shorty before the bombng.
|741|
At east that's what the FBI wanted the pubc to beeve. In fact, owner Tony Gauc
and hs brother Pau made 18 dfferent statements to authortes, most of whch
were vague and contradctory. They then sgned statements eventhough they
225
coudn't read Engsh. Nevertheess, nvestgators qucky paced 24-hour guards
around the shopkeepers bearng ths vauabe "new evdence," |ust as the FBI had
done wth Edon Eott.
Yet records show that the cas to chemca companes contnued n October of '94
from Kngman, around the same tme that the suspects aegedy drove there to
hde stoen exposves, and around the same tme they aegedy began purchasng
ammonum ntrate. The ndctment states that Nchos aegedy stoe Dynamte
and an exposve caed Tovex from the Martn Maretta quarry n Maron, Kansas,
not far from where Nchos had been workng as a ranch hand.
Bud Radeke, a baster and drer for Martn Maretta, testfed at McVegh's tra
that 299 dynamte stcks, 544 bastng caps, detonator cord, and Tovex was stoen
over the ong Labor Day weekend. FBI agents dscovered a dr bt n Nchos' home
that they cam matched the hoe dred n one of the magazne's ocks. The
suspects had aegedy made the mstake of eavng one of the fve ocks they had
dred nto behnd.
Yet coud the FBI actuay te from a hoe dred n a ock whch partcuar bt had
made the mpresson? The FBI hadn't dscovered the bt n Nchos' too kt unt sx
months after the robbery. No doubt t had been used snce, as Nchos, a
handyman, had recenty moved nto hs new house. The sgnature of the dr bt
woud undoubtedy have been atered.
How coud the FBI be so sure t was the bt whch had dred the ocks at the
quarry?
Ed Hueske, a frearm and too examner at Weckerng Scentfc Laboratory near
Daas sad a dr bt can "eave marks that are characterstc of the nose of the
bt," especay "f the bt s worn or damaged." A former forensc specast wth the
Tusa Poce Department, Hueske added that such a test s "not routne," but s
"theoretcay possbe."
|742|
Yet f the bt was used afterwards on meta, or f t had been sharpened, t woud
change the stratons of the markngs. If t st contaned bts of meta shavngs
from the ock, however, then a match coud be made. But agents testfed that no
shavngs were found.
Then how dd the FBI match the bt? Frank Sher, a frearm and too examner at
Forensc Consutant Servces n Fort Worth, offered hs opnon: "Some of that type
of work has been done, but t's not a very frequent thng. I don't thnk t woud be
very productve."
Sher, who has 36 years experence n forensc scence, has never even been
asked to conduct such a test, nor has hs boss, Max Courtney, wth 27 years
experence.
226
"It woud be extremey dffcut to match a dr," sad Sher, "because of the
random moton of the dr movng through ts. movng up and down the hoe. So
t woud be hard to track any mperfectons or mcroscopc markngs that mght be
present. That woud be a pretty tough task."
|743|
Even Hueske, who admtted the theoretca possbty of such a test, sad that the
two or three dr bt tests he's conducted over the years produced no resuts.
The quarry aso had pre-mxed professona grade ANFO n stock. Why ddn't
Nchos stea that too, snce, as the government aeges, t was the prme
ngredent n the bomb? Ths certany woud have been easer and more dscreet
than buyng arge quanttes of ammonum ntrate, dese, and racng fue, then
attemptng to mx t nto a ggantc bomb. But for some reason, our prme suspects
decded to eave the professona grade ANFO behnd, and go to the troube and
expense of makng ther own.
The two men then aegedy drove to Kngman on October 4, where McVegh
rented a storage ocker to hde the goods.
|744|
It was n Kngman that McVegh
aegedy showed hs dangerous booty to hs frends, Mchae and Lor Forter. Lor
testfed at tra that McVegh asked her to wrap up the bastng caps as Chrstmas
presents for the ong rde back to Mchgan.
A frend of Nchos and McVegh, Kevn Nchoas, testfed that he heped McVegh
unoad hs car upon returnng to Decker. "I was |ust grabbng stuff and |ust
throwng t n the back of my truck; and Tm sad, "Don't hande them. I' take care
of them two Chrstmas-wrapped packages there."
|745|
Phone records aso show that McVegh caed mtary surpus deaer Dave Pausen
on December 17 from Kngman, and Nchoas testfed that McVegh drove to
Chcago to see Pausen n ate December to se hm the bastng caps.
On September 30, 1994, accordng to the FBI, McVegh and Nchos, who used the
aas "Mke Havens," purchased forty 50-pound bags of ammonum ntrate at the
Md-Kansas Co-Op n Manhattan, Kansas. Then, on October 17, after rentng a room
n Sana under the name "Havens," Nchos rented storage ocker No. 40 at Boots
U-Store-It n Counc Grove, under the aas "|oe Kye." On October 18, the dynamc
duo was back agan at the Md-Kansas Co-Op, stockng up on more fertzer,
buyng another forty 50-pound bags to be stored at the ocker n Counc Grove.
Nchos attorney, Mchae Tgar, attempted to expan hs cent's use of aases by
statng that Nchos wanted to hde hs assets from Chase Manhattan bank, whch
had won a arge credt card awsut aganst hm. Ths expanaton does not expan
why Nchos used the aas whe purchasng fertzer.
Fnay, there woud be the ordnance found at Nchos' home and the farm of hs
brother |ames. The Decker, Mchgan farm contaned 28 ffty-pound bags of
ammonum ntrate, non-eectrc bastng caps, a 55-gaon drum contanng fue-o,
227
and arge fue tanks whch appeared to contan dese fue. As prevousy
mentoned, neghbors Dane Stomber and Pau Isydorak tod authortes that the
Nchos brothers and McVegh woud experment wth the tems to make sma
homemade bombs.
A search of Terry Nchos' home by the ATF and FBI aegedy turned up 33
frearms, an ant-tank auncher (whch was nert), fve 60-foot Prmadet detonator
cords, non-eectrc bastng caps, ammonum ntrate, a fue meter (whch was
noperabe - a fact that was never mentoned), and four 55-gaon bue pastc
drums. (Nchos' son |osh, who frequenty payed at hs dad's house, beeved the
barres were whte wth bue tops.)
Whe some accounts ndcate that the drums were of the type used n the
bombng, the New 'ork Times wrote on Apr 30, ".t s not cear that they match
bue pastc fragments found at the bast ste."
|746|
In fact, the FBI never stated that
the fragments removed from bombng vctms matched those from Nchos' home.
Certany the FBI, wth the most sophstcated crme ab n the word, woud have
been abe to determne whether the fragments were of the same type. Moreover,
most of the fragments, f they had come from Nchos' home, woud have been
whte, not bue.
Nchos' attorney, Mchae Tgar, rased ths ssue whe cross-examnng an FBI
agent durng a pre-tra hearng. Accordng to Tgar, the FBI's nventory st
descrbed the barres smpy as whte wthout bue ds. The agent reped that the
FBI doesn't st the ds separatey. When Tgar asked the agent why they had
nventored a coecton of 5-gaon buckets wth the ds sted separatey, he had
no response.
Those bue fragments may very key have been from the 80 or so bue trash
barres dstrbuted throughout the budng for the purposes of trash coecton. As
Rchard Wams, a 51 year-od GSA manager testfed at McVegh's tra, "They
were paced throughout the budng for pckup durng the week."
One month ater, Nchos woud wrte hs cryptc etter to McVegh, nstructng hm
to extend the ease on unt number 37, whch aegedy contaned stoen cons and
guns, and "qudate 40," n case Nchos faed to return from hs ast trp to the
Phppnes. It was ths etter that contaned the nfamous phrase, "You're on your
own. Go for t!"
Was ths a message nsprng McVegh to bomb a federa budng, or a note
encouragng hm to make a success of hmsef n the mtary surpus busness?
Accordng to |ames Nchos, t was the ater. Nchos cams hs brother was about
to make a arge cash oan to McVegh for ths purpose, and the note was smpy n
case of hs death. Terry, he sad, was a very metcuous and thorough man who
aways made certan hs affars were n order.
|747|
228
Nchos famy frend Bob Papovch aso cams the par was seng fertzer at gun
shows as pant food, aong wth an odd assortment of other tems sod at gun
shows, repackagng t n smaer bags to ncrease ther proft margn.
Yet two tons of fertzer s an awfu ot to se at gun shows. Had McVegh and
Nchos actuay purchased that much fertzer? What s nterestng s that
empoyees of Md-Kansas Co-op were never abe to postvey dentfy McVegh or
Nchos durng the purported fertzer buyng trps. Athough empoyee Frederck
Schender thought one of the men may have been Terry Nchos, he sad durng a
pre-tra hearng that the second man wasn1t McVegh. He was drvng a truck that
ddn't appear to be Nchos', wth a red traer attached. Papovch tod me that
Nchos owns no such truck.
Federa prosecutors were aso countng on a recept found n Nchos' home for the
purchase of a ton of ammonum ntrate, aegedy contanng McVegh's
thumbprnt. Had Nchos fooshy kept a recept for bombng materas that coud
be traced back to hm? Was he as stupd as Mohammed Saemeh, the Word Trade
Center bomber who returned to the Ryder agency after the bombng n an attempt
to retreve hs renta depost? Or was McVegh's fngerprnt actuay on the recept
after a?
FBI agent Lous Hupp testfed at tra that he hadn't found McVegh's fngerprnts
at Eott's, n mote rooms where McVegh stayed, or n the storage ockers where
McVegh aegedy stored the bomb-makng materas.
|748|
&amsey: Agent Hupp, you dentfed - or handed many documents wth regard
to fngerprnts, ddn't you, wth regard to ths case?
5,pp: Yes, ma'am.
&amsey: Dd you aso test the Ryder renta truck reservaton form?
5,pp: Yes, I dd.
&amsey: And dd you fnd Tmothy McVegh's fngerprnts on that?
5,pp: No, ma'am.
&amsey: Dd you fnd Tmothy McVegh's fngerprnts on the Ryder renta truck
form where he actuay - where t was actuay rented?
5,pp: No, ma'am..
&amsey: Dd you check the counter at Eott's Body Shop for fngerprnts? I don't
reca f I asked you that or not.
229
5,pp: The countertop was removed by me and transported back to headquarters
and was n fact processed for atent prnts.
&amsey: And dd you fnd any fngerprnts of Tmothy McVegh?
5,pp: No, ma'am.
&amsey: And dd you aso check to see f there were any fngerprnts on any of
the storage unts that have been dscussed n ths case?
5,pp: Yes, ma'am.
&amsey: And dd you fnd any fngerprnts of Tmothy McVegh?
5,pp: No, ma'am.
Hupp aso testfed that he had not found McVegh's prnts on the renta paperwork,
or the key beongng to the Ryder truck, found n a nearby aey. Yet Hupp
expaned, "There are many tmes a person doesn't eave prnts. It's a chance
mpresson."
What f the FBI had camed t had dscovered prnts?
On November 22, 1963, after |FK's murder, the FBI took Oswad's Manncher-
Carcanno rfe to ther Washngton, D.C. crme ab. The techncans concuded that
Oswad's prnts were not on the weapon. The FBI then returned the rfe to the
Daas Poce Department. Shorty thereafter, the DPD exctedy announced that
they had "dscovered" Oswad's pam prnt.
|749|
Ths "new evdence" forced even the Warren Commsson's chef counse, |. Lee
Rankn, to concude, "Because of the crcumstances whch now exst there s a
serous queston n the mnds of the Commsson as to whether the pam
mpresson that has been obtaned from the Daas Poce Department s a
egtmate pam mpresson removed from the rfe barre or whether t was
obtaned from some other source.."
In 1984, FBI Agent Vncent Dran, who handed the weapon, was questoned by |FK
researcher Henry Hurt. Dran concuded that there never was such a prnt. "A I
can fgure s that |Oswad's prnt| was some knd of cushon because they were
gettng a ot of heat by Sunday nght. You coud take that prnt off Oswad's card
and put t on the rfe. Somethng ke that happened."
In spte of ths, the Warren Commsson made no effort to resove the ssue, and
presented Oswad's so-caed pam prnt as fact.
|750|
Yet the fertzer recept contanng McVegh's thumbprnt wasn't the ony
ammunton n the FBI's arsena of specous evdence. Prosecutors woud rey
230
heavy on an exposve component caed PETN, aegedy found on McVegh's
cothng. A par of earpugs found on McVegh aso reportedy tested postve for
EGDN, a chemca found n dynamte. Fnay, there was a pece of pywood from
the Ryder truck whch contaned gazed ammonum ntrate crystas.
Yet once agan, ths evdence was hghy questonabe. It seemed the crystas had
dsappeared before ndependent experts for ether the prosecuton or defense
coud confrm ts exstence.
Interestngy, affdavts of Frederck Whtehurst, a Speca Agent n the FBI's ab
dvson, announced to an ncreduous pubc n September of 1995 that the Bureau
had been mshandng evdence and santng resuts to favor prosecutors for years.
|751|
As one FBI ab techncan tod the New 'ork Times, "You get an nadvertent
bondng of ke-mnded ndvduas supportng each other's fase concusons."
After federa agents searched the resdence of Rchard |ewe, a prvate securty
guard who was an eary suspect n a bombng at the Atanta Oympcs. FBI
scentsts and other specasts warned that "you've got the wrong guy," an FBI
aboratory offca sad. But ther cautonary remarks, based on the absence of even
trace amounts of exposve materas, went unheeded for months.
|752|
In March of 1997, the 3os An%eles Times reported the fndngs of the |ustce
Department Inspector Genera's offce, whch concuded that the ab made
"scentfcay unsound" concusons that were "based n favor of the prosecuton"
n the Okahoma Cty bombng case.
The st-secret draft report, obtaned by the paper, aso concudes that supervsors
approved ab reports that they "cannot support" and that FBI ab offcas may have
erred about the sze of the bast, the amount of exposves nvoved and the type of
exposves used n the bombng.
Accordng to the Times, the draft report shows that FBI examners coud not
dentfy the trggerng devce for the truck bomb or how t was detonated. It aso
ndcates that a poory mantaned ab envronment coud have ed to
contamnaton of crtca peces of evdence, the Times sad.
|753|
Whtehurst aso tod the Inspector Genera that the agents who conducted the tests
n Okahoma Cty, ncudng Tom Thurman, Chef of the Exposves Unt, and Roger
Martz, Chef of the Chemstry and Toxcoogy Unt, were not even quafed to do
so.
|754|
Durng the 1993 Word Trade Center bombng nvestgaton, Whtehurst decded to
secrety test effcency and procedures at the ab. He mxed human urne wth
fertzer and added t to some of the bomb matera beng tested. Martz
subsequenty exctedy dentfed the urne-fertzer mxture as an exposve.
|755|
231
Whtehurst aso contended that Martz's examnng room was contamnated,
makng t mpossbe to accuratey test for exposves and other substances,
ncudng the PETN aegedy found on McVegh's cothes.
|756|
Durng the prosecuton's cosng argument, Martz made an nterestng Freudan
Sp: "The evdence shows that Mr. McVegh's cothng was contamnated wth.
excuse me, Mr. McVegh's cothng was fed wth bomb resdue."
Whtehurst aso camed that Martz had per|ured hs testmony n pror cases.
Whtehurst hmsef was even asked to ater hs reports. Materas-anayss-unt
chef Corby "had me come nto hs room one day and tod me they - I don't know
who 'they' were - wanted me to take statements out of my report.... Whtehurst
refused.
|757|*
Durng the 1991 tra of Water Leroy Moody, convcted of kng Federa |udge
Robert Vance wth a etter-bomb, both Thurman and Martz "crcumvented
estabshed procedures and protocos. |and| testfed n areas of expertse that
|they| had no quafcatons n, therefore fabrcatng evdence n |ther| testmony,"
Whtehurst wrote n a memorandum to the Bureau's Scentfc Anayss Chef |ames
Kearny.
Both Martz and Thurman were fuy aware of the fact that they were n voaton of
procedures and protocos of the FBI Laboratory and dd knowngy and purposey
commt per|ury and obstructon of |ustce n ths matter.
|758|
Interestngy, the chef prosecutor n the case was none other than Lous Freeh,
who was an Assstant U.S. Attorney at the tme. Accordng to Whtehurst, Freeh dd
not have a snge pece of evdence tyng Moody to the crme. Thurman got around
ths tte nconvenence by sendng the evdence to hs frend Roger Martz, who,
ke Thurman, was not quafed to perform the examnaton. Both Thurman and
Martz were recenty removed from ther postons due to aegatons of fasfcaton
of evdence and per|ury.
Thurman's orgna cam to fame was the Pan Am 103 case. He had concuded that
a tny fragment of mcrochp, amazngy dscovered two years after the bombng,
was part of a batch of tmers sod to the Lbyans by the Swss frm MEBO. Ths "new
evdence" aowed the U.S. government to pont the fnger of bame at Lbya,
convenenty ettng Syra - orgnay mpcated n the bombng - off the hook.
After the assassnaton of |FK, ntrate tests conducted on Lee Harvey Oswad
concuded that he had not fred a rfe on November 22. Yet ths fact, ke the fase
pam prnt, was kept secret for 10 months, then bured deep nsde the Warren
Commsson Report.
|759|
In the Moody case, Freeh possessed copes of reports that dsproved the
prosecuton's aegatons, but dd not even make them avaabe, or known, to the
|ury. Freeh aso faed to nform the |ury that hs chef wtness, Ted Banks, faed a
232
e-detector test regardng hs assocaton wth Moody. In 1995, Banks testfed at
an appea hearng that Freeh had threatened and coerced hm nto testfyng
aganst the defendant.
|760|
In the Word Trade Center case, Whtehurst testfed that he was tod not to provde
any nformaton or evdence, such as aternate expanatons to the urea-ntrate
theory, that coud be used by the defense to chaenge the prosecutors' hypothess
of gut.
|761|
In Okahoma, Whtehurst conducted a test on McVegh's cothes, but found
nothng.
Whe the FBI camed t found traces of PETN n McVegh's pants pocket, on hs
shrts, and on a set of earpugs, Agent Burmester acknowedged on cross-
examnaton that no PETN or ammonum ntrate was found at the bast scene.
Nor was ammonum ntrate found n McVegh's car, hs persona effects, hote
rooms he had stayed at, the varous storage sheds the suspects aegedy used to
store the bomb-makng components, or n Nchos' Herngton, Kansas home. The
Bureau aso found no evdence of exposves resdue n sampes of McVegh's har,
or scrapngs from hs fngernas.
|762|
Burmester aso testfed that crystas of ammonum ntrate, whch he found on a
pece of wood paneng from the Ryder truck, ater vanshed.
"That pece has gone through a ot of hands snce the tme that I've seen t,"
Burmester testfed, "and I can't speak to how they coud have dsappeared."
|763|
As Canadan County Sherff Deputy Cnt Boeher sad, "The FBI dsturbed and
removed evdence. They don't te anybody ese; they don't work wth anybody
ese.. How dd they know t was the truck? They never ooked at so many obvous
thngs."
|764|
Yet, as n the Kennedy case, Federa Prosecutors went to tra armed wth
deberate es and other dstortons that favored ther somewhat questonabe
verson of events.
