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Section 35

Strengthening against Collisions

A. General

1. Ships, the side structures of which are specially

strengthened in order to resist collision impacts, may be

assigned the notations "COLL", with index numbers 1 -

6, e.g. "COLL 2", affixed to the character of classification.

The index numbers 1 to 6 result from the ratio of the critical

deformation energies calculated for both the strengthened

side structure and the single hulled ship without any

strengthening and without any ice strengthening. The critical

deformation energy is defined as that amount of energy

when exceeded in case of a collision, a critical situation

is expected to occur.

The index numbers will be assigned according to Table

35.1 on the basis of the characteristic ratio C * of the critical

deformation energies as defined in B.8. In special cases

"COLL"-notations higher than "COLL 6" may be assigned

if justified by the design and construction of the ship.

Table 35.1 COLL - Notation

C * "COLL"-notation

2 1

3 2

4 3

6 4

10 5

20 6

2. Critical situations are, for instance:

S tearing up of cargo tanks with subsequent leakage

of, e.g., oil, chemicals, etc.

S water ingress into dry cargo holds during carriage

of particularly valuable or dangerous cargo,

S tearing up of fuel oil tanks with subsequent leakage

of fuel oil.

The critical speed v

cr

is defined as being the speed of the

striking ship; if this speed is exceeded, a critical situation

may be expected.

3. The definition of the critical situation is entered into

the Certificate.

For general cargo ships and tankers, the notation "COLL"

with a corresponding restrictive note in the Certificate may

also be granted for individual compartments only.

4. If wing tanks are arranged in the area to be

investigated which are to be assumed as being flooded

whereas the longitudinal bulkheads remain intact, sufficient

floatability and stability in such damaged conditions is to

be proved. Longitudinal bulkheads fitted outside the

envelope curve of the penetration depths determined for

the collision cases as defined in B. 5. are to be considered

intact.

5. A "COLL"-notation will be assigned under the

provision that the ship has a sufficient residual longitudinal

strength in the damaged condition.

B. Calculation of the Deformation Energy

1. The deformation energy has to be calculated by

procedures recognized by BKI.

In case of high-energy-collisions the Minorsky method

may be accepted, if the bow and side structures are found

suitable.

2. For low-energy-collisions, the Minorsky method

does not give sufficiently precise results. Analyses of these

collisions are to be based on assumptions which take into

account the ultimate loads of the bow and side structures

hitting each other in the area calculated, and their

interactions. The computations of ultimate loads are to be

based on the assumption of an ideal elastic plastic material

behaviour. The calculated limit stress R

UC

to be assumed

is the mean value of the minimum nominal upper yield point

and the tensile strength, as follows:

R

UC

=

1

2

R

eH

R

m

R

eH

= minimum nominal upper yield point of the hull

structural steel applied as per Section 2, B.2.

R

m

= tensile strength of the hull structural steel

applied.

The elongation at fracture of the shell is to be taken as

5 %.

3. Ships of approximately equal displacement and with

design draughts approximately identical to that of the struck

ship to be examined are to be assumed as striking ships.

2 bow shapes are to be investigated:

S bow shape 1: raked bow contour without bow bulb,

S bow shape 2: raked bow contour with bow bulb.

Extremely fully shaped bow configurations are not to be

used for the computations.

Section 35 - Strengthening against Collisions C 35 - 2

4. The computations are to be carried out for a

rectangular, central impact, making the following

assumptions:

S the bow of the striking ship encounters the side of

the struck ship vertically,

S the struck ship is floating freely and has no speed.

5. Various collision cases are to be investigated for

bow shapes 1 and 2, for the strengthened and non-

strengthened side structure, covering the design and ballast

draughts of the ships involved in the collision.

The essential factor for determining the deformation energy

are the draught differentials T of the ships involved in

the collision, see Fig. 35.1.

