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# 1.

topology: (a) trivial (indiscrete) topology; (b) discrete topology; (c) finite compliment topology;
(d) Sierpinski topology; quotient topology: equivalence class; metric
2. A topological space is a pair (X, τ ), where τ ⊂ P(X) satisfying
• ∅ ∈ τ, X ∈ τ
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• Ai ∈ τ ⇒ i∈I Ai ∈ τ
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• Ai ∈ τ ⇒ i=1 Ai ∈ τ
3. Given a space X, a metric d on X is a map d : X × X → [0, ∞) satisfying
• d(x, y) = 0 ⇔ x = y
• d(x, y) = d(y, x)
• d(x, z) ≤ d(x, y) + d(y, z).
4. Cauchy-Schwartz Inequality: In Rn , |hx, yi| ≤ ||x|| · ||y||.
5. f : X → Y is continuous iff f −1 (U ) is open (U open), called map.
Q
6. Tychonoff Topology, or product topology, is the coarsest topology on Xα for
Q which all
projections πα are continuous. Open sets in Tychonoff topology are unions of sets Uα , where
Uα ∈ Xα are open and Uα 6= Xα only for finitely many α.
7. Hausdorff Condition: A space is called Hausdorff if

## ∀x, y ∈ X, ∃Nx , Ny s.t. Nx ∩ Ny = ∅

8. Heine-Borel Property: Space X is compact if every open cover has a finite subcover.
9. Bolzano-Weierstrass Property: Every infinite subset A of X has a limit point in X.
limit point: p limit point of A if ∀Ny , Ny ∩ A\{y} =
6 ∅.
limit of a sequience: (xn → p) ⇔ (∀Np card({xn }\Np ) < ℵ0 ).
10. [a, b] is compact in R.
11. (closed U ) ⊂ (X compact) is compact.
12. (compact U ) ⊂ (X Hausdorff) is closed.
13. (surjective map f ) : (X compact) → Y ⇒ Y is compact.
14. (bijective map f ) : (X compact) → (Y Hausdorff) ⇒ f −1 is continuous.
15. f −1 ( Uα ) = f −1 (Uα ).
S S
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16. Tychonoff Theorem: Let {Xα } be compact. Then Xα is compact under product topology.
17. Let X be a metrizable compact space and U = {Uα } be an open cover. Then there exists a
Lebesgue number δ such that ∀x ∈ X Bδ (x) ∈ Uα for some α.
18. If X is any space, (a)⇒(b). If X is metrizable, (a)⇔(b)⇔(c):
(a) X is compact (Heine-Borel property).
(b) Every infinite subset of X has a limit point (Bolzano-Weierstrass property).
(c) X is sequentially compact.

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Remark: (b);(a) and (a) is independent of (c) in general topology.
19. connectedness: (a) path; (b) path-connected ; (c) connected ; (d) connected component; (e) locally
path-connected ; (f) locally connected ;
20. (X ⊂ R connected) ⇔ (X is an interval).
21. Connectedness and path-connectedness are topological properties. More precisely, if f : X → Y is
surjective and X is connected (path-connected), then Y is connected (path-connected).

## 22. (X path-connected) ⇒ (X connected).

23. (A ⊂ X connected, A ⊂ B ⊂ Ā) ⇒ (B connected). In particular, components are closed.
24. (X ⊂ Y connected) ⇔ (@A, B ⊂ Y s.t. X = A ∪ B, A 6= ∅, B 6= ∅, Ā ∩ B = ∅ = A ∩ B̄).
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25. (Xα connected, Xα 6= ∅) ⇒ ( Xα connected).
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26. (Wα connected) ⇒ ( Wα connected under Tychonoff topology).
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27. Let f : X → A B. If f |A and f |B are maps, then so is f .
28. ((f open surjective map) : X → Y, X locally connected) ⇒ (Y locally connected).

