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Flexible Product Structure of Draw

Bending Toolsets in SolidWorks

Kashif, Muhammad
Patil, Abhijeet

THESIS WORK 2008


Knowledge based Engineering

Postal Address: Visiting Address:


Telephone:
Box 1026 Gjuterigatan 5 036-10 10 00
551 11 Jönköping
Flexible Product Structure of Draw
Bending Toolsets in SolidWorks

Kashif, Muhammad
Patil, Abhijeet

This thesis work is performed at Jönköping Institute of Technology


within the subject area Knowledge based Engineering. The authors
are responsible for the given opinions, conclusions and results.

Supervisor: Joel Johansson

Credit points: 15 or 20 points (D-level)

Date:

Archive number:

Postal Address: Visiting Address:


Telephone:
Box 1026 Gjuterigatan 5 036-10 10 00
551 11 Jönköping
Abstract

Abstract
Preparation of Toolsets for rotary draw bending of Aluminum tubes
requires evaluation of orders from the customers that whether the
tube bending is possible on available machines or not. A quick
response to customers will definitely increase the chances of getting
contract, which can be possible; thanks to advances in technology, by
implementing design automation in the preparation of fixtures and
tooling necessary for tube bending. A Knowledge based system
containing production floor, analytical knowledge and rules based on
empirical data from trial manufacturing of fixture’s production can
definitely be pivotal in automation of metal forming.

When a customer puts his order, Knowledge Base system (KBS) is


given input data to run knowledge objects. In case of more detailed
input data, other objects are run when a more precise calculation for
detailing is required. The main theme behind the system is to make
use of knowledge objects containing information on inputs, outputs
and constraints to implement the knowledge.

Main approach of this work is to integrate CAD & KBS in design and
manufacturing of tube products.

Keywords: Knowledge Design system, Design automation, Rotary


Draw bending

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INTRODUCTION.........................................................................................................................................3
1 PRINCIPLES OF TUBE BENDING PROCESS......................................................................................5
1.1 COLD BENDING OF TUBES.............................................................................................................................5
1.1.1 Rotary draw bending ....................................................................................................................6
1.1.2 Compression bending....................................................................................................................7
1.2 DESIGN PARAMETERS FOR TUBE BENDING PROCESS...........................................................................................8
1.2.1 Minimum bending radius...............................................................................................................8
1.2.2 Wall factor.....................................................................................................................................8
1.2.3 Springback.....................................................................................................................................9
1.2.4 Bending factor...............................................................................................................................9
1.2.5 Difficulty Factor .........................................................................................................................10
1.3 DIFFICULTY IN TUBING PROCESS DESIGN.......................................................................................................10
2 IMPLEMENTATION OF A KNOWLEDGE-BASED SYSTEM........................................................11
2.1 WHY A KNOWLEDGE-BASED SYSTEM HELPS?.................................................................................................13
3 A COMPUTERIZED SYSTEM FOR DESIGN OF ROTARY DRAW BENDING TOOLS............14
3.1 SYSTEM OVERVIEW...................................................................................................................................14
3.2 FORMULAS AND RELATIONS FOR TUBE BENDING MACHINE SELECTION...............................................................15
4 TOP DOWN MODELING........................................................................................................................15
5 CASE STUDY............................................................................................................................................17
5.1 SOLID MODELING APPROACH.....................................................................................................................17
5.2 CONFIGURATION.......................................................................................................................................18
5.3 KNOWLEDGE DESIGN STUDIO......................................................................................................................19
6 RESULTS ..................................................................................................................................................26
7 CONCLUSION & FUTURE PERSPECTIVE.......................................................................................31
7.1 IRREGULAR PROFILE SECTIONS.....................................................................................................................31
8 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .......................................................................................................................31
9 REFERENCES..........................................................................................................................................32
SEARCH WORDS.......................................................................................................................................33

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Introduction

Cold bending of metal tubes plays very important role in production


method since metal tubes are widely used in a various engineering
products like automobile, aircraft, air conditioner, air compressor,
exhaust systems and fluid lines. Even though cold bending of tubes is
an old metal forming process, it is becoming a precision metalworking
process and requires assurance of high quality. (Cassidy, 1988). There
are several methods for cold bending like rotary drawing bending,
compression bending, empty bending, ram bending, rolling bending,
etc ( Kervick and Springborn, 1966). Bending machine includes of
various range from hydraulic bending, hand benders, to fully
computerized CNC benders.

