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These are some basic theorems with concise proofs of first semester (point set) topology. Should be useful to those cramming for an exam or just want to review the basic concepts.

These are some basic theorems with concise proofs of first semester (point set) topology. Should be useful to those cramming for an exam or just want to review the basic concepts.

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topology: (a) trivial (indiscrete) topology; (b) discrete topology; (c) finite compliment topology;

(d) Sierpinski topology; quotient topology: equivalence class; metric

2. A topological space is a pair (X, τ ), where τ ⊂ P(X) satisfying

• ∅ ∈ τ, X ∈ τ

S

• Ai ∈ τ ⇒ i∈I Ai ∈ τ

Tn

• Ai ∈ τ ⇒ i=1 Ai ∈ τ

3. Given a space X, a metric d on X is a map d : X × X → [0, ∞) satisfying

• d(x, y) = 0 ⇔ x = y

• d(x, y) = d(y, x)

• d(x, z) ≤ d(x, y) + d(y, z).

4. Cauchy-Schwartz Inequality: In Rn , |hx, yi| ≤ ||x|| · ||y||.

5. f : X → Y is continuous iff f −1 (U ) is open (U open), called map.

Q

6. Tychonoff Topology, or product topology, is the coarsest topology on Xα for

Q which all

projections πα are continuous. Open sets in Tychonoff topology are unions of sets Uα , where

Uα ∈ Xα are open and Uα 6= Xα only for finitely many α.

7. Hausdorff Condition: A space is called Hausdorff if

8. Heine-Borel Property: Space X is compact if every open cover has a finite subcover.

9. Bolzano-Weierstrass Property: Every infinite subset A of X has a limit point in X.

limit point: p limit point of A if ∀Ny , Ny ∩ A\{y} =

6 ∅.

limit of a sequience: (xn → p) ⇔ (∀Np card({xn }\Np ) < ℵ0 ).

10. [a, b] is compact in R.

11. (closed U ) ⊂ (X compact) is compact.

12. (compact U ) ⊂ (X Hausdorff) is closed.

13. (surjective map f ) : (X compact) → Y ⇒ Y is compact.

14. (bijective map f ) : (X compact) → (Y Hausdorff) ⇒ f −1 is continuous.

15. f −1 ( Uα ) = f −1 (Uα ).

S S

Q

16. Tychonoff Theorem: Let {Xα } be compact. Then Xα is compact under product topology.

17. Let X be a metrizable compact space and U = {Uα } be an open cover. Then there exists a

Lebesgue number δ such that ∀x ∈ X Bδ (x) ∈ Uα for some α.

18. If X is any space, (a)⇒(b). If X is metrizable, (a)⇔(b)⇔(c):

(a) X is compact (Heine-Borel property).

(b) Every infinite subset of X has a limit point (Bolzano-Weierstrass property).

(c) X is sequentially compact.

1

Remark: (b);(a) and (a) is independent of (c) in general topology.

19. connectedness: (a) path; (b) path-connected ; (c) connected ; (d) connected component; (e) locally

path-connected ; (f) locally connected ;

20. (X ⊂ R connected) ⇔ (X is an interval).

21. Connectedness and path-connectedness are topological properties. More precisely, if f : X → Y is

surjective and X is connected (path-connected), then Y is connected (path-connected).

23. (A ⊂ X connected, A ⊂ B ⊂ Ā) ⇒ (B connected). In particular, components are closed.

24. (X ⊂ Y connected) ⇔ (@A, B ⊂ Y s.t. X = A ∪ B, A 6= ∅, B 6= ∅, Ā ∩ B = ∅ = A ∩ B̄).

T S

25. (Xα connected, Xα 6= ∅) ⇒ ( Xα connected).

Q

26. (Wα connected) ⇒ ( Wα connected under Tychonoff topology).

F

27. Let f : X → A B. If f |A and f |B are maps, then so is f .

28. ((f open surjective map) : X → Y, X locally connected) ⇒ (Y locally connected).

(X locally path-connected) ⇔ (path-components of (U open) ⊂ X are open).