Whe the FBI's evdence procedures woud be caed nto queston, prosecutors
woud seek to mpress the |ury wth evdence of the suspects' mtant Rght-wng
eanngs. Prosecutors began wth etters McVegh sent to hs sster |ennfer,
expressng hs rage over the events at Ruby Rdge and Waco, at the same tme
mons of Amercans were expressng the very same anger.
"The Federa Government was absoutey out of contro," sad Sarah Ban, the San
Antono schoo teacher who served as forewoman of the |ury that acqutted the
|Davdan| sect members of most of the serous crmes they were charged wth.
233
"The wrong peope were on tra," Ban companed. "It shoud have been the ones
that panned the rad and orchestrated t."
|765|
But t was other evdence - more ncrmnatng and dsturbng - that woud
provde the crtca eements needed to convnce the |ury of McVegh's macous
ntent. In November of '94, McVegh vsted hs famy n Lockport, New York, where
he confded to hs sster |ennfer that he had been drvng around wth 1,000
pounds of exposves.
In a etter sent to her n March, a month before the bombng, McVegh wrote,
"Somethng bg s gong to happen n the month of the bu."
Fnay, to prove McVegh's maevoent ntentons, prosecutors ntroduced a etter
stored on |ennfer's computer. The etter, addressed to the ATF, warned, "ATF, a
you tyrannca motherfuckers w swng n the wnd one day, for your treasonous
actons aganst the Consttuton and the Unted States. Remember the Nuremberg
War Tras. But... but... but... I was ony foowng orders!...... De, you spneess,
cowardce bastards!"
|766|
McVegh aso supposedy eft a etter to a "grfrend" (whch meda
psycho|ournasts camed he ddn't have) n the gove compartment of hs car,
outnng pans to bomb addtona targets.
Had McVegh actuay eft such a etter n hs vehce, and dropped Pausen's
busness card n the patro car? Whe t s possbe, such scenes are remnscent of
the doctored photograph of Lee Harvey Oswad hodng a rfe and Communst
newspaper, or Earth Frst! actvst |ud Bar hodng a machne gun, whch was
oaned to her for the photo by an FBI nformant - a photo whch he took.
In Okahoma Cty, as n a crmna conspraces, the od adage, "foow the money"
woud appy. Certany a par of one nuts wth a fertzer/fue bomb woudn't need
much - a coupe of thousand doars at most - consderng they ddn't have to
pay off a web of co-consprators.
A November '94 robbery n Arkansas woud prove to be |ust the crme nvestgators
needed to put the fna pece of the puzze n pace. When the ndctments were
returned, the grand |ury concuded the bombng was fnanced by the robbery of
gun deaer Roger Moore (AKA: Bob Anderson), who had known McVegh and et hm
stay at hs home.
Yet what s nterestng s that the FBI had aready come to the concuson that the
bomb components were aready purchased or stoen by the date of the robbery.
The ndctment was aso ncongruousy worded: "McVegh and Nchos "caused" the
robbery of $60,000 worth of guns, cons and precous metas. Exacty how had they
"caused" the robbery? The prosecuton frst presented the testmony of McVegh's
frend Kevn Nchoas:
234
-icholas: He sad that he screwed hm some way out of some money or
somethng.
Mac$ey: Who s "he"?
-icholas: That Bob dd for when Tm worked for hm.
Mac$ey: And as a resut?
-icholas: He sad he - that he'd be an easy guy to rob because he ved way
back n the stcks and, you know, there was woods around hs house and stuff.
Yet McVegh had a sod ab. He was at a gun show n Kent, Oho on November 5.
St, the government attempted to have Mchae Forter mpcate hs frends at
tra by testfyng that McVegh caed hm and sad, "Nchos got Bob!" Ths argey
hearsay testmony woud not be backed up by further evdence.
Authortes never proved that McVegh or Nchos actuay robbed Moore, but dd
prove that on November 7, 1994, Nchos rented a storage ocker - number 37 -
n Counc Grove, under the aas "Ted Parker" to store some of the stoen tems.
In hs "confesson" to authortes, Forter sad that McVegh met hm n Kngman on
the 15th, whereupon they drove to Kansas. On the way, Forter testfed, McVegh
ponted out the Murrah Budng as the target of the upcomng attack. When they
reached the storage ocker, they oaded 25 guns nto Forter's rented car.
|767|
Back n Kngman, Forter pawned the weapons, or sod them to frends, ncudng
hs neghbor, |ames Rosencrans.
On November 16, Nchos rented ocker O-106 at AAAABCO Storage n Las Vegas,
where ex-wfe Lana Pada dscovered god and sver bars, |ade, aong wth wgs,
masks, and pantyhose. A safety depost box key beongng to Moore was found at
Nchos' home.
The 60-year-od Moore camed he was surprsed one mornng shorty after 9:00
a.m., when two masked men accosted hm outsde hs ktchen door. The men,
wearng woodand-stye camoufage fatgues, bound hm and ransacked hs house,
takng guns, cons, |ewes, and persona effects.
What s strange s that the theves eft a number of expensve handguns and arge-
capacty magaznes, both hghy desrabe tems. The prvate gun deaer, who had
enough weapons to suppy a patoon, dd not have an nsurance rder for the guns,
and most of the sera numbers weren't regstered.
Moore tod the author he ddn't have a rder because he was afrad some nsurance
company secretary woud see hs arge coecton and te her boyfrend, who woud
235
then come and rob hm. A curous expanaton for fang to nsure a hghy vauabe
coecton. Moore cams he ony got a mted settement - approxmatey
$10,000.
Interestngy, one we-connected source I spoke to asserted that "the |Moore|
robbery was staged.. that's the truth.. He (Moore) used a ot of aases, he had
eght dfferent soca securty numbers, eght dfferent dates of brth, and that's
ony the ones that I know about.."
Ths source aso camed, ong before defense attorney Mchae Tgar's aegatons
were made pubc, that the motve of the "robbery" was nsurance fraud, staged
wth the hep of Nchos and McVegh. "Nchos had smpy bought weapons |from
Moore|.. Moore approached Nchos about the fraud orgnay.. Moore took
payment of some odd tems that wnds up n Terry Nchos' |storage ocker|."
Ths asserton was renforced at Nchos' tra, when Tgar questoned Moore's
grfrend, Karen Anderson, about why she had ncuded on her st - a st she
camed had been drawn up n ate 1992 or eary 1993 - a gun that hadn't been
purchased unt ate 1994!
|768|
When I spoke to Moore's frend and neghbor, Nora Waye, she tod me Moore had
companed to her that the oca Sherff who nvestgated the robbery, "bew
|Moore's| cover."
Coud a phony robbery set-up expan the wgs, masks, and pantyhose n Terry
Ncho's storage ocker? Gven the reatonshp between McVegh and Moore, t s
possbe the two men made some sort of dea.
Former grand |uror Hoppy Hedeberg s another person who had doubts about
Moore: "Somethng wasn't rght about hm," sad Hedeberg. "It wasn't that hs
testmony wasn't beevabe. He was |ust cocky. He had a strange atttude for a
man testfyng before a grand |ury. He was so casua about t, that was strange. He
testfed ke a man who had done t many tmes before.. It wasn't anythng he
sad, t was hs atttude. You' see the same atttude n an FBI agent whose
testfyng."
|769|
"Moore's beng protected," sad my source. "No matter how ths thng's gong to
get payed out. He' tak to you a day ong and won't te you a thng. He knows
how to tak."
<ohn 2oe Who>
.We hae no information showin% anyone other than Mr0 McVei%h and Mr0 Nichols
are the masterminds. - 20S0 Attorney $eth Wilkinson
On the day of the deady attack, Attorney Genera |anet Reno announced, "The FBI
and the aw enforcement communty w pursue every ead and use every possbe
236
resource to brng these peope responsbe to |ustce.. It s very mportant that we
pursue each ead. t s gong to be very mportant that we eave no stone
unturned."
In fact, numerous stones were eft unturned.
Whe the |ustce Department (Do|) focused ts efforts on McVegh and Nchos,
scant attenton was focused on other suspects - |ohn Doe 2, the mysterous entty
who was seen wth McVegh, and had accompaned hm the mornng of the
bombng. Wtnesses aso saw hm wth McVegh n the Murrah Budng, n stores, at
restaurants, at a bar, and at the truck renta shop before the bombng. St others
cam to have seen hm speedng away from the scene. A n a, there are amost
two-dozen wtnesses who reported seeng |ohn Doe 2.
The FBI made a bg show of trackng down ths usve, menacng-ookng suspect.
"The FBI has conducted over 9,000 wtness ntervews and has foowed every
possbe ead n an ntensve effort to dentfy and brng to |ustce anyone who was
nvoved n ths dsaster," stated U.S. Attorney Patrck Ryan n a etter to the
vctms' fames.
|770|
The search for |ohn Doe 2 qucky became the bggest man-hunt n FBI hstory.
What authortes weren't sayng however, was that not ony was there a |ohn Doe
2, there were east four |ohn Does! Yet the ssue was qucky and quety narrowed
down to |ust one |ohn Doe 2.
On Apr 23, four days after the bombng, The Washin%ton )ost quoted a senor aw
enforcement offca who sad "at east four" men were nvoved n the terrorst act
ast week and "there very we coud be more."
|771|
The FBI then requafed ts poston on May 15: "Wherever we ook, t's Terry and
Tmmy, Terry and Tmmy - and nobody ese," qupped an unnamed FBI offca n
Time magazne.
Yet on |une 11, another FBI offca was quoted n the )ost as sayng, "I thnk when
ths s over we' have at east sx or eght guys ndcted and n custody. It's |ust too
bg for two guys to pu off."
|772|
Then on |une 15, the FBI backtracked agan. "Perodcay you |ust get somethng n
an nvestgaton that goes nowhere. |ohn Doe 2 goes nowhere. It doesn't show up
n assocatons, t doesn't show up n phone cas. It doesn't show up among the
Army buddes of McVegh."
|773|
The prevous day, the FBI put out a story that |ohn Doe 2 may have actuay been
Todd Buntng, a soder at Fort Rey, Kansas who had rented a truck at the same
deaer McVegh had. The FBI stated that Buntng wore cothng smar to that
ascrbed to |ohn Doe 2, that he had a tattoo n the same pace, and that he wore a
hat smar to |ohn Doe 2's.
237
Yet Eott's empoyees dsmssed Buntng as the person who was seen wth
McVegh, and Buntng hed a press conference statng that he had n fact rented a
truck at Eott's - 24 hours after McVegh aegedy rented hs.
The Buntng story was offcay dropped.
Then, on |anuary 28, 1996, the prosecuton swtched tracks agan, offcay
resurrectng the Todd Buntng story. In a ong bref, the government dscosed that
Eott's empoyee Tom Kessnger was the ony one who coud reca |ohn Doe 2
we enough to descrbe hm.
Now, after a November ntervew wth a prosecutor and two FBI agents, Kessnger
was "confdent that he had Todd Buntng n mnd when he provded the descrpton
for the |ohn Doe 2 composte." Kessnger, the bref contnued, s "now unsure"
whether anyone accompaned McVegh. But hs two co-workers "contnue to
beeve that two men came n to rent the truck."
In that bref, the prosecuton specuated that the defense mght use "Kessnger's
admtted confuson" to chaenge hs dentfcaton of McVegh.
It seemed t was ess "Kessnger's admtted confuson" than a deberate
fabrcaton by prosecutors and the FBI to cover up the exstence of |ohn Doe 2. As
Kessnger tod bombng vctm Genn Wburn, who conducted hs own
nvestgaton, "I don't know how they came up wth that one."
Kessnger ater changed hs story at the urgng of federa prosecutors Patrck Ryan
and |oseph Hartzer. Durng a pretra conference, |ones chaenged Kessnger:
"How can you be so wrong 60 hours after the event and so rght a year and a haf
ater?" |ones asked hm. "Coud you be changng your mnd because the
government wants you to?"
"No," Kessnger reped.
|774|
Yet on March 25 and Apr 5, Hartzer had wrtten |ones that "The exstence and
dentty of ths |ohn Doe 2, whom we are confdent s not Mr. Buntng, s the sub|ect
of a contnung nvestgaton."
And n a May 1, 1996 etter wrtten by Hartzer, the government prosecutor
nformed |ones that Kessnger and Beemer had been shown a pcture of the cap
Buntng wore when he pcked up a truck on Apr 18. "They both stated that the
cap was not the same one they saw on |ohn Doe II," Hartzer wrote, "and they
reaffrmed that ths second ndvdua accompaned 'Kng' when he rented the
truck."
|775|
238
Yet at a hearng on Apr 9, federa prosecutor Beth Wknson stated that the
government "has no nformaton showng anyone but Mr. Nchos and Mr. McVegh
were the mastermnds of ths bombng."
|776|
"They keep teng us they're ookng for |ohn Doe No. 2, but then they turn around
and gve statements ndcatng that they don't beeve there s a |ohn Doe No. 2,"
sad a woman whose husband was ked n the bombng.
|777|
Other vctms, ke nave chdren, bndy paced ther fath n the government's
dubous assurances. Hartzer hed one meetng wth bombng vctms n whch he
"dscussed and dsposed of some of the more bzarre theores."
"I |ust got a better feeng about what's gong on," sad Bud Wech, whose
daughter, |ue, ded n the attack. "The prosecuton assured us that there was no
evdence that was suppressed. We reay ddn't know that," added Wech.
"We know what's gong on now and that they're there for us," Pamea Weber-Fore
sad of the prosecutors.
|778|
Other vctms weren't as easy fooed. "I don't thnk that there's any queston
about the fact that they're coverng up who was nvoved n the bombng," sad
V.Z. Lawton, a HUD worker who was n|ured n the bast. "I've taked to fve
wtnesses mysef who saw McVegh wth |ohn Doe number two n Okahoma Cty
that mornng, wthn ffteen mnutes of the bast... tes me that there s somethng
wrong."
|779|
As Nchos' attorney Mchae Tgar sad, "It's strange that the offca verson has
focused on Nchos and McVegh, and that the government s now busy engaged
n denyng a possbty that there coud be anybody ese."
|780|
9rand <,ry Bypass
.The F$( has thorou%hly inesti%ated all leads and ( am confident in the
inesti%ation0.
-
lead *rosecutor Jose*h 8art-ler
Naturay, whe many eyewtnesses stepped forward to te the FBI they had seen
addtona suspects, not one was ever caed before the grand |ury.
Yet federa prosecutors st had one hurde to overcome before they coud make
ther case. They had to dea wth Hoppy Hedeberg. Hedeberg, who often quoted
from the grand |uror's handbook, was aware that the grand |ury was charged wth
the task of determnng the reevance of the evdence, and askng those questons
pertnent to the case. So far, a the evdence centered around Tmothy McVegh
and Terry Nchos. Hedeberg wanted to know why prosecutors had not
subpoenaed the many wtnesses who had seen |ohn Doe 2.
239
"No one who saw McVegh wth other suspects, was ever aowed to testfy before
the federa grand |ury," sad Hedeberg. The obvous nference beng that those
who saw McVegh woud have aso seen |ohn Doe 2.
But Patrck Ryan seemed to be controng the |ury. He dd not ke Hedeberg's
tendency to go aganst the fow. In a etter to the vctms' fames, Ryan states:
The Unted States has never mantaned or even suggested, that no other person
or persons were nvoved wth McVegh and Nchos n the commsson of these
crmes. As stated earer, the queston of nvovement of others s the sub|ect of
ntensve nvestgaton by federa nvestgators and prosecutors who are totay
devoted and commtted to dentfyng and prosecutng a persons nvoved n the
pannng or commsson of these crmes.
Yet, as n the Kennedy assassnaton, federa prosecutors smpy paraded before
the grand |ury those wtnesses favorabe to ther preordaned vew of the case,
gnorng eads and wtnesses that confcted wth ther hghy dubous verson of
events.
Athough Hedeberg attempted to queston grand |ury wtnesses, he was
repeatedy stonewaed by prosecutors. In an ntervew wth |ournast |on
Rappaport, Hedeberg stated, "They sad I'd have to get the prosecutng attorney's
okay for each queston I wanted to ask. But you know, n daog one queston eads
to another rght away, so you can't cross-examne that way.
"They kept promsng and promsng to answer a my questons, but utmatey
they staed me. I was had."
|781|
In an ntervew on CBS Ths Mornng, Stephen |ones sad, ".what s troubng here
s that the prosecutors, n effect, accordng to ths grand |uror's aegaton, took
away from the grand |ury ther duty to go after the full story, not |ust concentratng
on the two peope that had aready been arrested."
|782|
Not buyng the government's story of a coupe of pssed-off whackos wth a
fertzer bomb, Hedeberg aso asked that bomb experts be caed n to dentfy
the type of bomb used. "Let's get the answer. Let's get the archtects and
engneers who but the budng n there and queston them," Hedeberg tod
Rappaport.
"Dd you request that?" asked Rappaport.
"Of course! I demanded bomb experts a aong. And engneers and geoogsts.
They sad - do you want to know what they sad? They ddn't have the money! I
sad I'd go down to the Unversty of Okahoma and brng some geoogsts back
mysef for free. They woudn't et me.
"The bomb s the key to the whoe case."
|783|
240
In order to satsfy the grand |ury that an ANFO bomb bew up the budng,
prosecutors caed n one bomb expert - Robert Hoper. Hoper, t turns out,
recenty retred from Dyno-Nobe, an exposves manufacturer n Sat Lake Cty.
Dyno-Nobe used to be Hercues Powder Company - a reputed CIA front.
"I knew he was CIA," sad Hedeberg. "It was pretty obvous to me and most of the
|ury."
|784|
|udge Davd Russe eventuay dsmssed Hedeberg from the grand |ury for
havng the audacty to queston the government's case. In a etter to Hedeberg
dated October 24, 1995, Russe states:
Effectvey mmedatey, you are dsmssed from the grand |ury. Your obgaton of
secrecy contnues. Any dscosure of matters that occurred before the grand |ury
consttutes a contempt of court. Each voaton of the obgaton of secrecy may be
punshed cumuatvey.
The government's excuse for dsmssng Hedeberg was an anonymous ntervew
he supposedy gave to Lawrence Myers of Media $y*ass magazne. As prevousy
noted, Hedeberg never consented to be ntervewed by Myers, and n fact, Myers
had surrepttousy obtaned the content of an ntervew conducted by the
nvestgator for Hedeberg's attorney, |ohn DeCamp.
But Hedeberg cams the rea reason was a etter he wrote to |udge Russe dated
October 5th, n whch Hedeberg states:
The fames of the vctms deserve to know who was nvoved n the bombng, and
there appears to be an attempt to protect the dentty of certan suspects, namey
|ohn Doe 2..
"I thnk they (the government) knows who |ohn Doe 2 s, and they are protectng
hm," sad Hedeberg n an ntervew n Ju+ilee Ma%a-ine. "Ths s because |ohn
Doe 2 s ether a government agent or nformant and they can't afford for that to
get out."
|785|
Eventuay, the FBI dropped the |ohn Doe 2 ead atogether. |ohn Doe 2 had been a
red herrng, a fase ead, the |ustce Department camed. |ohn Doe 2 had never
reay exsted.
|786|
Dozens of credbe wtnesses thnk otherwse.
Catna Lawson, who was frends wth McVegh, remembered |ohn Doe 2 from the
Summer of '92, when she and her frends woud hod partes and nvte soders
from nearby Fort Rey. McVegh showed up wth Andy Strassmer, Mke Forter, and
Mchae Bresca. In fact, Lawson's roommate, Lndsay |ohnson, dated the
handsome, we-but Bresca.
