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August 8, 2013

Kevin W. Reynolds
Intelligent Systems Division, Code TI
NASA Ames Research Center




Aero-Propulsive-Elastic Modeling Using OpenVSP

Our Introduction To OpenVSP
Overview

Motivation and Background
OpenVSP Modeling and Tools
Aerodynamics
Structures
Propulsion
Modeling Aeroelasticity
Flutter Analysis
Flight Dynamic Modeling
Future Work
Can a synergistic benefit of fuel burn reduction be achieved over a mission profile?



Motivation and Background

Lightweight Materials introduce (1) wing flexibility and (2) significant changes in aircraft weight
Synergistic benefits using lightweight materials (i.e. induced drag reduction)
Spanwise lift distribution control
Potential Benefits
Structural weight reduction
Fuel burn reduction
Opportunity: Exploit multidisciplinary interactions while maintaining aero-structural stability
Mission adaptive wing shaping
Improved off-design performance
Potential reduction in system and aircraft weight
Exploitation of aeroelastic instabilities
Advanced Propulsion seeks to (1) improve propulsive efficiency and (2) eliminate control surfaces
Synergistic benefits with more electric propulsion systems (i.e. rapid response)
Potential vertical tail weight reduction
Potential Benefits
Increase by-pass ratio
Fuel burn reduction
Design Tool For Analyzing Advanced Aircraft Concepts

Hybrid Electric Distributed Propulsion High Aspect Ratio Wings
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
Electric Aircraft
Flexible materials and advanced propulsion will be an integral part of future aircraft concepts.
Objective
Geometry
Atmosphere
Stability
Performance Estimation
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Multidisciplinary Optimization Tools
Control
Structures
Propulsion
Optimizer
Weight Estimation
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Vorlax/CBAero
NPSS/WATE
Finite Element Model
Design Variables
Aerodynamics

Overview

Motivation and Background
OpenVSP Modeling and Tools
Aerodynamics
Structures
Propulsion
Modeling Aeroelasticity
Flutter Analysis
Flight Dynamic Modeling
Future Work
Aerodynamic Modeling Using Vorlax
Planform Geometry
Pressure Distribution
Drag Polars
Vertical Lift Distribution
Aerodynamic Analysis Using OpenVSP and Vorlax
Lift Curves
Export .out file
The Vorlax engine can rapidly generate lift curves and drag polars across various Mach numbers.
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Run Vorlax
Install Vorlax
Baseline GTM
Concept 1
DP Concept 2
Concept 2
DP Concept 4
Clean Wing
Propulsion Layout and Design Effects Wing Aerodynamics

Higher fidelity tools can be used to redesign the propulsion layout and geometry for
minimizing aerodynamic penalties.
Baseline Aircraft
Mass Properties and Moments of Inertia
Mass [slug-ft
2
]

Weight [lb-ft
2
]
Roll, I
xx
1,770,000 56,947,970
Pitch, I
yy
5,680,000 182,748,287
Yaw, I
zz
7,270,000 233,904,937
Spanwise weight distributions can either be specified or estimated using structural analysis techniques.
Moments of Inertia
Wing Weight Distribution
1
Define mass properties
2
Calculate moments of inertia
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Upgraded Finite-Element Model and Geometry Generation Tools

Integrated aeroelastic model for flapwise and chordwise deformation capability

Structural Modeling of the Wing

Propulsion System Modeling
An analytical model for fan performance was developed as a complement to the NPSS/WATE tools.
Hybrid Electric Propulsion Modeling
Legend

- Battery
- Turbo generator
- Generator
- Transformer
- Fan
- Fan Motor
- Motor Controller
- Wire

OpenVSP Modeling of a Hybrid Electric
Distributed Propulsion Concept
More Electric Aircraft Design (787 Example)
Overview

Motivation and Background
OpenVSP Modeling and Tools
Aerodynamics
Structures
Propulsion
Modeling Aeroelasticity
Flutter Analysis
Flight Dynamic Modeling
Future Work
Modeling Aeroelasticity
Aeroelasticity represents the coupled relationship between unsteady aerodynamics and structural properties.
Objective: Conduct static and dynamic aeroelastic analysis to model aircraft wing flexibility.
Static Aeroelasticity Solutions
Static aeroelasticity represents the response of an undeformed wing to inertial and aerodynamic loads.
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Structural Deflection assuming no coupling
Aeroelastic deflection assuming no coupling
Flutter Analysis and Unstable Modes @ 30,000 feet


Cantilever Modes Symmetric Modes Antisymmetric Modes
Flutter boundary: Mach = 1.1756
Flutter boundary: Mach = 1.1546
Flutter boundary: Mach = 1.2651
Frequency Response Frequency Response Frequency Response


A Mach sweep is required in order to analyze flutter boundaries and the associated frequencies.
Flutter boundaries:
Flutter frequencies, rad/s:
Dynamic Aeroelastic Solutions


A Mach sweep is required in order to analyze flutter boundaries and the associated frequencies.
Overview

Motivation and Background
OpenVSP Modeling and Tools
Aerodynamics
Structures
Propulsion
Modeling Aeroelasticity
Flutter Analysis
Flight Dynamic Modeling
Future Work
Geometry
Generation Tool
Vortex Lattice
Aero Model
Structural Finite
Element Model
Flexible Wing
Trim Tool (for
multiple engines)
Structural FEM coupled with
Vortex Lattice Aero
Model
Propulsion
System Model
Total Thrust
Value: T
Individual Engine
Sizings and SL
Thrusts:
T
SL,i
W
e,I
x
e,i
y
e,i
z
e,i

Thrust-Altitude-
Mach Model
Thrust-Altitude-
Mach Model
Total Sea Level Thrust : T
SL
Individual
Engine
Thrusts: T
i
Tool Integration for Aero-propulsive-elastic Modeling


Coupled Geometry Generation, Structural FEM, and Aerodynamic Modeling
To model flight performance over a mission profile
To capture important multidisciplinary interactions























Aero-Servo-Propulsive-Elastic Flight Dynamic Modeling

We envision OpenVSP being used as a geometry modeling platform for conceptual design,
detailed design, and performance modeling within the context of a mission.

Couple Geometry Generation, Structural FEM, and Aerodynamic Modeling
To capture important multidisciplinary interactions
To model performance benefits over a mission profile
Fuel burn reduction
Low speed performance
Model Complex Interactions Between Lightweight Structures and Advanced Propulsion
To account for wing flexibility and structural deformation
To investigate flutter conditions and unstable modes
To analyze propulsion response and performance

Quantify Mission Performance Benefits Based on Design and Analysis
To analyze on-design mission performance
To analyze off-design mission performance
To build pilot intuition for flying future aircraft concepts



Future Work
Flight Dynamics and Control
Pilot-in-the-loop Simulation