Knowledge-based system (KBS) development plays very innovative


role in tubing production industry. Since customer’s demand on
complex tubing parts and tight tolerances leads to increase in chances
of defects and failures of tubing parts. Various failures are undesired
deformation, inaccuracy of bend angles and geometry, wall thinning,
flattening, wrinkling and cracks. These errors are closely associated
with the selection of bending methods, tool/die design, die set
conditions, machine setup, material effects, a number of bending
process parameters such as minimum bending radius, springback, wall
factor, etc. Thus optimization of process for cold bending of metal
tubes plays crucial role and raising the demand to develop knowledge-
based system (KBS). The KBS techniques have proven effective in
solving a complex manufacturing problem where the optimal decision-
making is based on the integration of facts, rules, equations,
expertise, production data, and process knowledge.

Knowledge-based system assists in variant design of products. During


product development process same data, formulas and rules are
applied repeatedly to adapt well established concepts to new
specifications. Design automation is “Engineering IT-support by
implementation of information and knowledge in solutions, tools, or
systems that are pre-planned for reuse and support the progress of
the design progress. The scope of the definition encompasses
computerized automation of tasks that directly or indirectly are related
to the design progress in the range of individual components to
complete products” (Cederfeldt, 2007). Automation plays important
role in cutting lead time during manufacturing. Taking into
consideration of automation engineers have implemented automation
like use of spreadsheets, Matlab files, Mathcad or databases. In all

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those files a lot of knowledge is stored and since this knowledge is
applied on the products developed by the company, it will be a part of
the trademark. The system built containing the corporate knowledge
should be transparent and easy to understand fro users and for future
developers. The knowledge should be user friendly. Thus there are
high requirements for documentation both on the system architecture
and the knowledge it contains. In addition to this Elgh and Cederfeldt
points out the following requirements that such a system should meet
(Elgh F., Cederfeldt M., 2005):

 Low effort of developing


 Low level of investment
 User readable and understandable knowledge
 Transparency
 Scalability
 Flexibility
 Longevity
 Ease of use

The objective of the work presented is to develop a connection


between already developed KBS and Solid works (a CAD/ CAM
application) for design of the tube bending process that integrates
metal tubing theories, tube bending process knowledge, and human
expert’s experience. The KBS developed can be used to aid tubing
engineers design tubing tools and dies, determine the optimal bending
process parameters.

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1 Principles of Tube bending process

Two principles apply to both cold bending methods – rotary draw


bending and compression bending. First, the material on the inside of
the bend must compress. Second, the material on the outside of the
neutral axis must stretch.

1.1 Cold bending of tubes

The most common processes for cold bending of pipes and tubes are
draw bending, compression bending, roll bending, etc. Ram bending
was probably the first pipe bending method used to cold-form while
rotary draw bending and compression bending are more popular
nowadays. Both of them can be embodied in either manual benders or
powered bending machines. In addition, empty bending is also widely
used in combination with the above two bending methods, because of
less setup time, less tooling cost, and no lubricant needed. Generally,
cold bending requires a center forming die, either fixed or rotated (for
rotary draw bending), a pressure die and a clamping or following die.
In the rotary draw bending, a mandrel and a wiper die are often used.
The components of a die set are shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1 Components of a bending die set 1

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1.1.1 Rotary draw bending

Rotary draw bending is a widely used method for bending tubes,


particularly for tight bending radii and thin wall tubes. The
characteristic of this bending method is that the center bending die,
which is used to form the angle of tube parts, rotates with the work
piece together, and the die set sometimes is equipped with a wiper
and a mandrel, depending on the size and shape of workplace. A die
set up for a rotary draw bending is shown in Fig. 2.