241
Two days after the bombng, Lawson caed the FBI and tod them that Bresca
cosey resembed the sketch of |ohn Doe 2.
Yet n spte of overturnng 21,000 stones, the FBI never even bothered to foow up
on her story.
Robert Gohn, who ved across the road from McVegh n Kngman, recaed seeng
one of the mysterous |ohn Does around the eary Summer of '94. Accordng to
Gohn, one day a short, stocky man who ooked "ke a weght fter" arrved at
McVegh's traer wth Terry Nchos.
|787|
On Apr 7, Dr. Pau Heath was workng n hs offce at the Murrah Budng when
"McVegh" and two of hs companons stopped by for a chat. Heath recaed one of
the men as "Amercan-Indan ookng" and "handsome."
|788|
As the Assocated Press reported on Apr 27, 1995:
. |U.S. Attorney Randy| Rathburn sad neghbors of Nchos'. reported that
Nchos spent Apr 12-14 wth McVegh and severa undentfed men. One of the
men resembed sketches of |ohn Doe 2..
|789||790|
On Saturday, Apr 15, Barbara Whttenberg served breakfast to three men at the
Sante Fe Tra Dner n Herrngton, Kansas. One of the men was dark-sknned and
handsome. When he tod her they were on ther way to Okahoma Cty, McVegh
shot hm a hard ook that sad "keep quet."
|791|
Eary the next day, around 1:00 a.m., Meba was workng the de counter at
Abertson's Supermarket on South May n Okahoma Cty, when "McVegh" and
|ohn Doe 2 stopped by for sandwches.
|792|
"McVegh," t seems, was st n town when Physs Kngsey and Lnda Kuhman
saw three vehces pu nto the H-Way Gr, |ust south of Okahoma Cty, around
6:00 p.m. on Sunday. McVegh came n and ordered hamburgers and fres to go,
and was accompaned by a short, stocky, handsome man, of ether Mexcan or
Amercan Indan descent. The man cosey resembed the FBI sketch of |ohn Doe 2.
|793|
That same day, back at the Dreamand Mote n |uncton Cty, Conne Hood was
returnng to her room around 12:45 a.m. when a man n room 23 qucky opened
the door as f expectng a vstor, then qucky cosed t when he saw Hood. The
man, who started her, was n hs eary 20s, about 5'8" ta, 180 bs., wth dark har
brushed straght back and an ove compexon. Hood recas he cosey resembed
the sketch of |ohn Doe 2, but wth sghty fuer features. She descrbed hm as a
"foregner."
|794|
242
The foowng day, Hood and her husband Donad returned to the Dreamand to
vst ther frend Davd Kng n room 22. A Ryder truck pued up at the same tme
they dd, the drver strongy resembng the man Hood saw the prevous day.
Shane Boyd, a hecopter mechanc who was aso stayng at the Dreamand, ater
tod reporters and nvestgators that he saw a bushy-hared man resembng the
|ohn Doe 2 sketch n the parkng ot near room 25 - Tmothy McVegh's room.
One ext away from the Dreamand Mote sts the Great Western Inn. Accordng to
the manager, a Mdde Eastern man stayed at the mote on the 17th. "He spoke
broken Engsh," sad the manager. "|He| gave a foregn name and was drvng a
Ryder truck." The man cosey resembed the FBI's sketch of |ohn Doe 2.
"Sometme on Monday," recaed Conne Hood, "those two - McVegh and the
foregner - oaded up together, n a Ryder truck, and pued out of the Dreamand
parkng ot together. that was the ast I saw of them."
|795|
Later that day, |antors Katherne Woody and Martn |ohnson were workng the 5-9
p.m. shft n the Murrah Budng when they saw "McVegh" and |ohn Doe 2.
McVegh spoke to Martn about a |ob, and |ohn Doe 2 nodded to Woody.
|796|
At 3:00 p.m. on Monday, or possby Tuesday, |err-Lynn Backhous and Dornda
Hermes were workng at the Easy-Mart n Newkrk, 100 mes north of Okahoma
Cty, when a convoy pued n. One of the vehces - a ght bue pck-up wth a
camper top - was beng drven by Terry Nchos. Backhous recaed Nchos'
passenger as average heght, dark-sknned, wth back har and a muscuar bud.
"He ooked |ust ke the |ohn Doe 2 sketch," she sad.
|797|
Debbe Nakanash was workng at the Post Offce across the street from the Murrah
Budng around on Monday or Tuesday when "McVegh" and |ohn Doe 2 stopped n
and asked where they mght fnd federa |ob appcatons. Nakanash heped
provde the descrpton for the we-known profe sketch of |ohn Doe 2 n the
baseba cap.
Guy Rubsamen, a securty guard at the Murrah Budng saw a arge Ryder truck
pu up to the curb n front of the budng around 4:00 p.m. on Monday, the 17th.
Rubsamen ater concuded t was a dress rehearsa.
"There was ether two or three men, but one |umped out the drver's sde, and one
or two out the passenger sde," Rubsamen tod the Rocky Mountain News. "The
frst thng that struck me was how qucky they |umped out. Those guys were n a
hurry."
|798|
The Ryder truck woud make ts appearance the foowng evenng at the Catte
Baron's Steakhouse n Perry, Okahoma. |eff Meyers and another customer recaed
seeng McVegh and a companon, who stopped by for a few beers. The man was
243
approxmatey sx feet ta and weghed 260 pounds - a descrpton not befttng
the |ohn Doe 2s descrbed by other wtnesses.
|799|
Rchard Snnett, the assstant manager of the Save-A-Trp convenence store n
Kngman, Kansas, sod fue to McVegh and three other men at approxmatey 1:30
a.m. on Apr 19. Snnett saw three vehces n a, ncudng a Ryder truck, an oder
brown pck-up (possby beongng to Steven Cobern?), and a ght coored car.
Snnett descrbed |ohn Doe 2 as muscuar, 170 to 180 pounds, wth short ght
brown har and a ght compexon. He recaed the Ryder truck was towng a traer
that contaned a arge, round tank fed wth cear qud. The store s about 175
mes north of Okahoma Cty.
|800|
Fred Skrda, a casher at a 24-hour truck stop near Bngs, tod the FBI he sod fue
to McVegh between 1 and 3 a.m. on Apr 19. The staton s about 80 mes north
of Okahoma Cty.
As the sun rose, McVegh and a frend sat down for coffee at |acke's Farmers Store
n Muha, Okahoma. Muha Postmaster Mary Hunncutt stood rght next to
McVegh as he ordered hs coffee. She was "advsed" not to dscuss what she had
seen, est she be summoned before the Federa Grand |ury. She wasn't.
|801|
Ten mnutes before the bast, Leroy Brooks was sttng n hs car at the Sooner Post
Offce across from the Murrah Budng, when a Ryder truck pued up across the
street, traed by a yeow Mercury. The drvers of both vehces got out and waked
to the back of the truck, where they spoke for a few seconds, and exchanged a
sma package. After Brooks came out of the Post Offce, he saw that the Ryder
truck, whch contaned a passenger, had moved n front of the Murrah Budng.
"McVegh" was wakng brsky across 5th Street towards the |ourna Record
budng.
Danny Wkerson sod "McVegh" a pack of cgarettes (McVegh doesn't smoke) and
two soft drnks at a de nsde the Regency Towers apartments a bock from the
Murrah Budng. Wkerson recaed a passenger sttng n the cab of the Ryder
truck, whch had a cab overhang, and was shorter than the 24-foot mode the FBI
camed McVegh had rented.
|802|
Federa authortes had st more wtnesses to ca on had they wanted to. Mke
Moroz, who was at work at |ohnny's Tre Store on 10th and Hudson, on Apr 19,
ooked up to see a Ryder truck pu n at 8:40 a.m. The occupants were ookng for
drectons to the Murrah Budng. Moroz caught a gmpse of the passenger - a
stocky man wth dark cury har wearng a ba cap, and a tattoo on hs upper eft
arm.
Severa mnutes earer, Davd Snder was watng for a devery n Brcktown, about
25 bocks away, when a Ryder truck passed sowy by, as f ookng for an address.
However, ths tme the drver was a dark-sknned man wth ong, straght back
244
har, wearng a thn mustache and tear-drop sungasses. The passenger was
"McVegh." Snce Snder's account of the occupants dffered remarkaby from the
prevous accounts, coud ths have been the second Ryder truck descrbed by
wtnesses? If so, dd ths mean there were two "McVeghs" and two |ohn Doe 2s?
|803|
At approxmatey the same tme as Snder saw the Ryder truck, Tusa banker Kye
Hunt came upon the truck at Man and Broadway, traed by a yeow Mercury. Hunt
sad the Mercury drver was Tmothy McVegh. "He gave me that cy, go-to-he
ook," sad Hunt. "It knd of unnerved me."
|804|
Whe Hunt ddn't see the occupants
of the truck, he dd reca two passengers n the car. One of them, he sad, had
ong har, smar to the man Physs Kngsey saw on Sunday at the H-Way Gr.
None of the men was Terry Nchos, who was n Herrngton that mornng.
|ust outsde the Murrah Budng, Denns "Rodney" |ohnson was drvng hs caterng
truck, when he suddeny had to brake to avod httng two men who were runnng
towards the parkng ot across the street.
|805|
The men, who were n "a fast ockstep" wth each other, appeared to be Tmothy
McVegh and |ohn Doe 2. |ohnson descrbed McVegh's companon as "Mexcan or
Amercan-Indan." He was "dark-sknned. probaby about 5-8 and maybe 160
pounds," |ohnson sad. "He was wearng bue |ogger pants wth a strpe across the
sde. He had scked-back har."
|806|
Then there was Gary Lews. A pressman for the Journal Record/ Lews stepped
outsde to smoke hs ppe |ust mnutes before the bast. As stood n the aey
across from the Murrah Budng, a yeow Mercury peeed away from ts spot and
bore down on hm. The drver, whom he made bref eye-contact wth, appeared to
be Tmothy McVegh. And hs passenger resembed the sketch of |ohn Doe 2. The
car had an Okahoma tag (not an Arzona tag as authortes camed) dangng by
one bot.
Even FBI Agent |ohn Hersey had testfed before the Federa Grand |ury that ".
severa wtnesses spotted a yeow car carryng McVegh and another man
speedng away from the parkng ot near the. |budng| before the bast."
|807|
Fnay there was Dana Bradey. A young mother, Bradey was standng by the
wndow of the Soca Securty offce seconds before the bast, when she saw a man
get out of the passenger sde of the Ryder truck. Moments ater, Bradey's word
turned to backness, smoke and dust as she was showered by fang concrete.
Bradey, who ost her eg, her mother, and her two chdren n the bombng, st
ceary recas the man who got out of the truck. He ooked ke |ohn Doe 2.
Of course, federa "nvestgators" woud show as tte nterest n these and other
dscrepances as they woud n the numerous |ohn Does. Some of these wtnesses
were never even contacted by the FBI, eventhough a of them had repeatedy
tred to aert the Bureau. Ony after federa prosecutors had coerced Dana Bradey
245
nto changng her story, dd she testfy at McVegh's tra. None of the others were
ever caed.
"I know I wasn't caed because I woud have to testfy that I dd see |ohn Doe 2. I
know I saw |ohn Doe 2," sad Rodney |ohnson.
|808|
Then n March of 1997, after changng t's mnd haf a dozen tmes about the
exstence of |ohn Doe 2, t was "eaked" to the press that the FBI was searchng for
a |ohn Doe. Hs name was Robert |aques.
Ths "new" |ohn Doe 2 had appeared at the offce of rea estate broker Wam
Maoney, of Cassve, Mssour, n November of '94, aong wth Terry Nchos and a
man who ooked ke McVegh. They were there to dscuss purchasng a remote
pece of and. |oe Lee Davdson, a saesman n Maoney's offce, recaed the
encounter wth |aques: "The day he was here, he seemed to be the one that was n
contro and n charge of what was gong on," sad Davdson. "Nchos never sad a
whoe ot and McVegh never dd come n.."
|809|
Maoney descrbed |aques as muscuar, wth a broad, dark face, smar to, but not
qute dentca as, the orgna FBI sketch of |ohn Doe 2.
Is t possbe the sudden announcement of |aques was a dverson, to satsfy a
pubc ncreasngy savvy about the exstence of |ohn Doe 2?
Nevertheess, a month after ths new ead was announced, the government went
ahead wth the tra of McVegh, makng no attempt to ntroduce any addtona
suspects.
They aso dropped the ead on Steven Cobern, n spte of the fact that hs pck-up
was seen stopped ahead of McVegh 90 mnutes after the bombng.
|810|
The Mdde-Eastern ead was aso dropped. The FBI dened puttng out the APB on
the brown pck-up contanng the three Mdde Eastern maes seen speedng away
from the bombng. And whe the FBI knew about Sam Khad, they dd nothng but
ask hm some questons.
An affdavt submtted by FBI Agent |ohn Hersey stated: "A wtness to the bombng
saw two, possby three persons n a brown Chevroet pckup - feeng the area of
the crme - |ust pror to the bast." Athough agents ntervewed the wtness who
saw Hussan a-Hussan drvng the brown pck-up, she was never brought before a
ne-up, and never caed to testfy before the Federa Grand |ury. Hussan's frend
Abraham Ahmed was turned oose as we.
|811|
As n the Kennedy assassnaton, the FBI sent thousands of agents hther and
yonder to scour the country, searchng out even the most obscure eads. Agents
swarmed through Kngman, conductng warrantess searches, arrestng nnocent
peope, and wreckng havoc. Dozens more swooped down on Terry Nchos 12-
246
year-od son |osh, whom they thought may have been |ohn Doe 2. Agents were
sent to the Phppnes to nvestgate Nchos' actvtes there, and thousands more
had detaned and questoned anyone even remotey suspcous.
Yet, as n the Kennedy case, few agents actuay knew |ust why they were foowng
up on any gven ead. Very few ever were ever aowed to compare notes, or catch
a gmpse of the "bg pcture."
More mportanty, those ndvduas who shoud have been prme suspects for
questonng were never even detaned. No agents were sent to Eohm cty to
ntervew Andreas Strassmer or Mchae Bresca, or Peter and Sonny Ward.
Lkewse, none of the Mdde Eastern suspects prevousy mentoned were arrested.
Had any FBI agents actuay attempted to foow up on any of these eads, ke ther
predecessors n Daas, they woud have been qucky reassgned to other cases by
Washngton.
The same hed true for oca aw-enforcement. FBI SAC Bob Rcks - who doed out
a mendacous dose of propaganda durng the Waco massacre - was apponted
Pubc Safety Drector after the bombng, puttng hm n charge of the OHP.
The OSBI were made coffee boys and drvers for the FBI. Dstrct Attorney Bob
Macy, aong wth oca poce, were "advsed" to stay out of the case.
|812|
Sx days before the start of McVegh's tra, Steven |ones fed a defense moton
ctng aw-enforcement and defense ntervews wth a Fpno terrorst who
admtted meetng wth bombng defendant Terry Nchos.
Lead prosecutor |oseph Hartzer caed |ones' carefuy nvestgated and researched
nformaton "pup fcton."
Yet a Washngton-based terrorst expert who nvestgated the Word Trade Center
bombng and s famar wth some the suspects n |ones' bref sad, "The whoe
dea that no one but Tmothy McVegh - that there's nothng wder than ths - no
one woud beeve t f the government weren't sayng t. It's so mpausbe a story.
"The government has the nerve to ca t pup fcton," added the hghy-respected
source. Their story s 'pup fcton.'"
|813|
Apparenty, the government was concerned enough about |ones' reveatons to
order a the wtness statements seaed.
In the end, the FBI propounded ts dsngenuous theory that McVegh and Nchos
were the "one bombers" |ust as qucky as they had decded that Lee Harvey
Oswad was the "Lone assassn" twenty-eght years ago.
Choir Boys
247
.Stated sim*ly/ neither the ATF nor any other federal a%ency had any adance
knowled%e of the deadly +om+ that McVei%h deliered to the Murrah $uildin%0A
The *rosecution is not withholdin% anythin% that een remotely would su**ort
such an outra%eous char%e0. - "e*artment of Justice
.( can assure you that there has +een no %oernment misconduct and the men and
women of the F$( that we1re workin% with are +eyond re*roach0.
- 20S0 Attorney Jose*h 8art-ler
.Our %oernment/ unfortunately/ has shown remarka+le a+ility to lie0.
- Ste*hen Jones
One exampe of the |ustce Department's refusa to admt the possbty of any
suspects other than McVegh and Nchos was ts stubborn nsstence on hoardng
dscovery documents that t shoud have been rghtfuy turned over to the defense
under the federa $rady requrements. In a moton fed sx days before the start of
McVegh's tra, |ones aeged that the prosecuton not ony ed about the avaabe
evdence, they deberatey obsfucated and dstorted certan ATF and FBI reports
on Eohm Cty, deberatey msspeng the names Caro Howe, Robert Mar,
Andreas Strassmer, Denns Mahon and others so that the defense woud be unabe
to retreve any documents regardng these suspects durng ther computer
searches. As |ones wrote n hs bref:
Defense counse s convnced that the government has engaged n a wfu and
knowng cover-up of nformaton supped to t by ts nformant. The defense was
unabe to ocate ths nsert usng a computer because a ma|or search terms
contaned n the nsert were msspeed. Eohm Cty was msspeed or
msdentfed (Eohm Cty), as was Mahon (Mehaun), Strassmer (Strassmeyer), the
Rev. Robert Mar (Bob Lamar) and n addton, Caro Howe was not dentfed n
the nsert at a.
|814|
Thus the defense was unabe to ocate mportant nformaton that Caro Howe, a
ATF nformant, had provded crtca warnngs that the Murrah Budng was about
to be bombed. As |ones wrote:
Our patence s exhausted. We are no onger convnced the documents drafted
and furnshed to us, after the fact, by bureaucraces whose very exstence and
credbty s chaenged, can be reed upon..
248
The government has tod the dstrct court that t had 'no nformaton" of a possbe
foregn nvovement when t dd. The government has tod the dstrct court that
"Andreas Strassmer was never the sub|ect of the nvestgaton," when he was..
Statements to the court by the prosecuton that t cannot connect Strassmer and
Mahon to the bombng are hardy surprsng. They dd not try very hard to connect
them because had they been connected, and Caro Howe's prevous warnng
dscosed, the resutng furor woud have been unmagnabe..
The repeated practce of the government and prosecuton n ths case when the
shoe gets bndng s to make a parta dscosure, assure the Dstrct Court t
understands ts $rady obgatons, and hod ts breath, hopng the court does not
order further dscosure, or w rey on the prosecuton's "good fath"..
Ths s a soemn crmna case, not Ace n Wonderand where defntons mean
ony what "the Oueen thnks" and what she thnks s not known to anyone ese.
|815|
Lyng about addtona suspects wasn't the ony crme the "|ustce" Department
was guty of. Manpuatng and confscatng evdence aso seemed to be a ma|or
too n ther arsena of decet.