## 29. (X locally connected) ⇔ (components of (U open) ⊂ X are open).

(X locally path-connected) ⇔ (path-components of (U open) ⊂ X are open).
30. (X locally path-connected and connected) ⇒ (X path-connected).
In particular, on manifolds, (connected)⇔(path-connected).
31. separation axioms: (a) points closed = T1 (b) Hausdorff = T2 ; (c) regular = T3 ; (d) normal
= T4 ; (e) first-countable; (f) second-countable; (g) separable; (h) (T4 + T1 ) ⇒ (T3 + T1 ) ⇒ T2 ;
32. (X metrizable, separable) ⇒ (X second-countable).
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33. ({Xn } first-countable (second-countable)) ⇔ ( Xn first-countable (second-countable)).
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34. ({Xn } separable) ⇔ ( Xn separable).

## 35. (X metrizable) ⇒ (X normal).

36. (X compact, T2 ) ⇒ (X normal).
37. (X second-countable, T3 ) ⇒ (X normal).

## 38. Urysohn’s Lemma:

X normal

(C0,1 closed) ⊂ X ⇒ ∃ map f : X → [0, 1] s.t. f (C0 ) = 0, f (C1 ) = 1

C0 ∩ C1 = ∅

## (1) (2) (1)

39. (X regular) ⇔ (Np ⊂ X, then ∃ N̄p ⊂ Np ).
(1) (2) (1)
(X normal) ⇔ (C closed, NC ⊂ X, then ∃ N̄C ⊂ NC ).
40. Tietze Extension Theorem:
((A closed) ⊂ (X normal), (f map) : A → I)) ⇒ (∃ (F map) : X → I s.t. F |A = f ).

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41. Brower Fixed Point Theorem: Any map f : Dn → Dn has a fixed point, where Dn is an
n-dimensional (unit) disk.
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42. Urysohn Imbedding Theorem: (X second-countable, T3 ) ⇒ (∃ (f imbedding) : X → n∈N In ),
i.e. f is an injective map and f˜ : X → f (X) is a homeomorphism.

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43. (X is a Baire Space) ⇔ (int(An ) = ∅ ⇒ int( An ) = ∅) ⇔ ( (Un open dense) is dense)
44. Baire Theorem: (X compact and T2 ) ∨ (X complete metric) ⇒ (X is a Baire space)
45. Homotopy: Maps f, g : X → Y are homotopic, i.e., f ' g if there is a homotopy (map) H :
X × I → Y such that H(x, 0) = f (x), H(x, 1) = g(x). Moreover, f ' g if they lie in the same
path-connected component. Also ' is an equivalence relation on C(X, Y ).
46. Homotopy Equivalence: f : X → Y is a homotopy equivalence if there exists g : Y → X such
that g ◦ f ' IdX , f ◦ g ' IdY . Note that homeomorphism is a homotopy equivalence.

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4. Consider function λx + y. Then

## 0 ≤ ||λx + y||2 ≤ hλx + y, λx + yi ≤ hλx, λxi + 2hλx, yi + hy, yi ≤

 2  
hx,yi hx,yi
λ2 ||x||2 + ||y||2 + 2λhx, yi ≤ − ||x||2 ||x||2 + ||y||2 + 2 − ||x||2 hx, yi ≤
2 2 2
⇒ hx, yi ≤ ||x|| ||y||
S
10. Let X = (Uα open). Consider the set S S = {x ∈ [a, b] : [a, x] can be covered by finitely many Uα }.
Clearly, S 6= ∅ since a ∈ S, so let S = Un . Now S consider κ = sup S ∈ S, since S is closed. Let
κ ∈ Uk . Then κ ∈ Bε (κ) ∈ Uk , so [a, κ + 2ε ] ∈ Un ∪ Uk ⇒ κ + 2ε ∈ S, which is a contradiciton,
unless Bε (κ) ∩ [a, b] = (b − ε, b], i.e., κ = b, so S = [a, b] and [a, b] is compact.

