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Section 35 - Strengthening against Collisions B 35 - 1

Section 35
Strengthening against Collisions
A. General
1. Ships, the side structures of which are specially
strengthened in order to resist collision impacts, may be
assigned the notations "COLL", with index numbers 1 -
6, e.g. "COLL 2", affixed to the character of classification.
The index numbers 1 to 6 result from the ratio of the critical
deformation energies calculated for both the strengthened
side structure and the single hulled ship without any
strengthening and without any ice strengthening. The critical
deformation energy is defined as that amount of energy
when exceeded in case of a collision, a critical situation
is expected to occur.
The index numbers will be assigned according to Table
35.1 on the basis of the characteristic ratio C * of the critical
deformation energies as defined in B.8. In special cases
"COLL"-notations higher than "COLL 6" may be assigned
if justified by the design and construction of the ship.
Table 35.1 COLL - Notation
C * "COLL"-notation
2 1
3 2
4 3
6 4
10 5
20 6
2. Critical situations are, for instance:
S tearing up of cargo tanks with subsequent leakage
of, e.g., oil, chemicals, etc.
S water ingress into dry cargo holds during carriage
of particularly valuable or dangerous cargo,
S tearing up of fuel oil tanks with subsequent leakage
of fuel oil.
The critical speed v
cr
is defined as being the speed of the
striking ship; if this speed is exceeded, a critical situation
may be expected.
3. The definition of the critical situation is entered into
the Certificate.
For general cargo ships and tankers, the notation "COLL"
with a corresponding restrictive note in the Certificate may
also be granted for individual compartments only.
4. If wing tanks are arranged in the area to be
investigated which are to be assumed as being flooded
whereas the longitudinal bulkheads remain intact, sufficient
floatability and stability in such damaged conditions is to
be proved. Longitudinal bulkheads fitted outside the
envelope curve of the penetration depths determined for
the collision cases as defined in B. 5. are to be considered
intact.
5. A "COLL"-notation will be assigned under the
provision that the ship has a sufficient residual longitudinal
strength in the damaged condition.
B. Calculation of the Deformation Energy
1. The deformation energy has to be calculated by
procedures recognized by BKI.
In case of high-energy-collisions the Minorsky method
may be accepted, if the bow and side structures are found
suitable.
2. For low-energy-collisions, the Minorsky method
does not give sufficiently precise results. Analyses of these
collisions are to be based on assumptions which take into
account the ultimate loads of the bow and side structures
hitting each other in the area calculated, and their
interactions. The computations of ultimate loads are to be
based on the assumption of an ideal elastic plastic material
behaviour. The calculated limit stress R
UC
to be assumed
is the mean value of the minimum nominal upper yield point
and the tensile strength, as follows:
R
UC
=
1
2
R
eH
R
m
R
eH
= minimum nominal upper yield point of the hull
structural steel applied as per Section 2, B.2.
R
m
= tensile strength of the hull structural steel
applied.
The elongation at fracture of the shell is to be taken as
5 %.
3. Ships of approximately equal displacement and with
design draughts approximately identical to that of the struck
ship to be examined are to be assumed as striking ships.
2 bow shapes are to be investigated:
S bow shape 1: raked bow contour without bow bulb,
S bow shape 2: raked bow contour with bow bulb.
Extremely fully shaped bow configurations are not to be
used for the computations.
Section 35 - Strengthening against Collisions C 35 - 2
4. The computations are to be carried out for a
rectangular, central impact, making the following
assumptions:
S the bow of the striking ship encounters the side of
the struck ship vertically,
S the struck ship is floating freely and has no speed.
5. Various collision cases are to be investigated for
bow shapes 1 and 2, for the strengthened and non-
strengthened side structure, covering the design and ballast
draughts of the ships involved in the collision.
The essential factor for determining the deformation energy
are the draught differentials T of the ships involved in
the collision, see Fig. 35.1.
The following draught differentials are to be considered:
Collision case 1:

T1
= T
2max
3 T
1min
T
1max
4
Collision case 2:

T2
= T
2max
T
1min
3 T
1max
4
Collision case 3:

