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ASHIMA BHATIA AKHILESH KUMAR JAYA GAUTAM RACHIT ORHI
SANDEEP YADAV GALGOTIAS BUSINESS SCHOOL, GREATER NOIDA
The term glass ceiling refers to situations where the advancements of a qualified person within
the hierarchy of an organization is stopped at a lower level because of some form of discrimination ,most commonly sexism or racism .In the research paper on glass ceiling we would be dealing with women who are the key victims of this phenomenon. Women face different challenges and may require different skills to be successful in the work place than their male counterparts. The causes and impact of these differences vary depending upon the size of the organization, level of management, and requisite job duties. The proportion of women in the work place has increased 5% since 1980 whereas the number of women in management positions has increased 19% in the same period (powell & graves, 2003). Although these numbers are encouraging, research indicates that there is still a gap between women and men regarding compensation for producing similar work. So we would put a light on the facts and figures related to it in our study.
ARTICLE 1. No Glass Ceiling For Women
AUTHOR Hema Malini
2. Women Shatter The Glass Ceiling At Indian Bpos. Nivruti Rai 3. Shattering The Glass Ceiling 4. The Glass Ceiling : What You Don’t Know Won’t Hurt You 5. Are Women Politicians In India Really Shattering The Glass Ceiling? 6. The Glass Ceiling: Myth Or Reality? 7. The glass ceiling: domestic and international Perspective 8.Women and Glass Ceiling Nancy Lockwood Moshavi Shreyasi Singh Sunday Times Russel Madden Debra Pestrak
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Discrimination against women manifests itself in various forms, including: job segregation; wage gap; sexual harassment; denial of career development opportunities, including mentoring; poor performance evaluations; and lack of promotion opportunities. Glass ceiling prevails somewhat because most of the people think that women do not have great decision making abilities, which are required at the higher echelons. Besides that women have to face role conflict and role juggling between home and jobs responsibility. But in modern times,Women are seen as transformers of the world. Women are known to be team players, transformational role models and mentors. They have an innate nurturing ability and managerial skills. The winds of globalization and outsourcing in India have ushered in changes not just for the economy but have also thrown open numerous opportunities for women. The current crop of successful women is sure to catalyze the women in IT movement, drawing even more talent into the fray.In politics too ,India now has an unprecedented 59 women members of parliament. That’s a record 11% representation . Appointment of leaders such as Ms. Sonia Gandhi ,Ms. Pratibha Patil etc have changed the scenario. But still we lack opportunities for many women who are waiting to come out of the boundaries of their houses. The power structure remains intact, and firmly in the control of men, even if there are more women representatives. Only if women can dent power structures can change be tangible. Till then, empowerment remains a distant dream. So to solve this problem women must support themselves and be supported by the organizations to change the world .There still remains a hope to see a new picture of women controlling the nations.
OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH
To explores workplace challenges that women face and recommends strategies to address them through research. To focuses on women in business and review the literature on gender disparities in employment, compensation, and promotion.
To determine the extent to which the glass ceiling continues to exist and prevent women from gaining access to organizational resources.
Data was collected from secondary resources such as published data, magazines ,newspapers and article by various Authors . Organizational analysis was done from data collected by ILO and other organizations.
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATIONS
The glass ceiling was installed by males in patriarchal societies who regard their lofty positions as sacrosanct and inviolable by women . It was found that gender discrimination is a central factor to the prevalence of glass ceiling in organizations. Women face different challenges and may require different skills to be successful in the work place than their male counterparts. The causes and impact of these differences vary depending upon the size of the organization, level of management, and requisite job duties.
The proportion of women in the work place has increased 5% since 1980 whereas the number of women in management positions has increased 19% in the same period (Powell & Graves, 2003). Although these numbers are encouraging, research indicates that there is still a gap between women and men regarding compensation for producing similar work.