In Rotary-draw bending, at one end rotating center die forms the tube
to the radius of the die. Clamp Die secures the pipe to the die. The
pipe bending machine rotates the die to the desired bend angle and
pressure die forces the pipe to conform to the die radius. After the
pipe bending process, the operator extracts the mandrel from the pipe,
releases the clamp, then removes the bent pipe from the machine.
With proper tooling, this pipe bending process is capable of producing
high quality, tight-radius bends for a wide range of applications.

Fig. 2 Rotary draw bending 1

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1.1.2 Compression bending

Compression bending is one of the most common method, simplest


and economic operation for bending metals tube parts. As commonly
used today for bending with heart-shaped tooling. An older method of
bending in which the tube is clamped against a stationary bend die and
the pressure die sweeps the tube around the bend die to form the
bend. This differs importantly from rotary-draw bending in that the
point of bend is the point of contact between the pressure die and
bend die and the clamping die is replaced by a movable following die.
The following die by means of a rotary arm presses the workpiece
around the bend die to form the desired shape. Therefore the point of
bend moves through space, which makes the use of a mandrel
impossible. Die set of compression bending is shown in fig. 3.

Fig. 3 Compression Bending 1

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Distinguish
Rotary draw bending Compression bending
Parameters
Movement of center
Yes No
die
Movement of pressure
No / Yes Yes
die
Use of mandrel and
Yes No
wiper
Line of tangency in
Fixed Not fixed
space

1.2 Design parameters for tube bending process

There are many factors to be considered for tube bending process. The
basic parameters are minimum bending radius, springback, wall factor,
bending factor and empty factor.

1.2.1 Minimum bending radius


In practice, an empirical formula for determining the minimum bending
radius, Rmin is in wide use (Cassidy, 1988):

D
Rmin =
2E '

Where D is the outside diameter of the tube, and E’ is the percent


elongation of the tube material.

1.2.2 Wall factor


Wall factor (WF) is the ratio of the tube outside diameter (D) to the
wall thickness (t) (Gillanders, 1984):

D
WF =
t

It is a rule of thumb for assessing the difficulty of a tube bend: The


higher the wall factor, the more difficult the bend. The rationale
behind this rule is that a wall that is thin relative to the tube outside
diameter requires more support at the point of bend to prevent
wrinkling or collapse. As a practical matter, the higher the wall factor,

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the more likely a mandrel and a wiper are needed to achieve good
bend quality in rotary-draw bending. The wall factor needs to be
considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the Bend factor,
to fully gauge the difficulty of a bend.

1.2.3 Springback
On release of the external loads, the tension stresses on the one side
of the tube and the compressive stresses on the other side create a
net internal bending moment or residual stresses. The residual
stresses cause a springback or a change of the bending angle, Δθ, in
the reverse direction of bending and a change of bending radius, ΔR,
as shown in Fig. 4.

Fig. 4 Changes of bending angle and radius before and after springback

1.2.4 Bending factor

Bending factor (BF) is described as the ratio of bending centerline


radius (R) over the outside diameter of the tube (D) (Gillanders,
1984):

R
BF =
D

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It is a unit of radial measurement peculiar to tube bending. It is the
sweep of the arc. The minimum degree of bend is about five degrees;
the maximum degree of bend in rotary-draw bending is 180 degrees.

