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r e v i e w i n g t h e f i r s t e d i t i o n
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s t r u c t u r a l s t e e l w o r k t o 5 5 5 9 5 0 P a r t 1 .
t h e s u b j e c t I n t w o p a r t s , t h e f i r s t d e a l s w i t h d e s i g n a t
a n e l e m e n t a r y l e v e l f a m l i l a r i s l n g t h e r e a d e r w i t h
B S 5 9 5 0 . P a r t t w o t h e n p r o c e e d s t o c o v e r a l l a s p e c t s
o f t h o d e s i g n o f w h o l e b u i l d i n g s , h i g h l i g h t i n g t h e
i n t e g r a t i o n o f ' e l e m e n t s ' t o p r o d u c e e c o n o m i c , s a f e
s t r u c t u r e s .
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u p d a t e d t o t a k e a c c o u n t o f r e c e n t r e s e a r c h a n d d e s i g n
d e v e l o p m e n t s a n d a n e w c h a p t e r o n p l a t e g i r d e r s h a s
b e e n a d d e d . T h e r e v i s e d t e x t r e t a i n s a l l t h e p o p u l a r
f e a t u r e s o f t h e o r i g i n a l w o r k . I n p a r t i c u l a r , r e a d e r s v . i l l
f i n d t h a t t h e o u t h o r s :
e x p l a i n c o n c e p t s c l e a r l y
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s c e n a r i o s
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t a k e t h e r e a d e r s t e p - b y . s t e p t h r o u g h t h e B r i t k h
S t a n d a r d
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f o r c I v i l / s t r u c t u r a l e n g i n e e r i n g d e g r e e a n d B T E C H I W / D
c o u r s e s . I t w i l l a l s o p r o v e u s e f u l t o p r o f e s s I o n a l
e n g i n e e r s n e e d i n g t o f a m i l l a r i s e t h e m s e l v e s w i t h
5 5 5 9 5 0 P a r t l a n d t h e d e s i g n o f c o m p l e t e b u I l d i n g s ,
p a r t i c u l a r l y p o r t a l f r a m e s .
L i M o r r i s v : a s f o r m e r l y R e a d e r i i i S t r u c h i r a l E n p i n e c r i n g
a t t h e U n l v e r : ; i t y r z i f l r . n c h e s t o r .
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STRUCTURAL
STEELWORK
DESIGN
to
BS 5950
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2nd EDITION
S T R I J C T L J R A L
S T E E L W O R K
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STRUCTURAL
STEELWORK
DESIGN
to
BS 5950
2nd EDITION
L J Morris

o R Plum
.." ;mprinl cl Pearson Education
Harrow, U1gland, lendon. New Yruk . A.",nn,}, Ma ... Fflln<iICD ,To.o,,\o. O"n Mill>, Onta,I".
Tokyo. Singap"," . Hong Kong . Cap. Town . Madrid M",fco CIty. Amu.,tI>m Mu,,!<h _ p.,;, .
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f r o m
Pearson Education Limited
Edinburgh Gnte
Harlow
Essex OvI20 2JE
England
and ASSOClnted Compames throughout Ihe world
Visit liS 011 1he World Wide Web at:
htrp:/Iwww.pearsoneduc.com
Addison Wesley Longman 1996
The nghts of Linden J Moms and David R Plum to be identified as authors of
this Work has been asserted by them III accordance with the Copynght,
DeSigns and Patents Act 1988.
All nghts reserled. No part of this publicatIOn may be reproduced, stored in a
retrieval system. or transmitted in any fonn or by any means, electrontc.
mechamcal. photocopying, recording or otherwise, without pnor wntten
pennlsslon of the publisher or a licence pennlttmg restncted copymg lfl the
Umted Kingdom Issued by the Copynght Licensmg Agency Ltd.
90 Tottenham Court Road. London \VIP OLP
Cover designed by Chns Eley DeSign, Reading
and pnnted by The Riverside Printmg Co, (Reading) Ltd
Cover photograph of Hay'S Gallena, London, courtesy of British Steel
Typeset by Trndespools Ltd, Frome, Somerset
PmHed in f.,blaysla, pp
First pnnted 1996
ISBN 0-582-23088-8
Bntish Library Catalogumg-m-PublicatlOn Data
A catalogue record for this book IS available from the Bntish Library.
TIle publishers Wish 10 thank Ward Building Components for pennlsslOn to
use their matena!.
1098765432
0504030201
Preface
Structuml steelwork design IS usually laught 10 degree and diploma courses
after an Initial grounding In the theory of structures and strength of matenals_
The design teaching usually covers both simple'structurnl elements and
complete buildings, More complex elements and buildings are often covered
In postgraduate courses, but the ideas and concepts outlined in this text still
provide the baSIS for more complicated structures. This book has been
prepared pnmarily for the student, but also for Ihose engmeers m pracllce
who are not familiar wilh BS 5950: Stnlctllraillse of steelwork III buildillgs.
TIus book falls naturally mlo two pans. Part I sets out In detail the deSign
of elements (beams, columns, etc.) frequently found in a structural steel
framework. Part Il shows how these elements are combined 10 form a
building frame, and should prove cspecllllly useful to the engineer m the
context of praClJcal deSign. Part 11 also develops other consideratIOns such as
the ovemll stability of building structures. Tliose with some expenence of
element deSign may prefer to start with Part n, usmg the to
re-examine element deSign as necessary. A final chapter considers detailing
practice, and Ihe effects of a number of pracllcal consideratIOns such as
fabncation and fire protecuon.
It IS assumed that the reader has some knowledge of structural analYSIS and
that a baSIC understanding of metallurgy has been gained elsewhere. The
deSign examples concentrate on manual methods to ensure a proper
understanding of steelwork behavIOur. with suggestions where compulmg
could be used. Detailed programs for specific microcomputers are
Increasmgly bemg Wfmen, and a number of complele deSign packages are
available commercially.
The pnncroal documents required by the reader are:
BS 5950; Part I (1985): DeSIgn 111 SImple cOllstmctlOn; hot rolled seC/lOllS.
British Standards Insiltutlon.
Steelwork deSign. Vol i: Section properties; member capacities. Steel
Construction Instltule.
The first of these documents IS also available In abridged extract form from
British Standards InslltutlOn as:
Extracts from British Standards for SWdenLS of stmctllral deSIgn.