11. Consider an open cover U ⊂ Vα . Then X ⊂ Vα ∪ U c , which has a finite subcover, hence, U
S S
also has a finite subcover.
0 0
c
S 0
12. Consider
S 0 T p ∈ U . LetTfor qα ∈ U, p ∈c Vα , qα ∈ Vα , Vα ∩ Vα = ∅. Then U ⊂ Vα =
a point
Vαi ⇒ p ∈ Vαi , and since Vαi ∩ U = ∅, U is open, hence, U is closed.
X ⊂ f −1 ( Uα ) = f −1 (Uα ) = f −1 (Uαi ) =
S S S S
13. Let YS ⊂ Uα be an open cover of Y . Then
f −1 ( Uαi ), since X is compact. Hence, Y ⊂ Uαi , so it is also compact.
S

## 14. Let (U closed) ⊂ X ⇒ U compact ⇒ f (U ) compact ⇒ f (U ) closed as Y is Hausdorff. Hence,

f (U closed) is closed, so f −1 is continuous.
15. Let fS: X → Y . Then f −1 (Uα ) ⊂ f −1 ( SUα ). Hence,
S −1
f −1 ( US −1
S S
f (Uα ) ⊂ S α ). Also, f (y) ∈
−1 −1 −1 −1 −1 −1 −1
S
f ( Uα ) ⇒ f (y) ∈ f (Uk ), so f ( Uα ) ⊂ f (Uα ), so f ( Uα ) = f (Uα ).

17. We will use the fact that (a)⇒(c) from below. WAFTSOC no such Lebsgue number exists. We can
thus construct the sequence (xn ) such that B n1 (xn ) * Uα for any α. Yet, the above sequence must
converge, say to y ∈ X, so Bε (y) ⊂ Uα . Pick xk ∈ B 2ε for k1 < 2ε . Then B k1 (xk ) ⊂ Uα , contradicting
the assumption.
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18. (a)⇒(b): Assume S A ⊂ X has no limit point,Si.e., ∀x
S ∈ X ∃NS x s.t. NSx \{x} ∩ A = ∅. Let A = {xα }
and X\A = {yβ }. By compactness, X ⊂ Nxα Nyβ ⊂ Nxm Nyn . Each N contains finitely
many elements of A, thereby contradicting the fact that A is infinite.
For metric X :
(b)⇒(c): Let {xn } ⊂ X and let p be its limit point. Let xnk be such that d(p, xnk ) < k1 , such that
nk < nk+1 . We can create this sequence by induction. By assumption, there must be some point
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xn1 ∈ B1 (p). Now assuming we formed the sequence up to nk , ∃xnk+1 ∈ B(p, nk+1 ) by considering
the truncated sequence {xn }nk +1 S . Hence, (xnk ) → p by ε − δ definition.
(c)⇒(a): Claim: ∀ε > 0, X ⊂ Bε (xi ), for some finite set of balls. Suppose not. Then successively
Sn
pick x1 , x2 , ... such that Bε (xn+1 ) ∩ Bε (xi ). But then the sequence (xn ) has no converging
n
subsequence.⇒⇐ Now pick Lebesgue number λ for a cover X ⊂ Uα . Then X ⊂ B(pi , λ3 ) and
S S
n
since B(pi , λ3 ) ⊂ Uαi , X ⊂ Uαi .
S

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20. ⇐ WAFTSOC, X = Ã B, a ∈ Ã, b ∈ B. Let A ⊂ Ã containing all the points in the interval
between a and α = sup A ≥ a + ε. Since A is closed, α is a limit point of A, as ∀ε > 0 ∃a ∈
A ∩ (α − ε, α) so α ∈ A. But since A is open, A ⊃ (α − ε, α + ε) ∩ [a, b], hence, α = b, so
Ã ⊃ A = [a, b] and b ∈ / B. ⇒⇐
⇒ If X is not an interval,
F then ∃(a, b) s.t. {a, b} ∈ X, a < c < b, c ∈
/ X. But then
X = (−∞, c) ∩ X X ∩ (c, ∞) is a separation.