The following draught differentials are to be considered:

Collision case 1:

T1

= T

2max

3 T

1min

T

1max

4

Collision case 2:

T2

= T

2max

T

1min

3 T

1max

4

Collision case 3:

T3

=

T

2min

3 T

2max

4

T

1max

Collision case 4:

T4

=

3 T

2min

T

2max

4

T

1max

T

1max

= design draught of the striking ship

T

1min

= ballast draught of the striking ship

T

2max

, T

2min

= analogous draughts of the struck ship

Fig. 35.1 Draught different T of ships

involved in a collision

6. Based on the deformation energies calculated for

the strengthened and non-strengthened side structure for

the different collision cases defined in 5. above, the mean

values of the critical deformation energies are to be

evaluated by means of weighting factors.

7. The mean critical deformation energies are to be

calculated for the collision cases 1 to 4 and for both bow

shapes, in accordance with the following formulae:

for bow shape 1:

= E

01

1

8

E

01,1

3 E

01,2

3 E

01,3

E

01,4

= E

11

1

8

E

11,1

3 E

11,2

3 E

11,3

E

11,4

for bow shape 2:

= E

02

1

8

E

02,1

3 E

02,2

3 E

02,3

E

02,4

= E

22

1

8

E

22,1

3 E

22,2

3 E

22,3

E

22,4

where:

E

01,i

= deformation energy for the un-strengthened ship,

bow shape 1, collision case i, i = 14

E

11,i

= deformation energy for the strengthened ship,

bow shape 1, collision case i, i = 1 4

E

02,i

and E

22,i

are the respective values for bow shape 2.

8. The ratios of the mean critical deformation energies

are to be calculated by the following formulae:

for bow shape 1:

= C

1

E

11

E

01

for bow shape 2:

= C

2

E

22

E

02

The characteristic ratio for the ship is the mean value

resulting from the two weighted ratios and in C

1

C

2

accordance with the following formula:

C* =

1

2

C

1

C

2

9. The index defined in A.1. will be fixed on the basis

of the characteristic ratio C* and the corresponding

minimum value for the critical speed v*

cr min

according

to C.3.

C. Computation of the Critical Speed

1. The critical collision speed is to be determined by

the following formula:

Section 35 - Strengthening against Collisions C 35 - 3

v

cr

= [kn] 2,75

E

cr

m

2

1

m

2

m

1

E

cr

= deformation energy, once the critical speed has

been reached, in [kJ]

m

1

= mass of the striking ship, incl. 10 %

hydrodynamical added mass, in [t]

m

2

= mass of the struck ship, incl. 40 %

hydrodynamical added mass, in [t].

2. When calculating the critical speeds for the collision

cases in accordance with B.5., the following draughts are

to be assumed:

Collision case 1:

T

1

=

3 T

1min

T

1max

4

T

2

= T

2max

Collision case 2:

T

1

=

T

1min

3 T

1max

4

T

2

= T

2max

Collision case 3:

T

1

= T

1max

T

2

=

3 T

2max

T

2min

4

Collision case 4:

T

1

= T

1max

T

2

=

T

2max

3 T

2min

4

3. For the assignment of a "COLL"-notation, in

addition to the characteristic ratio C* according to A.1

(Table 35.1), the minimum values for the mean critical speed

v*

cr

as given in Table 35.2 have to be met.

Tabel 35.2 Minimum values for the mean critical

speed v*

cr

COLL - notation v*

cr min

[kn]

1 1,0

2 1,5

3 2,5

4 4,0

5 5,5

6 7,0

v*

cr

see also 4

4. The mean critical speed results from the weighted v

cr

critical speeds of collision conditions 1 4 for both bow

shapes, in accordance with the following formulae :

for bow shape 1:

= v

crl

1

8

v

1cr1

3 v

1cr2

3 v

1cr3

v

1cr4

v

1cri

= critical speed for bow shape 1, collision case

i, i = 1 4

for bow shape 2:

= v

cr2

1

8

v

2cr1

3 v

2cr2

3 v

2cr3

v

2cr4

v

2cri

= critical speed for bow shape 2, collision case

i, i = 1 4

The critical speed characteristic for the ship results as

mean value from the two weighted speeds and , v

crl

v

cr2

in accordance with the following formula:

= [kN] v

cr

1

2

v

cr1

v

cr2

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