Rchard Beder, the attorney representng a group bombng vctms n ther
neggence awsut aganst the government, tod the 3ondon Tele%ra*h that he had
seen nterna ATF documents whch supported many of the cams made by Caro
Howe. But the reports for December 1994, probaby the most crtca ones, have
vanshed from the fes.
|816|
On Apr 14, 1995, the FBI paced a ca to Assstant Chef Chares Ganes at the
Okahoma Cty Fre Department to warn hm of a potenta terrorst threat wthn
the next few days. Yet ke the FBI's warnngs of the threat aganst the fe of
Presdent Kennedy, or Nxon's nfamous Watergate tapes, the audo ogs of the Fre
Department's ncomng cas were mysterousy "erased."
When asked to expan ths "accdenta" erasure, Assstant Chef |on Hansen
ntegenty reped, "We made a boo-boo." Hansen then admtted to reporter |.D.
Cash that the tapes had been erased after the natona meda had requested them.
|817|
On Apr 28th the tape of |ames Nchos' hearng was reeased by court order, and
t was bank. Nothng whatsoever coud be heard on the tape. It was the ony
record of the proceedngs.
On Apr 19, the sesmc data montor at the Omnpex Museum, four mes from the
Murrah Budng, had recorded the shock waves of the exposon. The sesmograph
readngs, ncudng one from the Unversty of Okahoma 16 mes away n Norman,
presented startng evdence - evdence that the exposon that rpped through
249
the Afred P. Murrah budng may n fact have been severa dstnct basts. The
mpcatons of ths are omnous.
At a meetng of the Okahoma Geophysca Socety on November 20th,
Sesmoogsts Ray Brown of the Okahoma Geoogca Survey and Tom Hozer of
the U.S. Geoogca Survey gathered to dscuss the fndngs. Pat Brey, a sesmc
programmer, who has ndependenty nvestgated the bombng, attended the
meetng, as dd U.S. Attorney Patrck Ryan and Assstant U.S. Attorney |erome A.
Homes.
Athough the two scentsts dsagreed on fndngs regardng the number of bombs,
ess than a thrd of the way through the presentaton, Ryan got up, waked to the
back of the room, and began gvng a prvate press conference:
"I was certany satsfed that these scentsts coud not say that there was
anythng other than one bomb that caused the sesmoogy readng," sad Ryan, a
statement obvousy nconsstent wth the dscusson occurrng at the tme.
"Ryan ed very heavy," sad Brey. "Ths guy reay ed."
After the meetng, Brey potey asked Ryan to gve hm the orgna sesmogram
n the FBI's possesson. Ryan got up, angry accused Brey of workng for the
defense team, then stammered out of the room.
|818|
Surveance cameras ocated n the parkng ot across from the Murrah budng,
and on neghborng budngs, woud have recorded the entre fatefu event that
terrbe mornng. The tapes woud have aso shown the budng coapsng. They
woud have concusvey proven whether the structure was destroyed by cuttng
charges, or by a truck-bomb. But ke Abraham Zapruder's famous footage of the
Kennedy assassnaton, the tapes were qucky confscated by the FBI.
In an ntervew wth |on Rappaport, Hoppy Hedeberg sad, "The varous
surveance vdeotapes of the bombng, tapes from, say, Southwestern Be and
the |ourna Record Budng across the street, we don't know that they showed a
the detas of the bombng, ncudng the perpetrators, but t's possbe. None of
ths matera was shown to us n the grand |ury."
Certan segments of the footage was presented by the prosecuton at tra. One cut
ncuded a shot of a bue GMC pck-up wth a whte camper top (the knd owned by
Terry Nchos) drvng sowy past the Regency Towers apartments near the Murrah
Budng on Apr 16 - the day Nchos aegedy drove to Okahoma to pck up
McVegh.
The prosecuton aso dspayed a st frame of a Ryder truck drvng by the
Regency Towers on the mornng of the bast. The tme was 8:59 a.m. They then
showed a st of the truck bowng up, stamped 9:02 a.m. Curousy, the
250
government was carefu not to show the |ury any footage whch showed any
suspects gettng out of the truck.
|819|
Surveance footage taken by Trooper Chares Hanger upon hs arrest of McVegh
had caught a brown pck-up stopped |ust ahead - thought to beong to Steven
Cobern. When researcher Ken Armstrong questoned the OHP about the tape, he
was tod t had been "sezed" by the FBI. The OHP woud not comment further.
|820|
On |une 1st, KFOR reporter Brad Edwards sent the |ustce Department a Freedom
of Informaton request concernng the varous surveance footage. In ther repy,
the FBI stated:
A search of our ndces to the Centra Records System, as mantaned n the
Okahoma Cty Offce, ocated matera responsve request (sc) to your request.
Ths matera s beng wthhed n ts entrety pursuant to the foowng subsecton
of Tte 5, Unted States Code, Secton 552: (b) (7) (A)
When |ones fnay fed a moton for dscosure after prosecutors refused to hand
over the tapes, he was gven 400 hours of footage. Accordng to defense attorney
Amber McGaughn, the tapes dd not revea the presence of Tmothy McVegh.
|821|
Of course, who knows what the FBI actuay turned over to the defense. In the
Kennedy case, the most reveang evdence was the Zapruder fm - homemade
footage showng Presdents Kennedy's head beng basted towards the rght-rear -
ndcatng the fata shot came from the Grassy Kno, not the Book Depostory as
the government camed. Yet the FBI confscated Zapruder's fm and atered the
sequence of the ncrmnatng frames, reversng them to gve the mpresson that
Kennedy's head had urched forward. It was ony ater that experts reveaed the
tamperng.
The FBI sad t was a "mstake."
The Zapruder fm was fnay reeased n 1968, the resut of Dstrct Attorney |m
Garrson's courageous efforts to revea the truth. The queston s, when w the
Amercan pubc get to see the vdeo footage of the Okahoma Cty bombng?
Whe the FBI dd ther best to keep key evdence from the grand |ury, as n the
Kennedy case, they even went so far as to convnce severa wtnesses that ther
former statements were fase, and to retract them n eu of statements more
favorabe to the prosecuton. A prmary exampe s Mchae Forter, who orgnay
tod nvestgators, "I do not beeve that Tm |McVegh| bew up any budng n
Okahoma. There's nothng for me to ook back upon and say, yeah, that mght
have been, I shoud have seen t back then - there's nothng ke that.. I know
my frend. Tm McVegh s not the face of terror as reported on Time magazne."
But after the FBI raded hs home, Forter reversed hs statement, sayng that he
and McVegh has "cased" the federa budng, n response to an offer of a pea
251
bargan. Forter was then transferred to the Federa Medca Facty at Fort Worth,
Texas. It s not known why.
|822|
Accordng to Hedeberg, the FBI brought 24-hour-a-day pressure on Forter for
months before he was arrested. Consequenty, Forter dd not retan a awyer,
ddn't know he needed one, and was subsequenty bued by the Bureau. By the
tme he managed to retan a awyer, Forter had aready been broken.
Lor Forter testfed that McVegh tred to soct Nchos' hep n budng the bomb,
but that Nchos wanted out. He then aegedy tred to soct her husband.
Accordng to her testmony, McVegh got down on the foor of ther traer and,
usng soup cans to represent 55-gaon drums, demonstrated how to make a bomb.
|823|
Were the Forters reayng accurate testmony? Lke the testmony of Edon Eott
about McVegh's heght, or that of Thomas Mannng regardng McVegh's phone ca
to Eott's, none of ths nformaton was contaned n pror statements made by the
Forters to the FBI.
As w be seen wth pror ncdents of government wtness tamperng and
fabrcated testmony, ther testmony s hghy crcumspect.
The Forters' testmony s aso somewhat questonabe due to ther drug use.
Accordng to co-worker Deborah Brown, who testfed at McVegh's tra, Lor Forter
used crysta methamphetamne amost day. Methamphetamne s wdey known
for ts abty to nduce deusona or even psychotc states over tme.
|824|
Forter eventuay confessed to transportng and seng stoen frearms, drug
possesson, foreknowedge of the bombng pot, and fang to nform federa
authortes.
|825|
Sad grand |uror Hoppy Hedeberg, "The FBI reed on a man, Forter, who reay
coudn't provde anythng mportant to them. You need to remember that. That's
mportant."
|826|
Lor Forter aso testfed that "I st beeved he (McVegh) coudn't reay do t."
|ones then asked her, "Ms. Forter, you sad you thought McVegh reay woudn't
carry out hs pans, then you sad you, 'wanted out.' How can you 'want out' f
there was nothng to 'be n'"?
|ones woud take ths one step further. On cross-examnaton, he assduousy
questoned Forter's motvatons:
<ones: Now, n addton, n your conversaton you had wth your brother on Apr
the 25th, 1995 - that's your brother |ohn?
%ortier: Yes, sr.
252
<ones: Dd you make the foowng statement: "I've been thnkng about tryng to
do those tak-show crcuts for a ong tme, come up wth some asnne story and
get my frends to go n on t"?
%ortier: Yes, sr, I made that statement.
<ones: And n the same conversaton, dd your brother say to you: "Whether the
story s true or not, f you want to st here and sten to a fabe, that's a t was at
the tme s a fabe"? And then dd you say: "I found my career, 'cause I can te a
fabe"? And then dd you burst out aughng and say, "I coud te stores a day"?
%ortier: Yes, sr.
<ones: Then do you know an ndvdua named Gynn?
%ortier: Yes.
<ones: And hs ast name, sr?
%ortier: I thnk you're referrng to Gynn Brnge.
<ones: Dd you have a conversaton wth hm by teephone on Apr the 30th?
%ortier: Yes.
<ones: And dd you say, "I want to wat t after the tra and do book and move
rghts. I can |ust make up somethng |ucy"? And then dd you augh?
%ortier: I'm not sure f I aughed or not, but I dd make that statement.
<ones: "Somethng that's worth The &n9uirer, you know." You made those
statements.
%ortier: Yes, sr.
The obvous nference was that the "|ustce" Department had a hand n generatng
the Forters' testmony. As |ones ponted out durng hs cosng argument, the
terms of Forter's pea agreement provded that any enency woud be contngent
upon hs performance n court.
Not true, accordng to the FBI, whch spent over 175 hours soctng statements
from the Forters; and |oseph Hartzer, who met wth hs "star wtness" between 7
and 10 tmes to "make sure he tod the truth."
|827|
In fact, durng McVegh's tra, Lor Forter testfed on cross-examnaton that she
had arrved n Denver fve days before she was schedued for tra. She testfed
253
that she spent the better part of Frday, Saturday, Sunday, and Monday practcng
for her testmony wth federa prosecutors.
Phadepha prosecutors spent a ot of tme wth Veronca |ones to "make sure she
tod the truth" too - convncng her to mpcate |ournast Muma Abu-|ama,
accused of shootng poce offcer Dane Faukner. |ones, who was facng unreated
feony charges at the tme, orgnay tod poce she saw two other men fee the
scene. After threats and promses from poce, she changed her story, testfyng to
the government's verson of events. Her feony charges were subsequenty
dropped.
|828|
Forter, whose speech and appearance were magcay transformed for hs day n
court, reportedy receved a reduced sentence of three years n exchange for hs
testmony. Hs wfe Lor was granted compete mmunty from prosecuton for
her's.
|ones aso accused the FBI of harassng |ennfer McVegh and her frends n the
days after the bombng, hopng to obtan derogatory nformaton about her
brother. He sad the FBI scared peope "beyond beef wth threats of prosecuton"
f they ddn't tak.
|829|
On the ffth day of |ennfer McVegh's nterrogaton, the FBI ushered her nto a
room wth huge bown up pctures of her and her brother (taken off her refrgerator
door), and babes who ded n the bombng. Interspersed between the photos were
statutes from the U.S. Code pertanng to treason, wth phrases such as "Treason s
punshabe by death," and "The penaty for treason s "&AT80. (government's
emphass)
Under cross-examnaton, |ennfer was asked f she was aware that treason s ony
punshabe n tmes of war. Stunned by ths reveaton, she answered, "No."
The FBI aso trcked |ennfer nto testfyng by promsng her mmunty from
prosecuton f she cooperated. Durng a break n the tra, a reporter asked
prosecutor Vcky Behenna why |ennfer needed mmunty. "She ddn't," Behenna
reped," but she woudn't testfy wthout t, so we gave t to her."
|830|
The FBI aso trcked Marfe Nchos nto sgnng a consent form before they
searched her house. When she was asked f the agents advsed her of her rght to
retan a awyer or refuse to answer questons, the 23-year-od Fpno answered, "I
don't remember. I don't thnk so." Marfe sad that when she asked whether she dd
need a awyer, prosecutors and FBI agents dscouraged her. "They tod me, 'You're
okay as ong as you are teng the truth. You don't need a awyer."
|831|
|ames Nchos dscovered they were radng his house after he heard t on the
news. "I heard on the rado they were radng a house n Decker, Mchgan. I sad,
'Wow, that's awfu cose to home.' We, wthn an hour I found out. Mne!"
|832|
254
Nchos beeves the ATF, whch raded hs house, set hm up to be murdered,
ether as an act of revenge or to prevent hm from testfyng at tra. He tod
"ateline1s Chrs Hansen that after the agents entered hs home, they asked hm to
retreve a gun he kept n hs bedroom. Nchos responded, "No, I won't go get t. I
tod you, send an agent or two n there to go do t." 'Aw, go ahead. Go and do t,'
the agent responded, and they a turned ther backs, rea nonchaanty. I sad,
'Whoa, wat a mnute.' They'd 'a shot me, because they woud have |ust sad 'He
pued a gun on us.' The fate of Terry and Tm woud have been sgned, seaed and
devered. Dead peope don't testfy."
|833|
For hs part, Terry Nchos beeved that he was not n custody after he waked nto
the Herrngton, Kansas poce staton on Apr 21 to see why hs name was beng
broadcast on teevson. Apparenty, the agents were hopng they coud get more
out of Nchos by eadng hm to beeve they had no ntenton of arrestng hm.
"Mr. Nchos was coerced, deceved, and sub|ected to psychoogca poys desgned
to overcome hs w and make hm confess," hs attorney stated n a ega bref.
Defense attorneys aso contend Nchos was fasey promsed he coud revew
agents' notes on hs statements for accuracy, and was fasey tod he or hs wfe
coud be present at searches.
Prosecutors countered that federa agents acted "wth remarkabe dgence and n
a manner that honored the Consttuton."
Sure.
%ran$ Keating: 2amage Control ;nc1
.We are %oin% to im*ose our a%enda on the coera%e +y dealin% with the issues
and su+>ects we choose to deal with0. - Richard M0 !ohan/ Senior )roducer of !$S
News
.The +usiness of the New 'ork >ournalist is to destroy the truth/ to lie outri%ht/ to
*erert/ to ilify/ to fawn at the feet of Mammon/ and to sell his race and his
country for his daily +read0. - John Swinton/ !&O/ New 'ork Times/ New 'ork )ress
!lu+/ A*ril :B/ :CDE.
.The !entral (ntelli%ence A%ency owns eeryone of any si%nificance in the ma>or
media0. - William !ol+y/ former !(A "irector
255
Eght months after the bombng, Okahoma State Representatve Chares Key,
dssatsfed wth the "offca" nvestgaton, attempted to form a state oversght
commttee. House Speaker Gen |ohnson rdcued Key's efforts, statng hs
satsfacton wth the |ustce Department's offca fantasy tae. Anyone who
subsequenty attempted to chaenge the government's offca ne was pubcy
dscredted by Governor Keatng, sneered at by Attorney Genera Drew
Edmondson, and aughed at by the manstream press.
|834|
The oca meda provded a convenent patform for Governor Keatng to dsmss
crtcs of the government's handng of the case, ncudng Edye Smth, Hoppy
Hedeberg and Representatve Key. In an attempt to dscredt Hedeberg, Keatng
headed a carefuy orchestrated chorus of meda pundts, statng that Hedeberg
was "off the reservaton."
Keatng aso |oned KWTV n attackng KFOR's coverage of the Mdde Eastern
connecton, statng they acked ntegrty.
He abeed |m Levne, an attorney who represented severa vctms *ro +ono n an
attempt to reease money from the Governor and Mayor's Vctms Reef Funds a
"bottom-feedng" awyer.
|835|*
For hs courageous efforts n uncoverng the truth, Keatng sad Representatve Key
was "bayng at the moon."
|836|
Aong wth bombng vctm Genn Wburn, Key attempted to mpane a County
Grand |ury. Such a |ury, operatng outsde the scope of the federa nvestgaton,
woud not ony have the power to nvestgate facts gnored by the federa grand
|ury, but have the power to eve crmna obstructon of |ustce charges aganst
anybody whom they beeved mght have mpeded the nvestgaton.
Gven the aegatons of wrongdong n the federa nvestgaton, such charges
coud concevaby be eveed aganst everybody from the ATF to the |ustce
Department.
In an ntervew n the Mc!urtain ,a-ette, Key expaned, "Indsputabe proof exsts
now that the federa grand |ury was purposey sheded from wtnesses who saw
Tmothy McVegh wth other suspects, both pror to and mmedatey after the
bombng assaut.. They may have a good motve for ths, but thus far t escapes
me - and, I mght add, severa members of the federa grand |ury who wtnessed
ths farce."
Keatng's response, quoted n the "aily Oklahoman was: "I don't thnk a egsatve
commttee woud contrbute one wht of ntegence to ths process."
|837|
The "aily Oklahoman and the Tulsa World, the state's two argest daes, whch
shoud have ed the pack n ferretng out the truth of ths terrbe tragedy, nstead
256
ed the oca meda chorus wth edtoras such as ths one n the "aily Oklahoman,
entted, "Drop It, Mr. Key."
The "aily Oklahoman has opposed Key's msson from the begnnng.. State Rep.
Chares Key's quest to prove that a government conspracy payed some roe n the
Murrah Budng bombng s a werd and msguded exercse.. Okahoma County
Dstrct Attorney Bob Macy s correct n appeang a court rung that aows Key a
free hand to seek a county grand |ury probe of hs conspracy theores..
|838|
The Tulsa World chmed n wth edtoras such as "Makng Tragedy Pay," whch
abeed Key as a "dedcated huster" peddng "goofy theores" to rghtwng-crank
audences." They aso accused the representatve of proft-makng from the sae of
hs bombng vdeos, whch barey pad for themseves. The fact that Key had
recenty ost hs nsurance busness due to hs treess efforts nvestgatng the
bombng, and was vng on hs $33,000-a-year saary to support a wfe and three
chdren n a sma, ramshacke house, was not mentoned by the yeow |ournasts
of the Tulsa World.
The "truth seekers" of the oca meda weren't fnshed ether. They eagery
focused on the efforts of Drew Edmondson, who accused Key of proposng a
"wastefu wtch hunt" and of engagng n "the worst knd of paranod conspracy
panderng." (See Appendx)
One artce reported how Edmondson had convnced the State Dstrct Attorney's
Counc to oppose Key's nvestgatve fundng b.
"Ths s unprecedented, as far as I know, for the Attorney Genera to go to such
engths wth the Dstrct Attorneys Counc and to use such ntemperate anguage,"
the soft-spoken Key tod The New American.
In fact, oca rado pos reveaed that an overwhemng ma|orty of Okahomans
supported Key's efforts. Whe the Tulsa World and the "aily Oklahoman went to
extremes to abe Key as a "conspracy nut," they never bothered mentonng that
tte fact.
|839|*
Naturay, the CIA-connected Washin%ton )ost woud have ther say, comparng the
"myth" of |ohn Doe 2 to the Loch Ness Monster.