The causes of this phenomenon are attributed to:
i. Perception of gender roles ii.Gender Stereotypes (Prejudices)
iii.Hiring practices iv.Role expectation ,Role ambiguity ,Role juggling,Role conflict v.Less emotional stability of women vi.Sexual harassment at workplace
vii.Uneven work force composition
WAYS TO OVERCOME GLASS CEILING
Diversity management programs should be followed in organizations. Organizations should operate on Affirmative action plans. Cross cultural training as well as Executive Training Program should be planned. Right person should be appointed at right position irrespective of stereotype effect. Skill Based Diversity Training should be provided to women so that they can compete within the organization. Awareness Based Diversity programs should be provided so that workforce can understand each other and work cordially. Managerial support should be provided as per need. Recruitment process should be given a thought.
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Indra Nooyi, was the architect of the soft drink and snack company’s acquisition of quaker oats a few years ago. Nooyi began her career in india, spent some time with Motorola inc., and most recently served as both president and cfo at pepsico. The fact is: she is a woman who shattered glass ceiling. Our view points: ➢ Glass ceiling exists in our mind only. ➢ If a company chooses to continue to exclude qualified women from top management positions it is most probable that they will find themselves unable to compete in an increasingly diversified marketplace and will lose an extraordinary amount of talent, creativity and productivity. ➢ Women are forming new businesses at double the rate of men.
➢ After a biased approach like “glass ceiling” both organizations and women to re-examine
the obstacles that prevent females from advancing and from being valued in the workplace.
➢ Due to problems like glass ceiling, women today are leaving the corporate sector
numbers-twice the rate of men.
Over the past 25 years, the percentage of women and minorities participating in the work force has increased. However, this increase has been confined to entry level positions, while the middle and senior level management positions still reflect a shortfall of women and minorities. The data collected by the dol, during the reviews of 94 fortune 1000 companies, reflected this trend. From the 147,149 employees in the sample, the participation of women and minorities was such that: • • • Of all the employees 37.2% were women and 15% were minorities. Women represented only 16.9% of all the managers while minorities represented only 6%. At the executive level of management women made up 6.6% and minorities 2.6% of all positions.
Women hold just 10.6 percent of board seats and executive positions, down from 10.9 percent in 2008. Little has changed from 2005, when the figure was 10.2 percent. • • •
Nearly a third of the companies studied, 118 out of 400, have no women directors on their boards and no female executive officers. No company in the top 400 was without men in top management positions. Fifteen of the 400 companies have a woman serving as chief executive officer, up from 13 in 2008 Last year, the federal glass ceiling commission released a report stating that only 7%-9% of senior managers at fortune 1000 firms are women 81% of well-qualified women face barriers spawning from stereotypes or preconceptions. 49% of employers feel an aversion to taking a risk by hiring a female. (diversity training group) Nasscom study, the men- women ratio in the Indian software industry stands at 76:24This ratio is expected to be 65:35 (men: women) by 2007. However, the percentage of women employed in the Ites/Bpo space is far more-around 69 percent.
In the US, women workforce in it has declined by 18.5 percent since 1996.
As per , Kiran Mazumdar Shaw , CEO of Biocon Ltd Extending additional subsidy for new industrial enterprises that employ more than says, 30 per cent women in their workforce; offering special financial incentives for women entrepreneurs, particularly those from economically poorer sections of society; and offering subsidized vocational training for women from disadvantaged sections seeking self-employment is a way to overcome glass ceiling. OUR RECOMMENDATIONS:
Management must learn to recognize and appreciate gender differences as positive qualities which can serve as assets for the organization. They must lose their preoccupation with old male-oriented procedures.
Employers should realize that they need the input of women and minorities in their businesses to better address the changing consumer markets, workplace demographics and competition in today's economy.
• • • •
Activities should be carried within organizations that make women more adaptable and responding to emotional situations .They should be made more Emotionally Intellegent. Organizational composition or demography should be evenly distributed. Examine organizational design, staffing and performance reward systems. Incorporate mentoring programs for women and minorities and hold managers acceptable for initiatives by rewarding only those who successfully meet the goals of the program. Companies should provides flexibility in working hours, and hence is friendly to women employees, who need to juggle with career aspirations and home. Every employee should be taught that they are important to the organization. Develop strong relationships with others in the company, focusing on those individuals with high authority. Ask these people for feedback on their performance and then make it a point to act on their recommendations.
1. www.google.com 2. www.managementarticles.info
3. www.docstoc.com 4. www.findarticles.com 5. www.timesofindia.com 6. www.hrmagazines.com
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