a n d p r o p e r t i e s
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vi PREFACE
The second document IS ll\'ailable In extract fonn (dimensIOns and propertIes
only) m the followmg two publicatIOns:
A check list for desIgners. Steel ConstructIOn lnsbtute.
St11lcfllrol SectioJlS to BS 4: Po,.t 1 & BS 4848: Part 4. British Steel
CorporatIOn.
The latter two extracts are updated regularly and the latest edition should be
used. It should be noted that smce 1995, the symbols used in the BSC
publication for the mam dimensIOns of rolled sectIOns have been changed to
reflect the Eurocode 3 nomenclature. The relevant changes are noted at the
foot of this page.
ll1roughout the book, clause references and notatIOn follow those gIVen m
BS 5950: Part i (deSIgn 1II sImple alld conUnuous construction), except for
those chapters which deal specifically with compOsite construction when the
clause references and notahon follow those m BS 5950: Part 3. i (deSign of
compOSite beams) and Part 4 (design of floors with profiled steel sheeting).
Tbe mam change m the second edition has been the II1trocluctlOn of a
chapter on the deSIgn of plate girders. The authors have also taken the
opportunity to update the text III the light of current practice and latest deSign
mformation.
While every effort has been made to check both calculations and
mterpretatlOn of BS 5950 tbe authors cannot accept any responsibility for
Inadvertent errors.
Acknowledgements
LJM
DRP
The authors acknowledge the assistance of many structural engmeers in
mdustry and teaching, 10 whom details of both mterpretalIon and current
practice have been submllted, and whose helpful comments have been
IUcorporated into the text. In particular, the collaboratIOn with P.A. Rutter III
the Initial drafting of the first edition proved invaluable.
Extracts from BS 5950 are reproduced by permiSSIOn of the British
Standards InstitutIOn. Complete COPIes can be obtained from BSI at Linford
Wood, Milton Keynes, l\-iK14 6LE.
The eqUlvaient Eurocode 3 notallon for the relevant notatIOn given III
BS 5950: Part I.
D;;:;:"
b '" bj2r
n",b
djr '" djs
I;;:;:s T;;:;:t
d;;:;: A (T-section only)
CONTENTS
Preface
v
Foreword to first edition xi;;
PART I THE DESIGN OF STRUCTURAL
STEEL ELEMENTS
INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN IN
3
STEELWORK
l.l DeSign reqUirements
5
1.2 Scope of BS 5950 Struclllrai use of
5
steelwork m buildings
1.3 limit state deSign
6
1.4 Partial safety factors
6
1.5 Landing 7
i.6 Internal forces and moments
9
1.7 Stresses and deformatIOns
9
1.8 Layout of calculailons
I1
1.9 Structural theory 12
LlO Fonnat of chapters
13
Study references
13
2 LOADING AND LOAD
15
COMBINATIONS
2.1 Dead loads
15
2.2 Imposed loads
16
2.3 Wind loads
16
2.4 Load combinatIOns 16
2.5 Example I. Loading of a Simply supported 17
gantry girder
2.6 Example 2. Loading of continuous spans
18
2.7 Example 3. Loading of a POrtal frame 21
Study references
26
3 BEAMS IN BUILDINGS 28
3.1 Beains with full lateral restramt 29
3.2 Beams without full lateral restramt 29
3.3 Simplified deSign procedures 30
v i i i C O N T E N T S
C O N T E N T S i x
3 . 4 M o m e n t c a p a c i t y o f m e m b e r s ( l o c a l
c a p a c i t y c h e c k )
3 . 5 B u c k l i n g r e s i s t a n c e ( m e m b e r b u c k l i n g
c h e c k )
3 . 6 O t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s
3 . 7 E x a m p l e 4 . B e a m s u p p o r t i n g c o n c r e t e
f l o o r s l a b ( r e s t r a i n e d b e a m )
3 . 8 E x a m p l e 5 . B e a m s u p p o r t i n g p l a n t l o a d s
( u n r e s t r a i n e d b e a m )
S t u d y r e f e r e n c e s
4 P U R L I N S A N D S I D E R A I L S 4 2
4 . 1 D e s i g i t r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r p u r l i n s a n d s i d e 4 2
r a i l s
4 . 2 E x a m p l e 6 . P u r l i n o n s l o p i n g r o o f
4 . 3 E x a m p l e 7 . D e s i g n o f s i d e r a i l
4 . 4 E x a m p l e 8 . D e s i g n o f p u r l i n 4 9
7 . 7 E x a m p l e 1 3 . C o l u m n f o r i n d u s t r i a l
b u i l d i n g
7 . 8 E x a m p l e 1 4 . L a c e d c o l u m n f o r i n d u s t n a l
b u i l d i n g
S t u d y r e f e r e n c e s
B C O L U M N B A S E S & B R A C K E T S 9 4
8 . 1 C o l u m n b a s e s
8 . 2 D e s i g n o f c o l u m n b a s e s
8 . 3 B r a c k e t s
8 . 4 D e s i g n o f b r a c k e t s
8 . 5 E x a m p l e . 1 5 . D e s i g n o f s l a b b a s e
8 . 6 E x a m p l e 1 6 . D e s i g n o f c r a n e g i r d e r
b r a c k e t ( f a c e )
8 . 7 E x a m p l e 1 7 . D e s i g n o f c r a n e g t r d e r
b r a c k e t ( l a p p e d )
S t u d y r e f e r e n c e s
5 C R A N E G I R D E R S 5 2
5 . 1 C r a n e w h e e l l o a d s
5 . 2 M a x i m u m l o a d e f f e c t s
5 . 3 E x a m p l e 9 . C r a n e g i r d e r w i t h o u t l a t e r a l
r e s t r a i n t a l o n g s p a n
5 . 4 E x a m p l e I D . C r a n e g i r d e r w i t h l a t e r a l
r e s t r a i n t
S t u d y r e f e r e n c e s
6 T R U S S E S 6 5
6 . ! T y p e s o f t r u s s a n d t h e i r u s e
6 . 2 L o a d i n g a n d a n a l y s i s
6 . 3 S l e n d e r n e s s o f m e m b e r s
6 . 4 C o m p r e s s t o n r e s t s t a n c e
6 . 5 T e n s i o n c a p a c i t y
6 . 6 C o n n e c t i o n s
6 . 7 E x a m p l e I I . R o o f t r u s s w i t h s l o p i n g r a f t e r
6 . 8 E x a m p l e 1 2 . L a t t i c e g t r d e r
S t u d y r e f e r e n c e s
7 S i M P L E A N D C O M P O U N D C O L U M N S 8 0
7 . 1 T y p e s o f c o l u m n
7 . 2 A x i a l c o m p r e s s i o n
7 . 3 S l e n d e r n e s s
7 . 4 B e n d i n g a n d e c c e n t n c i t y
7 . 5 L o c a l c a p a c i t y
7 . 6 O v e r a l l b u c k l i n g
9 C O M P O S I T E B E A M S & S L A B S
9 . I C o m p o s i t e b e a m s
9 . 2 S h e a r a n d m o m e n t c a p a c i t y o f c o m p o s i t e
b e a m s
9 . 3 S h e a r c o n n e c t o r s
9 . 4 L o c a l s h e a r i n c o n c r e t e
9 . 5 D e f l e c t i o n s
9 . 6 C o m p o s i t e s l a b s
9 . 7 E x a m p l e I S . C o m p o s i t e b e a m i n b u i l d i n g
S t u d y r e f e r e n c e s
t O B R A C I N G
1 1 3
1 0 . 1 L o a d i n g r e s i s t e d b y b r a c i n g
1 0 . 2 S t v a y s t a b i l i t y
1 0 . 3 M u l t i - s t o r e y b r a c i n g
1 0 . 4 S i n g l e - s t o r e y b r a c i n g
1 0 . 5 B e a m , t r u s s a n d c o l u m n b r a c i n g
1 0 . 6 E x a m p l e 1 9 . G a b l e w i n d g i r d e r a n d s i d e
b r a c i n g
1 0 . 7 E x a m p l e 2 0 . M u l t i - s t o r e y w i n d b r a c i n g
S t u d y r e f e r e n c e s
I I P L A T E G I R D E R S 1 2 1
l l . i I n t r o d u c t i o n
1 1 . 2 D e s i g n o f u n s t i f f e n e d p l a i e g i r d e r
3 0
3 1
3 1
3 2
3 6
4 0
8 5
9 '
9 3
4 3
4 7
9 4
9 5
9 6
9 7
9 9
1 0 1
1 0 2
1 0 3
5 2
5 4
5 5
6 1
6 4
6 5
6 6
6 7
6 9
6 9
7 0
7 1
7 6
7 8
1 0 6
1 0 6
1 0 7
1 0 8
1 0 9
I I D
1 1 0
l i Z
8 0
8 1
8 2
8 3
8 4
8 5
1 1 3
1 1 3
1 1 4
1 1 5
1 1 6
1 1 6
1 1 9
1 2 0
1 2 1
1 2 4
viii CONTENTS CONTENTS Ix
3.4 Moment capacity of members (local 30 7.7 Example 13. Column for industrial 85
capacity check) building
3.5 Buckling reSIStance (member buckling 31 7.8 Example 14. Laced column for industrial 91
check) building
3.6 Other considerahons 31 Study references 93
3.7 Example 4. Beam supponmg concrete 32
floor slab (restrlllned beam)
B COLUMN BASES & BRACKETS 94
3.8 Example 5. Beam supponmg plant loads 36
(unrestramed beam) 8.1 Column bases 94
Study references 40 8.2 Design of column bases 95
8.3 Brackets 96
4 PURLtNS AND SIDE RAILS H
8,4 DeSign of brackets 97
8.5 'Example',I5. DeSign of slab base 99
4.',
DeSign reqUirements for purlins and side 42 8.6 Example 16. DeSign of crane girder 101
mils brncket (face)
4.2 Example 6. Purtin on slopmg roof 43 8.7 Example 17. DeSign of crane girder 102
4.3 Example 7. DeSign of side rail 47 'bracket {lapped}
4.4 Example 8. DesIgn of multi-span purlin 49 Study references 103
5 CRANE GIRDERS 52
9 COMPOSITE BEAMS & SLABS 105
5.i Crane wheel loads 52
9.1 Composite beams 106
5.2 MaXimum load effects 54
9.2 Shear and moment capacity of composl!e 106
5.3 Example 9. Crane girder without lateral 55 beams
restramt along span 9.3 Shear connectors 107
5.4 Example 10, Craoe girder with lateral 61
9.4 Local shear In concrete 108
restramt
9.5 Deflections 109
Study references 64
9.6 Composite slabs 110
9.7 Example 18. Composue beam In building 110
6 TRUSSES 65
Study references 112
6.1 Types of truss and their use 65
6.2 Loading and analYSIS 66
10 BRACING 11]
6.3 Slenderness of members 67
10.1 Loading resisted by bracmg 113
6.4 CompreSSion resistance 69
10.2 Sway stability 113
6.5 TenSIOn capacity 69
10.3 Multi*storey braCing 114
6.6 ConnectIOns 70
lOA Single-slorey bracmg 115
6.7 Example 11. Roof truss with slOPing rafter 71
10.5 Be:lIm, truss and column braCing 116
6.8 Example 12. Lattice gnder 76
10.6 Example 19. Gable wmd girder and side 116
Study references 78
braCing
10.7 Example 20. l .... wmd bracmg 119
7 SIMPLE AND COMPOUND COLUMNS 80 Study references 120
7.1 Types of column 80
7.2 Axial compressIOn 81
11 PLATE GIRDERS 121
7.3 Slenderness 82
11.1 IntroductIOn 121
7.4 Bending and eccentnclty 83
11.2 DeSign of unstiffened plate girder 124
7.5 Local capacity 84
7.6 Overall buckling 85
X C O N T E N T S
C O N T E N T S X I
1 1 . 3 E x a m p l e 2 1 . D e s i g n o f u n s t i f l ' e n e d p l a t e
g i r d e r t h i c k w e b s
1 1 . 4 E x a m p l e 2 2 . D e s i g n o f u n s t i f f e n e d p l a t e
g i r d e r t h i n w e b s
1 1 . 5 D e s i g n o f s t i f f e n e d p l a t e g i r d e r
1 1 . 6 E x a m p l e 2 3 . D e s i g n o f s t i f f e n e d p l a t e
g i r d e r e x c l u d i n g t e n s i o n f i e l d a c t i o n
I 1 . 7
D e s i g n o f g i r d e r m c h i d i n g t e n s i o n f i e l d
a c t i o n
1 1 . 8 E x a m p l e 2 4 . D e s i g n o f s t i f f e n e d p l a t e
g i r d e r u t i l i z i n g t e n s i o n f i e l d a c t i o n
I . 9 O t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s
S t u d y r e f e r e n c e s
P A R T I I T H E D E S I G N O F S T R U C T U R A L
S T E E L F R A M E W O R K S
1 2 D E S I G N O F S I N G L E - S T O R E Y
B U I L D I N G - L A T T I C E G I R D E R A N D
C O L U M N C O N S T R U C T I O N
1 2 . 1 i n t r o d u c t i o n
1 2 . 2 D e s i g n b n e f
1 2 . 3 P r e l i m i n a r y d e s i g n d e c i s i o n s
1 2 . 4 L o a d i n g
D e s i g n o f p u r l i n s a n d s h e e t i n g r a i l s
D e s i g n o f l a t t i c e g i r d e r
D e s i g n o f c o l u m n m e m b e r s
O v e r a l l s t a b i l i t y o f b u i l d i n g
D e s i g n o f g a b l e p o s t s
D e s i g n o f c o n n e c t i o n s
D e s i g n o f f o u n d a t i o n b l o c k
1 2 . 1 2 O I l i e r
S t u d y r e f e r e n c e s
1 2 5
1 2 9
1 3 5
1 3 6
1 4 3
1 4 5
1 6 3
1 6 3
1 6 5
1 6 5
1 6 6
1 7 0
1 7 4
1 9 1
1 9 6
2 0 5
2 0 6
2 1 9
2 2 2
2 2 4
1 3 . 9 D e s i g n o f c o n n e c t i o n s
1 3 . 1 0 G a b l e f r a m i n g
1 3 . 1 1 O v e r a l l s t a b i l i t y o f b u i l d i n g
1 3 . 1 2
D e s i g n o f m a i n c o l u m n b a s e
1 3 . 1 3 D e s i g n o f f o u n d a t i o n b l o c k
1 3 . 1 4 O i l i e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s
1 4 D E S I G N O F A N O F F I C E B L O C K
2 8 1
C O M P O S I T E C O N S T R U C T I O N
1 4 . 1
L a y o u t a n d b a s i c c h o i c e s
2 8 1
1 4 . 2 L o a d i n g
1 4 . 3 R o o f b e a m d e s i g n
1 4 . 4
T y p i c a l f l o o r b e a m d e s i g n
C o l u m n d c s i g n 1 4 . 5
1 4 . 6 C o n n e c t i o n s
1 4 . 1 W i n d b r a c i n g
1 4 . 8 W i n d r e s i s t a n c e b y f r a m e a c t i o n
S t u d y r e f e r e n c e s
I S
D E T A I L I N G P R A C T I C E A N D O T H E R
3 0 5
R E Q U I R E M E N T S
1 5 . 1 F a b n c a t i o n p r o c e s s e s
1 5 . 2 S t e e l w o r k d r a w i n g s
1 5 . 3 C o s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s
1 5 . 4 F i r e p r o t e c t i o n
1 5 . 5 C o r r o s i o n p r o t e c t i o n
S t u d y r e f e r e n c e s
A p p e n d i x A
3 1 5
A p p e n d i x B
3 1 7
I n d e x
1 3 D E S I G N O F S I N G L E - S T O R E Y
B U I L D I N G - P O R T A L F R A M E
C O N S T R U C T I O N
2 2 6
3 1 9
' 3 . 3
1 3 . 4
1 3 . 5
1 3 . 6
1 3 . 7
1 3 . 8
1 3 . 1 I n t r o d u t t i o n
1 3 . 2 D e s i g n b r i e f
D e s i g n i n f o r m a t i o n
D e s i g n o f p u r l i n s a n d s h e e t i n g r a i l s
S p a c i n g o f s e c o n d a r y m e m b e i s
D e s i g n o f p o r t a l f r a m e
F r a m e s t a b i l i t y
M e m b e r s t a b i l i t y l a t e r a l t o r s i o n a l
b u c k l i n g
2 2 6
2 2 7
2 2 7
2 2 8
2 2 8
2 2 9
2 4 2
2 4 3
2 5 6
2 6 5
2 7 3
2 7 5
2 7 7
2 7 9
1 5 5
1 5 9
1 6 1
S t u d y r e f e r e n c e s
2 7 9
1 2 . 5
1 2 . 6
1 2 . 7
1 2 . 8
1 2 . 9
1 2 , 1 0
1 2 . 1 1
2 8 4
2 8 6
2 9 1
2 9 6
3 0 0
3 0 1
3 0 3
3 0 4
3 0 5
3 0 7
3 1 2
3 1 2
3 1 3
3 ' ]
x CONTENTS CONTENTS XI
1l.3 Example 21. DesIgn of unstiffened plate 125 13.9 DeSign of connectIOns 256
girder - thick webs 13.10 Gable framing 265
11.4 Example 22. DeSign of unstiffened plate 129 13.11 Overall stability of building 273
girder - thin webs 13.12 DeSign of main column base 275
11.5 Design of stiffened plate girder 135 13.13 DeSign of foundatIOn block 277
11.6 Example 23. DeSign of stiffened plnte 136 13.14 Other considerations 279
girder - excluding tensIOn field adion Study references 279
11.7 DeSign of girder Including tensIOn field 143
action 14 DESIGN OF AN OFFICE BLOCK- 281
11.8 Example 24. DesIgn of stiffened plate 145 COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION
girder - utilizing tensIOn field actIOn
11.9 Other considerations 155
14.1 Layout and baSIC chOIces 28\
Study references 159
14.2 Loading 284
14.3 Roof beam deSign 286
14.4 Typical floor beam deSign 291
14.5 Column deSign 296
PART 11 THE DESIGN OF STRUCTURAL 161 14.6 ConnectiOns 300
STEEL FRAMEWORKS 14.7 Wind bracmg 301
14.8 Wind resistance by /Tame action 303
12 DESIGN Of SINGLE-STOREY 163 Study references 304
BUILDING - LATTICE GIRDER AND
COLUMN CONSTRUCTION 15 DETAILING PRACTICE AND OTHER 305
12.1 Introduction 163
REQUIREMENTS
12.2 DeSign bnef 165 \S.! Fabncauon processes 305
12.3 Preliminary deSign deCISIons 165 152 Steelwork drawmgs 307
12.4 Loading 166
15.3 Cost considerations 312
12.5 DeSign of purl ins and sheetmg rails 170 15.4 Fire protectton 312
12.6 DeSign of lattice girder 174 15.5 CorrosIOn protectiOn 313
12.7 DeSign of coiumn members 191 Study references 3D
12.8 Overall stability of building 196
12.9 DeSign of gable posts 205 Appendix A 315
12.10 DeSign of connectIOns 206
12.11 DeSign of foundatIOn block 219 Appendix B 317
12.12 Other consideratIOns 222
Study references 224 IlJdex 319
13 DESIGN OF SINGLESTOREY 226
BUILDING - PORTAL FRAME
CONSTRUCTION
13.1 IntroductIOn 226
13.2 DeSign brief 227
13.3 DeSign mfonna!lOn 227
13.4 DeSign of purlins and sheetmg rails 228
13.5 Spacmg of secondary members 228
13.6 DeSign of portal frame 229
13.7 Frame stability 242
13.8
fI,Iember stability - lateral torsIOnal 243
buckling
F o r e w o r d t o F i r s t E d i t i o n
I n 1 9 6 9 , t h e U n t i s h S t a n d a r d s I n s t i t u t i o n C o m m i t t e e 1 1 / 2 0 r e s p o n s i b l e f o r
B S 4 4 9 , a p e r m i s s i b l e s t r e s s s n - u c t u r a t s t e e t w o r k d e s i g n c o d e , i n s t i g a t e d t h e
p r e p a r a t i o n o f a n e w d r a f t c o d e b a s e d o n l i m i t s l a t e p n n c i p l e s a n d
i n c o r p o r a t t n g t h e l a t e s t r e s e a r c h 1 0 1 0 t h e b e h a v i o u r o f s t r u c t u r a l c o m p o n e n t s
a n d c o m p l e t e s t r u c t u r e s . T h e d r a f t w a s i s s u e d f o r p u b l i c c o m m e n t i n 1 9 7 7
a n d a t t r a c t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e a d v e r s e c o m m e n t f r o m a n i n d u s t r y l o n g
a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e s i m p l e r d e s i g n m e t h o d s i n 1 1 5 4 4 9 .
I t w a s r e a l i z e d b y t h e n e w l y c o n s t i t u t e d E S ! C o m m i t t e e , C S B / 2 7 , t h a t a
r e d r a f t o f t h e 1 1 / 2 0 d o c u m e n t w o u l d b e n e c e s s a r y b e f o r e i t w o u l d b e
a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d u s t r y . T h e w o r k o f r e d r a f l i n g
u n d e r t a k e n b y C o n s t r a d o , p a r t l y f b n d e d b y I b e E u r o p e a n C o a l a n d S t e e l
C o m m u n i t y , a n d t h e t a s k w a s g u i d e d b y a s m a l l s t e e n n g g r o u p r e p r e s e n t i n g
t h e i n t e r e s t s o f c o n s u l t i n g e n g i n e e r s , s t e e t w o r k f a b n c a l o r s a n d t h e
D e p a r t m e n t o f t h e E n v i r o n m e n t .
P o o r t o t h e c o m p l e t I o n o f t h e r e d r a f t , c a l i b r a t i o n w a s c a r r i e d o u t b y t h e
B u i l d i n g R e s e a r c h E s t a b l i s h m e n t t o d e n v e s u i t a b l e v a l u e s f o r l o a d a n d
m a t e n a l f a c t o r s , a n d d e s i g n e x e r c i s e s t o c o m p a r e t h c d e s i g n o f w h o l e
s t r u c t u r e s t o t h e d r a f t c o d e w i t h d e s i g n s t o U S 4 4 9 w e r e d i r e c t e d b y
C o n s t r a d o . T h e o b j e c t o f t h e s e s t u d i e s w a s t o a s s e s s w h e t h e r t h e
r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s t o b e c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e n e w c o d e w o u l d p r o d u c e
s t r u c t u r a l d e s i g n s w h i c h w o u l d b e n o l e s s s a f e t h a q d e s i g n s t o B S 4 4 9 b u t
w o o l d g i v e a n i m p r o v e m e n t I n o v e r a l l e c o n o m y .
T h e r e s u l t i n g c o d e o f p r a c t i c e , 1 1 5 5 9 5 0 : P a r t I , p u b l i s h e d i n 1 9 8 5 .
c o v e n n g t h e d e s i g n i n s i m p l e a n d c o n t i n u o u s c o n s t r u c t i o n o f h o t r o l l e d s t e e l
s e c t i o n s , a n d P a r t 2 , d e a l i n g w i t h t h e s p e c i h c a t t o t t o f m a t e r i a l s , f a b n e a t i o n
a n d e r e c t i o n , a c h i e v e d t h e g r e a t e r s i m p l i c i t y s o u g h t b y i n d u s t r y w h i l e
a l l o w i n g t h e d e s i g n o f b u i l d i n g s t r u c t u r e s l o b e b a s e d o n t h e m o r e r a t i o n a i
a p p r o a c h o f l i m i t s t a t e t h e o r y t h a n t h e p e r m i s s i b l e s t r e s s m e t h o d o f U S 4 - 4 9 ,
P a r t 3 , w h i c h i s i n t h e c o u r s e o l p r e p a r a t i o n , w i l l g i v e r c c o t n m e n d a t t o n s f o r
d e s i g n i n c o m p o s i t e c o n s t r u c t I o n .
W h i l e U S 5 9 5 0 : P a r t i s e x p l i c i t i n i t s d e s i g n r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s , t h e c o d e
i s i n t e n d e d t o b e u s e d b y a p p r o p n a t e l y q u a l i f i e d p e r s o n s w h o h a v e e x p e r i e n c e
t o s t r u c t u r a l s t e e l w o r k d e s i g n a n d c o n s t r u c t t o n . T h e r e i s a n e e d , t h e r e f o r e , f o r
Foreword to First Edition
In 1969, the Bntish Standards InstitutIOn Comml!tee B/lO responsible for
BS 449, a permissible stress structural steelwork design code. lnslIgated the
preparation of a new draft code based on iimJt stale pnnclples and
Incorporatmg the latest research 1010 the behaviOur of structural components
and complete structures. The draft was Issued for public comment In 1977
and attracted considerable adverse comment from an mdustry long
aCQuamted with the Simpler deSign methods In BS 449,
It was realized by the newly constituted BSI Conumttee, CSBj27, that a
redraft of tbe B /20 document would be necessary before It would' be
acceptable to the constructIOn mdustry. The work of redrafting was
undertaken by Constrada, partly funded by the European Coal and Steel
Community, and the task was guided by a small steenng group representmg
the Interests of consulting engmeers, steelwork fabncalors and the
Department of the EnVironment.
Pnor to the completIOn of the redraft, calibration was carned out by the
Building Research Establishment to denve SUitable values for land and
matenal factors, and deSign exercises to compure the deSign of whole
structures 10 the draft code with deSigns to BS 449 were directed by
Constrado. The object of these studies was to assess whether the
recommendatIOns to be contained within the new code would produce
structural deSigns which would be no less safe that} deSIgns to BS 449 but
would give an improvement In overall economy.
The resulting code of practice, BS 5950: Part 1, published In 1985,
covenng the deSign In simple and contmuous construcuon of hot rolled steel
seclions, and Part 2, dealing with the specificatIOn of materials, fabncauon
and erection, achieved the greater SimpliCIty sought by mdustry while
allowiOg the deSign of building structures to be based on the more ratIOnal
approach of limit state theory than the permIssible stress method of BS 449.
Part 3, which IS In the Course of preparutlOn, will give recommendatIOns for
deSign in composite constructIOn.
While BS 5950: Part! }S explicit In ItS deSIgn recommendatIons, tile code
is intended to be used by appropnately qualified persons who have experience
III structural steelwork deSign and construcilon. There IS a need, therefore, for
x i v F O R E W O R D
a t e x t f o r u n i v e r s i t y a n t i c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s e n g a g e d o n c o u r s e s i n c i v i l a n d
s t r u c t u r a l e n g i n e e n n g w h i c h g i v e s c l e a r g u i d a n c e o n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e
c o d e t o t y p i c a l b u i l d i n g s t r u c t u r e s
b y w o r k e d e x a m p l e s w h i c h s e t o u t t h e
c a l c u l a t i o n s u n d e r t a k e n i n t h e d e s i g n o f f i c e .
T h i s i s a c h i e v e d i n t h i s b o o k
t h r o u g h e x p l a n a t o r y t e x t , f u l l c a l c u l a t i o n s a n d r e f e r e n c e t o t h e B S 5 9 5 0 :
P a r t I c l a u s e s .
T h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h e b o o k d e a l s w i t h t h e d e s i g n o f v a n o u s t y p e s o f
s t r u c t u r a l m e m b e r s a n d t h e s e c o n d p a r t d e a l s w i t h c o m p l e t e d e s i g n s o f t h e
m o s t c o m m o n l y e n c o u n t e r e d s t r u c t u r e s , n a m e l y , s i n g l e - s t o r e y i n d u s t n a l
b u i l d i n g s a n d m u l t i - s t o r e y o f f i c e b l o c k s . A p a r t f r o m t h e r e l e v a n t c o d e s a n d
s t a n d a r d s , r e f e r e n c e s a r e g i v e n t o w e f l e s t a b h s h e d p u b l i c a t i o n s c o m m o n l y
f o u n d i n t h e d e s i g n e r s o f f i c e . T h e b o o k s h o u l d a l s o b e u s e f u l t o t h e d e s I g a
e n g i n e e r r e q u i n n g a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e l i m i t s t a t e c o d e .
P A . R o t t e r
P a r t n e r , S c o t t J V I / s o n K i r k p a t r i c k a n d P a r t n e r s
M e m b e r o f 1 3 5 5 9 5 0 c o m m i t t e e
T H E D E S I G N
O F S T R U C T U R A L
S T E E L
E L E M E N T S
A s i m p l e b a s i s f o r d e s i g n i s t o c o n s i d e r
a s t r u c t u r a l f r a m c w o r k c o m p o s e d o f a
n u m b e r o f e l e m e n t s c o n n e c t e d t o g e t h e r . L o a d s
a r e s u s t a i n e d b y t h e e l e m e n t ,
a n d i t s r e a c t i o n s t r a n s f e r r c d t o o i l i e r e l e m e n t s
v i a t h e c o n n e c t i o n s . I n t h i s
s i m p l e c o n c e p t f o r d e s i g n i t i s e s s e n t t a l t h a t t h e o v e r a l l
a c t i o n o f t h e
f r a m e w o r k i s c o n s i d e r e d . T h e r e f o r e a n i n t r o d u c t i o n t o
t h e c o n c e p t o f o v e r a l l
s t a b i l i t y o f t h e s t r u c t u r e i s g i v e n i n t e r m s o f b r a c i n g
s y s t e m s .
XIV FOREWORD
a text for univcrsIty and colJegc studcnts cngaged on courses III clYH and
structural engmeenng which glves clear guidance on the application of the
code to typical building structures by worked examples which set out the
calculations undertaken In the design office. This IS achicved in this book
through explanatory (ext, full calculatIOns and reference to Ule as 5950:
Part i clauses.
The ftrst part of the book deals with the design of vanous types of
structural members and the second part deals with complcte designs of thc
most commonly encountcred structures, namely, smgle-storey mdustnal
buildings and multi-storey office blocks. Apart from the relevant codes and
standards, references are gtven 10 wcll established publicatIOns commonly
found in the designer's office. The book should aiso be useful to the design
engmeer TeQumng an understanding ofthe applicatIOn of the limit state code.
P.A. Rutter
Partner. Scot! Wi/son Kirkpamck and Partners
Member of BS 5950 Committee
THE DESIGN OF STRUCTURAL
STEEL ELEMENTS
A simple basIs for design IS to consider a structural framework composed of a
numbcr of elements connected together. Loads are sustamed by the element,
and ItS reachons transferred (0 other eiements via Ute connectIOns. In [his
simple concept for design It IS essentml that tbe overall actIOn of the
framework IS considered. Therefore an introductIOn to llle concept of overall
stability of the structure IS given In terms of bracing systems.
I N T R O D U C T I O N T O D E S I G N
I N S T E E L W O R K
S t r u c t u r a l s t e e l w o r k c a n b e e i t h e r a s i n g l e m e m b e r o r a n a s s e m b l y o f a
n u m b e r o f s t e e l s e c t i o n s c o n n e c t e d t o g e t h e r i n s u c h a w a y t h a t t h e y p e r f o r m a
s p e c i f i e d f u n c t i o n . T h e f u n c t i o n r e q u i r e d b y a c l i e n t o r o w n e r w i l l v a n
e n o r m o u s l y h u t m a y i n c l u d e :