Lead prosecutor |oseph Hartzer added hs voce to the ensembe, cang the eads
"whacky theores."
|840|
Key's grand |ury petton was quashed on November 6th, 1995 by Dstrct |udge
Dane Owens on the grounds that t woud be "re-nventng the whee."
|841|
Key appeaed. As hs attorney, Mark Sanford stated, "Legay |Owens| ddn't have
the rght to quash the petton. But because he's a |udge he has the power,
whether t's ega or not."
|842|
257
Bevery Pamer from Bob Macy's offce argued at the appeas hearng n defense of
Owens, camng that the petton was "nsuffcent on ts face," and the request
was dupctous of the federa grand |ury's efforts.
Yet, as Appeas |udge Ronad Stubbefed ponted out, nowhere dd |udge Owens
state why the petton was nsuffcent. In fact Stubbefed was hghy skeptca that
Owens had any facts to advse hm propery n hs decson. "I queston whether
|udge Owens has the dscreton" sad Stubbefed. "He's |ust operatng on what he
knows about the bombng. Do you thnk t's rght to make a |udgment based on
what he reads n the newspaper?"
|843|
The same coud be sad about DA Bob Macy. At the tme I ntervewed hm, he was
coectng nformaton on the case by readng Morrs Dees' ,atherin% Storm, and
The Turner "iaries. Ths was a year and-a-haf after the bombng - a bombng that
occurred rght outsde hs wndow. He ddn't know about |ohn Doe 2. He had no
dea about the Mdde Eastern connecton. He had done absoutey no
nvestgaton.
"I have not seen these thngs you are takng about rght now," Macy tod me.
"When I see the evdence. I haven't been presented wth the evdence." Macy
subsequenty camed he wanted me to work wth hs so-caed "task force" that
was "nvestgatng" the bombng, then never caed me back.
Hs atttude was adequatey refected by hs Assstant DA, Bevery Pamer. Vsby
nervous, Pamer grasped at straws durng the appeas hearng, argung that the
grand |ury shoudn't be convened because of the need for "|udca economy," and
that t contravened "pubc pocy concerns."
"What pocy concerns?" |udge Dane Boudreau asked.
|844|
In spte of the efforts of a group of good oe' boy potcans to sabotage |ustce,
|udge Stubbefed remaned frm: "The peope have the rght to crcuate a petton
f the peope fnd that thngs aren't gong the way they ought to be," he sad. "Is t
not the rght, by the sanctfed rght of the grand |ury n Okahoma, to nqure
whether a crme s commtted? Don't they have the rght to nvestgate peope who
they thnk are nvoved? Ths s a hghy protected rght."
The Appeas Court uphed Key's rght to petton for a County Grand |ury by a
unanmous vote.
|ust two months before the hearng Macy camed to ths author that he ntended to
prosecute McVegh and Nchos n a state tra on 161 counts of Frst Degree
Murder. "I don't ke takng a second seat to the |federa| prosecuton," Macy
stated. "The bombng ked 10 of my frends."
In a May 24, 1995 etter to Senator Orrn Hatch, one of the orgna drafters of the
Ant-Terrorsm B, Macy wrote:
258
Frst, mmedatey foowng the tra or tras n Federa Court, I sha, workng n
con|uncton wth the Unted Sates Department of |ustce and the federa aw-
enforcement agences nvestgatng the bombng of the Afred P. Murrah Budng,
prosecute the cowards responsbe for murderng nnocent peope n the area
surroundng the Federa Budng..
The State of Okahoma has an overwhemng, compeng nterest to seek and
obtan the maxmum penaty aowabe by aw for the senseess and cowardy
kngs. Not ony s t n the nterest of the State, t s my sworn duty to seek those
sanctons, and I ntend to fuy carry out my responsbtes..
Every day of deay represents a vctory for these cowardy cod-booded kers and
another day of defeat and sufferng for the vctms and a other Amercans who cry
out for |ustce.
|845|
Macy aso mpressed upon the author hs nterest n gettng at the truth: "I'm
prepared to do what ever t takes to get to the truth," Macy excamed. "My soe
ntent s n earnng the truth!"
Yet when asked f he ntended to conduct an nvestgaton ndependent of the
Feds', he sad, "We. I don't want to be a party to anythng that w nterfere wth
the Feds' prosecuton. ( "on1t want to o*en u* a new can of worms0.
|846|
After Macy ost the appeas hearng, he met wth Wburn and Key, expanng that
he actuay wshed to cooperate wth ther nvestgaton. Three days ater, the two
men dscovered that Macy had decded to contest the Appeas Court's decson.
When a furous Key confronted Macy, a that the courageous, truth-seekng DA
tod hm was, .They won1t let me0. When Key demanded to know who "they" were,
Macy |ust owered hs eyes to the foor and repeated, "They won't et me."
|847|
Key ater earned from a source at ABC News that Macy had receved a conference
ca from |anet Reno's deputy |ame Gorck, and the government's ead prosecutor,
|oseph Hartzer, aong wth Governor Keatng, Okahoma Cty Fre Chef Gary Marrs,
and |udge Dane Owens.
When the grand |ury was fnay mpaneed, federa prosecutors qucky attempted
to bock the testmony of federa empoyees.
Key aso accused |Chef Assstant DA Pat| Morgan and others n Okahoma County
Dstrct Attorney Bob Macy's offce of nfuencng and ntmdatng wtnesses. "I am
very upset about t," Key sad. "Everyone shoud be outraged because of ths."
|848|
Interestngy, durng a debate wth Representatve Key, Keatng stated, "Nobody
coud get away wth a cover-up; t woud not be toerated by cvzed Okahoma
Cty.. Nobody's afrad of the truth."
|849|
259
KFOR's |ayna Davs shed some ght on the "truth-seekng" efforts of Bob Macy and
the good oe' boy network of potcos from whch he descends. Two years earer,
after an 8-year-od boy was raped, both Davs and the Pubc Defender demanded
to know why Macy hadn't done anythng. When Macy thought the camera was off,
he whpped around and sterny admonshed the reporter: "Lady, I don't know who
you are or where you came from, but ths sn't how we do busness n
Okahoma!"
|850|
Representatve Key eventuay took the case to the Okahoma Supreme Court. In
hs opposng bref, Macy agan argued that t woud be "a waste of the taxpayers'
tme and money to convene an Okahoma County Grand |ury when one was
aready n sesson or when a Federa Grand |ury had aready heard a avaabe
evdence."
The Supreme Court dd not agree wth Macy. They unanmousy uphed Key's rght
to mpane the grand |ury, whch was seated n |une of '97, and s hearng evdence
as of ths wrtng.
Naturay, the Mnsters of Truth at The "aily Oklahoman wasted tte tme,
pumpng out more band edtora drve to muddy the waters. The foowng pece,
entted "Conspracy Theores," focuses on the fact that the County Grand |ury s
ony exacerbatng the "agony" of some vctms, who are apparenty more
concerned wth some fary tae noton of "cosure" then n earnng the truth:
Whatever the cause, the deay adds to the agony of those bombng vctms who
beeve the nvestgaton s a waste of tme.
The Oklahoman shares that beef, but we are optmstc the probe may satsfy
many who are suspcous about events before the bombng. Yet, we wonder f the
more conspratora-mnded w ever be satsfed..
Confctng conspracy theores and an oo of crcumstanta evdence abound here.
|urors n Denver sorted through testmony and found McVegh guty. Frustratng as
t may be to some, there s tte more to ths crme than meets the eye. The rest s
the stuff of fcton.
|851|
By the "aily Oklahoman1s account, the numerous credbe wtnesses who saw
Tmothy McVegh wth other suspects on the mornng of the crme adds up to tte
more than "crcumstanta evdence," whe what prosecutors presented at tra -
McVegh's phone cas to chemca companes, hs potca vews, and the
competey rreevant emotona taes from bombng vctms - are not.
|852|*
Gven the oca meda's connectons to the potca good 'oe boy network va the
Washngton-connected Frank Keatng, ther poston s hardy surprsng. Famed
Watergate |ournast Car Bernsten put some perspectve on the matter when he
reveaed n a 1977 Rollin% Stone artce that over 400 U.S. |ournasts were
empoyed by the CIA.
260
These ranged from freeancers who were pad for reguar debrefngs, to actua CIA
offcers who worked under deep cover. Neary every ma|or U.S. news organzaton
has had spooks on the payro, usuay wth the cooperaton of top management.
The three most vauabe assets the CIA coud count on were Wam Paey's CBS,
Arthur Suzberger's New 'ork Times and Henry Luce's TimeF3ife empre. A three
bent over backwards promotng the pcture of Oswad as a one nut n the |FK
assassnaton.
|853|
The potca good 'oe boy network wasn't fnshed tryng to stop the courageous
efforts of Representatve Key. On May 7, 1997, Edmondson subpoenaed Key before
a mut-county grand |ury, aegng that he voated procedures n rasng money for
the bombng nvestgaton. The "aily Oklahoman proudy procamed how t had
payed a crtca roe n brngng about the nvestgaton of Key:
The Attorney Genera's acton s a resut of an nqury by The Oklahoman about
Key's seven-page soctaton etter on the Internet. The etter asks for money to
"secure copes of the voumnous (federa) government documents and to pay
ndependent nvestgators" and other expenses for the county grand |ury
nvestgaton....
B Graves, an attorney who represented Key at the grand |ury nquest, stated:
"The aw s pretty cear that you are not requred to regster before you ht the ten
thousand doar threshod, and Chares |Key| had not ht that mt so was not
requred to regster. Edmondson knows that. They're |ust tryng to sow Chares
down or stop hm through harassment."
|854|
"Ths s a about stoppng us and makng us shut up, sad Key. "If I woud |ust qut
the grand |ury dea, ths woud a go away."
|855|
Says V.Z Lawton, a HUD worker who survved the bombng, "You don't have to be
that brght or ook that hard to see the fraud and hypocrsy n these charges. For
over a year and a haf, they've been dong everythng magnabe and empoyng
the most absurd arguments to prevent Chares from mpaneng a grand |ury to
nvestgate one of the worst crmes n our country's hstory. Now, after he's
overcome a of ther ega chaenges n the courts and s cose to gettng a county
grand |ury nvestgaton gong, they drag hm before a mut-county grand |ury for
what amounts to |aywakng, whe the bombng and other genune, serous crmes
go unnvestgated."
|856|
Lawton aso brought to the attenton of bombng nvestgators a February 5th, fax
transmsson to federa empoyees on the offca etterhead of Attorney Genera
Drew Edmondson. The etter sought sgnatures from survvors to go wth etters
that were to be sent to varous news organzatons. The cover sheet sad t came
from Rchard M. Wntory, Chef Deputy Attorney Genera of the Crmna Dvson.
261
The etter, entted, "A Pea to the Meda from Okahoma Cty: Don't O.|. Us!!!"
purports to be a spontaneous response from vctms askng the meda not to
"manpuate" and "expot" them "for no purpose other than to enhance ther
ratngs on the ar and n pubcatons."
|857|
Ths obvous propaganda counteroffensve was n response to ABC 20/20's |anuary,
1996 show about pror knowedge. It referred to the "so-caed report" by ABC as
"tabod |ournasm" fed wth "unsubstantated and baseess cams that have
been repeatedy debunked."
"We are appaed at the ack of nterest n the truth and the underhanded method
utzed by 20/20" stated the etter, whch camed that ABC had wrongfuy mped
that certan vctms agreed wth the "paranod deuson" of the "rdcuous theory of
government conspracy n ths crme." It added that "reporters are sometme
tempted to forget the truth." Utmatey, t stated, "It s PEOPLE that matter n ths
fe, ether money nor possesson nor a Putzer Prze."
|858|
Ths cassc PSYOP pece aunched by Edmondson (whch he angry dened n a
etter to the author) was sgned, "Many Survvors and Famy Members, Okahoma
Cty Bombng."
Lawton and HUD empoyee |ane Graham were two survvors who angry
denounced the etter for the sham that t was. "Snce the communcaton was
oaded wth es and haf truths, I certany coud not sgn t," sad Lawton, "and I
fet ke a state Attorney Genera coud better spend hs tme supportng an effort
to fnd the truth rather than ths transparent effort at hepng to hde t."
"I am angry," stated Graham n a typed response to the etter, "that the Attorney
Genera's offce woud pay on the emotons of ths offce at HUD under the guse of
keepng us posted on how they are proceedng and pannng the case, causng
further emotona turmo n ths offce between empoyees."
|859|
Durng a |une 13, 1997 teevson ntervew, Edmondson was asked why those
wtnesses who saw McVegh wth other suspects were never caed to testfy at
McVegh's tra. Edmondson reped that prosecutors usuay don't present
wtnesses whose testmony sn't "credbe" or confcts wth other wtnesses.
Rodney |ohnson, who saw McVegh wth another man n front of the Murrah
Budng moments before t expoded, caed Edmondson's statement "msguded."
"I took those comments to be rather persona," sad |ohnson.
|860|
Edmondson's blatant attempt at coercng the vctms to pander to the offca
government ne s smar to a etter from a group of vctms suggestng passage of
the Ant-Terrorsm B. The recpents were urged to ca Edmondson f they were
nterested n partcpatng.
262
Of course, whe Edmondson accused ABC 20/20 of "manpuatng" and "expotng"
the bombng vctms, t s obvous that Edmondson hmsef hasn't done anythin% to
manpuate or expot anyone.
|861|
Interestngy, severa months after the scandaous smear campagn aganst
Representatve Key, Governor Keatng was accused by the Okahoma Ethcs
Commsson of 32 voatons of usng state-owned vehces for potca fund-rasng,
ncudng the state's $2.9 mon arpane. Convenenty forgettng hs own
shamefu and dshonest smear attacks aganst Representatve Key, Keatng
sanctmonousy whned about how the aegatons were "rresponsbe, sy and
competey un|ustfed." No doubt the Ethcs Commsson was "off the reservaton,"
and "bayng at the moon."
In spte of hs unsuccessfu attempts to smear honest men ke Representatve Key,
Keatng and hs crooked potca crones wasted no tme n dscredtng Edye
Smth, cang her aegatons "hysterca." Smth was the mother of two young boys
who pershed n the bombng - Chase and Coton. Smth mmedatey ganed the
attenton of concerned ctzens a across Amerca. Hundreds of thousands of
etters and checks began pourng n, and reef agences used Chase's photo on a
poster memorazng the dsaster.
On May 23, the day the Federa Budng was demoshed, Edye Smth, n a ve
ntervew on CNN, stated, "There's a ot of questons that have been eft un-
answered. We're beng tod to keep our mouths shut, not to tak about t, don't ask
those questons..."
|862|
CNN's Gary Truchmann asked Smth to descrbe the nature of the questons: "We,
aong wth hundreds of thousands of other peope want to know, where was the
ATF the mornng of Apr 19th? A of ther empoyees survved. They were
supposed to be the target of ths exposon and where were they.? Dd they have
a warnng sgn? I mean, dd they thnk t mght be a bad day to go n the offce?
|863|
"They had an opton to not go to work that day," Smth contnued, "and my kds
ddn't get that opton, nobody ese n the budng got that opton. And we're |ust
askng questons, we're not makng accusatons. We |ust want to know why and
they're teng us, 'Keep your mouth shut, don't tak about t.'"
|864|
Truchmann qucky ended the ntervew.
Kathy Wburn was the Grandmother of Chase and Coton. Wburn was among the
frst to arrve at the scene of the bombng, and she and Smth, who both worked at
the nearby I.R.S. offce, had wtnessed the carnage frst-hand. Now, as she
watched the budng come down, an eere sence fed her sou. Later that
afternoon, Kathy Wburn waked nto the empty room where the tte boys had
ved, pcked up ther stuffed anmas, and began to cry.
263
Wburn's husband Genn had been a voca opponent of the government's
nvestgaton, and ther expanaton of the bombng dd not st we wth hm. The
Grandfather fet the oss of the two boys keeny. Wburn had taken t on hs own to
nvestgate the bombng, and the facts he was comng up wth dd not make hm
happy.
On the afternoon the budng was demoshed, Wburn receved a ca from U.S.
Attorney Patrck Ryan. Ryan wanted to meet wth hm and speak wth the famy.
"They wanted to set our mnds at ease our mnds that there wasn't anythng
snster gong on," sad Wburn.
Two days ater Smth and Wburn were vsted by an entourage of federa agents
ncudng Ryan, ATF Agents Chrs Cuyer and Luke Franey, an IRS Crmna
nvestgator, and a member of Lous |oyon West's vctm's assstance team.
"They a came n and sat down and sad 'We want to answer your questons and
make you fee good.' I sad 'fne.' Then I ooked them rght n the eye and sad, 'You
guys had no ndcaton that Apr 19th coud be a dangerous day down there?' They
both answered, 'no sr.'"
"We, two hours ater I tuned on the TV, and CNN s ntervewng ATF Drector |ohn
Magaw. The ntervew starts out, "Mr. Magaw, based on the sgnfcance of Apr
19th, dd you take any precautons?'"
"Ceary there was an nterest a over the country to do that," reped Magaw. "And
I was very concerned about that. We dd some thngs here n headquarters and n
a of our fed offces throughout the country to try to be more observant.."
"We, f there was ever a pont that I was hooked nto ths thng, and there was
nothng that was gonna' stop me," recas Wburn, "that was t. because by God,
somebody ed that mornng."
Ryan's concatory meetng wth the famy dd not ast ong. The federa
prosecutor became nervous after Wburn casuay mentoned that he had taked to
a famy awyer. Ryan qucky got up and eft.
Whe Edye Smth was quoted as sayng that she was "satsfed" the agents had
expaned ther whereabouts, she ater tod me, "I beeve they sat ther and ed to
us."
Unmarked cars soon began showng up at Genn Wburn's house. When Wburn
went out to confront them, they sped off.
|865|
Two months ater, Edye Smth and Kathy Wburn had ther Workers' Compensaton
checks cut off. Out of 462 federa empoyees affected by the bast, they were the
ony two empoyees who were mysterousy "dened."
264
Moreover, out of thousands of checks sent to Smth through the Red Cross, none
were ever receved. A the etters had been opened, the checks mssng, ncudng
some sent va the Governor's and Mayor's offce. "A the ma that the Red Cross
devered to my house, probaby thousands of peces of ma, every snge pece
was opened before I got t. And t a had my name on t," sad Smth.
"We started notcng that the ma that came to the house had money n t," sad
Kathy Wburn, "but the ma|orty of the ma that came to us through the Red
Cross. t was a opened and there was never a thn dme n any of t."
When Smth caed the Red Cross to compan, she was tod that her ma wasn't
beng opened, and that no money was beng taken. When Wburn confronted the
head of the oca Red Cross, she was tod that ther etters were beng opened to
check for "hate ma." Wburn tod her that the expanaton was "rdcuous."