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21. Assume there exists a separation Y = A B. But then X = f −1 (A) f −1 (B), as f −1 (A) and
F F
f −1 (B) are both open and f is a surjective map. Let a, b ∈ Y , γ : [0, 1] → X γ(f −1 (a)) =
0, γ(f −1 (b)) = 1, so f (γ(0)) = a and f (γ(1)) = b and f ◦ γ is continuous.
F
22. LetF X = A B, γ : [0, 1] → X, γ(0) = a ∈ A, γ(1) = b ∈ B. But then γ([0, 1]) = γ([0, 1]) ∩
A γ([0, 1]) ∩ B, but γ([0, 1]) is connected by Theorem 21. ⇒⇐
F F
23. Assume B = X Y ⇒ A = (X ∩ A) (Y ∩ A) ⇒ Y ∩ A = ∅, since A is connected. So A ∈ X, but
since X is closed, B ⊂ Ā ⊂ X̄ ⊂ X, so Y = ∅.
F
24. ⇒ Assume such exist. Then X = (Ā ∩ A) (B̄ ∩ B), as both (Ā ∩ A) and (B̄ ∩ B) are closed
in X. ⇐ If X cannot be written as such union, it means that there is no A ∪ B = X with
A = X ∩ (B̄)c , B = X ∩ (Ā)c , both open in X.
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25. Assume Xα = A B, p ∈ Xα , p ∈ A. Then, if p ∈ Xβ , Xβ ∈ A, as otherwise it would be
disconnected. This is true for all Xα , hence B = ∅. ⇒⇐
Q
26. Consider {(wα ), (wβ )} ∈ W = Wα . Then there exists a map fµ : [0, 1] → Wµ s.t. fµ (0) =
(wα )µ , fµ (1) = (wβ )µ . Hence f = (fµ ) is a path connecting (wα ) and (wβ ). (f is continuous as
πµ ◦ f = fµ is continuous, which is precisely the definition of continuous functions under Tychonoff
topology.)
Consider W1 × W2 , let p ∈ W1 . Clearly, (W1 × {w2 }) ∪ (p × W2 ) is connected as both S p × W2 and
W1 × {w2 } are connected and they T share point {p} × {w 2 }. Hence, W 1 × W 2 = w2 ∈W2 (W1 ×
{w2 }) ∪ (p × W2 ) is connected as w2 ∈W2 (W1 × {w2 }) ∪ (p × W2 ) = (p × W2 ) 6= ∅. Hence, theorem
is true for finite Q products. FixQpoint (wα ) ∈ WSand pick a set K = {α1 , α2 , ..., αn } ∈ A. Let
/ {wα } ×
V{α1 ,α2 ,...,αn } = α∈K α∈K Wα . Then K is dense in W . (Pick N(wα ) ∈ W . From
K VQ
definition of open Q sets in product
Q topology, N (wα ) = Nα , where only finitely many Nα 6= Wα .
Hence, N(wα ) ⊃ β∈K Nwβ × β ∈K / Wβ , which is an open subset of some VK .) Hence, since closure
of connected sets is connected, we are done.
27. f −1 (F closed) = f |−1 −1
A (F ) ∪ f |B (F ), which are both closed.

## 28. Let p ∈ Y . Then (f ((U open) ⊂ f −1 (Np )) open) ⊂ Np , so Y is locally connected.

29. ⇒ Let p ∈ (C (path)component) ⊂ X. Then Np ⊂ C, as Np is (path)connected. Hence, C is open.
⇐ Consider p ∈ X. Then consider the (path)connected component of Np that contains p. That
(path)component is open by assumption, hence, X is locally (path)connected.
30. Assume X is not path-connected. Then there exists some path-connected component P ⊂F (C connected).
The set of other path-connected components intersecting C lie entirely in C, so C = P (C − P ),
and C − P is a union of path-connected components. But since X is locally path-connected, path-
connected components are open, hence C − P is open, hence we have a disconnection of C. ⇒⇐
32. Let X = Ā, card(A) = ℵ0 . A countable basis for X is {Br (a) : r ∈ Q+ , a ∈ A}.
33. ⇐ For both cases, P(Xn ) ∼ = P(Xn ) × i6=n Xi , so result
Q

Q follows.
Q
⇒ Let {Vi }Q be the
Q basis for X
Q i . Consider
Q the basis { Vi × n6=i Xn }. Let x ∈ (V open) ⊂ X.
Then V = Ui × n6=i Xn ⊃ Vi × n6=i Xn for the appropriate basis element in X, which proves
the result for second-countable sets. For first-countable sets, replace “basis for Xi ” by “basis for
xi ∈ Xi .”
34. ⇐ Trivially, XQ= Ā ⇒ QXn = πn (A). Q Q Q Q
⇒ Let A = { {ai } × n6=i Xn }. For x ∈ X, Nx = Vi × n6=i Xn ⇒ a = {ai } × n6=i Xn ∈
Nx ⇒ Ā = X. Note that since A is a countable union of finite products of countable sets, it is
countable, hence, X is separable.