30. (X locally path-connected and connected) ⇒ (X path-connected).

In particular, on manifolds, (connected)⇔(path-connected).

31. separation axioms: (a) points closed = T1 (b) Hausdorff = T2 ; (c) regular = T3 ; (d) normal

= T4 ; (e) first-countable; (f) second-countable; (g) separable; (h) (T4 + T1 ) ⇒ (T3 + T1 ) ⇒ T2 ;

32. (X metrizable, separable) ⇒ (X second-countable).

Q∞

33. ({Xn } first-countable (second-countable)) ⇔ ( Xn first-countable (second-countable)).

Q∞

34. ({Xn } separable) ⇔ ( Xn separable).

36. (X compact, T2 ) ⇒ (X normal).

37. (X second-countable, T3 ) ⇒ (X normal).

X normal

(C0,1 closed) ⊂ X ⇒ ∃ map f : X → [0, 1] s.t. f (C0 ) = 0, f (C1 ) = 1

C0 ∩ C1 = ∅

39. (X regular) ⇔ (Np ⊂ X, then ∃ N̄p ⊂ Np ).

(1) (2) (1)

(X normal) ⇔ (C closed, NC ⊂ X, then ∃ N̄C ⊂ NC ).

40. Tietze Extension Theorem:

((A closed) ⊂ (X normal), (f map) : A → I)) ⇒ (∃ (F map) : X → I s.t. F |A = f ).

2

41. Brower Fixed Point Theorem: Any map f : Dn → Dn has a fixed point, where Dn is an

n-dimensional (unit) disk.

Q

42. Urysohn Imbedding Theorem: (X second-countable, T3 ) ⇒ (∃ (f imbedding) : X → n∈N In ),

i.e. f is an injective map and f˜ : X → f (X) is a homeomorphism.

∞

S ∞

T

43. (X is a Baire Space) ⇔ (int(An ) = ∅ ⇒ int( An ) = ∅) ⇔ ( (Un open dense) is dense)

44. Baire Theorem: (X compact and T2 ) ∨ (X complete metric) ⇒ (X is a Baire space)

45. Homotopy: Maps f, g : X → Y are homotopic, i.e., f ' g if there is a homotopy (map) H :

X × I → Y such that H(x, 0) = f (x), H(x, 1) = g(x). Moreover, f ' g if they lie in the same

path-connected component. Also ' is an equivalence relation on C(X, Y ).

46. Homotopy Equivalence: f : X → Y is a homotopy equivalence if there exists g : Y → X such

that g ◦ f ' IdX , f ◦ g ' IdY . Note that homeomorphism is a homotopy equivalence.

3

4. Consider function λx + y. Then

2

hx,yi hx,yi

λ2 ||x||2 + ||y||2 + 2λhx, yi ≤ − ||x||2 ||x||2 + ||y||2 + 2 − ||x||2 hx, yi ≤

2 2 2

⇒ hx, yi ≤ ||x|| ||y||

S

10. Let X = (Uα open). Consider the set S S = {x ∈ [a, b] : [a, x] can be covered by finitely many Uα }.

Clearly, S 6= ∅ since a ∈ S, so let S = Un . Now S consider κ = sup S ∈ S, since S is closed. Let

κ ∈ Uk . Then κ ∈ Bε (κ) ∈ Uk , so [a, κ + 2ε ] ∈ Un ∪ Uk ⇒ κ + 2ε ∈ S, which is a contradiciton,

unless Bε (κ) ∩ [a, b] = (b − ε, b], i.e., κ = b, so S = [a, b] and [a, b] is compact.

11. Consider an open cover U ⊂ Vα . Then X ⊂ Vα ∪ U c , which has a finite subcover, hence, U

S S

also has a finite subcover.

0 0

c

S 0

12. Consider

S 0 T p ∈ U . LetTfor qα ∈ U, p ∈c Vα , qα ∈ Vα , Vα ∩ Vα = ∅. Then U ⊂ Vα =

a point

Vαi ⇒ p ∈ Vαi , and since Vαi ∩ U = ∅, U is open, hence, U is closed.