"A mother sent me a tte card that her tte boy drew." sad Smth, "She sad 'my
tte boy saved ths three doars and wanted you to have t.' And the three doars
was gone."
|866|
Keatng's answer to the mssng funds? Internng coege students were responsbe
for the thefts. Perhaps former G-Man Keatng was tranng the young ads for
upcomng counter-ntegence operatons. Such woud not be unusua tactcs for a
man who worked as an FBI agent durng COINTELPRO (the FBI's Counter
Integence Program of the ate-60s to md 70s), where he personay nftrated
ant-government actvsts ke the Weathermen, the Back Panthers, and the SDS
(Students For A Democratc Socety), and stated he sees tte dfference between
them and the mtas.
|867||868|
Keatng aso served as Assstant Attorney Genera under Edwn Meese. Meese was
Attorney Genera durng the 1985 fre-bombng of MOVE headquarters. MOVE was
a group of back housng actvsts vng n a squatted budng n Phadepha. The
satche charge, dropped from a hecopter by Phadepha's fnest (wth a tte hep
from the FBI), resuted n the deaths of over 11 peope, ncudng fve chdren, and
destroyed numerous square bocks of the cty.
Instead of aunchng a proper nvestgaton nto the matter, Meese's response was
"consder t an evcton notce."
Meese woud ater be mpcated n the October Surprse scanda, whch propeed
Ronad Reagan nto the Whte House va a secret dea to reease the hostages n
Iran after the defeat of |mmy Carter. As hs reward, Meese was apponted Attorney
Genera, where he woud go on to commt then cover up other crmes, the two
most notorous beng Iran-Contra and the Insaw affar.
But Keatng's nvovement wth the scons of truth and |ustce doesn't end there.
Keatng served n the Bush admnstraton as Assstant Treasury Secretary durng
the Iran-Contra nvestgatons. Gene Wheaton, a former Tusa poce offcer and
265
Army CID nvestgator who worked for the Chrstc Insttute, observes that t was
George Bush who personay seected Keatng as Assstant Treasury Secretary n
1985, where he supervsed INTERPOL, the Customs Servce, The Secret Servce,
and the ATF.
|869|
As Wheaton wrtes:
The word n Tusa s that Bush s hs "potca godfather;" that Keatng got hs |ob n
the Treasury Department through Bush's good offces and that Bush "oves
Keatng." The connecton appears to be an od-boy connecton through the
Southern Hs Country Cub n Tusa, Okahoma.
|870|
"In hs poston, Keatng coud contro both the nvestgatve and prosecutora sde
of any scanda that came hs way," adds )ortland Free )ress pubsher Ace Hayes.
"1985-88 had guns, drugs, and ega money movng a over the gobe. Was the
ATF, who coudn't fnd t's ass wth both hands, as reay as ncompetent as t
appeared, or was Frank Keatng there to make sure they dd not?"
|871|
In fact, t was whe Keatng was servng as Assstant Treasury Secretary that IRS
nvestgator B Duncan - who was nvestgatng Iran-Contra drug-runnng
actvtes at Mena - was nstructed to per|ure hmsef. As Duncan stated n a
deposton before a |ont Congressona/Arkansas Attorney Genera nvestgatve
commttee:
2,ncan: In ate December of 1987, I was contacted by |the| Chef Counse for the
House |udcary Subcommttee on Crme. who tod me that they were ookng nto
the reason why no one was ndcted n connecton wth the Mena nvestgatons.
The Interna Revenue Servce assgned to me dscosure tgaton attorneys, whch
gave me nstructons whch woud have caused me to wthhod nformaton from
Congress durng my testmony and to aso per|ure mysef.
Committee: And how dd you respond to the Treasury Department?
2,ncan: We, I exhbted to them that I was gong to te the truth n my
testmony. And the per|ury, subornaton of per|ury resuted n an - resuted
because of an aegaton that I had receved, that Attorney Genera Edwn Meese
receved a severa hundred thousand doar brbe from Barry Sea drecty. And
they tod me to te the Subcommttee on Crme that I had no nformaton about
that.
|872|
Arkansas State Poce nvestgator Russe Wech, who provded the nformaton to
Duncan, was subsequenty posoned. Two months ater, Keatng was apponted as
Assocate Attorney Genera.
|873|
It seems that Frank Keatng has served as a pont-man, weavng a twsted tra
through some of Amerca's most notorous crmes, ncudng Iran-Contra, BCCI,
Iraqgate, the S&L crss, and. Okahoma Cty.
266
Keatng has aways been at the nexus brdgng the agendas of good oe' boys ke
George Bush, wth ther etst agendas, and the subsequent covert-operatons sub-
cutures whch they spawned. In an artce n the )ortland Free )ress entted
"Another Bush Boy," Wheaton wrtes:
The covert-operatons "unatc frnge" n Washngton, whch took over key
operatons at the natona securty eve, |and| st contros them today, was Bush's
1981 agenda, and Keatng s the next generaton to carry t on.
|874|*
It was ony three months after Keatng's nauguraton as Governor that the
bombng of the Afred P. Murrah Budng occurred. Gven hs background and
groomng, Keatng was n a perfect poston to drect "damage contro." As
Wheaton notes:
Keatng s an a perfect poston to contro the drecton and scope of any state
nvestgaton whch mght not correspond to the offca federa nqury.
It appeares Keatng dd |ust that. As Governor, Keatng was n a poston to hat the
hurred demoton of the Murrah budng, ordered by federa authortes under the
guse of "safety." Bob Rcks, the FBI PR fack who spoon-fed a day dose of es to
the press durng the Waco sege, was apponted Okahoma Drector of Pubc
Safety by Keatng after the demoton. Keatng and Rcks were good frends from
coege.
The demoton was ordered under the pseudo-psychoogca premse of provdng
"cosure" to the festerng wound hangng over the cty. The demoton aso
effectvey prevented any ndependent forensc nvestgaton of the bomb ste.
|875|
Sad a vctm whose spouse was ked n the exposon, "I was upset rght from the
start when there was the bg rush to destroy the crme scene, to take the budng
down. A ot of mportant evdence was destroyed that coud have heped sove
ths."
|876|
The feds' decson to destroy cruca forensc evdence has an eere parae to the
demoton of Mt. Carme. The destructon of the Branch Davdan church prevented
ndependent examners from determnng that the ATF had fred nto the roofs of
the budng durng the eary part of the rad, and that FBI snpers had deberatey
shot peope tryng to escape.
The destructon of the Murrah Budng s aso akn to the Secret Servce's hasty (or
carefuy panned) decson to egay remove Presdent Kennedy's body from
Parkand Memora Hospta. Once under contro of mtary offcas, ncudng
Generas who were undoubtedy nvoved n the assassnaton pot, Kennedy's
autopsy coud proceed under carefuy controed parameters. Whe observng the
autopsy, these mtary offcas prevented a thorough examnaton of the body,
whch woud have reveaed the presence of mutpe entry wounds. Back n Daas,
Secret Servce agents carefuy washed Kennedy's mousne to remove a traces
267
of buet fragments, and had Governor Connoy's cothes, buet hoes and a,
ceaned and pressed.
Sad |anne Coverdae, who ost her grandsons Aaron and E|ah n the bombng,
"Everyone I tak to has the same questons: What happened? What s gong on? We
don't want ths to be another |ohn F. Kennedy dea, where 32 years ater the rea
story s st unknown."
The %ederal B,rea, of ;ntimidation
.There is no *lace on earth where you will +e safe from the most *owerful forces of
>ustice0. - F$( director 3ouis Freeh.
In a moton fed by Stephen |ones, affdavts show that numerous wtnesses were
nstructed by the FBI to "keep quet" so the facts of the case "woudn't get
dstorted." Ths aura of secrecy qucky turned nto obstructon of |ustce, as FBI
agents routney nstructed wtnesses not to tak to defense team nvestgators or
|ournasts.
When defense nvestgator Marty Reed attempted to ntervew Okahoma Hghway
Patroman Chare Hanger (the patroman who had arrested McVegh), he was tod
by OHP chef ega counse |ohn Lndsey, "The FBI has requested that no one
ntervew Trooper Chare Hanger."
Mtche Whtmre, who knew McVegh when they were both n the Army, was
contacted by defense nvestgator Ne Hartey. Whtmre tod Hartey he was
nstructed by the FBI not to tak to anyone about the case uness he obtaned
permsson from the FBI.
|877|
When ths author tred to ntervew two members of the Sherff's Bomb Squad, they
became vsby nervous. They camed no other bombs were pued out of the
budng, ceary contradctng news accounts showng addtona bombs that were
taken away and detonated.
As dscussed prevousy, FBI agents put up a protectve permeter around Edon
Eott, preventng hm from takng to |ournasts and defense nvestgators.
KFOR-TV, who took the ead n nvestgatng the case, found t amost mpossbe to
ntervew wtnesses. "We get there and a of a sudden they've been tod to shut
up," sad Messa Knzng, KFOR's former News Drector.
|878|
A Tusa fre captan tod nvestgator Crag Roberts he saw machnegun-totng
back-cad agents wth no markngs removng boxes of fes from the Post Offce
ten days after the bombng. When he was subsequenty ntervewed by ths author,
he dened seeng anythng.
268
Ann Domn, who orgnay tod a Tusa poce offcer she had seen two Mdde
Eastern maes oterng near the front of the Murrah Budng |ust before the bast,
ater dened sayng that.
|879|
Accordng to a conversaton |on Rappaport had wth "aily Oklahoman reporter Ann
Defrange, wtness Peter Schaffer tod Defrange he had seen the Murrah Budng
coapse n on tsef, suggestng that cuttng charges were used. When Rappaport
questoned Schaffer, he dened seeng the budng fang down at a. When
Rappaport got back to Defrange, she remaned adamant about what Schaffer tod
her. "She ddn't budge at a," sad Rappaport.
|880|
"The FBI must have gotten to hm," sad Hedeberg. "You know, the FBI has been
abe to get wtnesses to shut up about mportant thngs they know. We've taked to
some of these peope. In certan nstances the wtnesses beeve that conceang
evdence s the rght thng to do. They reay beeve t. The FBI has sod them a b
of goods about natona securty or somethng ke that. In other cases the FBI has
used straght-out ntmdaton on wtnesses. They sze up peope. On one wtness
they' use somethng ke natona securty. On another, they' go for
ntmdaton."
|881|
Hedeberg's own brush wth the government ddn't end wth hs dsmssa from the
grand |ury. Severa mnutes after agreeng to do an ntervew wth |ayna Davs, he
receved a ca from U.S. Attorney |oseph Hartzer teng hm that a reporter was
on her way and that he was not to tak to her, or he woud be arrested. Obvousy,
Hedeberg's phone was tapped.
|882|
"They tred everythng to shut me up," sad Hedeberg. "They have sad they were
gong to throw me n |a. When that ddn't work, they got down on ther hands and
knees and begged. I mean. they have tred everythng to keep me from takng to
the press about ths."
On |uy 19, FBI agents |on Hersey and Wam Teater appeared at Hedeberg's
home, |ust hours after |udge Russe caed hm and dscovered that he had taken
hs grand |ury notes home. Apparenty Teater wasn't too peased wth Hedeberg's
casua atttude. At one pont, he pued back hs |acket, reveang hs gun, whch he
had conspcuousy stuck n hs wast bet.
"They were tryng to mpress upon me the serousness of. they were tryng to
gve me the message that ths s bg tme, that ths s heavy weght," sad
Hedeberg, "and I was supposed to be frghtened. Guns mean busness. I was
supposed to behave and be a good boy and not gve them any troube. The
mpcaton was that they were gonna' shoot me, but I knew better than that,"
Hedeberg sad.
|883|*
Hedeberg doesn't fee he w serve any |a tme for hs actons. "They don't want
me exonerated or ndcted," sad Hedeberg. "They want me twstng n the
wnd."
|884|
269
In February of '97, ABC panned a foow-up to ther 20/20 "Pror Knowedge" pece,
whch ncuded an ntervew wth ATF nformant Caro Howe. Hours before the pece
was to ar on "Word News Tonght," t was ked.
Accordng to ABC producer Roger Chares: "They were uncomfortabe wth t after a
seres of phone cas from hgh-eve |ustce Department and ATF peope, sayng
that we, yes, the story s rght, but you're gong to draw the wrong concusons
uness we can expan t." Accordng to an ntervew wth ABC conducted by
McVegh's defense team, the conversaton went somethng ke ths:
<,stice 2ept: "We have to admt now Strassmer has been nvestgated."
/BC: "But you have dened over and over that he was ever the sub|ect of an
nvestgaton."
<,stice 2ept: "We, we're undenyng that now. He has been nvestgated, but we
coud not nvove hm specfcay n the bombng of the budng.. |Regardng
Howe's reports of others nvoved, we| "coud not fnd anyone who bought
fertzer, coud not fnd anyone who rented a truck, so therefore we coud not
charge them wth anythng. |Besdes|, we're not sure the nformaton was
credbe."
/BC: "But dd you or dd you not send her back out?"
<,stice 2ept: "Yes, she was sent back out."
/BC: "We, what n the he does that mean?"
<,stice 2ept: "She dd go back out, but she was unabe to deveop any evdence
that these peope had partcpated, |athough| essentay your nformaton s
correct."
ABC then sad the |ustce Department press spokesman attempted to downpay the
credbty of Howe by statng that the government hears these types of statements
a the tme from "Whte Supremacst compounds."
/BC: "Yeah, but there's one dfference here."
<,stice 2ept: "What s that?"
/BC: "The God damn budng bew up, that's what."
|885|
Not ony woud Howe's testmony have had unfortunate consequences for
authortes, t woud not have |ved wth the FBI's fantasy of the "one nut" bomber.
It seemed authortes were repayng the same scenaro they had payed out 28
years before. In the |FK nvestgaton, the FBI focused on the "one nut" scenaro
too. Wtnesses who dd not support the FBI's case aganst Oswad as one
270
partcpant were ntmdated, debunked or msquoted n reports. Most who saw
shooters other than the one on the 6th foor of the Book Depostory were never
subpoenaed to testfy.
In 1963, |ua Ann Mercer tod the FBI and the Daas Poce that she saw a man
carry a rfe case up to the Grassy Kno |ust before the shootng. The FBI took her
statement. Later, when she was ntervewed by Dstrct Attorney |m Garrson and
shown the statements she had gven the Bureau, she began shakng her head.
"These a have been atered, she sad. "They have me sayng |ust the opposte of
what I reay tod them."
In the Okahoma Cty case, wtnesses whose statements ddn't ft the government's
offca tmene and scenaro were ether gnored atogether, or ntmdated nto
changng their stores.
|886|
Chery Wood, an empoyee at Love's convenence store, who saw McVegh and
|ohn Doe 2 on Apr 17, tod FBI agents ther securty camera had captured mages
of the two men. The FBI ddn't take the tapes and ddn't want to use Wood's story.
"They tred to convnce Wood that she was crazy - that she hadn't reay seen
them," sad a Newsweek reporter who ntervewed Wood. "They ratted her rea
good." When the store manager decded to take the vdeo home hmsef, the FBI
changed ther mnds, and confscated the tape.
McVegh and hs frends aso stopped at another convenence store about 45
mnutes from Love's. As a Newsweek reporter who ntervewed the empoyees tod
me, the FBI ddn't use the statements of those wtnesses ether, because t ddn't
ft the FBI's "offca" tmene.
|887|
Mke Moroz, the |ohnny's Tre Shop empoyee who gave McVegh and |ohn Doe 2
drectons to the Murrah budng on the mornng of the bast, was ntervewed by
the FBI severa tmes. On the ast ntervew they tod hm that he had seen
McVegh drve n a dfferent drecton than he had orgnay stated. The FBI then
camed to the press that Moroz had made a mstake and was confused.
Danny Wkerson, the Regency Towers empoyee who sod McVegh two softdrnks
and a pack of cgarettes 10 mnutes before the bombng, cams FBI agents tred
very hard to get hm to change hs story. Wkerson saw McVegh and another man
n an oder, shorter Ryder truck wth a cab overhang. FBI agents showed Wkerson
a cataog of dfferent Ryder modes, tryng to coerce hm nto statng that the truck
he saw was bgger and newer than the one actuay seen. Wkerson refused to
change hs story.
As prevousy dscussed, Catna Lawson knew McVegh when he was statoned n
Kansas, and saw hm at partes wth Andreas Strassmer and Mchae Bresca.
When Lawson saw the artst's sketch of |ohn Doe 2, she sad, "That's Mke
|Bresca|. Lawson repeatedy caed the FBI to te them t was Bresca, but they
ddn't want to sten, and stopped returnng her cas.
271
"I kept teng them that the man n the ||ohn Doe 2| sketch was that Mke guy, a
nce-ookng guy, dark-sknned. But the FBI made me fee guty, then gnorant, as
f I ddn't know what I was sayng. Then, ater, I tred to ca n wth more
nformaton and they woudn't even tak to me."
Debra Burdck had seen the yeow Mercury, the brown pck-up, and the bue
Chevy Cavaer at 10th and Robnson on the mornng of the bast. Burdck caed
the FBI and the OSBI, and "they bew me off. They sad they ddn't have tme to get
over there.. they tod me, 'you ddn't see anythng.' And that's when I thought I
was gong crazy.."
|888|
|ane Graham, aong wth three other women, had seen a tro of suspcous-ookng
men n the Murrah Budng's underground garage the Frday before the bombng.
The men were workng wth wre and a sma, putty-coored bock whch appeared
to be C-4 pastc exposve.
FBI Agent |oe Schwecke made two appontments to ntervew Graham, but kept
nether of them. "He never showed up," sad Graham. "I agan caed and set up
another appontment for the foowng week and that was never kept."
When Schwecke fnay spoke to her, he "ony wanted to know f I coud dentfy
McVegh or Nchos. Apparenty the FBI was not nterested n any tme other than
the Monday or Tuesday - the week of the bombng!" excamed Graham, ".and
ony f the responses ponted drecty to McVegh!"
|889|
The manager of the Great Western Inn n |uncton Cty was certan the Mdde
Eastern man who had stayed n room 107 on Apr 17 was a dead rnger for |ohn
Doe 2. Yet the FBI tred to dscredt hm, sayng that the nqury there had been a
waste of tme. If that s true, why dd the FBI confscate the hote's regster?
|890|
Barbara Whttenberg at the Sante Fe Tra Dner tod B |asper the FBI tred to get
her to change her story.
|891|
|eff Davs, who devered Chnese food to a man n room 25 at the Dreamand
Mote, had been ntervewed numerous tmes by the FBI. They appeared nterested
n tryng to get Davs to say that McVegh was the man he saw.
Durng tra, prosecutor Larry Mackey attacked Davs' credbty, notng that two
days after the bombng, he tod FBI agents that the man was a whte mae, 28 or
29, about 6 feet ta, about 180 pounds wth short, sandy har, cean-cut wth no
mustache.
|892|
Yet Davs orgnay tod the FBI, "The man to whom I devered that bag of Chnese
food s not Tm McVegh."
|893|
St, Mackey tred to shake Davs' confdence n hs memory, suggestng that Davs
had tod a bartender and an ABC sketch artst that he saw McVegh.
272
Mac$ey: "You deny that?"
2ais: "Yes, sr, I do,"
In fact, the person Davs saw had "unkempt" har, a regona accent, possby from
Okahoma, Kansas or Mssour, and an overbte. McVegh possesses none of those
characterstcs.
|894|
"I was frustrated qute a bt because they |ust ddn't seem to want to say 'Okay,
there's somebody we may not have.' A ot of t seemed 'Damn! I |ust wsh he'd say
t was McVegh so we coud be done wth t.'"
|895|
Davs tod The "ener )ost that the FBI never even bothered makng a composte
sketch of the man he saw. A TV network fnay hred an artst to do one.