b u i l d i n g f r a m e s b y w h i c h l o a d s m u s t b e s u p p o r t e d s a f e l y a n d
w i t h o u t u n d u e m o v e m e n t , a n d t o w h i c h a w e a t h e r p r o o f e n v e l o p e
m u s t b e a t t a c h e d ;

c h e m i c a l p l a n t s u p p o r t s b y w h i c h l o a d s m u s t b e s u p p o r t e d h u t
w h i c h c o m m o n l y r e n t n r e n o e x t e r n a l e n v e l o p e ;
c o n t a i n e r s w h i c h w i l l r e t a i n l i q u i d s , g r a n u l a r m a t e r i a l s o r g a s e s ,
a n d w h i c h m a y a l s o b e e l e v a t e d a s a f u r t h e r s t r a c t u r a l f u n c t i o n ;
m a s t s w h i c h m u s t s a f e l y s u p p o r t m e c h a n i c a l o r e l e c t n c a i
e q u i p m e n t a t s p e c i f i e d h e i g h t s a n d i n w h i c h t h e d e f l e c t t o n s ,
v i b r a t t o n s a n d f a t i g u e m u s t b e c o n t r o l l e d ;

c h i m n e y s w h i c h w i l l s u p p o r t f l u e s c a r r y t o g w a s t e g a s e s t o s a f e
h e t g h t s ;
b r i d g e s w h i c h m u s t s u p p o r t t r a f f i c a n d o t h e r l o a d s o v e r g r e a t l y
v a r y i n g s p a n s a n d f o r w h i c h d e g r e e s o f m o v e m e n t m a y b e
p e r m i t t e d ;

t e m p o r a r y s u p p o r t s u s e d d u r i n g t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s o m e p a i l o f a
s t r u c t u r e , w h i c h m a y b e o f s t e e l w o r k . c o n c r e t e , b r i c k w o r k , e t c . , i t
w h i c h s a f e t y f o r s h o r t p e n o d s a n d s p e e d o f a s s e m b l y a r e i m p o r t a n t .
i t w i l l b e n o t i c e d t h a t b o t h s a f e t y a n d m o v e m e n t o f t h e s t r u c t u r e s d e s c r i b e d
a r e i m p o r t a n t f o r p r o p e r f u n c t t o n a n d , t o g e t h e r w i t h e c o n o m y , t h e s e w i l l b e
t h e m a i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w h e n d i s c u s s t n g t h e d e s t g n m e t h o d l a t e r , I t s h o u l d b e
n o t e d t h a t t h e d e s i g n o f o n l y s o m e o f t h e a b o v e s t r u c t u r e s i s c o v e r e d b y
B S 5 9 5 0 a n d h e n c e d i s c u s s e d i n t h e l a t e r c h a p t e r s .
S t e e l s e c t i o n s a r e r o l l e d o r f o r m e d i n t o a v a r i e t y o f c r o s s - s e c t i o n s ,
a
s e l e c t i o n o f w h i c h t s s h o w n t n F i g . 1 . 1 , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i r c o m m o n
d e s c r i p t i o n s . T h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e c r o s s - s e c t i o n s a r e o b t a t n e d b y t h e h o t
r o l l i n g o f s t e e l b i l l e t s i n a r o l l i n g m i l l , w h i l e a m i n o r i t y , s o m e t i m e s i n v o l v t n g
c o m p l e x s h a p e s , a r e c o l d f o r m e d f r o m s t e e l s h e e t . H o l l o w s e c t i o n s a r e
o b t a i n e d b y e x t r u s i o n o r b y b e n d i n g p l a t e s t o t h e r e q u i r e d c r o s s - s e c t i o n , a n d
[]
INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN
IN STEELWORK
Structural steelwork can be either a smg!e member or an assembly of a
number of steel sectIOns connected together In such a way that they perfoml a
specified funeuon. The function requIred by a client or owner will vary
enonnously but may mclude:
building frames by which loads must be supported safely .and
without undue movement, and 10 which a weatherproof envelope
must be attached;
chemical plant supports by which loads must be supported but
which commonly reqUire no external envelope;
containers which will relam liquids, grnnular matenals or gases,
and which may also be elevated as a further structural functIOn;
masts which must safely support mechamcal or electncal
equipment at specified heights, and In which Ihe defiecttons,
vibratIOns and fatigue must be controlled;
chimneys which will support flues carrymg waste gases to safe
heights;
bridges which must support traffic and other loads over greatly
varylOg spans, and for which degrees of movement may be
penmtted;
temporary supports used dunng the constmctlOn of some part of a
structure. which may be of steelwork, concrete. bnckwork, etc., HI
which safety for short penods and speed o{ assembly are 1I11Portam.
It will be nOilced thai both safety and movemeO! of the structures described
are Important for proper functiOn and, together with economy. these will be
the mam consideratIOns when diSCUSSing the deSign method later. It should be
noted that the deslgn of only some of the above structures IS covered by
SS 5950 and hence discussed in the later chapters.
Steel sectIOns are rolled or fanned into a vanety of cross-sectIOns, a
selechon of which IS shown In Fig. L I. together with their common
descnpflOns. The maJonty of these cross-sectIOns are obtained by the hot
rolling of steel billets 10 a rolling mill, while a mlnonty, sDlnettmes IOvol\'lOg
complex shapes. are cold formed from steel sheet Hollow sectIOns are
obtamed by extrusIOn or by bending plates to the reqUired cross-sectIOn, and
4 S T R U C T U R A L
D E S I G N T O E S E B S O
I N T R O D U C T I O N T O D E S I G N I N S T E E I W O R I (
S



r e f e r r e d







C r o s s - s e c t i o n
F l a n g e

F l a n g e

6 , 1
a
R e c t a n g u l a r
8 . 0




















R E Q U I R E M E N T S
T h e

























































U S E O F I N
B U I L D I N G S
8 5




E n s i n i p l e a n d c a , i t z n u a i t s c o , : s u ' i i c t z o n : l i a r r o l l e d
s e c t i o n s ( 1 9 8 5 )

h o t
r o l l e d s e c t i o n s ( 1 9 8 5 )
E n c o m p o s i t e c o n s t r u c n o n
P a r t 4 :
D e s i g n o j ' J l o o r s w i t h p r o f i l e d s t e e l s h e e t i n g ( 1 9 8 2 )
o f c o l d f a n n e d s e c t i o n s
P a r t
D e s i g n i n l i g h t g a u g e s h e e t i n g , d e c k i n g m i d c l a d d i n g