1.2.5 Difficulty Factor

WF
Difficulty factor =
BF

As the Bend factor decreases and the wall factor increases, the tube is
less resistant to bending. As a result, it has a greater tendency to
collapse rather than follow the form of the bend. Consequently, the
material must be contained physically—surrounded at all points,
internally and externally—where the bend takes place, to prevent tube
collapse and any resulting deformities, such as wrinkles. This is needed
in the tangent area, predominantly where the tube changes from a
straight to a bent section and also where the material flows ahead and
behind of the tangent point.
The bend die, clamp die, and pressure die provide this containment to
some extent and can be used in applications in which the difficulty
factor (wall factor divided by Bend factor) is low and the tube is less
prone to collapse. However, more complex applications require more
support and containment. A mandrel inside the tube and a wiper die
behind the tangent point and opposite the pressure die provide
adequate containment, prevent collapse, and accommodate material
flow. (Barry Rooney, 2005)

1.3 Difficulty in tubing process design

Tooling and die play an extremely important role in cold bending of


metal tube products, and are directly related to most failures in tube
production. Common failures and defaults in metal tube bending parts
can be classified as: (Z. Jin Et al, 2001)

• Deformation (wall thinning, flattening, wrinkling) as shown in


Fig. 5.
• Inaccuracy (over bending, under bending, twisting, beyond the
linear dimension tolerance)
• Breakage/crack
• Dents/marks

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Fig.5: Tube Flattening Wrinkling Wall thinning

Since tube bending is influenced by many technical factors related to


bending structure, bending radius, material, wall thickness, diameter,
tooling/die selection and condition, bending methods, lubrication, and
operating parameters, etc., it is often difficult to achieve an optimal
design of the tube bending process, in particular for bending parts with
complex configuration and geometry requirements.

2 Implementation of a knowledge-based
system

Global industrial competition requires enterprises to use innovative


technologies for manufacturing and provision of goods and services in
the shortest possible time frame with minimum cost. To achieve the
goal of assuring short development cycles for new products, they are
developing a process-based knowledge-driven product development
environment by employing information technology. One major
emphasis is knowledge-based engineering (KBE), which focuses on
acquiring, storing, and utilizing knowledge for design and
manufacturing. One of the applications of KBE is the knowledge-based
system (KBS), which represents an interactive computer-based
decision-making tool that uses both factual and heuristic data acquired
from domain experts for problem solving.

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The KBS shows the decision maker how to reduce setup time based on
expertise embedded in the knowledge base as rules. (Kim and Arinze,
1992).The success of a KBS critically depends on the amount of
knowledge embedded in the system. (HAO XING Et al, 2002). KBS are
used in many diverse applications such as financial planning,
manufacturing, tax planning, and equipment design; in fact, they are
more useful than expert systems that attempt to totally replace the
decision makers. (Goul Et al, 1992)

Fig.6 Components of KBS (A. Hopgood, 2001)

Knowledge-based system (KBS) differs from conventional program on


the bases of the structure. Domain knowledge is closely tangled with
software for controlling the application in conventional program. While

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in knowledge-based system, the two roles are performed separately.
In general there are two Modules which are as follow:

a) Knowledge Module
b) Control Module

Knowledge module is called knowledge base and control module is


called the inference engine. The separation of knowledge module and
control module make KBS easy to add new knowledge. The
knowledge-base system approach is more straightforward. So editing
of knowledge is easier. The knowledge base may be rich with various
forms of knowledge. So, for simplicity we state that knowledge base
contains rules and facts. (A. Hopgood, 2001). “Expert systems are a
type of knowledge-based system designed to embody expertise in a
particular specialized domain. An expert system is intended to act as a
human expert who can be consulted on a range of problems that fall
within his or her domain of expertise”. (A. Hopgood, 2001). Inference
engines can be classified on the base of type and involvedness of
knowledge with which they deal.
There are two types of inference engines which are as follow:

a) Forward-chaining
b) Backward-chaining

Forward-chaining is also called as data-driven while backward-chaining


is also called goal-driven. A knowledge based system when works in
forward-chaining approach takes the available information and
generates many derived facts. Since the output is not predictable this
may lead to new solution to a problem. But it can also prove waste of
time due to irrelevant information. Data-driven approach might be
useful when we wish to have some data for analysis problems while
backward-chaining approach is more beneficial when our requirement
of solution is strongly focused.
The expression of knowledge in a knowledge base can be addressed
once the knowledge is known. For particular domain knowledge can be
acquire by three approaches which are as follow:
a) The system learns automatically from the problem.
b) The builder of the knowledge-based system is a domain
proficient.
c) The knowledge is teased out of a domain.