Dana Bradey had seen ony one man - ove-sknned, dark-hared, wearng |eans,
|acket, and baseba cap - get out of the passenger sde of the Ryder truck n front
of the Federa Budng moments before t bew up. Yet when she testfed for the
defense durng McVegh's tra, she swtched tracks, sayng she saw two suspects.
What s nterestng s that n numerous ntervews wth the meda, prosecutors, and
the defense team, Bradey adamanty mantaned that she had seen ony one
suspect - |ohn Doe 2. |ust weeks before her testmony, Bradey agan tod U.S.
Attorney Patrck Ryan and defense attorney Chery Ramsey she was certan the
man she saw wasn't Tmothy McVegh.
Yet shorty after the start of McVegh's tra - after meetng wth federa
prosecutors - Bradey suddeny "changed her mnd."
It seemed that FBI agents were convenenty watng at the arport to ntercept
some of McVegh's defense wtnesses, who woud then be "persuaded" to change
ther testmony.
|896|
Under cross-examnaton by Ryan, Bradey - who had mantaned a rock-sod
story of |ohn Doe 2 snce the day of the bombng - now camed she saw a second
man. Yet durng tra she was nervous and faterng, her testmony waverng
constanty. At one pont, she covered her face wth her hands and quety sad, "I
want to tak to my awyer."
Ryan eventuay got Bradey to say she wasn't sure whether the second suspect
was McVegh, but that there was "nothng dfferent" between McVegh's features
and those of the second man.
In addton, Bradey tod the |ury she thought the truck was parked aganst the fow
of traffc on the one-way street - a udcrous proposton, but convenent for a
government ntent on convncng a |ury that Bradey saw the suspect - who was
not |ohn Doe 2, but possby McVegh - get out of the drver's sde.
|897|
273
Gary Lews, the Journal Record pressman who was amost run over by McVegh and
two of hs assocates n the yeow Mercury shorty before the bast, suddeny
dened seeng them at a! |ust before he was subpoenaed to testfy before the
county grand |ury, Lews tod reporters, "What I seen wasn't a fact, t wasn't true."
Camng the FBI had "ceared up hs confuson" more than a year ago, Lews sad
the FBI showed hm a photograph of McVegh's dstnctve battered yeow Mercury,
and convnced hm t wasn't the same car he spotted on Apr 19. "It was rea
smar to t," Lews sad. "It was rea cose but t wasn't t."
Lews then camed hs eyewtness account, whch had aready been pubshed n
strkng deta, had been exaggerated by Representatve Key and Genn Wburn. "I
don't care for |Wburn| or Chares Key," Lews tod The "aily Oklahoman. "They
knd of pushed t aong for reasons I don't know why. That s about a I have got to
say."
|898|
Ths was qute a change from the nervous wtness who checked the undersde of
hs car every mornng for bombs, afrad he was targeted for assassnaton by ether
bombng suspects or the feds.
|899|
As prevousy mentoned, Dr. Pau Heath, the VA psychoogst, had spoken to
McVegh and two of hs assocates at hs offce severa weeks before the bast,
when they approached hm ookng for "|obs."
Heath was ntervewed by the FBI no ess than ten tmes. On the ast vst, "He (the
FBI agent) confronted me sayng he dd not want me teng the story any onger.
He sad t was a fase story, that I had made t up, that t was a fgment of my
magnaton, and that f I pursued t, he woud pubcy dscredt me.
"I sad to hm, 'that s the most despcabe, uncaed for atttude that I've ever
seen, and I don't know why you sad that to me, but I can te you, you're not gong
to change my reaty wth t.'"
|900|
Heath, aready upset by what he wtnessed the day of the bombng, s now
uncertan what w happen to hm.
|901|
Lea Moore, a woman who was bady n|ured n the bast, was contacted by a
reporter from the 30A0 Times. Whe he was enroute to ntervew her, she receved a
mysterous phone ca teng her not to tak to hm. Moore, a dmnutve woman n
her fftes, was frghtened. When the reporter showed up at her door ffteen
mnutes ater, Moore ddn't answer.
Meba, the Abertson's worker who made sandwches for McVegh and |ohn Doe 2,
was hoste and frghtened when questoned by ths reporter - too scared to tak.
Conne Hood, who saw |ohn Doe 2 at the Dreamand Mote shorty after mdnght
on Apr 16, then agan the next mornng, was ntervewed numerous tmes by the
274
FBI. They even went so far as to admnster severa poygraph tests. Hood tod the
agents exacty what she saw. On the ast test, the FBI agent "turned around and
got n her face," recaed her frend Davd Keen, "and sad, 'You've never seen |ohn
Doe! He never exsted!'"
The experence of Hood and Keen s remnscent of the nterrogaton of |FK
wtnesses n Daas on November 22, when FBI agents pontedy tod them they dd
not see any shooters on the Grassy Kno.
"Ths bg od dude (FBI agent) rght out tod me, 'You dd not see that!'" recaed
Hood. "It got to the pont where I was sayng, 'Excuse me, excuse me, there was
someone n that room next to us. I know for a fact there was someone n that room
next to us. I dd not magne someone comng out of that frckng room!'"
Hood s sure of what she saw, and s furous about the games the FBI payed wth
her. "I'm angry," sad Hood. "It made my bood bo."
|902|
TW/ ?@@ !idebar
The experences of these wtnesses paraes those who saw a msse rse out of
the water to shoot down TWA fght 800 on |uy 17, 1996, kng a 230 peope on
board. Over 154 wtnesses on Long Isand, who wtnessed the attack, descrbed
what appeared to be a msse - a gowng ob|ect that mpacted wth the pane.
These accounts were backed up by FAA (Federa Avaton Admnstraton) radar
records, whch showed an undentfed ob|ect (a "bp" that was not "squawkng" a
transponder code) move rapdy towards, then merge wth, the arge |umbo-|et.
|903|
Yet ke the sesmc records, and the vdeo surveance footage whch woud have
shown the Murrah Budng beng bown up, these radar tapes woud be confscated
by the FBI.
Naturay, the government ed about the crash. The Natona Transportaton Safety
board (NTSB) camed that the most probabe cause was a "spark" n the center
fue tank due to "statc eectrcty." Ths s rdcuous even to the unntated. Sad
Mchae Barr, drector of avaton safety programs at USC, "Arpanes don't bow up
|ust ke that. I've been foowng 747s snce 1970 and I've never seen one bow up
ke that."
|904|
One wtness, Lou Desyron, tod ABC Word News Sunday: "We saw what appeared
to be a fare gong straght up. As a matter of fact, we thought t was from a boat.
It was a brght reddsh-orange coor.... Once t went nto fames, I knew that wasn't
a fare.
|905|
Another wtness tod the New 'ork "aily News7 "It ooked ke a bg skyrocket gong
up, and t kept gong up and up, and the next thng I knew there was an orange
ba of fre."
|906|
275
Long Isand resdent Lnda Kabot nadvertenty snapped a pcture of the msse
whe photographng frends at a party. The photo appeared n the |uy ssue of
)aris Match.
Eyewtnesses on the ground weren't the ony ones who saw a msse. Vass
Bakoyns, a Greek commerca arne pot fyng behnd fght 800, tod the FBI that
he saw what appeared to be a msse rse up from the water and strke the pane.
"Suddeny I saw n the fog to my eft toward the ocean, a sma fame rsng qucky
toward the sky. Before I reazed t, I saw ths fame become huge.."
|907|
Prvate pot Sven Faret reported a "short pn-fash of ght |whch| appeared on the
ground, perhaps water," that rose up "ke a rocket aunch at a freworks
dspay."
|908|
Ma|or Fred Meyer, the pot of an Ar Natona Guard hecopter whch was n the
area, sad he saw "a streak of red orange" headng toward the pane. "...t arrved
at a pont n space where I saw a sma exposon whch grew to a sma freba,
then a second exposon and a huge freba," the $oston 8erald quoted Meyer as
teng a press brefng on |uy 18th.
Meyer's co-pot, Captan Chrs Baur, tod Aiation Week 5 S*ace Technolo%y on
March 10, "Amost due south, there was a hard whte ght, ke burnng
pyrotechncs, n eve fght. I was tryng to fgure out what t was. It was the wrong
coor for fares. It struck an ob|ect comng from the rght |TWA 800| and made t
expode."
|909|
Ten days ater, Meyer, a Vetnam veteran, tod the Rierside )ress-&nter*rise7 "I
know what I saw. I saw an ordnance exposon. And whatever I saw, the exposon
of the fue was not the ntator of the event. It was one of the resuts. Somethng
happened before that whch was the ntator of the dsaster."
|910|
Meyer and Baur's account was backed up by Ar Natona Guard C-130 pot
Conone Wam Stratemer, |r., who tod Aiation Week 5 S*ace Technolo%y what
"appeared to be the tra of a shouder-fred SAM endng n a fash on the 747."
|911|
Yet the government woud seek to sence the hundreds of eyewtnesses who saw
the msse. A team of approxmatey 50 FBI agents, many of the same agents who
worked the Okahoma Cty case, woud vst these wtnesses and ask, then
demand, ther sence.
"There was nothng I observed that gave me any ndcaton that the streak of ght I
saw was caused by a msse," Meyer woud ater quoted as sayng. "I don't know
what I saw."
|912|
"We dd not see smoke tras |from a msse|, any gnton source from the ta of a
rocket nor anythng." sad Stratemer four months ater.
|913|
276
Medca Examner Dr. Chares V. Wet orgnay tod reporters that the passengers
n the forward compartment were ht hardest, ndcatng the ma|or event was n
the front of the pane, not the center as the government camed. Dr. Wet and
others then backed off from ther fndngs. An exposon had happened and ked
peope was as much as he coud say, reported the New 'ork Times.
|914|
Was the government coverng up evdence of a terrorst msse strke, or the
neggence of the Unted States Navy? Whe the dsntegraton of fght 800's
number three engne appears to ndcate a shouder-aunched msse, the arge
gapng hoe runnng from |ust underneath the center fue tank through the top of
the forward cabn suggests a strke by an unarmed msse "drone."
There s evdence for both theores. After denyng the exstence of any mtary
operatons n the area, the Pentagon eventuay admtted that a C-130 mtary
transport and two HH-60G Backhawk hecopters of the New York Ar Natona
Guard's ANG's 106th Rescue Wng were operatng n the area as part of a nght-
rescue exercse.
Such a "rescue exercse" doesn't expan the presence of a P-3 Oron ant-
submarne warfare pane, whch, contrary to cams by Navy pubc affars, s
capabe of carryng msses. The U.S.S. Normandy, an Aegs cass guded msse
cruser (smar to the one that accdentay shot down Iran Ar Fght 655 over the
strats of Hormuz, kng a 290 peope), was aso operatng n the vcnty. The
Normandy carres RIM-67 Standard SM-2ER sem-actve radar homng ar defense
msses, wth a range of 93 mes and an attude of 100,000 feet. Was the
Normandy frng drones as part of a practce dr? Such maneuvers are routney
carred out off the coast of Long Isand. Area W-105 was actvated as a "hot zone"
at the tme of the dsaster.
|915|
Naturay, the Navy camed the Normandy was 180 mes from fght 800, whch
was n area W-106, 15 mes to the Northwest of W-105.
|916|
FBI chef nvestgator |ames Kastrom cted cams of mtary cupabty as
"rresponsbe. tota unaduterated nonsense," and, echong the psychobabbe
empoyed by the government n the Okahoma Cty bombng nvestgaton, stated
that such cams are hurtfu to the vctms. |m Ha, head of the NTSB nvestgaton,
backed up Kastrom, sayng the aegatons "are causng ncredbe pan and
confuson for those who ost oved ones."
"I can te you we eft no stone unturned," Kastrom announced, as f payng a bad
re-run of |anet Reno's press conference on Okahoma Cty.
|917|
Then n November, Perre Sanger, a former ABC News correspondent and press
secretary for Presdent Kennedy, tod reporters n Cannes, France, he had obtaned
a document from French ntegence (there were numerous French ctzens
onboard) detang how the Navy was ndeed test frng msses and accdentay
ht Fght 800 because the pane was fyng ower than expected. Sanger sad the
277
document wrtten by someone who "was ted to the U.S. Secret Servce and has
mportant contacts n the U.S. Navy."
|918|
Backng up Sanger's report was Lt. Co. Bo Grtz, a hghy decorated Vetnam
veteran and Speca Forces commander, who reported n |une that the Army and
Navy were conductng fna acceptance tests of the AEGIS-CEC (Cooperatve
Engagement Capabty) system, n the wake of the tragc shootdown of an Iranan
arbus by the USS Vncennes.
The mtary chose Area W-105, camed Grtz, n order to provde a reastc test
usng a densey popuated area. "W-105 had been especay seected (and
actvated for ve fre) because of ts smarty to the Persan Guf."
The Navy Oron P-3, a member of the CEC team, was oaded wth up-graded gear,
aowng ntegraton of Army and Navy Ant-Arcraft Artery acquston radar. The
equpment was supposed to "dscrmnate between frend-neutra-foe eectronc
sgnatures, soate the hoste threat and seect the weapon best postoned for an
assured k to aunch at the target."
The smuated booge was a Navy BOM-74E msse drone aunched from
Shnnecock Bay, east of Rverhead, Long Isand by an Army unt shorty after the
"a cear" at 8:30 p.m..
Through the thckenng fog of repcated hoste mages, a shot souton was potted
and reayed to the msse unt best postoned for the k. The software then
automatcay trggered the aunch of a Navy Standard IV Ant-msse msse..
The antmsse was programmed to cmb rapdy unt a "md-course" correcton
woud be reayed to the msse's on-board computer drectng the dve to mpact.
Fna course ad|ustments woud be made by the msse's "sem-actve" radar
devce after "ock-on" was acheved..
Tragcay, the ast radar abe to see the booge through the heavy |ammng and
target repcaton suddeny and unexpectedy went bnd.. Unabe to receve
gudance commands to keep t on an ntercept course wth the target drone, the
Standard IV reverted to ts own programmng and began seekng a target. In a
heartbeat, the nterna radar acqured the TWA 747 we above and to the west of
the ntended target.
|919|
Was the 747 destroyed by "frendy fre?" Reports that rocket fue resdue was
present on seat backs and bodes of the vctms, and the arge entry and ext
hoes, tend to support these aegatons.
|920|
Durng the 1982 Fakands War, an Argentne AM.39 Exocet ant-shp msse struck
the Brtsh destroyer HMS Sheffed. Athough t was a dud, "the knetc energy of
the msse, fyng at supersonc speed, was abe to punch through the hu and
sce nto fue nes, aowng the st-burnng rocket motor to gnte a deady and
278
exposve fre. TWA 800 may have experenced an arborne verson of ths same
fate."
|921|
Grtz' cam that the mtary chose the area off of Long Isand for testng |ves wth
the we-documented fact of decades-ong mtary testng on unsuspectng cvans
n hundreds of ctes across the naton - ncudng everythng from drugs and
nucear radaton, to chemca and boogca weapons.
|922|
Interestngy, on August 29, sx weeks after the TWA 800 crash, an Amercan
Arnes pot reported seeng a msse pass by hs 757 whe fyng over Waops
Isand, Vrgna, the ste of the NASA Waops Fght Facty, whch has a program
for unmanned research rockets. Waops Isand s about 220 mes south of the
TWA crash sght.
|923|
Fnay, as Ian Goddard reported, on May 13, 1997, Long Isand's Southam*ton
)ress reported that resdent Dede Muma accdentay receved a fax from Teedyne
Ryan Aeronautca ntended for the FBI's offce n Caverton, Long Isand (the two
have smar phone numbers). The fax ndcated that parts of a Navy msse target
drone, a BOM-34 Frebee I manufactured by Teedyne, may have been found n the
wreckage. The fax shows a dagram of what appears to be a msse, aong wth a
breakdown of ts ta secton and a parts st...
|924|
The near dsntegraton of the pane's number three engne, however, supports the
theory of a heat-seekng SAM, suggestng that the pane was destroyed by
terrorsts.
Reca that two ma|or terrorst conferences were hed durng whch t was
announced that there woud be ncreased attacks aganst U.S. nterests: one on
|une 20-23 n Teheran, and the other on |uy 10-15 n Pakstan. Integence offcers
and terrorst eaders from Hamas, HzbAah, and the PFLP-GC's Ahmed |br, who
carred out the Pan Am 103 bombng, were n attendance. Ths was foowed on
|une 25 by the truck-bombng of the mtary housng compound n Dhahran, Saud
Araba.
|925|
Aso reca that mmedatey foowng the |uy 16th U.S. Senate resouton for
sanctons aganst Lbya and Iran, the al-8ayat newspaper receved a warnng from
the Movement for Isamc Change:
The word w be astonshed and amazed at the tme and pace chosen by the
Mu|ahadeen. The Mu|ahadeen w dever the harshest repy to the threats of the
foosh Amercan presdent. Everyone w be surprsed by the voume, choce of
pace and tmng of the Mu|ahadeen's answer, and nvaders must prepare to depart
ave or dead for ther tme s mornng and mornng s near.
The New 'ork )ost aso reported that the FBI was ookng nto an anonymous
threat receved after convcton of Shek Omar Abde Rahman, the sprtua eader
of the Word Trade Center bombng ce, convcted of pottng to bow up ma|or
279
New York Cty andmarks. The threat warned that a New York area arport or
|etner woud be attacked n retaaton for the prosecuton of the shek.
|926|
A warnng was aso provded to the Israes that Iran was key to aunch an attack
aganst a U.S. arcraft. Thousands of Stnger msses were gven to the
Mu|ahadeen by the CIA n the 1980s. Accordng to former FAA nvestgator Rodney
Stch, "At east a dozen were thus obtaned by the Iranan Revoutonary Guards
from Yuns Khas, a radca Musm Afghan resstance eader. One of them was
fred by Iranans at an Amercan hecopter on patro n the Persan Guf on October
8th, 1987."
The U.S. produced neary 64,500 of these msses for the mtary and other
countres snce 1980, ncudng Angoa, Egypt, France, Germany, Iran, Israe,
Kuwat, Pakstan, Saud Araba and Turkey. The Sovets are known to have sod
ther SAM-7 to Chna, North Korea, Inda, Iran, Iraq, Cuba, Laos, Lbya, Sudan and
Syra, among others.
|927|
Stngers provded to the Mu|ahadeen va the CIA n
Peshawar, Pakstan, were often sod to terrorsts and other groups.
"We have now spent more than a decade tryng to retreve those msses," sad
Natae Godrng, a defense anayst wth the Brtsh-Amercan Securty Informaton
Counc. "Severa hundred that were transferred durng the Afghan war are
nowhere to be found. They are very capabe ant-arcraft msses."
|928|
Accordng to Stch, the CIA has bumbed attempts to retreve the msses. In a
etter to Senator Aren Specter dated October 20, 1995, Stch wrtes:
Recent nformaton provded to me by one or more of my contacts n the CIA
communty descrbes the dates, paces, and peope nvoved n offerng the
msses to the Unted States, and the re|ecton of ths offer. These sources
provded me wth precse detas of the negotatons to gve the msses to the
Unted States, the agreement by Afghan rebe eader, Genera Rashd Dostom, and
a CIA attorney..
|One| possbty for CIA and |ustce Department re|ecton of the Stnger msses s
that the CIA wants the msses to fa nto terrorsts' hands, and actuay wants an
arner to be shot down. The shoot-down of a commerca arner coud then be
used to |ustfy the contnuaton of CIA actvtes.
|929|
In fact, Israe ntercepted unconfrmed reports that 50 of Stngers were smugged
nto the country n 1995. A etter reportedy presented to members of the Senate
Integence and Armed Servces Commttee after the shootdown of fght 800 not
ony camed credt for the attack, but provded the sera number of the msse
that was used.