3 0 5 1 2 7




4 STRUCTURAL STEEl WORK DESIGN TO 8S 5950
Fig 1.1 Steel secUons
seammg (welding) them to fann tubes. The SectIOns are usunlly produced in a
vanety of grndcs of steel havmg different strengths nnd other properties. The
commonest grade IS knO\vn as 43A, rcferred 10 sometimes as mild steel,
havmg a Yield strength In the range 245-275NJmm
1
. In some types of
structure other grades (43B, 43C, etc.). having the same Yield strength, are
more sUltnble oWing to their higher resistance to bnttle fracture.
Outsland
rr1
]E
.
Web j Web
Flange i
Descnptron
TypIcal sIze
Universal beam
305 x 127 x <l8 US
Universal column
254 x 254 x 107 UC
Channel
203 x 89 RSC
Crosssection
Oescnption
TypIcal size
r
Equal angle
150x150xlBAng!e
o
Rectangular hollow sce lion
200 x 100 x B.O RHS
In addition to cross-section, the shape of a steel sectIOn will 'mclucte
reference to 115 length. curvature if reqUired, cuttmg and drilling for
connecttons, etc., all of which are needed to enSure that eacn part fits
accurately mto the fimshed structure. TI,ese further shapmg proceSses are
knmvn as fabncatton and are carned out m a fabncatlOg works or 'shop'. It IS
for tlus stage that drawmgs giving precise dimenSIOns of the steelwork will be
reqUired, shOWing what the designer mtends. In many cases these drawings
are produced by the fabncators rather than by the designer of the structure.
The final stage of produemg a structure In steeiwork 1S the erection or
pultlOg together of the vanous elements on Site to fonn the reqUired
framework. At this final stage the safety of the partly fuushed structure must
be checked, and pnor thought gIVen as to how the framework IS to be erected
In order to define the locahon of each part with precIsion. The steelwork
usually forms only a skeleton to which other building ciements (floors, wails,
etc.) are fixed, but III frameworks supportmg chemical or mechanical plant
the steelwork may be the sole structural medium.
!NTRODUCTION TO DESIGN IN STEELWORK 5
1.1 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
1.2
The design of !lily structure must be Judged by whether [t fulfils the reqlllred
functIon snfely. can be built with economy rutd cnn mnmtam an acceptable
appearance for Its specified lifet[mc. h foHows that thc design of structural
steelwork also will be assessed by these cntena of safety, economy and
appearance.
Safety IS assessed by considenng the strength of the structure relative to
the ioads which it IS expected to carry. In practice, this asscssment IS applied
to each structural element In turn, but these mdividual element checks are not
suffiCient without considering the overall safety of the fr..tmework. The
strength of the structural element must always exceed the cffects of the ioads
by a margm which 1S known as a f..ctor of safety. The method of providing
the factor of safety IS discussed in SectIOn iA. In the general sense
assessment of the strueture Includes all the cntena by which Its performance
will be judged, e.g. strength, deflection, vibration, etc.
Wh.ile in practice economy of the deSign IS of great Importance to the owner
ofthe fimshed structure, students are rarely reqUired to make a full economic
assessment. However, two baSIC matters should be taken 1010 account Firstly,
the finished design should match, without exceSSively exceeding, as many of
the deSign cntena as possible. Clearly, the proVISion of excess strength m a
structural element without reason will not be Judged economic. Secondly, m
structural steelwork constructIOn only part of the cost IS contamed in the rolled
steel sectIOns, and a large part ofthe cost results from the fabncallon and
erection process. Consequently, economIC deSign does not result from fmding
Ihe smallest structural Size and weight without considenng the difficulties of
fabncatlOn. In many cases repetition ofa member size and standardizatIOn of
components can lead to substantial overall savmgs.
The appearance of the fiOlshed structure IS geneml!y of great Importance
owmg to the very Size and impact of frames m structural steel. Thc
achievement of an elegant deSign IS deSirable not only In complete structurcs
but also In small deSign details. It IS here that the studcnt should try to achieve
stylish, neat and balanced solutIOns to problems set. In many cases these will
prove to be the strongest and most economic solutIOns also.
SCOPE OF as 5950 STRUCTURAL USE OF STEELWORK IN
BUILDINGS
BS 5950 is subdivided into mne parts, each bemg publiShed scparately. Parts
3 and 5 to 9 mciuSlve are awaiting publication.
Part I: De.flgll III Simple alld COlljlllllOUS COIlSl!1lcilOn: hot rolled
sectlOlIs (1985)
Part 2: SpecijicallOlI for maienals. fabncatlOlI ami erectIOn: hOI
rolled sectlOlls (985)
Part 3: DeslglI III composue constrllCIlOll
Part 4: Deslgll offloors with profiled steel sheeung (1982)
Part 5: DeSIgn of cold fanned sectIOns
Part 6: DeSign l1J fight gauge sheetlllg. decking alld cladding
6 S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R K D E S I G N T O E S 5 9 5 0
I N T R O D U C T I O N T O D E S I G N I N S T E E L W O R K 7
















S T A T E D E S I G N
I n










s t r u c t u r a l







P A R T I A L S A F E T Y
S a f e t y













1 . 0














1 . 5 L O A D I N G














6 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO 8S 5950
.3
1.4
Part 7: SpecificatiolJ for matenais and workmanship: cold fanned
sectlOlls
Part 8:
Part 9:
Deslgll of fire protectio1l for sIn/crural steelwork
Stressed skin desIgn
The purpose of BS 5950 IS to define comman cntena for the design of
structural steelwork m buildings and allied structures, and to give guidance to
designers on methods of asseSSing compliance with those cntena. Part' of
this Bntish Standard deals with design m simple and contmuous construction
for hot rolled sections. Part 2 covers the specificahon for matenals.
fabncatlOn and erectIOn. The follOWing chapters give exampies of the deSign
of buildings pnnclpaJly covered by Part 1 and Part 2 of BS 5950.
Use IS also made of olher Darts far particular deSign requirements such as
composlle canstructJOn,-and these are referred'to where appropnate 10 the
followmg chapters. BS 5400 is the appropnate code for the deSign afbridges,
and may also be a more appropnate baSIS for the deSign of other types of
plated structure, e.g. bunkers.
LIMIT STATE DESIGN
zm
08
-.J

In common with most current UK codes of practice, BS 5 -0 ad i>:tlt
state approach to deSign. In this approach, the deSigner sele
cntena by which to assess the proper functIOning of the structure and then
checks whether they have been satisfied. The cntenn are divided into two
malO groups based on whether assessment IS made of the collapse (ultimate)
condition, or nonnal working (serviceability) condition.
Ultimate limit state IOcludes:




strength (safety)
stability (overturmng)
faIJgue fracture (no! nonnally considered in buildings)
bottle fracture
structural mtegnty (including accidental damage)
Serviceability limit state mcludes:



deflectIOn
durability
vibratIOn
Limtting values for each cntenon are given in BS 5950: Part 1 and thelf use IS
demonstrated in the followmg chapters. The deSigner should, however,
always be aware of the need for additional or vaned cnlena.
PARTIAL SAFETY FACTORS
Safety factors are used in all deSIgns to allow for van abilities of load,
matenal, workmanship and so on, which cannot be assessed with absolute
certainty_They must be suffiCient to cover:
I.
2.
3.
4.
5.
load vanatlons;
load combinations;
INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN IN STEELWORK 7
design and detailing procedures;
fabncahon and erecHon procedures;
matenal vanatlons.
The safety faclor can be applied at one pomt In the deSign (global or
overall safety factor), or at several pomts (partial safety factors). In steelwork
deSign a partial safety factor y{ (the load factor) IS applied to the loads
(variatIOns I to 3 above) and another factor Ym io the matenal strengths
(vanahons 4 and 5). BS 5950: Part i mcludes a value of y/ for structural
perfonnance within the value of YI' and assumes a value of 1.0 for i'm' The
use of Y
m
= LO does not Imply Ihat no rnargm of safety for matenal has been
Included, but rather tlmt a SUitable allowance has been made 10 the deSign
strengths gtven m e.g. Table 1.2 of this chapter. Typ1C[lI values ofYI are given
10 Table Lt with further values given m BS 5950: Part I, table 2. ApplicatIOn
of the factors to different loads 10 combinatIOn IS given m Chapter 2 and
throughout the deSign examples. The value of each load factor reflects the
accuracy with which a load can be estimated, and the likelihood of the
sunultaneous occurrence of a glVen combinatIOn of loads.
Table 1.1 Partial safety factor for loads
Loading Load factor Yr
Dead load lV
d
i.4
Dead load restralnmg uplift j.O
Imposed load Wo 1.6
Wind load Ww 1.4
Combined loads (Wd + + 1-Fw) 1.2
1.5 LOADING
In most cases deSign beglOs with as accurate as possible an assessment of the
loads ID be carned. These may be given, or obtained from a Bntish
Standard(1) or other appropnate source. They will be used in idcalized fonns
as either distributed loads or pomt (conccntrated) loads_ Chapter 2 sets 01lI
typIcal loadings and gIves examples of how they are combin-ed 10 deSign.
These external loads, sometimes called actions, fonn only part of the IOtal
forces on a structure, or on a structural elemem. The reactions 10 the loads on
each element must be obtamed as deSign proceeds_ These reactIOns must be
camed through 10 supportmg elements, so that all external loads, mcluding
self weight of members, are transferred through the structure by the shortest
load path, unlil the foundatIOn IS reached. This process IS essenilUi to safe
deSign. A Simple example of this process IS shown In Fig. 1.2, In which the
load path for the external load (snow) on a sectiOn of roof cladding IS traced
to the foundation. The cladding (sheelmg) cames the snow load well as
8 S T R U C T U M A I . S T E E L W O M K D E S I G N i t E S 5 8 5 0
' f I N T R O D U C T I O N T O D E S I G N I N S T E E L W O R I (
9
s e l f w e i g h t , a n d t h i s c o m b i n e d l o a d p r o d u c e s a
r e a c t i o n f r o m a t y p i c a l p u r h n .
T h i s c o n s t i t u t e s a
t o a d I t ' o n t h e p u r l i n , p r o d u c i n g r e a c t i o n s P
o n t h e r a f t e r .
S i m i l a r p u r l i n r e a c t i o n s
t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e r a f t e r s e l f w e i g h t
c o n s t i t u t e t h e
r a f l e r l o a d , p r o d u c i n g r e a c t i o n s R f r o m t h e r o o f t r u s s ( a t e a c h
n o d e ) . L o a d i n g
t h e r o o f t r u s s p r o d u c e s v e r t i c a l r e a c t i o n T
f r o m
t h e c o l u m n , a n d a l s o a
h o n s o n t a l r e a c t i o n S i f t h e l o a d i n g i s n o n - v e r t i c a l . T h e s e
i n t u r n , a c t i n g o n
t h e c o l u m n p r o d u c e f o u n d a t i o n r e a c t i o n s H , V a n d A ' ! .
1 . 6
I N T E R N A L F O R C E S A N D M O M E N T S
L o a d s w i t h t h e i r r e a c t i o n s m a y b e u s e d t o f i n d i n t e r n a l f o r c e s
a n d m o m e n t s
w i t h i n a n y s t r u c t u r a l e l e m e n t . T h e u s u a l m e t h o d i s
t o d r a w s h e a r f o r c e a n d
b e n d i n g m o m e n t d i a g r a m s i 2 ] ) T h e s e d i a g r a m s
a r c g r a p h s s h o w i n g h o n t h e
i n t e r n a l f o r c e s v a r y a l o n g a s t r u c t u r a l e l e m e n t
a s a r e s u l t o f a s e t o f s t a t i o n a r y
( s t a t i c ) l o a d s : i n f l u e n c e l i n e s a n d m o m e n t / f o r c e e n v e l o p e s
m a y b e n e e d e d i n
c a s e s o f m o v i n g ( d y n a m i c ) l o a d s ( s e e C h a p t e r 2 ) . I t i s a l s o n e c e s s a r y
t o f i n d
t h e a x i a l f o r c e p r e s e n t m a s t r u c t u r a l e l e m e n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y
v e r t i c a l m e m b e r s ,
a n d i n s o m e c a s e s t h e t o r s i o n a s w e l l . D i a g r a m s
m a y b e u s e d t o a d v a n t a g e f o r
t h e s e f o r c e s a l s o .
I n m a n y c a s e s d e s i g n c o n c e n t r a t e s o n s p e c i f i c v a l u e s o f
m a x i m u m b e n d i n g
m o m e n t o r s h e a r f o r c e a t a k n o w n p o s i t i o n , e . g . m i d - s p a n . I n t h e s e
c a s e s
f o r m u l a e o r c o e f f i c i e n t s m a y b e u s e f u l a n d c a n b e o b t a i n e d f r o m
s t a n d a r d
t a b l e s o r c h a r l s t 8 t
1 . 7 S T R E S S E S A N D D E F O R M A T I O N S
I n t h e d e s i g n o f s t e e l i v o r k t o 5 5 5 9 5 0 : P a r t
I s t r e s s e s a r e u s e d t o o b t a i n t h e
c a p a c i t i e s o f s t r u c t u r a l s e c t i o n s i n b e n d i n g , s h e a r . a x i a t f o r c e ,
e t c . , a n d a n y
c o m b i n a t i o n s o f t h e s e f o r c e s . S t r e s s e s u s e d a r e g e n e r a l l y b a s e d
o n t h e y i e l d
s t r e s s e s a p p r o p n a t e t o t h e s t e e l q u a l i t y a n d m a x i m u m t h i c k n e s s r e q u i r e d b y
t h e d e s i g n e r , a n d d e t a i l e d i n t a b l e 6 , 8 5 5 9 5 0 : P a r t 1 , w h i c h
i s b a s e d o n
v a l u e s s t i p u l a t e d i n 5 5
T h e d e s i g n s t r e n g t h p . i s u s e d , f o r e x a m p l e .
t o c a l c u l a t e t h e m o m e n t c a p a c i t y o f a s t e e l s e c t i o n .
M o m e n t c a p a c i t y
=
w h e r e 5 , i s t h e m a j o r a x i s p l a s t i c m o d u l u s o f t h e s e c t i o n .
S t r e n g t h i s u s e d t o d e f i n e a n u l t i m a t e s t r e s s f o r a p a n i c u l a r
s i t u a t i o n
( b e n d i n g , s h e a r , e t c . ) , a n d w i l l i n c l u d e a n a d j u s t n t e n i f o r p a r t i a l s a f e t y
f a c t o r
( m a t e r i a l ) a n d b u c k l i n g ( l o c a l o r o v e r a l l ) .
C a p a c i t y r e f e r s t o a l o c a l m o m e n t o f r e s i s t a n c e t a r s h e a r
o r a x i a l f o r c e ) a t
a s e c t i o n b a s e d o n t h e g i v e n s t r e n g t h b u t d i s r e g a r d i n g o v e r a l l ( m e m b e r )
b u c k l i n g . R e s i s t a n c e r e f e r s t o m a x i m u m m o m e n t w i t h d u e r e g a r d
t o o v e r a l l
t m e m b e r ) b u c k l i n g .
I n s o m e p a r t s o f t h e d e s i g n i t m a y b e n e c e s s a r y t o
a s s e s s s t r e s s e s w h e n i h e
s t e e l i s i n t h e l i n e a r e l a s t i c c o n d i t i o n . I n t h i s c a s e t h e l i n e a r e l a s t i c b e n d i n g
F i g 1 . 2 L o a d t n n s c e r
t h e o r y m a y b e u s e d 1 6 ' 7 5 i n w h i c h
I n e a c t i o n
? u r i i n
n a i l e r
n a s a r e a c t i o n s
r o u n d a t i o n
B
STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO BS 5950
Foundation
Fig 1.2 Load tmnsfer
v
1
i
1.6
INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN IN STEELWORK 9
sclfwclght, and Ihis combined load produces a reactIOn from a typical Durlin.
This conslltules a load W on tllc purl in, producing reactIOns P on the rafter.
Similar purlin reactIOns logether with the rafter self weight conslitute the
rafter load, producmg reachons R from the roof truss (al each node), Loading
the roof truss produces vertical reaction T from the coiumn, and also a
honzonlaJ reachon S if the ioading IS non-verticaL These lO tUn!, actlOg on
the column, produce foundatIOn reactIOns H. V and M.
INTERNAL FORCES AND MOMENTS
Loads wilh their reactIOnS may be used to fmd intema! forces and moments
within any structural element. The usual method is to dra\v shear force and
bending moment diagrams{2,J) These diagrams are graphs showmg how the
mternal forces vary along a structural element as a reSUlt of a sel of s!atlQnary
(static) loads: Influence lines and moment/force envelopes may be needed in
cases ofmovmg (dynamiC) loads (see Chapter 2), illS also necessary 10 find
the axml force present m a structural element, particularlY vertlcaj members,
and in some cases the torsIOn as well. Diagrams may be used to advantage for
these forces also,
In many cases deSign concentrates on specific values of maximum bending
moment or shear force at a known pOsition, e,g, midspan, In these cases
fonnulae or coeffiCients may be useful and can be obmmed from standard
tables or charts(")
1.7 STRESSES AND DEFORMATIONS
tu the deSign of steelwork !o BS 5950: Part I stresses are used to obtam the
cnpaclties of structural sectIons III bending, shear, aXial force, elC., and any
combinations of these forces. Stresses used are generally based on tltt! Yield
stresses appropriate to the steel quality and maximum thickness reqUired by
the deSigner, and detailed m table 6, BS 5950; Part!, which IS basl!d on
values sllpulated in BS 4360
t
!i) The deSign strength P
y
IS usea, for example,
10 calculate the moment capacity of a steel section.
Moment capacity M, = P,yS,
where S. IS the major aXIs plastiC modulus of the section.
Strength IS used to define an ultimate stress for a particular Situation
(bending, shear, etc.), and will include an adjustment for partial safelY factor
(matenal) and buckling (local or overall).
Capacity refers to a local moment of resistance (or shear or uXlai force) at
a sectIOn based on the given strength but disregarding overall (member)
buckling. ReSistance refers to maximum moment with due regard to overall
{member) buckling,
In some pnrts oflhe deSign It may be necessary to assess stresses when the
steel is III the linear elastic condition. In this case the linear elastic bending
theory may be used{6,J} in which
1 0 S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R K D E S I G N T O E S 5 9 5 0 I N T R O D U C T I O N T O D E S I G N I N S T E E L W D R K 1 1
a / j ' E / J ?









