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Preliminary Investigation - November 20, 1896

Rizal appeared to Colonel Francisco Olive.

Rizal was questioned by Col. Olive but he was not permitted to
confront witnesses who testified against him.
Preliminary Investigation - Two kinds of evidence presented against Rizal:
Documentary and Testimonial

Documentary Evidences
1. A letter from Antonio Luna to Mariano Ponce dated Oct. 16, 1888, Madrid.
2. A letter of Rizal to his family dated Aug. 20, 1890, Madrid.
3. A letter from M.H. Del Pilar to Deodato Arellano dated Jan 7, 1889, Madrid
4. A poem entitled Kundiman allegedly written by Rizal.

Kundiman Tunay ngayong umid yaring dila't puso Sinta'y umiilag, tuwa'y lumalayo, Bayan palibhasa'y lupig at
sumuko Sa kapabayaan ng nagturong puno. Datapuwa't muling sisikat ang araw, Pilit maliligtas ang inaping bayan,
Magbabalik mandin at muling iiral Ang ngalang Tagalog sa sandaigdigan. Ibubuhos namin ang dugo't babaha
Matubos nga lamang ang sa amang lupa Habang di ninilang panahong tadhana, Sinta'y tatahimik, iidlip ang nasa.

5. A letter of Carlos Oliver to an unidentified person, Sept. 18, 1891.
6. A Masonic document dated Feb. 9, 1892.
7. A letter signed Dimasalang to Ten Luz (Juan Zulueta) dated May 24, 1892, H.K.
8. A letter signed Dimasalang to unidentified committee dated June 1, 1892, Hong Kong.
9. An anonymous and undated letter to the Editor of the Hong Kong Telegraph.
10. A letter of Ildefonso Laurel to Rizal, dated Sept. 3, 1892.
11. A letter of Rizal Segundo, dated Sept. 17, 1893.
12. A letter to M.H. Del Pilar to Juan A. Tenluz
13. A transcript of the speech of Pinkian (Emilio Jacinto) in a meeting of the Katipunan on July 23, 1893.
14. Transcript of a speech Tik-Tol (Jose Turiano Santiago) during the same Katipunan meeting.
15. A poem by Laon Laan (Rizal) entitled A Talisay.

Testimonial Evidences
1. Martin Constantino
2. Aguedo del Rosario
3. Jose Reyes
4. Moises Salvador
5. Jose Dizon
6. Pio Valenzuela
7. Ambrosio Savador
8. Francisco Quison
9. Timoteo Paez
10. Deodato Arellano
11. Pedro Serrano Laktaw
12. Antonio Salazar
13. Domingo Franco

Peas Recommendations:
1. Rizal must be immediately sent to trial
2. He must be held in prison under necessary security
3. His properties must be issued with order of attachment, and as indemnity,
4. Rizal had to pay one million pesos
5. Instead of a civilian lawyer, only an army officer is allowed to defend Rizal.

6. Rizals Defender
Andrade, the bodyguard of Rizal.

Rizals Arraignment
December 11, 1896 - Charged with the crime of rebellion, and the formation of illegal associations.

Rizal replied that:
He does not question the jurisdiction of the court
He has nothing to amend except that during his exile in Dapitan in 1892, he had not dealt in political
He has nothing to admit on the charges against him
He had nothing to admit on the declarations of the witnesses, he had not met nor knew, against him.

On December 13, 1896 While in Detention
Rizal released a manifesto that he denounces the revolution and condemned Katipunan for using his
name without his permission.

Actual Trial - December 26, 1896 @Hall of Banners of the Cuartel de Espaa
He was accused of 3 crimes: rebellion, sedition, illegal associations.
Penalty: Life imprisonment-death for rebellion and sedition, correctional imprisonment and a fine of 325
to 3250 pesetas for illegal association.

Defense of Rizal As testified by Pio Valenzuela,
Rizal was against rebellion
He had not written a letter addressed to the Katipunan comprising revolutionary elements
Without his knowledge, his name was used by the Katipunan; if he really was guilty, he could have
escaped while he was in Singapore
If he was guilty, he should have left the country while in exile; he shouldn't have built a home, bought a
parcel of land or established a hospital in Dapitan.
If he was really the leader of the revolution, the revolutionists should have consulted him.
He did not deny that he wrote the by-laws of the La Liga Filipina, but to make things clear, the
organization was a civic association, not a revolutionary society.

Defense of Rizal - After the first meeting of La Liga, the association banished because of his exile in Dapitan, thus,
did not last long.
If the La Liga was reorganized nine months later, he
had no idea about it
If the La Liga had a revolutionary purpose, then
Katipunan should not have been organized.
If the Spanish authorities found his letters having
bitter atmosphere, it was because in 1890 his family
was being persecuted resulting to their dispossession
of properties and deportation of all his brothers- in-
He lived an exemplary life in Dapitan the politico-
military commanders and missionary priests in the
province could attest to that.
If according to witnesses the speech he delivered at Doroteo Ongjunco's house had inspired the
revolution, then he want to confront these persons. If he really was for the revolution, then why did the
Katipunan sent an unfamiliar emissary to him in Dapitan? It is so because all his friends were aware that
he never advocated violence.