T3
=
T
2min
3 T
2max
4
T
1max
Collision case 4:

T4
=
3 T
2min
T
2max
4
T
1max
T
1max
= design draught of the striking ship
T
1min
= ballast draught of the striking ship
T
2max
, T
2min
= analogous draughts of the struck ship
Fig. 35.1 Draught different T of ships
involved in a collision
6. Based on the deformation energies calculated for
the strengthened and non-strengthened side structure for
the different collision cases defined in 5. above, the mean
values of the critical deformation energies are to be
evaluated by means of weighting factors.
7. The mean critical deformation energies are to be
calculated for the collision cases 1 to 4 and for both bow
shapes, in accordance with the following formulae:
for bow shape 1:
= E
01
1
8
E
01,1
3 E
01,2
3 E
01,3
E
01,4
= E
11
1
8
E
11,1
3 E
11,2
3 E
11,3
E
11,4
for bow shape 2:
= E
02
1
8
E
02,1
3 E
02,2
3 E
02,3
E
02,4
= E
22
1
8
E
22,1
3 E
22,2
3 E
22,3
E
22,4
where:
E
01,i
= deformation energy for the un-strengthened ship,
bow shape 1, collision case i, i = 14
E
11,i
= deformation energy for the strengthened ship,
bow shape 1, collision case i, i = 1 4
E
02,i
and E
22,i
are the respective values for bow shape 2.
8. The ratios of the mean critical deformation energies
are to be calculated by the following formulae:
for bow shape 1:
= C
1
E
11
E
01
for bow shape 2:
= C
2
E
22
E
02
The characteristic ratio for the ship is the mean value
resulting from the two weighted ratios and in C
1
C
2
accordance with the following formula:
C* =
1
2
C
1
C
2
9. The index defined in A.1. will be fixed on the basis
of the characteristic ratio C* and the corresponding
minimum value for the critical speed v*
cr min
according
to C.3.
C. Computation of the Critical Speed
1. The critical collision speed is to be determined by
the following formula:
Section 35 - Strengthening against Collisions C 35 - 3
v
cr
= [kn] 2,75
E
cr
m
2
1
m
2
m
1
E
cr
= deformation energy, once the critical speed has
been reached, in [kJ]
m
1
= mass of the striking ship, incl. 10 %
hydrodynamical added mass, in [t]
m
2
= mass of the struck ship, incl. 40 %
hydrodynamical added mass, in [t].
2. When calculating the critical speeds for the collision
cases in accordance with B.5., the following draughts are
to be assumed:
Collision case 1:
T
1
=
3 T
1min
T
1max
4
T
2
= T
2max
Collision case 2:
T
1
=
T
1min
3 T
1max
4
T
2
= T
2max
Collision case 3:
T
1
= T
1max
T
2
=
3 T
2max
T
2min
4
Collision case 4:
T
1
= T
1max
T
2
=
T
2max
3 T
2min
4
3. For the assignment of a "COLL"-notation, in
addition to the characteristic ratio C* according to A.1
(Table 35.1), the minimum values for the mean critical speed
v*
cr
as given in Table 35.2 have to be met.
Tabel 35.2 Minimum values for the mean critical
speed v*
cr
COLL - notation v*
cr min
[kn]
1 1,0
2 1,5
3 2,5
4 4,0
5 5,5
6 7,0
v*
cr
see also 4
4. The mean critical speed results from the weighted v
cr
critical speeds of collision conditions 1 4 for both bow
shapes, in accordance with the following formulae :
for bow shape 1:
= v
crl
1
8
v
1cr1
3 v
1cr2
3 v
1cr3
v
1cr4
v
1cri
= critical speed for bow shape 1, collision case
i, i = 1 4
for bow shape 2:
= v
cr2
1
8
v
2cr1
3 v
2cr2
3 v
2cr3
v
2cr4
v
2cri
= critical speed for bow shape 2, collision case
i, i = 1 4
The critical speed characteristic for the ship results as
mean value from the two weighted speeds and , v
crl
v
cr2
in accordance with the following formula:
= [kN] v
cr
1
2
v
cr1
v
cr2