S o m e















1 6
4 0
6 3


































1 . 8 L A Y O U T O F C A L C U L A T I O N S














1 . 8 . 1 S u b d i v i s i o n




- : - -
1 . 8 . 2 S k e t c h e s




10 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO 8S 5950
Deformations are usually required in the design and are denved from
elasllc bending theory. The commonest reqUirement IS the calculatIOn of
deflectIOns. These are found usmg formulae denved from bending theory{8,9)
but m more complex cases may reqUire the use of moment-area methods{lo.lI)
or computer programs. In general, the deflectIOn due to unfactored imposed
loads only IS reqUired.
Strams are not normally calculated in steelwork design and exceSSIve
strams are avoided by limiting stresses and other design parameters.
Stresses which should be used in steelwork design are given In detail in BS
5950; Part I, clause 3.1. i. Some common vaiues of design strengths are given
In Table 1.2.
Table 1.2 Steel design strengths
Steel grade
ns 4360
4JA, 43B, 43C
50B, 50C
Mnimum
thickness
tmm)
16
40
63
100
16
40
63
100
Design strength
p,
IN/mml)
275
265
255
245
355
345
340
325
Note that the steel grades 43A, etc., are specified in BS 4360(5), which
defines the mechamcal and other propertIes of the steeL The most Important
properties for structural use are YIeld strength, tensile strength and impact test
The deSIgnatIOns A, B, C indicate increasing reSistance to Impact and
bnttle fracture, with no Significant change m the other mechanical properties.
The cross-seclton of a structural member needs to be classified according
to SS 5950: Part I. clause 3.5 in order to assess the reSIstance to local
buckling of the secllon. Cross-sections are classified as plastIC, compact,
semi-compact and slender by reference to the breadth/thickness ratios of
flange and webs (Fig. LI), and also to the design strength. Details
are gIven In clause 3.5 and !able 7 of BS 5950: Part 1. The classificatIOns of
mosl hot rolled sectIOns In grndes 43 and 50 are' given with their sectIOn
properties In reference (12).
Recommended values of maximum deflectIOns are given m BS 5950: Part 1,
table 5. Some common values are reproduced in Table i.3. In cases where the
steelwork structure IS (0 support machinery. cranes and other moving loads,
more stnngent limitatIOns on deflectton may be necessary. Values ofmuxlmum
deflectiOns should be checked with the manufacturers of any machinery to be
used.
Table 1.3 Defieclion !imns
Structural element
Cantilever
Beam (bnttle fimshes)
Other beam
Purlin or sheeting rail
Crane girder (vertical)
Crane girder (hOrizontal)
INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN IN STEELWORK 11
DeOection limit due to
unfadored imposed load
Length/l 80
Span/J60
Span/200
To SUIt cladding (bUl
span/200 may be used)
Span/600
Span/500
I.B LAYOUT OF CALCULATIONS
Before deSign calculatIOns are started, the deSigner must first Interpret the
client's draWings so Ihnt n structural arrangement can be decided to carry the
loads down 10 the foundatIOns. This structural arrangement musl avoid
intruSIOn Into space reqUIred by the client's processes or operations. It IS
broken down mto Simple structural elements which are each glVen an
Individual code number by the steel deSIgner (see Chapter 15). CalculatIOns
for an Individual element can thus be identified, as In the deSIgn examples.
Clanty IS cssentml In setllng out calculatIOns, and the deSigner should
make sure that they can be checked without constant reference to thal
deslgner. DeSigners develop their own Individual styles for settmg out their
calculatIOns. DeSIgn offices of consulting engineers, local authonties and
contractors often use one particular format as a house style. The student
should start usmg a baSIC format such as that glVen In the text, but adapting 11
to SUIt the particular structure.
I.B.I Subdivision
Subdivide the calculatIOns mto approPfJate.sectlons usmg subheadings such
as 'dimenSIOns', 'loading', 'moment capacity' makes checking of the
baSIC assumptIOns and the results much easter,.and helps the deSigner achieve
a neat presentatIOn.
1.8.1 Sketches
Engmeers think pictoriully. and should develop u spatlill awareness. A sketch
will dearly mdicate what the deSigner Intended, while 10 a stnng of numbers
n senOus omiSSIOn can be overlooked. Sketches In the follOWing chapters are
placed in the left-hand margm where convenient.
1 2 S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O M I ( D E S I G N T O U S a u o
I
I N T R O D U C T I O N T O D E S I G N f t J
E E L W O R K f l
l . 8 . 3 R e f e r e n c e s

. l o a d i n g
m a n u f a c t u r e r ' s










t , 8 . 4 R e s u l t s



















































































S T U D Y R E F E R E N C E S
T o p i c







&



1 . 9 S T R U C T U R A L T H E O R Y
I t







12 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO 8S 5950
I.B.3 References
Sources of information must be quoted t1s:



loading
dimenSIOns
stresses
British Standard; manufacturer's catalogue;
c1ients brief
drawmg number
BS 5950 clause number; research paper
This ensures that future quenes about the calculatIOns can be answered
qUickly and that subsequent aiteratlons can be easily detected. It will also
aSSISt the deSigner when carrytng out a similar deSign at a iater date and Htis
can be of great value to a stUdent who will one day deSign to earnest.
t .BA Results
In deSign, results (or output), such as member SIZe, load, moment, from one
stage of the calculatIOns may be used as mput at a further stage. It IS
Important therefore that such tnformatlon IS easily obtamed from the
caiculations, Such results may be highlighted by placlOg m an output margtn
(on tne side). or by placing In a 'box', or merely by underlinmg or
using coloured marker pens; in this book, bold type has been used.
The student should attempt to mamtam realism In calculatIOn, and avoid
quotmg the eight or more diglls produced by calcUlators and
computers. Loading IS commonly no more than accurate. and
section properties arc given to only three figures. No amount of calculatiOn
will give results of higher accuracy,
I.B.5 Relationship with drawings
In most cases. the final results of deSign calculatIons are member SIZes, bolt
numbers. connectIOn layouts Imd so on, all of which IDfonnatlOn must be
conveyed to the fabncator/contractor on drawmgs. It is. howe\'er, common in
steelwork deSign for some of the drawings to be carned out by persons other
than the design engineer, such as detailing draughtsmen. tcchruciim
engmeers, or even the fabncator. illS therefore essential that the final output
should be clearly marked in the calculatIOns. Specific reqUirements such as
connecllon details must be clearly sketched.
1.9 STRUCTURAL THEORY
It IS assumed in the followlDg chapters that the reader will have available a
copy of BS 5950: Part I or extracts from It. Tables and charts for deSign will
not be reproduced in full In Ihe text but extracts will be gIven where
appropriate. In addition. properties of steelwork secttons will be requued.
These are avaiiabJe from the Steel Construction Inshtute
l12
) The meanmg of
INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN IN STEELWORK 13
the propenles given In these publicatIOns must be understood and may be
studied in, for example. references (6, 7).
It may be useful at some pOInt for the student to examine the background 10
the steelwork deSign method and BS 5950. Reference IS therefore_made to the
Steel ConstructIOn Institute publicatlOn{l)) which IS mtcnded as explanatory
to BS 5950: Part I.
The designer of steelwork elements and structures must have a clear
understanding of the theory of structures and strength of matenals. The
student IS referred to the relevant sections of textbooks such as those given In
references (6) to (11) and further explanation IS avoided.
1.10 FORMAT OF CHAPTERS
The foUowmg chapters provide design examples of structural steclwork
elements (Part J) and structural steelwork frameworks (Purl Il).
The chapter order IS mtended to guide a student with a baSIC knowledge of
the theory of structures and strength of materlais Into steciwork deSign. it
therefore S[arts (in Part I) wJth loading, Including combination effccts, and
proceeds to Simple elemenls With which the student IS probably already
familiar. Later, more complex elemcnts and those requmng specml treatment
are mtroduced. In Part n the Simple elements are combined to fonn complete
structures. While this chapter arrangement IS preferred for teaching, In Ihe
actual deSign of structural steel elements, the caicuiatJOlls are usua!Jy
arranged in load order, I.e. as mdicated in SectiOn 1.5 and Fig. ! .2. This IS
sometimes known as reverse constructIOn order.
Each chapler (in Part I) starts with baSIC definitions of structural members
and how they act. General noles on the deSign of the element/frame follow
and then Ihe deSign calculatIOns are set out for one or more examples
demonstratmg the malO varmilons.
The calculatIOns follow the layout suggested in SectIOn 1.8. References 10
SS 5950: Part 1 are given merely by quotmg the appropnale ciause, e.g.
'clause 2.4.1', or table, e.g. 'SS table 13'. References for the structural theory
reqUIred by the student, or for background (0 BS 5950, are gIven as study
toPiCS at the end of each chapter with a numerical reference ID the teXi, c.g.
(3).
STUDY REFERENCES
TopiC Rejerences
J. Loading BS 6399 Deslgll LoadiJJg jor Buildings
Pan \: Dead aud imposed loads (1984)
Part 2: Wind loads (1995)
Part 3: imposed raof loads (J 988)
2. BM and SF diagrams Marshal! \V,T. & Nelson H.M. (l990) Examples of
bending moment and shear force diagrams. SlnJclIIres,
pp. 23-4. Longman
1 4 S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R t < D C S I G N T O S S 5 9 5 0
3 . C a u L k M G . S h e a r
f o r c e s

1 0 2 6 5 3 .

I
S t e e l s

6 .
I
a n a l y s t s ,

I N I D L 0 P 1 , D
v o l .

8 ,


- -
M e c h a n i c s



































14 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO 8S 5950
3. BM and SF diagrams Coates R.C .. CouUe M.G. & Kong F.K. (988) Shear
forces and bending moments, Structural AnalysIS,
pp, 58-71. Van Nostrand Remhold
4. BM and SF coefficients (1992) Steel DeSigners' Manllal, pp. 1026-53.
5. Steel quality
6. Theory of bending
7. Theory of bending
8. DeflecllOns
9. DeflectIOns
JO. Moment-area
11 MomenHlfea method
12. Section propemes
Blackwcll
as 4360 (1990) Specificotlollfor Weldable Srn/crural
Steels
Marshall W.T. & Nelson ILM. (1990) Bending stress
analysIs, Stn/ctures, pp. 134-43. Longman
Hellrn EJ. (1985) Bending, Mechanics of Mater/als,
vo!. i, pp. 62-8. Pergamon
Marshal! W.T. & Nelson H.M. (1990) Bending
defonnatlOn, Stn/cll/res, pp. 203-18. Longman
Bearn E.J. (1985) Slope and deflectton of beams,
AJechanics DJ Matenals vo!. i. pp. 92-107. Pergamon
Cro:don p.L.e. & Martin L.II. (990) Area-moment
method of analysIs, Solvmg Problems In Stnlctures, vo!.
2, pp. 25-47. Longman
Conies RC, Coutie M.G. & Kong F.K. (1988)
Moment-area methods, Slructura/ AnalysIS, pp. 176-81.
Van Nostrnnd RelOhold
/1987) Steelwork Des/gll voL 1, SectIOn properties
member capacities. Sleel Construcuon Institute
13. Background 10 BS 5950 Dowling P.J., Knowles P. & Owens G,W, (988)
Structural Sfeel DeSign. Steel ConstOlcnon institute
1.1
LOADING AND LOAD
COMBINATIONS
TIle loading for most structures IS obtamed from the approDnate Bntish
Standard{l,21, the manufacturer's data and Similar sources. The loads obtained
must, however, be combined to simulate what IS perceived by the deSigner to
occur in praCtice, and be multiplied by appropnate load factors. The process
of combinmg loads and including the load factors IS carned out for slmpJe
structural elements when denvlng the bending moments, shear forces, etc.,
which will occur. For more complex structures It IS advantageous to Include
the load factors after denvmg Ihe bending moments etc., so that specific
combinatIOns can be examined more readily.
DEAD LOADS
These will mclude the follOWing:
own weight of steel member (kg/m of steel section)
other permanent parts of building, etc., not normally moveable
(e.g. concrete floor slabs, bnck/blocK walls, finishes, cladding)
They are calculated either from denSity of matenal (kg/m) or specific
weight lkN/m), or from manufacturers' data conta,med in catalogues or
manuals. Table 2.1 shows some typical values; these are all permanent loads
"'and are combined with the appropnate dead load partial safety factor isee
Secllon i .4).
Table 2.1 TYPical values of common structural malenals
l\Ialerial Density (kg/m
l
) Specific weight (ltN/ml)
Sled 7850 77
Remforced concrete 2420 23.7
Bnckwork 2000-2300 20-23
Timber 500-900 5-9
1 6 S T R U C T U R A L t I E E L W O R I c D E S I G N T O I S 6 9 6 0
L O A D I N G A N D L O A D C O M B I N A T I O N S
1 7
2 . 2 . I M P O S E D L O A D S
T h e s e


