X ⊂ f −1 ( Uα ) = f −1 (Uα ) = f −1 (Uαi ) =

S S S S

13. Let YS ⊂ Uα be an open cover of Y . Then

f −1 ( Uαi ), since X is compact. Hence, Y ⊂ Uαi , so it is also compact.

S

f (U closed) is closed, so f −1 is continuous.

15. Let fS: X → Y . Then f −1 (Uα ) ⊂ f −1 ( SUα ). Hence,

S −1

f −1 ( US −1

S S

f (Uα ) ⊂ S α ). Also, f (y) ∈

−1 −1 −1 −1 −1 −1 −1

S

f ( Uα ) ⇒ f (y) ∈ f (Uk ), so f ( Uα ) ⊂ f (Uα ), so f ( Uα ) = f (Uα ).

17. We will use the fact that (a)⇒(c) from below. WAFTSOC no such Lebsgue number exists. We can

thus construct the sequence (xn ) such that B n1 (xn ) * Uα for any α. Yet, the above sequence must

converge, say to y ∈ X, so Bε (y) ⊂ Uα . Pick xk ∈ B 2ε for k1 < 2ε . Then B k1 (xk ) ⊂ Uα , contradicting

the assumption.

S

18. (a)⇒(b): Assume S A ⊂ X has no limit point,Si.e., ∀x

S ∈ X ∃NS x s.t. NSx \{x} ∩ A = ∅. Let A = {xα }

and X\A = {yβ }. By compactness, X ⊂ Nxα Nyβ ⊂ Nxm Nyn . Each N contains finitely

many elements of A, thereby contradicting the fact that A is infinite.

For metric X :

(b)⇒(c): Let {xn } ⊂ X and let p be its limit point. Let xnk be such that d(p, xnk ) < k1 , such that

nk < nk+1 . We can create this sequence by induction. By assumption, there must be some point

1

xn1 ∈ B1 (p). Now assuming we formed the sequence up to nk , ∃xnk+1 ∈ B(p, nk+1 ) by considering

the truncated sequence {xn }nk +1 S . Hence, (xnk ) → p by ε − δ definition.

(c)⇒(a): Claim: ∀ε > 0, X ⊂ Bε (xi ), for some finite set of balls. Suppose not. Then successively

Sn

pick x1 , x2 , ... such that Bε (xn+1 ) ∩ Bε (xi ). But then the sequence (xn ) has no converging

n

subsequence.⇒⇐ Now pick Lebesgue number λ for a cover X ⊂ Uα . Then X ⊂ B(pi , λ3 ) and

S S

n

since B(pi , λ3 ) ⊂ Uαi , X ⊂ Uαi .

S

F

20. ⇐ WAFTSOC, X = Ã B, a ∈ Ã, b ∈ B. Let A ⊂ Ã containing all the points in the interval

between a and α = sup A ≥ a + ε. Since A is closed, α is a limit point of A, as ∀ε > 0 ∃a ∈

A ∩ (α − ε, α) so α ∈ A. But since A is open, A ⊃ (α − ε, α + ε) ∩ [a, b], hence, α = b, so

Ã ⊃ A = [a, b] and b ∈ / B. ⇒⇐

⇒ If X is not an interval,

F then ∃(a, b) s.t. {a, b} ∈ X, a < c < b, c ∈

/ X. But then

X = (−∞, c) ∩ X X ∩ (c, ∞) is a separation.

4

21. Assume there exists a separation Y = A B. But then X = f −1 (A) f −1 (B), as f −1 (A) and

F F

f −1 (B) are both open and f is a surjective map. Let a, b ∈ Y , γ : [0, 1] → X γ(f −1 (a)) =

0, γ(f −1 (b)) = 1, so f (γ(0)) = a and f (γ(1)) = b and f ◦ γ is continuous.