Naturay, government woud trot out ts usua stabe of spokesmen to cam that
the pane hadn't been downed by a msse, especay a shouder-aunched SAM,
whch the Pentagon camed coudn't down a |umbo-|et fyng at 13,700 feet.
280
"There's no Amercan offca wth haf a bran who ought to be specuatng on
anythng of that nature," sad Whte House spokesman Mke McCurry. "There's no
concrete nformaton that woud ead any of us n the Unted States government to
draw that knd of concuson."
Yet the State Department has cataogued 25 ncdents between 1978 and 1993 n
whch commerca arners were shot down by SAMs, kng more than 600 peope.
(Israe commerca arners, ke the Presdent's Ar Force One, are equpped wth
speca fares capabe of dvertng surface-to-ar msses.) Durng the Vetnam War,
Russan Gra msses routney shot down panes at attudes of 11,000 and 12,000
feet. Some SAMs - ncudng the Stnger, and the Swedsh-but Bofors RBS 70 and
90, whch mtary and avaton anayst Ronad Lews, wrtng n Air Forces Monthly
beeves was used - are reportedy capabe of reachng attudes of between
15,000 and 18,000 feet.
|930|
It s for precsey ths reason that the government kept changng the attude of the
pane, whch they frst reported at 8,500 feet, then 10,000 feet, and fnay at
13,700 feet (Apparenty they ddn't take nto account the range of the Bofors). Ths
s strkngy smar to ther aterng of the sze of the bomb n Okahoma, orgnay
statng t was 1,200 pounds, then 2,000 pounds, then 4,000 pounds, then fnay
4,800 pounds, to match ther magc ANFO theory.
Gven the overwhemng evdence to the contrary, however, the takng heads
woud modfy ther statements. "They w be ookng at a three scenaros," sad
Former FBI Assstant Drector Over "Buck" Reve, "and probaby the east key
w be the msse, but t w be one that s very carefuy examned."
|931|
Even the FBI's |ames Kastrom was ater forced to admt, "We do have nformaton
that there was somethng n the sky. A number of peope have seen t."
|932|
As the
New 'ork )ost reported on September 22:
Law-enforcement sources sad the hardest evdence gathered so far
overwhemngy suggests a surface-to-ar msse - wth the sophstcated abty to
ock on the center of a target rather than ts red-hot engnes - was fred from a
boat off the Long Isand coast to brng down the arner |uy 17.
|933|
On December 17, the Washin%ton Times quoted a congressona ade who verfed
that an unnamed DIA offca confrmed the msse attack: "'In hs opnon, the
pane was brought down by at east one shouder-fred msse,'" sad the
congressona source, who spoke on the condton of anonymty."
|934|
Interestngy, the FBI focused part of ts nvestgaton on boats on Long Isand that
had been chartered or stoen. One report that surfaced eary on reported that two
Mdde Eastern men had rented a boat. A boat 30 or 40 feet n ength woud
provde a stabe enough patform for a someone amng a heat-seekng or aser
guded SAM, even f the waters had not been perfecty cam.
281
Obvousy, the government was perfecty capabe of determnng who, or at east
what shot down TWA fght 800. Aiation Week reported that technoogy s
avaabe to estabsh, wthn hours, the exact composton of any exposve, even
after days of submerson n sea water. Yet months after the dsaster, the
government was st camng t hadn't determned the cause of the crash. At
tmes, the expanatons offered by government offcas bordered on the rdcuous.
On |uy 11, 1997, a NTSB offca was heard postuatng before members of
Congress that the pane may have been destroyed by errant "space |unk."
It s hardy surprsng that the government woud want to cover up the truth,
especay f fght 800 had been destroyed by a Stnger msse, one gven to the
Mu|ahadeen by the Centra |Stupdty| Agency. If the pubc earned that a
commerca |et coud be shot down by a hand-hed msse, one of many smugged
nto ths country, the arne ndustry woud suffer huge fnanca oses. In countres
where toursm s essenta to the economy, such a reveaton woud be
devastatng.
Moreover, f TWA 800 had been downed by our own mtary, the government
woud be even more desperate to cover up the truth.
At a press conference on November 8, IWW reporter He Cohen asked, "Why s
the Navy not a suspect?" In response, Kastrom sad, "Remove that man." As
about 10 securty guards swfty removed Cohen from the room, as he shouted,
"We want an ndependent nvestgaton!"
Nor were |ournasts nvestgatng Okahoma Cty mmune from harassment. |ayna
Davs, the courageous KFOR reporter who tracked down Hussan and Khad,
receved a warnng from the Bureau that she was gettng "too cose" to the truth,
and shoud drop her nvestgaton.
|ournasts and nvestgators who have attempted to ntervew rescue workers,
ncudng fremen, poce and other cty offcas are dened ntervews. Most
workers say they've been tod not to tak by ther superors or the FBI. ".they're
afrad of osng ther |obs or beng sub|ected to abuse f they say somethng," sad
|ane Graham.
Nurse Ton Garret was one of many peope who had vounteered to hep tag dead
vctms that terrbe mornng. Garret and her husband Ear had |ust taken a break
when they notced federa agents arrvng to set up a command post. "They acted
ke t was |ust a dr, ke t was no bg dea, sad Garret. "They were knd of |okng
around and a that knd of stuff."
Approxmatey 20 mnutes ater, when the Garrets re-entered the makeshft trage
center, they found many of the doctors and nurses gone, and a competey
dfferent atmosphere prevaed. "There was nobody hepng anymore," sad Ear.
"Before, there were peope brngng n food and medca suppes - |ust
282
everythng. When we came back n, there was a cod, caous atmosphere. I found
out ater that the FBI had taken over.."
But what reay upset Ton Garret was the fact that the FBI and the Medca
Examner were suppressng the body count, whch they had camed as ony 22
dead. Garret, who had personay tagged over 120 dead bodes that day, was
shocked. "I was beng ntervewed by a ady from TBN (Trnty Broadcastng
Network). I tod her that I was hghy upset because the news meda and the
nformaton they were beng gven was not accurate nformaton. There were many
more bodes than what they were sayng on the news meda and reeasng at the
tme.."
"|The FBI| ddn't ke that Ton was beng ntervewed by the meda," sad Ear. "An
agent came |up| to me and sad, 'Do you know her?' pontng to Ton. I sad, 'Yes,
she's my wfe.' He sad, "What s she?' I sad, 'We, she's been down here a day
tryng to get peope out of ths budng and hep peope.' He turned around to hs
frends and sad, 'We, we need to get her out of here.' Ton then tod me that the
agents had tod her that the FBI was takng over and a of us coud get out. They
tod us to keep our mouths shut."
Sad Ton, "When they came over to me, one of the agents was very pompous and
arrogant about askng me who I was, what I was dong there, f I was a cvan,
where I worked, and what my name was. I ddn't fee ke any of that pertaned to
what was gong on that day or what had happened that day, and he wanted to
know everythng about me..
"He sad, 'We, we1re down here now, and we're takng over the budng. It woud
be advsabe and recommendabe that you keep your mouth shut."
|935|
Norma Smth, who worked at the Federa Courthouse across from the Murrah
budng saw, aong wth numerous others, the Sherff's bomb squad congregated
n the parkng ot at 7:30 that mornng. Shorty after Smth's story appeared n a
oca newspaper, her house was broken nto - twce. Smth, frghtened, took eary
retrement and moved out of state. She s currenty too afrad to tak to anyone.
The bomb squad, ncdentay, dened beng there.
New American edtor Wam |asper earned from an OCPD offcer that durng a
mandatory day securty brefng at the Murrah Budng, he and other assembed
poce/rescue/recovery personne were tod "n no uncertan terms" by one of the
ead federa offcas that t was necessary for "securty" reasons to provde the
pubc wth "msnformaton" regardng certan aspects of the case, and that ths
"offca ne" was not to be contradcted by any of those n attendance.
|936|
"There's a ot that's beng covered up, for some reason," charged a federa
empoyee who narrowy escaped death but who ost many frends n the terrorst
attack.
283
Sad a man who ost hs father, ".I'm angry because I know I'm beng ed to."
"Many of us are gong to come forward and chaenge what's gong on as soon as
we get some more of the peces fgured out," pedged a aw enforcement offcer.
|937|
Ths same poce offcer ater tod me he was caed nto the offces of OCPD Chef
Sam Gonzaes and U.S. Attorney Pat Ryan and tod to "cease and desst."
|938|
Another offcer who was tod to "cease and desst" was Sergeant Terrance Yeakey.
On May 8, 1996, ony three days before Sergeant Yeakey was to receve the
Okahoma Poce Department's Meda of Vaor, he "commtted sucde." The 30
year-od cop was found n a fed near E Reno, not far from where E Reno Prson
guard |oey Gadden "commtted sucde." Hs wrsts were sashed n numerous
paces, as was hs neck and throat. Apparenty not satsfed wth ths nta attempt
to take hs fe, he got out of hs car, waked a me and-a-haf over rough terran,
then pued out hs gun shot hmsef n the head.
The meda camed Offcer Yeakey "was wracked wth gut" over hs nabty to
hep more peope that fatefu mornng. They aso camed he ed a "troubed famy
fe," havng been recenty dvorced from hs wfe Tona, and separated from hs
two daughters, aged two and four, whom the "aily Oklahoman camed he was not
permtted to see due to a restranng order.
Other accounts suggest that Yeakey was reuctant to receve the Meda of Vaor
due to hs "gut" over beng n|ured n the Murrah Budng. "He ddn't ke t," sad
hs supervsor Lt. |o Ann Randa. "There are some peope that ke to be heroes
and some that don't. He was not one that wanted that."
"He had a ot of gut because he got hurt," added feow offcer |m Ramsey.
|939|
Apparenty, there was much more behnd Offcer Terrance Yeakey's reuctance to
be honored as a hero.
"He kept teng me t wasn't what I thought t was," sad hs ex-wfe, Tona Rvera,
"that they were ony choosng offcers who were not even at the ste, you know -
who ddn't see anythng - to take pubc rewards, recognton, that sort of stuff.
"They started pressurng them nto takng |the rewards|," added Rvera. "There
came a tme about md-year, where they were forcng hm nto gong to these
award ceremones. As n, 'Yes, you could not go, but we' make your fe he.'
The story of the reuctant hero, she added, was nothng more than a "rea thn ve
of truth" whch covered up a "mountan of decet."
"|T|erry wanted no part of t."
|940|
284
Hs sster, Vck |ones, agreed. "Terry hated that stuff. 'I'm no hero,' he woud say.
'Nobody that had anythng to do wth hepng those peope n that bombng are
heroes."
Why woud the Meda of Vaor recpent make such a bzarre-soundng statement?
In a etter he wrote to a bombng vctm and frend Ramona McDonad, the offcer
tes the real reason for hs reuctance to be honored as a hero:
Dear Ramona,
I hope that whatever you hear now and n the future w not change your opnons
about mysef or others wth the Okahoma Cty Poce Department, athough some
of the thngs I am about to te you about s |sc| very dsturbng.
I don't know f you reca everythng that happened that mornng or not, so I am
not sure f you know what I am referrng to.
The man that you and I were takng about n the pctures I have made the mstake
of askng too many questons as to hs roe n the bombng, and was tod to back
off.
I was tod by severa offcers he was an ATF agent who was overseeng the
bombng pot and at the tme the photos were taken he was cang n hs report of
what had |ust went down!
I thnk my days as a poce offcer are numbered because of the way my
supervsors are actng and there s |sc| a ot of secrets foatng around now about
my menta state of mnd. I thnk they are gong to wrte me up because of my ex-
wfe and a VPO.
I tod you about takng to Chapan Poe, we the bastard wrote up n a report
statng I shoud be reeved of my dutes! I made the mstake of thnkng that a
person's conversaton wth a chapan was prvate, whch by the way mght have
cost me my |ob as a poce offcer! A frend at headquarters tod me that Poe sent
out etters to everyone n the department! That BITCH (|o Ann Randa) I tod you
about s up to somethng and I thnk t has somethng to do wth Poe. If she gets
her way, they w tar and feather me!
I was tod that |ack Poe has wrtten up a report on every snge offcer that has
been n to see hm, ncudng Gordon Martn and |ohn Avery.
Knowng what I know now, and understandng fuy |ust what went down that
mornng, makes me ashamed to wear a badge from Okahoma Cty's Poce
Department. I took and oath to uphod the Law and to enforce the Law to the best
of my abty. Ths s somethng I cannot honesty do and hod my head up proud
any onger f I keep my sence as I am ordered to do.
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There are severa others out there who was |sc| what we saw and even some who
payed a roe n what happened that day.
|Two Pages Mssng|
My guess s the more tme an offcer has to thnk about the screw up the more he
s gong to queston what happened. Can you magne what woud be comng
down now f that had been our offcers' who had et ths happen? Because t was
the feds that dd ths and not the ocas, s the reason t's okay. You were rght a
aong and I am truy sorry I doubted you and your motves about recordng hstory.
You shoud know that t s gong to one-he-of-a-fght.
Everyone was behnd you unt you started askng questons as I dd, as to how so
many federa agents arrved at the scene at the same tme.
Luke Franey (a ATF agent who camed he was n the budng) was not n the
budng at the tme of the bast, I know ths for a fact, I saw hm! I aso saw fu rot
gear worn wth rfes n hand, why? Don't make the mstake as I dd and ask the
wrong peope.
I worry about you and your young famy because of some of the statements that
have been made towards me, a poce offcer! Whatever you do don't confront
McPhearson wth the bomb squad about what I tod you. Hs actons and
defensveness towards the bombng woud make any norma person thnk he was
defendng hmsef as f he drove the damn truck up to the budng hmsef. I am
not worred for mysef, but for you and your group. I woud not be afrad to say at
ths tme that you and your famy coud be harmed f you get any coser to the
truth. At ths tme I thnk for your we beng t s best for you to dstance yoursef
and others from those of us who have strred up to many questons about the
aterng and fasfyng of the federa nvestgaton's reports.
I truy beeve there are other offcers ke me out there who woud not sette for
anythng but the truth, t s |ust a matter of fndng them. The ony true probem as
I see t s, who do we turn to then?
It s vta that peope ke you, Edye Smth, and others keep askng questons and
demandng answers for the actons of our Federa Government and aw
enforcement agences that knew beforehand and partcpated n the cover-up.
The sad truth of the matter s that they have so many poce offcers convnced
that by coverng up the truth about the operaton gone wrong, that they are
actuay dong our ctzens a favor. What I want to know s how many other
operatons have they had that bew up n ther faces? Makes you stop and take
another ook at Waco.
I woud consder t to be an nsut to my professon as a poce offcer and to the
ctzens of Okahoma for ANY of the Cty, State or Federa agents that stood by and
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et ths happen to be recognzed as any thng other than ther part n partcpaton
n ettng ths happen. For those who ran from the scene to change ther attre to
hde the fact that they were there, shoud be |udged as cowards.
If our hstory books and records are ever truy corrected about that day t w show
ths and maybe even some ame excuse as to why t happened, but I truy don't
beeve t w from what I now know to be the truth.
Even f I tred to expan t to you the way t was expaned to me, and the
rdcuous reason for havng out own poce departments fasfy reports to ther
feow offcers, to the ctzens of the cty and to our country, you woud understand
why I fee the way I do about a of ths.
I beeve that a ot of the probems the offcers are havng rght now are because
some of them know what reay happened and can't dea wth t, and others ke
mysef made the mstake of trustng the one person we were supposed to be abe
to turn to (Chapan Poe) ony to be stabbed n the back.
I am sad to say that I beeve my days as a poce offcer are numbered because of
a of ths..
Shorty after the bombng, Yeakey appeared at hs ex-wfe's. "About two weeks
before hs death, he'd come nto my home at strange tmes," sad Rvera, "two-
thrty n the mornng, four n the mornng, unannounced - tryng to gve me fe
nsurance poces.. He kept teng me we needed to get remarred mmedatey,
or me and the grs woud not be taken care of.
"I mean, why woud a guy te you to take a fe nsurance pocy, knowng damn
we t woudn't pay for a sucde? He obvousy knew he was n danger."
Yet Offcer Terrance Yeakey was not the type of person to easy show hs feengs.
He ddn't want to te hs famy anythng that mght get them hurt.
"He tod me enough to et me know that t was not what they were makng t out to
be," sad Rvera, "and that he was dsgusted and ddn't want any part of t, but he
never went nto deta.. It scared me."
|941|
Wthn days of the bombng, accordng to a sympathetc government source who
has spoken to Rvera, Yeakey began recevng death threats. He was at hs ex-
wfe's apartment when the cas came. Afrad for hs famy, he got up and eft.
"When he came to my apartment two weeks pror, tryng to gve me these
nsurance poces," sad Rvera, "he sat on my vng room couch and cred and tod
me how he had a fght wth |hs supervsors| Lt. Randa and Ma|. Upchurch. He dd
not te me what that entaed, but he was scared - he was cryng so bady he was
shakng.
287
"He woudn't totay voce whatever t was," recaed Rvera. "It was ke he'd be
|ust about to te me - he'd want to sp hs guts - and then he stopped, and he
|ust cred. And that's when he kept nsstng that I take the nsurance pocy."
Athough Yeakey was concerned for hs famy, the marrage was not wthout
abuse. Rvera had fed a VPO (Vctm's Protectve Order) aganst hm sghty over
two years ago. In a ft of temper, Yeakey had once threatened to take hs fe and
those of hs wfe and chdren.
"I thnk t was sad n the haste of, we, he's gong to k a of us knd of thng -
cop under pressure," sad Rvera. But that was over a year and-a-haf ago. Yeakey
had spent consderabe tme wth hs wfe and chdren snce then, takng them on
famy outngs and so forth.
Nevertheess, the Okahoma Cty Poce Department (OCPD) attempted to use the
ncdent to cam that Yeakey was sucda. It was on the day of hs death, around
1:30 p.m., that they caed Rvera, tryng to get her to fe a VPO Voaton based on
the two-year-od report. "They wanted me to come down and make some
statements aganst hm," Rvera sad.
On the same afternoon, n-between messages on hs answerng machne from hs
sster, Vck |ones and hs supervsor Lt. |o Ann Randa, Yeakey had a message
from Tona. "The message was ke at 5:30 n the afternoon," recaed Rvera. "I
sound ke I'm whsperng, and I'm apoogzng for wakng hm up - at 5:30 n the
afternoon - on Wednesday."
It seems the ntent behnd ths cevery-crafted decepton was to convnce the
famy and potenta nvestgators that Rvera was an "ev person," who was
seepng wth hm the nght before, but "went down and fed a VPO the next day."
"That tape was panted," sad Rvera. "I never caed hs house."
It seemed the OCPD was payng an eaborate game to sow confuson and mstrust,
and create the appearance that Rvera was responsbe for her ex-husband's
death.
"So t comes out n paper after paper how he's havng probems wth hs ex-wfe,
how he's not aowed to see hs chdren.. "They're tryng to pay up the story of
the btch-ass wfe whose tryng to get hm