2.1 Why a knowledge-based system helps?

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A KBS is a computer program that has a knowledge module and a
control module. A knowledge module is a knowledge base that stores
all experts’ knowledge and experience in the form of facts or rules. A
control module is then used to find out the result through all kinds of
knowledge; it is thus called inference engine. With the KBS approach,
all relevant process knowledge and experts’ experience can be logically
integrated together to provide engineers with an effective tool in
tubing design and manufacturing.

3 A Computerized system for design of Rotary


draw bending tools

Because of the complex nature in tube bending, only engineers with


many years of design experience would own the knowledge for correct
design of tube bending processes. On one hand it is difficult for a
young engineer without such a rich experience to determine the
effective tubing process with minimum potential failures. On the other
hand, even for experienced engineers, negligence would often result in
unwanted consequence.

Therefore, there is a need for developing an expert system that can be


used to aid the design of tube bending processes.

3.1 System overview

It is proposed that decision support/aiding systems, such as computer-


aided software engineering tools that are primarily designed to assist a
decision maker, when embedded with knowledge, may induce users to
learn more about problems as they interact with the system. (Antonya
and Santhanamb, 2006)

In this work a system is used that meets most of the requirements


mentioned in the introduction. The built in system is developed by
object oriented programming in Visual Basic.Net accessing necessary
relations and data from MS Excel files and apply it to bending tools
solid modeled in SolidWorks.

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3.2 Formulas and Relations for Tube bending machine
selection

A lot of research has been done on the elastic and plastic analysis of
tube bending and there are various derived equations available for
tube bending analysis. In this work, we have taken formulas of section
modulus and bending moment of circular tubes from the research work
of “Plastic-deformation analysis in tube bending by (N.C. Tang, 2000)”

Circular Tube:
D: Outer diameter of circular tube
d: Inner diameter of circular tube
W: Section Modulus
M: Bending moment
R
k: a geometry parameter of the tube =
2
σ: Material yield strength

Section Modulus for circular tube= W =


(
0.1 × D 4 − d 4 )
D

 0.42 
Bending Moment for circular tube = Μ = σ × W × 1.41 + ( )
 k 

Machine Capacity is selected on the basic of how much maximum


bending moment that a tube bending machine can cope with.

4 Top Down Modeling

In bottom up design method, designers model the parts separately


keeping in mind the assembly. When models are completed they are
assembled together as per design criteria. Since the parts, modeled
separately, contains no assembly information between them therefore
when we brought them together, there are always some discrepancies
like poorly aligned surfaces, not possible mates and often incomplete
assembly because of not applicable assembly constraints and feature’s
failure because of modification. In case of these inconsistencies, if
someone wants to correct these, one has to alter the models one by
one so that each part becomes compatible for each other. This takes
much effort to detect and alter the models and frustrating for the

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designers. Therefore approach used in solid modeling of the draw
bending toolsets is Top down assembly modeling.

Top down design means a series of unique capabilities, that address


the problems and challenges that engineers face when designing large
assemblies. These capabilities range from the ability to easily control
the assembly at the top-level; the ability to make wide scale changes
from a single location and know that the changes will propagate to all
levels of the design; and the ability to allow large teams to share
development tasks and communicate critical design criteria easily and
quickly while remaining confident that all of the components will fit
seamlessly in to the final product.

A critical aspect of top down methodology is the communication of


design data from the assembly to its individual components via a
centralized-location.