F

22. LetF X = A B, γ : [0, 1] → X, γ(0) = a ∈ A, γ(1) = b ∈ B. But then γ([0, 1]) = γ([0, 1]) ∩

A γ([0, 1]) ∩ B, but γ([0, 1]) is connected by Theorem 21. ⇒⇐

F F

23. Assume B = X Y ⇒ A = (X ∩ A) (Y ∩ A) ⇒ Y ∩ A = ∅, since A is connected. So A ∈ X, but

since X is closed, B ⊂ Ā ⊂ X̄ ⊂ X, so Y = ∅.

F

24. ⇒ Assume such exist. Then X = (Ā ∩ A) (B̄ ∩ B), as both (Ā ∩ A) and (B̄ ∩ B) are closed

in X. ⇐ If X cannot be written as such union, it means that there is no A ∪ B = X with

A = X ∩ (B̄)c , B = X ∩ (Ā)c , both open in X.

S F T

25. Assume Xα = A B, p ∈ Xα , p ∈ A. Then, if p ∈ Xβ , Xβ ∈ A, as otherwise it would be

disconnected. This is true for all Xα , hence B = ∅. ⇒⇐

Q

26. Consider {(wα ), (wβ )} ∈ W = Wα . Then there exists a map fµ : [0, 1] → Wµ s.t. fµ (0) =

(wα )µ , fµ (1) = (wβ )µ . Hence f = (fµ ) is a path connecting (wα ) and (wβ ). (f is continuous as

πµ ◦ f = fµ is continuous, which is precisely the definition of continuous functions under Tychonoff

topology.)

Consider W1 × W2 , let p ∈ W1 . Clearly, (W1 × {w2 }) ∪ (p × W2 ) is connected as both S p × W2 and

W1 × {w2 } are connected and they T share point {p} × {w 2 }. Hence, W 1 × W 2 = w2 ∈W2 (W1 ×

{w2 }) ∪ (p × W2 ) is connected as w2 ∈W2 (W1 × {w2 }) ∪ (p × W2 ) = (p × W2 ) 6= ∅. Hence, theorem

is true for finite Q products. FixQpoint (wα ) ∈ WSand pick a set K = {α1 , α2 , ..., αn } ∈ A. Let

/ {wα } ×

V{α1 ,α2 ,...,αn } = α∈K α∈K Wα . Then K is dense in W . (Pick N(wα ) ∈ W . From

K VQ

definition of open Q sets in product

Q topology, N (wα ) = Nα , where only finitely many Nα 6= Wα .

Hence, N(wα ) ⊃ β∈K Nwβ × β ∈K / Wβ , which is an open subset of some VK .) Hence, since closure

of connected sets is connected, we are done.

27. f −1 (F closed) = f |−1 −1

A (F ) ∪ f |B (F ), which are both closed.

29. ⇒ Let p ∈ (C (path)component) ⊂ X. Then Np ⊂ C, as Np is (path)connected. Hence, C is open.

⇐ Consider p ∈ X. Then consider the (path)connected component of Np that contains p. That

(path)component is open by assumption, hence, X is locally (path)connected.

30. Assume X is not path-connected. Then there exists some path-connected component P ⊂F (C connected).

The set of other path-connected components intersecting C lie entirely in C, so C = P (C − P ),

and C − P is a union of path-connected components. But since X is locally path-connected, path-

connected components are open, hence C − P is open, hence we have a disconnection of C. ⇒⇐

32. Let X = Ā, card(A) = ℵ0 . A countable basis for X is {Br (a) : r ∈ Q+ , a ∈ A}.

33. ⇐ For both cases, P(Xn ) ∼ = P(Xn ) × i6=n Xi , so result

Q

∞

Q follows.

Q

⇒ Let {Vi }Q be the

Q basis for X

Q i . Consider

Q the basis { Vi × n6=i Xn }. Let x ∈ (V open) ⊂ X.

Then V = Ui × n6=i Xn ⊃ Vi × n6=i Xn for the appropriate basis element in X, which proves

the result for second-countable sets. For first-countable sets, replace “basis for Xi ” by “basis for

xi ∈ Xi .”