December 28, 1896 - Polavieja approved the decision of the court-martial and ordered Rizal to be shot at 7:00
oclock in the morning of December 30 at Bagumbayan Field

World War II
In September 1940, Germany, Italy, and Japan had allied under the Tripartite Pact. The United
States banned the shipment of aviation gasoline to Japan in July 1940, and by 1941 shipments
of scrap iron, steel, gasolineand other materials had practically ceased. Meanwhile American
economic support to China began to increase.
Japan and the USSR signed a neutrality pact in April 1941 and Japan increased pressure on the
French and Dutch colonies in Southeast Asia to cooperate in economic matters. Japanese forces
occupied the naval and airbases of southern Indochina on 22 July 1941. The Philippines was
almost completely surrounded.
General George C. Marshall, US Army Chief of Staff, stated, "Adequate reinforcements for the Philippines, at this time, would have
left the United States in a position of great peril, should there be a break in the defense ofGreat Britain.
A campaign for independence from the US which had been ongoing since 1919 resulted on January 17, 1933 in the passage by the
US Congress of the HareHawesCutting Act over the veto of President Herbert Hoover.
The law promised Philippine
independence after 10 years, but reserved several military and naval bases for the United States, as well as imposing tariffs and
quotas on Philippine exports. Philippine Senate President Manuel L. Quezon caused the legislature to reject the bill. Subsequently,
the TydingsMcDuffie Act, which eliminated provisions for US military reservations and substituted a provision for "ultimate
settlement", became US law on March 24, 1934 and was accepted by the Philippine legislature on May 1.
The impact of this on the
future defense of the Philippines with the establishment was to prove disastrous. During the 10 year transition period, the Philippine
Constabulary was vested with an ever increasing responsibility for defending the borders of the Philippines. The forces of the US
Army settled at around 10,000 men.
The US army had, however, already spent millions constructing Forts, and air strips throughout Luzon. This included the harbor
defenses in Manila Bay, at Fort Mills on Corregidor Island and at Grande Island in Subic Bay. There were also bases at Nichols Air
Station, now Villamor Airbase, Nielson Air Base (now Makati CityAyala and Buendia Avenues lay over the original landing strips),
at Fort William McKinley (now Fort Andres Bonifacioand the American Cemetery), Camp Murphy (now Camp Aguinaldo and Camp
Crame) in Quezon City, Camp O'Donnell in Tarlac and a series of airbases and army installations in Pampanga including Fort
Stotsenburg,Clark Air Base, as well as Camp Wallace in La Union, the Naval Station in Sangley Point, Cavite City, Camp Keithley in
Lanao, Camp Eldridge in Los Baos, Laguna and Camp Henry T. Allen in Baguio City. Other fields
inTugegarao, Aparri, Isabela, Nueva Ecija, Legaspi, Bataan, and Del Monte in Davao were also built using US funds prior to and
during the first years of the 1935 provisional Commonwealth.

The Japanese viewed all the lands of Asia to be the rightful property of the Imperial Japanese Government and the EmperorThe
land invasion of Korea, China and parts of Russia, which had begun at the turn of the 20th
century, had been taking an upswing. The Japanese had been kept from realizing their goal
of unifying or dominating the Asian lands by the presence of foreign military forces in the
Philippines (United States), Hong Kong, Malaysia (United Kingdom) and the Dutch East
Indies. Japan had hoped that they could strike fast and hold off reinforcements long enough
to broker a peace accord from a position of strength such as they had done during the
Russo Japanese War.
Central to the Japanese goals was the taking of all Asian lands. To be successful US, UK,
and Dutch forces were to be attacked simultaneously to prevent their ability to reinforce and
aid their Asian possessions. Pivotal to the Japanese decision to attack was a tremendous need for crude oil as a result of economic
sanctions imposed by the United States, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands which was weakening the Japanese economy.
The Japanese leaders were faced with a choice: end the war in China and their plans for Asian conquest, so as to end the
sanctions, or declare war on three large military forces. The current war against Britain, and Holland, and the strain of providing aid
by the United States to these countries was seen as an opportunity by the Japanese to extend their "rightful" place as a ruler in
The Japanese government decided to seize resources under the control of Britain, the United States and the Netherlands. Japan
had already placed over ten divisions in Formosa (Taiwan). Japanese military planners argued that the British (and the USSR
should they decide to declare war), would be unable to effectively respond to a Japanese attack, given the threat posed by the Third
Philippine Mountains

Mount Apo is a large solfataric, potentially-active stratovolcano in the island of Mindanao, Philippines. With an
elevation of 2,954 metres (9,692 ft) above sea level, it is the highest mountain in the Philippines and is located
between Davao City and Davao del Sur province in Region XI and Cotabato province in Region XII. The peak
overlooks Davao City 45 kilometres (28 mi) to the northeast, Digos City 25 kilometres (16 mi) to the southeast,
and Kidapawan City 20 kilometres (12 mi) to the west.

Mount Banahaw (alternative spelling: Banahao or Banjao) is an active volcano on Luzon in the Philippines. The
three-peaked volcano complex is located between theprovinces of Laguna and Quezon and is the tallest mountain
in the CALABARZON region dominating the landscape for miles around.

Kanlaon Volcano, also spelled as Kanla-on or Canlaon, is an active volcano on Negros island in central Philippines.
The stratovolcano straddles the provinces ofNegros Occidental and Negros Oriental, approximately 30 km (19 mi)
southeast of Bacolod City, the capital and most populous city of Negros Occidental.

Malinao is a volcano located in the Bicol Region of the Philippines. The stratovolcano has no historical eruption but
displays strong fumarolic activity which is harnessed for generating electricity. Located on its slope is Tiwi
Geothermal Power Plant, one of the first geothermal energy plant commissioned in the country.

Mount Bulusan, or Bulusan Volcano, is the southernmost volcano on Luzon Island in the Republic of
the Philippines. It is situated in the province of Sorsogon in theBicol region, 70 km (43 mi) southeast
of Mayon Volcano and approximately 250 km (160 mi) southeast of the Philippine capital of Manila.