Benefits of Top Down modeling approach include task distribution,


concurrent modeling, and managing external references. By declaring
models to 2D layouts you can distribute the global parameters and
datums; using geometry features you can copy references from one
model to another.

In this Work, we first captured the whole design intent and product
structure of the draw bending toolsets. In the second step, after
determining the critical information of the design, we put it on the
higher level of assembly structure and then communicated to the
lower levels i.e. components. In case of change in the parameters in
the assembly structure, that is the way it is in this work, causes an
automatic updating of the components.

Selection of the suitable toolsets for required tube diameter and bend
radius is done on the basis of bending moment. In this work, we have
two fictitious toolsets named as Silfax and Cooler. Knowledge Design
Studio takes the parameters’ values and name of the suitable toolset
for tube bending from MS Excel files and sends this information to Top
down assembly. As a result of it, in Solidworks, parameters’ values are
incorporated in that particular toolset.

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5 Case Study

5.1 Solid Modeling Approach

There are two options for a 3D modeler to do Top down Modeling.

1. Creating Blocks/layers
2. Creating Derived sketches

At first, we started Top Down modeling by using block approach. In


block approach we captured the design intent of components and then
we made assembly from these sketches/blocks. But the problem we
faced with this approach was that parameters were not being updated
in the Assembly, when we sent parameter’s information to SolidWorks
via Knowledge Design Studio.

Fig.7. Block of Silfax 1

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Fig.8 Block of Cooler 1

Therefore we shifted to another approach which was by creating


sketches in the assembly mode and then we derived those sketches in
particular components. When we sent parameter’s information to the
assembly, 3D models were updated accordingly. Results obtained from
this approach are displayed in the next chapter.

5.2 Configuration

Handling of different toolsets can be done very easily in SolidWorks by


creating configurations as much as you would like to. In configurations
we can suppress any feature that we don’t want to be in a specific
configuration. In this thesis work, according to our requirement, we
created two configurations of the tube bending toolsets named as
Cooler and Silfax. We made the cooler’s features suppressed for Silfax
and vice versa.

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Fig.9 Configuration 1

5.3 Knowledge design studio

We first created the domain with (.xml extension). Then we added


required parameters to the newly form domain. All the parameters
except machineselection have float type. While machineselection
parameter has configuration type.

Fig.10 Creating Domain 1

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Fig.11 Adding parameters to Domain 1

Once parameters have been defined we create objects. In creating


new object we selected the type in general tab as heuristic. All
parameters which are required to calculate objects are added to input
tab. The result of object which is to be calculated is placed in output
tab. In implementation tab we have given excel file as application.
When we have added inputs and output parameters, we have selected
their cell location to the parameters value location in excel file.

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Fig.12 Creating new object 1

Fig.13 Implementation 1

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Fig.14 Excel datasheet 1

22
Fig.15 Parameters entry 1

Thus we have created four objects. Which are as follows:


a) bendratio
b) sectionmoduluscircular
c) bendingmomentcircular
d) machineselection

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Fig.16 Required objects 1

Once we have created objects then we execute the calculation. After


calculation we check the selected configuration/ tube bending tool set.

Fig.17 Execution 1

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Fig.18 Checking 1

After checking the results, we send the parameters and selected tool
set information to SolidWorks.

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6 Results

Below are the incorporated results. Parameter form is taken from


Knowledge Design studio before and after changes of tube parameters’
and the other is taken from SolidWorks which are as follows:

1) Cooler die-set ( Fig. 6 & 7)


2) Silfax die-set ( Fig. 8 & 9)

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Fig. 19 Cooler die-set before change of parameters

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Fig.20 Cooler die-set after changes of parameter

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Fig. 21 Silfax die-set before changes

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Fig. 22 Silfax die-set after changes in parameters

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7 Conclusion & future perspective

Tube bending is a complicated operation that is influenced by many


factors, such as tooling, material, tube geometry, bending methods,
machine setting up, operators’ skills, etc. Using expert system
techniques that incorporate human experts’ knowledge and intelligence
is an effective means for design of tube bending processes and
guidance to production.