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35. Let A, B be closed. Let NA = {x : d(x, A) < 21 d(A, B)}, NB = {x : d(x, B) < 21 d(A, B)}. By
definition of distance, d(A, B) = inf{d(a, b) : a ∈ A, b ∈ B} = min{d(a, b) : a ∈ A, b ∈ B} > 0,
since A, B are closed.

36. Let A, B be closed so they are compact. Define Sab = {(Na , Nb ) : a ∈ A, b ∈ B Na ∩ Nb = ∅}.
Since A is compact and {Na } cover A, we can pick a finite subcover {π1 (Sab )}a∈S , S finite. Now
S
(a,b)∈(S,B) π2 (Sab ) ⊃ B, but since B is compact, it has a finite subcover {π2 (Sab )}(a,b)∈(S,T ) , T
T S T S
finite. Then A ⊂ a∈S b∈T π1 (Sab ), B ⊂ b∈T a∈S π2 (Sab ), and the intersection of those two
open sets is empty.

## S and {Ui } be countable basis. Then ∀ a ∈ A ∃ Un ⊂ Ūn ⊂ NaSand NSa n∩ B = ∅ by

37. Let A, B be closed
39.
S Hence,
Sm A ⊂ Un , Ūn ∩ B = ∅. Similarly, construct Vm for A. Now A ⊂ (Un \ Vm ), B ⊂
(Vm \ Un ).

38. Topology Lecture Notes, p. 50, good outline; Munkres, p. 111, very detailed proof.
(1) (1) (2)
39. ⇒ (Np open) ⇒ (Np )C is closed, so we can separate it with p by Np and some other open set,
(2)
not intersecting Np . hence, result follows.
⇐ Let A be closed, p ∈/ A. Then there is N̄p ⊂ AC , so p and A are separated by Np and (N̄p )C .
For the normal case replace point p by closed set C in the proofs above.
42. Let {Un } be a countable base for X and consider {(Um , Un ) : Ūm ⊂ Un }. By Urysohn lemma,
∃ um,n : X → I s.t. um,n (Ūm ) = 1, um,n (X\Un ) = 0. Set f : X → I (m,n) by f (x) = (um,n (x)).
Injectivity: Let x1,2 ∈ X. Then there is Un 3 x1 , s.t. x2 ∈ / Un . By regularity, x ∈ Um ⊂ Ūm ⊂
Un ⇒ um,n (x) = 1, um,n = 0 ⇒ f is injective.
f˜ : X → f (X) is open: Consider x0 ∈ Um ⊂ Ūm ⊂ Un ⊂ (V( open) ⊂ X. If x ∈ / V, um,n (x0 ) =
Q [0.1] if (i, j) = (m, n)
1, um,n (x) = 0. Furthermore, set W = Wi,j , where Wi,j =
(0, 1] if (i, j) 6= (m, n)
Since um,n (x0 ) = 1, f (x0 ) ∈ W ∩f (X). Let f (x) ∈ W ∩f (X), then f (x) = (ui,j (x)) with um,n (x) >
0. But um,n vanishes outside Un ⊂ V ⇒ x ∈ / X\V ⇒ x ∈ V ⇒ W ∩ f (X) ⊂ f (V ).

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44. Let (U open) ⊂ X. It suffices to show that there exists x ∈ U, x ∈
/ An . Note that X is normal.
Proceed inductively: there is x0 ∈ U \A1 so we can separate x0 and A1 via x0 ∈ U1 , Ū1 ∩ A1 = ∅.
There is xn−1 ∈ Un , Ūn ∩ An = ∅, etc. So we obtain the sequence {Un }, Ūn ⊂ Un−1 , Ūn ∩ An = ∅.

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Since X is compact, Ūn 6= ∅ ⇒ there is x ∈ U \ An . Similarly, we can show this result when
X is a complete metric space.