34. ⇐ Trivially, XQ= Ā ⇒ QXn = πn (A). Q Q Q Q

⇒ Let A = { {ai } × n6=i Xn }. For x ∈ X, Nx = Vi × n6=i Xn ⇒ a = {ai } × n6=i Xn ∈

Nx ⇒ Ā = X. Note that since A is a countable union of finite products of countable sets, it is

countable, hence, X is separable.

5

35. Let A, B be closed. Let NA = {x : d(x, A) < 21 d(A, B)}, NB = {x : d(x, B) < 21 d(A, B)}. By

definition of distance, d(A, B) = inf{d(a, b) : a ∈ A, b ∈ B} = min{d(a, b) : a ∈ A, b ∈ B} > 0,

since A, B are closed.

36. Let A, B be closed so they are compact. Define Sab = {(Na , Nb ) : a ∈ A, b ∈ B Na ∩ Nb = ∅}.

Since A is compact and {Na } cover A, we can pick a finite subcover {π1 (Sab )}a∈S , S finite. Now

S

(a,b)∈(S,B) π2 (Sab ) ⊃ B, but since B is compact, it has a finite subcover {π2 (Sab )}(a,b)∈(S,T ) , T

T S T S

finite. Then A ⊂ a∈S b∈T π1 (Sab ), B ⊂ b∈T a∈S π2 (Sab ), and the intersection of those two

open sets is empty.

37. Let A, B be closed

39.

S Hence,

Sm A ⊂ Un , Ūn ∩ B = ∅. Similarly, construct Vm for A. Now A ⊂ (Un \ Vm ), B ⊂

(Vm \ Un ).

38. Topology Lecture Notes, p. 50, good outline; Munkres, p. 111, very detailed proof.

(1) (1) (2)

39. ⇒ (Np open) ⇒ (Np )C is closed, so we can separate it with p by Np and some other open set,

(2)

not intersecting Np . hence, result follows.

⇐ Let A be closed, p ∈/ A. Then there is N̄p ⊂ AC , so p and A are separated by Np and (N̄p )C .

For the normal case replace point p by closed set C in the proofs above.

42. Let {Un } be a countable base for X and consider {(Um , Un ) : Ūm ⊂ Un }. By Urysohn lemma,

∃ um,n : X → I s.t. um,n (Ūm ) = 1, um,n (X\Un ) = 0. Set f : X → I (m,n) by f (x) = (um,n (x)).

Injectivity: Let x1,2 ∈ X. Then there is Un 3 x1 , s.t. x2 ∈ / Un . By regularity, x ∈ Um ⊂ Ūm ⊂

Un ⇒ um,n (x) = 1, um,n = 0 ⇒ f is injective.

f˜ : X → f (X) is open: Consider x0 ∈ Um ⊂ Ūm ⊂ Un ⊂ (V( open) ⊂ X. If x ∈ / V, um,n (x0 ) =

Q [0.1] if (i, j) = (m, n)

1, um,n (x) = 0. Furthermore, set W = Wi,j , where Wi,j =

(0, 1] if (i, j) 6= (m, n)

Since um,n (x0 ) = 1, f (x0 ) ∈ W ∩f (X). Let f (x) ∈ W ∩f (X), then f (x) = (ui,j (x)) with um,n (x) >

0. But um,n vanishes outside Un ⊂ V ⇒ x ∈ / X\V ⇒ x ∈ V ⇒ W ∩ f (X) ⊂ f (V ).

∞

S

44. Let (U open) ⊂ X. It suffices to show that there exists x ∈ U, x ∈

/ An . Note that X is normal.

Proceed inductively: there is x0 ∈ U \A1 so we can separate x0 and A1 via x0 ∈ U1 , Ū1 ∩ A1 = ∅.

There is xn−1 ∈ Un , Ūn ∩ An = ∅, etc. So we obtain the sequence {Un }, Ūn ⊂ Un−1 , Ūn ∩ An = ∅.

∞

T ∞

S

Since X is compact, Ūn 6= ∅ ⇒ there is x ∈ U \ An . Similarly, we can show this result when

X is a complete metric space.

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