E X A M P L E I . L O A D I N G O F A


( a ) D i m e n s i o n s
S i m p l y


L o a d s s p e c s f i e d
























M o m e n t s a n d f o r c e s ( d u e t o u . d . l . )
2 . 3 W I N D L O A D S
T h e





a n d r o o f s h a p e , o p e n i n g s




( C p e C p , ) q



L O A D C O M B I N A T I O N S
L o a d s



1 . 4
I V d L / 8 1 2 . 6
R 8 I

a n d f o r c e s ( d u e t o v e r t i c a l w h e e l l o a d )
' W h e e l


W d
A
I l l 1 1 1 1
1 1 L
B


I d )
w e
2 . 1

g c
W e
B

B






c 3 . 6 m

2 . 4 m








U l t i m a t e

4 4 0





B
- : 1
16 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO SS 5950
1.1 IMPOSED LOADS
1.3
These wjll mclude the followmg temporary loads:


snow on roofs
H
)
people
furniture



equipment such as cranes and other machinery
seml-pennanent partitions which are moveable
Imposed loads vary with the functIOn of the room or buUding(I), and some
typIcal values are shown In Table 2.2. All imposed loads are based on
expenence within the construction mdustry and the statlstical analyses of
observed cases, These are all temporary loads Dnd are combined with the
Imposed load partial safety facior (see SecllOn 1.4).
Table 2.2 Typu::nl values of imposed loads
Building usage
Residentml (self-contained dwellings)
Offices (depending on room usage)
Educallonal fclassrooms)
Theatres (areas with fixed sealing)
WarehOUSing 1generni stornge)
industTlal workshops
WIND LOADS
Imposed load (kN/m
l
)
i.5
2.5-5.0
3.0
4.0
2.4 per m height
5.0
The wmd loads used m the text are based on CP3, ChV, Part 2(2) (as
8S 6399): Part 2(1) was Issued too late to be mcorporated). BaSIC Wind speed,
appropnate to the location of the building, IS selected and reduced to a deSign
wmd speed uSing factors which take mto consideralton topography,
surrounding buildings, heIght above ground level, component size and period
of exposure. The deSign wmd speed IS equated to a dynamiC pressure q
(kN/m
2
). Owmg to building and roof shape, opemngs III walls, etc., pressures
and suc!Jons, both external and internai, will msc. Pressure coeffiCients
external (C
p
... ) and internal (Cp;) may be used as shown m SectIOn 2.7.
Force on any element = C p ~ Cpdq x area of element
Wind data With SUitable factors and coeffiCients are given In reference (I).
The method of obtammg the quasI-static wmd load used in deSign is given 10
greater detail 10 SectIOns 2.7 and 12.4.3.
1.4 LOAD COMBINATIONS
Loads on any structure must be arranged in deSign so that the maximum force
or moment IS achieved at the point in the structure being considered. Hence
all realistiC load combinahons must be considered to ensure that all peak
A
6.0m
Fig. 2.]
LOADING AND LOAD COMBINATIONS 17
values have been calculated at every pomt. Only m Simple cases will onc
arrangement of ma;umum loads be suffiCIent to produce maxlmwn moments
or forces for deSign purposes.
1.5 EXAMPLE I. LOADING OF A SIMPLY SUPPORTED GANTRY
GIRDER
(a) Dimensions
Simply supported span 6.0 m
Crane wheels" centres 3.6m
(See further descnptton In SectIOn 5.1)
(b) Loads specified
Self weIght of guder (unifonnly distributed)
MaXlmum crane wheel load (static)
WeIght of crab
Hook load to be lifted
1.5 kN/m
220kN
60kN
200kN
Dynamic effects to be mduded in accordance with BS 6399: Part) (I) at 25%.
(For further details of dynamiC effects and the derivatIOn of maximum wheel
loads see Scclion 5. L)
(c) Moments and forces (due to u.d.l.)
1111
(S,' Fig. 2.1.)
8 Self weIght TVd (faclored bY'!f) = lA x 1.5;.: 6.0= 12.6kN
Ultimate midspan BM = WdL/B = 12.6 x 6/8 9.0kNm
Ultimate reactions RA = Rn = WL/2 = 12.6/2 = 6.0kN
(d)
W,
c",,3.6m Cb
Moments and forces (due to vertical wheel load)
Wheel load W (' (induding 'If and 2Y'Io Impact)
=1.6 x 1.25 x 220=440kN
15
A
W
lD
A
L=6.0m
Casn 1
W'-l
3.0m (t)
l=:: 6.0 m
Case 2
W(h
c:3.6 m ___
L=6.0m
Case 3
Fig. 2.2
2.4m
11
8
" 8
11
8
The pOSitions of movmg loads to give maXimum values of moment and
shear force are given In SectIOn 5.2 and references (3, 4). The maximum
values of each case are now given (and see Fig. 2.2).
Ultimate BM under wheel (case 1)
~ 2W,(L/2 -c/4)'/L
~ 2 x 440(6.0/2 - 3.6/4)' /6.0 647 kNm
Ultimate BM under wheel (case 2)
~ W,L/4 ~ 440 x 6.0/4 ~ 660 kNm
Case 2 gIves maximum ultimate 81\'1 of 660 kNm.

3 . 6 / 6 . 0 ) 6 ( 6 k - N

6
M o m e n t s a n d f o r c e s ( d u e t o h o r i z o n t a l w h e e l l o a d )
I n




4 1 . 6 / 4 l 0 , 4 k N

= 1 5 . 6

c / L )
1 0 . 4 ( 2 3 . 6 / 6 . 0 )







D i m e n s i o n s






1 . 6 )
i . 4 W e
2 8 3




















L o a d








L O A D I N G A N D L O A D C O M B I N A T I O N S 1 9
= l . 0 x 8 . 0
( 9 4


A






+


t o m
c




18 STRUCTURAL STEELWI?AK DESIGN TO 8S 5950
Uhimate reactIOn R4 (case 3)
= JV
o
(2 - elL)
= 4,10(2 - 3.6/6.0) = 616kN
Tola! ultimate BM = 9 + 660 = 669 kNm
Total ultimate reactIOn = 6 + 616 = 622 kN
le) Moments and forces (due to horizontal wheel load)
In addition to the vertlca!loads and forces calculated above, honzontal surge
loading due to movement of the crab and hook load gives nse to honzontal
moments and forces (see Sechon 5.1) equal to 10% of these loads.
Honzontal surge load W" .. (inc,. '1/) = 1.6 x 0.10(200 + 60)
= 41.6kN
This IS divided between 4 wheels (assummg douhle*ftanged wheeis):
Honzontal wheel load IV" .. = 41.6/4 = lO.4kN
Using calculatIOns similar 10 those for vemcal moments and forces:
Ultimate honzontal BM (case 2)
= W"c
L
I4
= lOA x 6.0/4 = 15.6 kNm
Ultimate honzonlal reaction (case 3)
= W"c{2 - elL)
= 10.4f2 - 3.6/6.0) = 14.6 kN
Note that the 'If value of 1.6 may be reduced to lA where vertIcal and
honzontal crune loads act together, and this combination must be checked in
practice (see SectIOn 5.3).
2.. EXAMPLE 2. LOADING OF CONTINUOUS SPANS
fa)
Obtam the maximum values of bending moment, shear force and reaction for
a contmuous beam at the positions noted in le), (d), (e)
"nd (I).
Dimensions
MalO beams, spaced at 4.5 m centres, supportmg a concrete slab (spanning
one way only) for office accommodatIOn. Steel beams are to have four
contmuous spans of 8.0 m. Assume unifonn sectlOn propertles.
(b) Loading
Self weight of beam
Concrete slab and firush
Imposed loading (offices)
1.0kN/m
5.4 kN/m'
5.0kN/m'
The dead loading (self weight, slab and. finishes) IS fixed, but the Imposed
loading IS moveable. The dead loading be present ('1/ = 1.4), while
the Imposed landing may be present = L6) or absent.
1
!
Fig. 2.3 Influence line
for Aft
LOADING AND LOAD COMBINATIONS 19
For one span:
Self = 1.0 x 8.0 8 kN
Slab + fimshes = 5.4 x 4.5 x 8.0 = 194 kN
Dead load W.,. (Iotal) = 202 kN
Imposed load Wj = 5.0 x 4.5 x 8.0 = 180 kN
Maximum span load = lAW.,. + 1.6JVi = 571 kN
Minimum span load = 1AW.,. = 283 kN
Arrangements of loading to produce maximum moments and forces may be
found by mspectlon of the appropnate mfluence lines. The use of influence
lines to give the reqUired arrangements (paUerns) of loading IS described m
references (5, 6). An mfluence line shows the effect, say of bending moment,
due to a movmg umt load. Hence Ihe maximum BM is obtained by plaCing
the imposed loads where the mfluence IS of one sign only, e.g. in Fig. 2.3 the
maximum BM due to Imposed load al the middle of span 1 IS obtained by
placmg the Imposed load on spans i and 3. Load on spans 2 and 4 would
produce a BM of opposlle sign al the pomt considered.
In the deSIgn office, standard loading arrangements are used to speed up
this process of selection, with Influence lines used for more complex cases.
(c) Load pattern for mid-span moment MI
MaXimum value of M. IS produced when spans ,i and 3 have the maXimum
loading and spans 2 and 4 have the mmimum loading. Using the mfluence
lines shown, the loading patterns producmg maXimum effect may be
obtained, and are swnmarized below.
6
A B C
B.Om B.O m
Span 1 Span 2
(d) Load pattern for support moment Mb
+
B.Om
Span J
B.Om
Span <I
LI
E
MUJomum value of lvh IS produced when spans 1,2 and 4 have the maximum
loading and span 3 has the mtnimum loading (Fig. 2.4).
= 5 2 1
= 6 7 6 k N

2 0 S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R K D E S I G N T O O S 5 9 5 0
L O A D I N G A N D L O A D C O M B I N A T I O N S
2 1
D




I
0 . 0 9 4

0 . 6 5 2 0 . 4 3 3


0 . 0 4 9
4
f t 0 0 3 0 . 0 0 5
0 . 0 8 0
0 . 0 2 7

0 . 0 0 5

a
4 E



( 0 . 0 9 4 + D . 0 0 6 5 7 1 0 . 0 0 3 2 8 3 ) 8 . 0

( e ) L o a d p a t t e r n f o r r e a c t i o n R b
a s I n ( F i g .
( I ) L o a d p a t t e r n f o r s h e a r f o r c e 8 a b
M a x i m u m a s i n ( F i g .
1 2 C
A r r a n g e m e n t s o f m o m e n t s a n d
( g )
M o m e n t s a n d f o r c e s
3

i f ' s
I F ' ,



f o r c e
5 7 !
5 7 !














2 . 7
E X A M P L E 3 . L O A D I N G O F A P O R T A L F R A M E
( a ) F r a m e
S e e F i g .
p i t c h e d p o r t a l w i t h p i n n e d f e e t ; s p a n 3 8 r n , s p a c e d a t 6
m
c e n t r e s .
3 . 4 m
5 . 6 m F r a m e s a t 6 . 0 m e a n i r a s
3 0 . 0
f r a m e
M o m e n t s a n d f o r c e s m a y b e f o u n d a n a l y t i c a l m e t h o d , b u t f o r e q u a l
s p a n c a s e s c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e
w h e r e , f o r e x a m p l e
= ( a i 1
a n d M 1 , 5 a b a r e g i v e n b y s i m i l a r e x p r e s s i o n s .
T h e c o e f f i c i e n t s e m a y b e s u m m a n z e d :
( b ) L o a d i n g
S e l f w e i g h t o f f r a m e
C l a d d i n g ( r o o f a n d w a l l s )
S n o w a n d s e r v i c e s
W i n d p r e s s u r e q ( w a l l s )
W i n d p r e s s u r e q ( r o o f )