Artificial Intelligence methods or knowledge-based systems (KBS) in


manufacturing are beneficial to increase efficiency, reduce production
costs, and improve quality. For the tube bending fabrication industry,
the knowledge-based system can assist the engineers with tool and die
design, and the production foremen and workers with trouble shooting
and quality improvement. Furthermore, the KBS will provide a guide to
select a correct method of tube bending production and to reduce the
percentage of defective parts, so as to increase the production
efficiency, to reduce the labor time and material waste, and save the
overall costs significantly.

7.1 Irregular profile sections

This work is applicable on tubes with circular sections. However it is


desirable to develop rules for tubes with rectangular and irregular
sections also.

8 Acknowledgement

We are extremely grateful of Mr. Joel Johansson, our Thesis instructor,


whose guidance and support led us to the completion of our thesis
work. In fact Knowledge Design studio is his brilliant invention. We are
grateful to SAPA Group as well for their support in providing us their
tube bending machine specifications.

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9 References

1. JOHANSSON J., A Flexible Design Automation System for


Toolsets for the Rotary Draw Bending of Aluminum Tubes, ASME
2007 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences &
Computers and Information in Engineering Conference
September 2007, DETC2007-34310
2. Z. Jin, S. Luo, X. Daniel F., KBS-aided design of tube bending
processes, Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence 14
(2001) 599–606
3. Tang N.C., Plastic deformation analysis in tube bending,
International journal of pressure vessels and piping 77 (2000)
751-759
4. Elgh F.,CEDERFELDT M., A design automation system supporting
design for cost-Underlying method, system applicability and user
experiences, International conference on concurrent engineering,
ISPE CE 05, Fort Worth,2005
5. CEDERFELDT M., Planning design automation- A structured
method and supporting tools, Doctoral Thesis, Chalmers
University of Technology Göteborg, Sweden,2007
6. Cassidy, V.M., 1988. No-mandrel system speeds tube bending.
Modern Metals 8, 75–78.
7. Gillanders, J., 1984. Pipe and Tube Bending Manual Gulf
Publishing Company, Houston.
8. Barry Rooney, November 8, 2005.Tight bend radii, thin walls
create need for wiper dies.
9. HAO XING, SAMUEL H. HUANG, and J. SHI, 2002, Rapid
development of knowledge based systems via integrated
knowledge acquisition
10.Solomon Antonya and Radhika Santhanamb, 2006, Could the
use of a knowledge-based system lead to implicit learning?
11. S. Kim and B. Arinze, A knowledge-based decision support
system for set-up reduction, Decision Sciences 23 (1992) (6),
pp. 1389–1407.
12. M. Goul, J.C. Henderson and F.M. Tonge, The emergence of
artificial intelligence as a reference discipline for decision support
research, Decision Sciences 23 (1992) (6), pp. 1263–1274.
13. Adrian A. Hopgood, 2001, Intelligent systems for engineers and
scientists, CRC Press.

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Search words

A
artificial intelligence..........................................31
B
bending factor......................................................9
bottom up...........................................................15
C
center from die....................................................5
circular...............................................................15
cold bending........................................................4
Compression bending..........................................7
D
design parameters................................................8
difficulty factor..................................................10
E
empty bending...............................................5, 33
F
following die.......................................................7
I
Introduction.........................................................3
irregular profile.................................................31
K
KBS.....................................................................1
knoweldge base system.....................................14
knowledge base system.............................1, 3, 31
M
mandrel............................................................5, 6
O
outside diameter..................................................8
P
parameters.........................................................16
R
relation...............................................................15
T
twisting..............................................................10
W
wall factor............................................................8
wrinkling.............................................................9

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