0 . 0 9 k N / m '
0 . 7 5 k N / m '
1 . 2 0
1 . 2 0
W i n d p r e s s u r e s a r e b a s e d o n a b a s i c w i n d s p e e d o f 5 D m / s f o r
a l o c a t i o n i n
S c o t l a n d .
F a c t o r g ' 1 5 , a n d
a r e b o t h t a k e n a s 1 . 0 a n d f a c t o r s 3 a s 0 . 8 8 f o r a h e i g h t o f
1 D m .
T h e d e s i g n w i n d s p e e d i s h e n c e 4 4 m / s . g i v i n g a d y n a m i c
p r e s s u r e o f
1 . 2 0
20 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO BS 5950
Fig. 2.4 Influence line
forMII
Fig. 2.5 Influence line
for Rb
Fig. 2.6 influence line
for ~ b
+
~
o
, 2
,
(e) Load pattern for reaction Rb
Maxlmmn ns m (d) (Fig. 2.5).
c.. f ~ Z
A B 2 C 3 D
(f) Load pattern for shear force 5
ab
Maximum as in Ic) (Fig. 2.6).
2\
A B 3 o
Arrangements of loading for maxImum moments and forces:
Spnn loading (kN)
11'1 IV2 WJ
For moment All 571 283 571
For moment Alb 571 571 283
For reaclioll Rb 571 571 283
For shear force Sab 571 283 571
(g) Moments and forces
4
+
4
4
11'4
283
571
571
571
1\
E
LI
E
LI
E
Moments and forces may be found by any analytical method, but for equal
spnn cases coeffiCients are available(7), where, for example
All = {all W, + an W:2 + alJ IV} + a141V4)L
and A/b, Rb and S"b are given by Similar expressIOns.
The coeffiCients a may be sununanzed:
:-'i'
.,
"h
;t Fig. 2.7 Portal frame
LOADING AND LOAD COMBINATIONS 21
Span londed Moment or force coefficients et
M. Mb R. S
I 0.094 0.068 0.652 0.433
2 - 0.024 - 0.048 0.545 - 0.049
~ 0.006 0.014 - 0.080 0.013
4 - 0.003 - 0.005 0.027 - 0.005
Hence the maximum value of M, occurs with the load arrangement shown
and
M. = (0.094 x 571 - 0.024 x 283 + 0.006 x 571 - 0.003 x 283 )8.0
=396kNm
Similarly,
M, = -521 kNm
R, = 676 kN
~ b = 238kN
2.7 EXAMPLE 3. LOADING OF A PORTAL FRAME
(a) Frame
See Fig. 2.7: pitched portal with pmned feet; span 38 m, spaced at 6 m
centres.
3.4m
c
B
S.Sm Frames af 6.0 m cenlres
L-__ o!> A
I.
Cb) Loading
Self weight of frame
Cladding (roof and walls)
Snow and servIces
Wind pressure Q {walls)
Wind pressure q (roof)
38.0 m
0.90kN/m
0.09kN/m'
0.75 kN/m'
1.20 kN/m'
1.20kN/m'
Wind pressures are based on a baSIC wmd speed of 50m/s for a locatIOn m
Scotland.
Factors{2} S, and S2 are both taken as 1.0 and factor S3 as 0.88 for a height of
IOm.
The deSign wmd speed is hence 44 m/so giVing a dynamiC pressure of
1.20kN/m'.
2 2 S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O A K D E S I G N T O 0 5 5 9 5 0
I L O A D I N G A N D L O A D C O M B I N A T I O N S 2 3
I t i s p o s s i b l e t o u s e a l o w e r w i n d p r e s s u r e b e l o w a h e i g h t o f S m b u t t h i s
m a k e s t h e a n a l y s i s m o r e c o m p l e x f o r v e r y l i t t l e r e d u c t i o n i n f r a m e m o m e n t s .
( c ) P r e s s u r e c o e f f i c i e n t s
E x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e c o e f f i c i e n t s ( C , , , ) m a y b e f o u n d a n d a r e s u m m a n z e d i n t h e
f o l l o w i n g t a b l e . T h e s e v a l u e s a r e o b t a i n e d f r o m r e f e r e n c e 1 2 ) .
C , , , f o r f r a m e m e m b e r
A D B C C D D E
W i n d o n s i d e 0 . 7 1 . 2 0 . 4 0 2 5
W i n d o n e n d 0 . 5 0 . 6 0 . 6 0 . 5
D e a d l o a d o n r o o f i s c a l c u l a t e d o n t h e p r o j e c t e d a r e a ( F i g . 2 . 1 0 ) :
S e l f w e i g h t = 0 . 9 x 1 9 . 3 = 1 7 . 5 k N
C l a d d i n g = 0 0 9 x 1 9 . 3 x 6 . 0 = l 0 . 5 k N
T o t a l W d . = 2 8 . O k N
D e a d l o a d o n w a l l s ( F i g . 2 . 1 1 ) :
S e l f w e i g h t = 0 . 9 x 5 . 5 = 5 . 0 k N
C
B
5 . 5
F i g . 2 . 1 0 F i g . 2 . 1 1
W i n d l o a d s f o r c a s e ( 1 ) o n s i d e + i n t e r n a l p r e s s u r c :
W i n d l o a d o n ' v a i l ( F i g . 2 . 1 3 ) = 0 . 5 x 1 . 2 0 x 6 . 0 x 5 . 5 = l 5 k N
W i n d p r e s s u r e o n r o o f i s d i v i d e d i n t o v e r t i c a l a n d h o r i z o n t a l c o m p o n e n t s
( F i g . 2 . 1 4 ) ,
-
-
C a s e
( C , , . C , , , ) f o r t r a m e m e m b e r
A B B C C D D E
I . W i n d o n s i d e + i n I e m a t 0 . 5 1 . 4 0 . 6 0 . 4 5
p r e s s u r e
2 . W i n d o n s i d e + n i e m a l 1 . 0 0 . 9 0 . 1 0 , 0 5
s u c t i o n
3 . W i n d o n e n d + i n t e r n a l 0 . 7 0 . 8 0 . 8 0 . 7
p r e s s u r e
4 . W i n d o n e n d + i n t e m a l 0 . 2 0 . 3 0 . 3 0 . 2
s u c t i o n
V e r t i c a l c o m p o n e n t 1 . 4 x 1 . 2 0 x 6 . 0 ' t 1 9 . 0 l 9 2 k N
l - l o n z o n t a l c o m p o n e n t = 1 . 4 x 1 . 2 0 x 6 . 0 x 3 , 4 ' = 3 4 k N
S
I
F i g . 2 . 1 3 F i g . 2 . 1 4
( I t I
I
C
1 0 D m
1
I t m a y b e n o t e d t h a t c a s e 4 i s s i m i l a r t o c a s e 3 , b u t h a s l o w e r v a l u e s a n d m a y
b e d i s c a r d e d .
M e m b e r l o a d s
I n t e r n a l p r e s s u r e c o e f f i c i e n t s ( C , , , ) s h o u l d b e o b t a i n e d t f l , a n d a r e t a k e n i n
t h i s e x a m p l e a s + 0 . 2 ( m a x i m u m ) a n d 0 . 3 ( m i n i m u m ) w h i c h a r e
c o m b i n e d a l g e b r a i c a l l y w i t h t h e v a l u e s o f a b o v e .
F i g u r e 2 . 8 s h o w s t h e i n d i v i d u a l p r e s s u r e c o e f f i c i e n t s , a n d F i g . 2 . 9 s h o w s
t h e v a n o u s c o m b i n a t i o n c a s e s .
a ) W i n d o n s i d e u I W i n d o n e n d
F i g . 2 . 8
C l a d d i n g = 0 . 0 9 x 5 . 5 x 6 . 0
T o t a l
= 3 . O l c H
= 8 . O k N
I c ) I n t e r n a l p r e s s u r e I d ) l n t t r n s l s u c t i o n
F i g . 2 . 9
C a s e I I n + b I C a s e 2 I n + d l C a s e 3 ) b ' + c I C a s e 4 l b + d l
W I
I I I H ( l ) i ) l l I I l
I m p o s e d l o a d o n r o o f g i v e n o n p l a n a r e a ( a n d s e r v i c e s ) ( F i g . 2 . 1 2 ) :
S n o w l o a d l F k = 0 . 7 5 x 1 9 . 0 x 6 . 0 = 8 6 k M
F I g . 2 . 1 2
22 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO 8S 5950
It IS possible 10 use a lower wmd pressure below a height of 5 m but ihis
makes the analYSIS more complex for very little reductton m frame moments.
(c) Pressure coefficients
1.2 0.4
0.1
"
!i1jWind on side
Fig. 2.8
1.4 0.6

Case 1 !a+b)
Fig. 2.9
External pressure coeffiCIents may be found and are summanzed in the
followmg table. These values are o'btained from reference (2).
Cp"..for frame member
AB BC CD DE
Wind on side 0.7 -1.2 -0.4 -0.25
Wind on end -0.5 -0.6 -0.6 -0.5
Internal pressure coeffiCients (Cpl) should be obtamed{l). and are taken m
this example as + 0.2 (maximum) and - 0.3 (minimum) which are
combined algebraically with the values of above.
Figure 2.8 shows the mdividual pressure coeffiCients, and Fig. 2.9 shows
the vanous combination cases.
0.6 0.6

. (hi Wind on end le) Internal pressure Idllnterna! suction
0.9 0.1 0.8 O.B 0.3 0.3


Case 2 (<I + d) Cas6 4 fb+ d)
.. - C
p
;) for frame member
Cnse AB BC CD DE
L Wind on side + mlemal 0.5 -lA -0.6 -0.45
pressure
2. Wind on side + mlernal LO -0.9 -0.1 0.05
SUCllon
3. Wind on end + mternal -0.7 -0.8 -0.8 -0.7
pressure
4. Wind on end + Internal -0.2 -0.3 -0.3 -0.2
suction
LOADING AND LOAD COMBINATIONS 23
It may be noled that case 4 is Similar to case 3, but has lower values and may
be discarded.
(d) Member loads
Dead load on roof is calculated on the projected area (Fig. 2.10):
Self \vetght= 0.9 x 19.3 = l7.5kN
Cladding = 0.09 x 19.3 x 6.0= lO.5kN
Total Wdr = 28.01eN
Dead load on walls (Fig. 2.11):
Self weight = 0.9 x 5.5
Cladding = 0.09 x 5.5 x 6.0
Totai Wm..
W"
! I! i!! ! ! i I


I ".Om I
Fig. 2.10
= 5.0kN
= 3.0kN
= 8.0kN
Fig. 2.11
w, imposed load on roof gIven on plan area (and servIces) (Fig. 2.12);
I ! I ! I ! I I I I I I I I Snow load W;=0.75 x 19.0 x 6.0=86kN

".Om I
Fig. 2.12
Wind loads for case (1) - wmd on side + '"temal pressure:
Wind load on wall W ....... (Fig. 2.13) = 0.5 x L20 x 6.0 x 5.5 = 15 k.N
Wind pressure on roof is divided mto vertical and honzontal components
(Fig. 2.14),
VertIcal component W" ... = -lA x l.20 x 6.0}j; 19.0 = -192kN
Honzonlal component Wwh = -1.4 x 1.20 x 6.0 x 3.4= -34 kN
Fig. 2.13
W,""
I ! ! ! I! !!
,

I 19.0 m _ ..
Fig.





.













I V ,













L O A D I N G A N D L O A D C O M B I N A T i O N S
2 5
E a c h





















4 1 d










































1 . 4 1 5 3

2 4 S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R I < D E S I G N T O B S 5 9 5 0










( e ) F o r c e s a n d m o m e n t s
" C

24 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO 9S 5950
Fig. 2.15 Loading
summary
In the same manner wind load for each member and each case may be
calculated. The loading due to dead, imposed and wmd loads may be
summanzed using the posItive notation ID Fig. 2.15.
w,
w,
I I ! I ! ! ! I BI I !
I
I

c
g,w,
W,
B
0
E
W,
A
H. H,
V.
V,
Unfactored loads (kN)
W, W, W, W, W, W,
Dead load Wd 0 0 28 28 0 0
Imposed load H'j 0 0 86 86 0 0
Wind case (1) WWl 20 -34 -192 -82 -15 -18
Wind case (2) W
w1
40 -22 -123 -14 -2 -2
Wind case (3) Wwl -18 -20 -109 -109 -20 -18
Note that the wall dead load is not included at this stage, as it does not
produce a bending moment. Values of 'If are not yet included.
(e) Forces and moments
The loads given In Fig. 2.l5 may be used to oblam moments and forces by
any analytical method or by use of-charts or coefficients, Each load W has an
appropnate set of coeffiCIents-a gIVing the reqUired moment or force(6), For
any load case, the effects of all SIX loads must be summed.
For dead load:
H" = j'llWI + 1'21 W2 + j')1 W) + 1'41 W4 + 'Is, Ws + )-'61 W6
and similarly for each force or moment.
The coefficients for elastic analyses may be and tabulated:
Coefficient !X for moment or force
Load H, 11, V, V, M. M, M,
(kN) (kN) (kN) (kN) (kNm) IkNm) (kNm)
"',
-0.806 0.194 -0.072 0.072 1.683 -0.351 -1.067
IV, -0.541 0.459 -0.189 0.189 2.975 -0.485 -2.525
W, 0.434 0.434 0.750 0.250 -2.385 0.890 -2.385
W"
0.434 0.434 0.250 0.750 -2.385 0.890 -2.385
/Vs 0.459 -0.541 0.189 -0.189 -2.525 0.'185 -2.975
11'6 0.194 -0.806 0.072 -0.072 -l.067 -0.351 1.683
:;:
, , ..
LOADING AND LOAD COMBINATIONS 25
Each force or moment may be calculated USing equatIOns sImilar to that given
for Ha abovc.
The expresSIOn of coefficients (a:) and loads {JV) as arrays allows ror
combimng by use of a computer program. This would be of particular
advantage if matnx multiplicatIon was available.
I Wli"i = IF)
By computer or by hand the moments and forces are calculated and
tabulated:
Value of moment or force due to unfactored loads
11. R, V. V, M. ,'Ha
(kN) (kN) (kN) (kN) (lcNm) fkNm} fkNm)
IV, 24.3 24.3 28.0 28.0 -133.6 49.8 -133.6
Ifj 74.6 74.6 86.0 86.0 -410.2 153.! -410.2
IV,.I -127.0 -108.0 -163.6 -110.4 643.1 -220.8 643.1
Ww). -8J.i -59.1 -95.0 -42.0 335.8 -123.6 330.3
W
wJ
-75.8 -75.8 -109.0 -109.0 493.7 -155.0 493.7
(I) Combinations and load factors
Combinations of load must now be considered and at this stage the values of
}'! may be mcluded. Possible combinatIOns are:
Group i Dead + Imposed
Group 2 Dead + wmd
Group 3 Dead + Imposed + wmd
Group 4 Dead (rcstramlOg uplift) + Wind
1 .4W" + 1.6W;
l.4W" + 1.4WwJ
lAW" + 1 AWwj
1 .4W" + 1 ,4WwJ
1 .lW
d
+ 1.21Vi + j .2W",/
i.2W,/ + l.2W; + I.2W
w
.l
J .lIfT" + 1.2W; + I.2Ww;!
l.DIVd + JAJV
wl
l.OIVd +
Group 4 IS mtcnded for use when considenng restramt agamst uplift or
overturning, I.C. maximum wlOd plus minimum dead load. Some combina-
tlOns may be elimmated by mspechon, but care must be taken to retam
combinations glvmg ma;umum values of opPosite sign. Some of the
combinations In Groups 2 and 3 have been discarded In the folloWlOg
table.
For group! combination (L4W" + 1.6Wd:
Ha = 1.4 X 24.3 + 1.6 x. 74.6 = 153 kN
Frame forces (kN) and moments (kNm) for fhctored loads:
2 6 S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R I < D E S I G N T O B S 5 9 5 0
L O A D I N G A N D L O A D C O M B I N A T I O N S 2 7
F i g . 2 . 1 6 B e n d i n g
m o m e n t s
f o r c o m b i n a t i o n
G r o u p i

+ 1 . 6 1 1 1 1 5 3 1 5 3 1 7 7 1 7 7 a 4 3 3 1 5 R 4 3
2 . 1 . 4 W , ,
+ I . 4 1 1 ' , t 1 3 4 1 1 7 1 9 0 1 1 6 7 1 3 2 3 9 7 1 3
3 . t . 2 1 1 1 ,
+ 1 . 2 0 1
+ I . 2 1 1 ' . , a 2 1 4 8 2 3 8 6 2 5 0 9 5 2 5 6
4 . t . D 0 ' , ,
1 5 4 ' 1 2 7 2 0 ! 1 2 7 7 6 4 ' 2 5 9 7 6 4

8 2 8 2 1 2 5 1 2 5 5 5 7 1 6 7 5 5 7
W h i l e t h e s e r a t t l e s a r e m a x i m a t o p p o s i i e n i g s ) l a m e g r o u p 4 c o n i b i n o m o n i t n s 5 9 3 0 ) s i t m a r o v e r ' p u a a n d
o v e n a n t u n g o n l y . i i i s u n e c e s s a o y , I r n w e v e r f o r a l l t h e e f f e c t s o f a l o a d c o r n b t n a m ' n n t o b e e o m n n l d e e e d ( n o r a l s o
C h a p i e r l 2 )
M a x i m u m a n d m i n i m u m v a l u e s m a y b e s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e t a b l e . B e n d i n g
m o m e n t d i a g r a m s m a y b e d r a w n a s s h o w n i n F i g s . 2 . 1 6 a n d 2 . 1 7 .
2 . W i n d L o a d i n g
B r i t i s h S t a n d a r d I n s t i t u t e C l ' ) , C h a n t e r V . P a r t 2
3 . M o v i n g l o a d s e f f e c t s
M a r s h a l l W . T . & N o t i o n n . M . ( 1 9 9 0 ) M o v I n g l o a d s
a n d i n f l u e n c e l i n e s , S r n s c n , r e s ,

7 9 i 0 6 . L o n g m a n
4 . l i n e s
d e t e r m i n a t e


















2 5 2
F i n a l l y

1 7 7 1 9 0
2 0 9 2 0 1


c a n e a c h
i t s

S T U D Y R E F E R E N C E S
T o p i c






26 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO SS 5950
Fig. 2.16 Bending
moments
for combinatIon !
Fig. 2.17 Bending
moments
for combin!ltlOn 2
Group Ji. Ji. V. V. M6
IlJ" Md
I. IAlf'd
+1.6W; 153 153 177 177 --1143 315 --ll43
2. lAW
d
+ lAW,.! -134 -117 -190 -1l6 713 -239 713
3. I.ltl'd
+1.2JVj
+1.2W ....
1
21 48 23 86 -250 95 -256
4. l.Olf'd
+J.4W ..
1
-154 -127 -201 -127 764- -259- 764-
l.OW
d
+1 AW,.J -82 -82 -125 - 12.5 557 -167 557
While these ate m:ulml the grQUP" comhinmllnl (SS 5950) ut 10 !:OVer uplift :md
ovenummg only. U U lor all the effec!$o/ a IOJd comhin1!iOO 10 he eoruidered /sce
Ch2pler 12)_ ."
MaXimum and minimum values may be selected from the table. Bending
moment diagrams may be drawn as shown In Figs. 2.16 and 2.17.
C
850 -317 850
B D
A
BMs In kNm
E
252
C
D
E
Finally the effect of wall dead load cnn be added, if axial force in the
columns IS reqUired (combinatIon I):
Ma;umum aXial force at A = 177 + lA x 8.2 = 190 kN
Mirumum aXlal force at A = - 209 + 1.0 x 8.2 = -20] kN
The alternatIve method of analysIs IS by applicatIOn of plastic theory isee
Chapter 13). in this elastic analysIs of a portal frame, the loading
combinations can be added, but in Chapter 13 each load combination
produces its own umque collapse mechamsm, I.e. each load combinntlOn
must be analysed independently when applymg plastiC theory.
STUDY REFERENCES
Tomc
1. Loading
References
BS 6399 DesJgn Loading for Buildings
Part 1: Dead and imposed loads (1984)
Part 2: fnnd foods (1995)
Part 3: lmposed roof loads (1988)
2. Wind Loading
3. MOVing louds effects
4. Movmg load effect.s
5. influence lines
6. influence lines
LOADING AND LOAD COMBINATIONS 27
British Standard inshtute CP3, Chapter V, Part 1
Marshal! W.T. & Nelson 11.1\'1. (1990) MOVing loads
and influence lines, SrnJcfllres. pp. 79-106. Longman
Wang c.l(. (983) Influence lines for slallcally
detcmunale beams, lntermedilJle Srnlcrllral Allah'sls,
pp. 4S9-.Q7. l ...
Coates R.C., Coutie M.G. & Kong F.K. (1988)
Mueller-Breslau's pnnclple. Model analysIs, StnlcfUral
AnalysIS, pp. 127-31. Van Nostrand Remhold
Wang C.K. (1983) lnflm:nce lines for slatlcally
delennmale beams, lnrermediare Srnlcfllrai AnalysIs.
pp. 496-503. McGraw-HiIl
7. BM and SF coeffiCients (1992) DeSign theory, Steel DeSIgner's MOIIIIOI,
pp. 1051-4. Blackwell
8. BM and SF coeffiCients (1992) DeSign theory, Sreel Designer's Mmmal,
pp. J08[).....97. Blackwe\l
1 3 1
B E A M S I N B U I L D I N G S




e . g . s u p p o r t i n g

g r i d t h e s e















f
C M
' H
E '
3 . 1
B E A M S W I T H F U L L L A T E R A L R E S T R A I N T
M a n y

b y























B E A M S W I T H O U T F U L L
R E S T R A I N T
A n




















o f


w h i c h









t I t I
E

I I I





l L I j
B e a m


A






i I
Fig, 3.1 Load distribution
!excluding
self weight)
BEAMS IN BUILDINGS
Most buildings are Intcnded to provide load carrymg floors, and to contain
these within a weathertlght envelope. In some structural frameworks the
w!!athertight function is not needed, while the load carrymg funcllon only IS
reqUired, e,g. supporting chemica'l plunt. The loads to be supported are often
placed on floor slabs of concrete, or on steel or timber grid floors, and these
are In turn supported on the steelwork beams. In some cases, especially in
mdustrial buildings, loads from eqUipment may be placed directly on to the
beams without the use of a floor slab. Wind loads also must be carned to the
beams by provtslon of cladding of adequate strength. and by secondary
members such as purlins and side rails.
Beams which carry loads from floors or other beams to the columns are
generally called main beams. Secondary beams will be provided to transfer
load to the mam beams, or ID some cases just to give lateral stabiiity to
columns, while themselves carryIng only their self weight. The manner III
which loads are distributed from the floors on to the beams needs careful
consideratIOn so that each beam is deSigned for a realistjc proportlon of the
total load. Examples of load distributIon for one-way and two-way spanning
slabs are shO\\'Jl ID Fig. 3.1.
AIIIIII'h-.
.1 Boom 1 loading b.

L'l b.
Beam 210adlng
Beam 1
H"j" "'t'
I I ! I ! 1 1 I
N
! I I 1 ! 1 I I
E I I I I I I
.
-t---l-+-I-I-I-I-f-

,
m , , , , ,
, , , , ,
H'
'j'
, I
'j'
I ,
Precast units or olher floor
spanning 1n one direction
H
H
1111111111111l
Beam 1 loading
Beam 2 no loading
BEAMS IN SUIltllNGS 29
3.1 BEAMS WITH FULL LATERAL RESTRAINT
Many beams In a steel framework will be restrained lalerally by the floors
which transmit the loads to them. Concrete floor siabs, and wall or roof
cladding, are generally able to give this lateral support or restramt. Timber
floors and open steel floors are less certain In providing restramt. The degree
of attachment of the flange to the floor muy need to be assessed
ll
}
AHernaUvely, iatera! restramt may be provided by braCing members at
specific pOints along the beams(IJ. If adequate braCing or floor slab restramt IS
present Ihen laternl torsIOnal instability will be prevented. In addition, this
need not be considered for beams In which:
the section IS bent about a mmor aXIS, or
the section has a high torsional stiffness, e.g. a rectangular hollow
sectIOn.
Beams, In which lateral torsIOnal Instability will not occur, arc classed as
restrained und are deSIgned as illustrated in Sechon 3.7.
3.2 BEAMS WITHOUT FULL LATERAL RESTRAINT
An understanding of the behaVIOur of strutS{2.3) will be useful m appreclatmg
the behavIOur of beams where full latera! restraml IS not proVided. The
compressIOn flange of such members will show a tendency to fail by budding
sideways (laterally) In the most flexible plane. DeSign factors which will
Influence the lateral stability can be summarized as:
the length of the member between adequate lateral restramts;
the shape of the cross-sechon;
the vanatlOn of moment along the beam;
the fonn of end reslmml provided;
the manner In which the load is applied, I.e. to tension or
compressIOn flange.
These factors and their effects are discussed in detail in reference (I), and are
set Qut In clause 4.3.7 of BS 5950. The buckling resistance (M
b
) of a beam
may be found by use of a number of parameters and faciors:
Effective length (Ld, which allows for the effecls of end restTamt
as well as type of beam, and the eXistence of destabilizmg forces.
Minor axis slenderness (1), which Includes lateral stiffness in the
form of rv, and IS defined by ;;. = LE/ry.
Torsional index (x), which IS a measure of the torSIOnal stiffness of
a cross-sectIOn .
Slenderness factor (v), which allows for torSIOnal stiffness and
mcludes the rallo of A/X.
Slenderness correction ractor (n), which IS dependent 011 the
moment variatIOn along the beam.
Buckling parameter (u), Which allows for section type aud
mcludes a factor for wnrpmg.
r
3 0 S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R K D E S I G N T O S S 5 9 5 0 1 f l e A . . , , . . . . . . . a a a . .


= n i , a A


S I M P L I F I E D P R O C E D U R E S
T h e





1 , 0 ( f o r
c o n s e r v a t i v e 5 9 5 0 a n d




M O M E N T

T h e







A i r = p y S
I




1
o f
i s



f l C U i L t J I I ' i t J 0 O i
L o c a l






( a n d
I

B U C K L I N G R E S I S T A N C E ( M E M B E R B U C K L I N G C H E C K )
M e m b e r s m u s t
a s







I
















30 sTRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO BS 5950
Equivalent slenderness PH), which combines the above para-
meters and from which the bending strength (Pb) may be derived:
}.LT = nuv}.
In addition, an equIvalent moment factor (m) is used which allows for the
effect of moment vanahon along the beam.
3.3 SIMPLIFIED DESIGN PROCEDURES
3.4
The deSign of many simple beams will not reqUire Ihe calculatIOn of all the
above parameters. In panlcular, Simply supponed beams carrymg distributed
loads and not subjected to destabilizmg loads will use:
m = 1.0
n = 0.94
11 = 0.9 (for I, H and channel sectIOns) or from published tables
= 1.0 (for other sectIOns)
A conservative approach 15 allowed in BS 5950 and may be used in the
deSign of I and H sectIons only, baSing the bending strength (Pb) on the
deSign strength, the minor aXIs slenderness (1) and the torsional index (x),
which for Ihis method may be approximated 10 D/T. This approach is useful
In the prelimmary SIZing of members and IS gn'en In clause 4.3.7.7.
MOMENT CAPACITY OF MEMBERS (LOCAL CAPACITY
CHECK)
The local moment capacity (Mc) al any cntical pomt along a member must
not be less than the applied bending moment at that pomt. The moment
capacity will depend on:
the deSign strength and the elastic or plastic mOdulus;
the co-existent shear;
the possibility of local buckling of the cross-sectIOn.
Providing tbe applied shear force IS not more than 0.6 of the shear capaCity,
no reductIOn In moment capacity IS needed, and
!IIr- = pyS
but Afr- i j .2pyZ
where S is the plastic modulus
Z is the elashc modulUS
Nole that the limltalJon 1.2p
y
Z is to prevent tile onset of plasttclty below
working load. For UB, UC and JOIst sectIOns the rallo S /Z is less Lhan i.2 and
the plnstic moment capacity governs deSign. For sectIOns where S/Z > 1.2,
the constant 1.2 is replaced by the mtlO (Yo) of factared load/unfaclored load.
The limllatlOn -j .2p,.z is therefore purely notIOnal and becomes in practice
'IoP).z
If 0.6 of shear capacity IS exceeded, some reductIOn 10 Mc will occur as set
out In clause 4.2.6.
BEAMS tN BUILDINGS 31
Local buckling can be avoided by applYing a limitatIOn to the
width/thickness ratios of elements of the This leads to the
classificatIon of discussed in SectIOn 1.7.
Where mem'bers are subjected to bending about both a.xes a combinatlOll
relationship must be satIsfied:
(a) For plastIC and compact sectiollS:
For un, UC and. jOist sections p-r,,/Mat + My/(M
c
)') ;t !
For RHS, CHS and solid sections {M,,/kl
a
)5/ + M
y
(/lfcy)5!3 ;f. I
For channel, angle and all other secltons M,,/Ma+ My/MC) . "f I
where }'-Ix> My are applied moments about x and y axes
Ala, !I-fey are moment capacities about x and y axes
-(b) For slender sections:
(and as a Simplified method for compact sections In (a) above)
),;fr/Ma + }dv/AIry ., 1
3.5 BUCKLING RESISTANCE (MEMBER BUCKLING CHECK)
Members not provided with full lateral restraint (Sec non 3.2) must be
checked for lateral torstonal buckling resistance (Mb) as well as moment
capacity. The buckling reSistance depends on the bending strength (Sectton
3.2) and the plastic modulus:
Mb =PbS"
Where members are subjected to bending about both axes {without aXial
load) a combinatiOn relationship must be satisfied:
m"M,,/Jl-/1> + my My/Mc)' ., I
where nI", my are eqUivalent unifonn moment factors
Mt:y IS the moment capacity about the y aXIS but without the
restnctlOn of 1.2p
y
Z (ns In SectIOn 3.04).
This IS described as a more exact' approach {clause 4.8.3.3.2) which IS
iess conservaUve thlln the 'sunplified' approach (clause 4.8.3.3.1), m which
Mcy IS defined as p,Zyo Also, a sllnplified for bending about two
axes (without axml load) does not reduce the calculatIOns.
3.b OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
In addition to the above reqUirements for moment capacity and buclding
reSistance, a member IS usually reqUired to mee;t some deflecllon cntena.
These are outlined in SectIOn 1.5 and reference (1).
The applicatmn of heavy loads or reactions to a member may produce high
locnl stresses and it IS necessary to check that the web beanng and web
buckling reqUirements are satisfied. These reqUirements are generally
Significant only in beams canylng heavy pomt loads such ns crane girders
(Chapter 5) or beams supportmg column members within the span.







3 . 7 E X A M P L E 4 . B E A M S U P P O R T I N G C O N C R E T E F L O O R S L A B
( R E S T R A I N E D B E A M )
( a )





r - i
B

7 . 4 i n


.







2
= 0 . 9 0


( c ) B M a n d S F




I D

1 0 ) 2 2 3 7
0 . 6









3 2 S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R K D E S I G N T O B S 5 9 5 0







8 . 4
1 8 . 0 m 2
5 7

1 2 3





4 2

9 0




a n d

2 5 0

= 1 0
1 4 7
3 1 6




7 4 7 4

3 . O m




S h e a r c a p a c i t y
U s i n g




4 . 2 . 3








32 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO BS 5950
Fig. 3.2 Slnb nnd beams
Connections must be provided at JunctIOns between members and must
safely transmit the calculated loads from one member to the next. A variety
of connectIon details exist for most common situations and are fully
described in the Se! bandbook(4). DeSIgn infonnatlOn for connectIOns is
gwen m section 6, BS 5950, which Includes some guidance on bolt spacmg
and edge distances. Bolt and weld sizes and capacities are given in
reference (5).
3.7 EXAMPLE 4. BEAM SUPPORTING CONCRETE FLOOR SLAB
(RESTRAINED BEAM)
(a) DimenSions
(See Fig. 3.2.)
Beams centres
Span (Simply supported)
Concrete slab (spannmg In two directions)
Finishing screed
H
Mam beam
H
E I
" 1 ,

7.4 m
6.0m
7.4 m
250 mm thick
40 mm thick
40mm licreed
2>
7
250 mm slab
6.0 m
I
.1
Typical bay of larger floor area
H
(b) Loading
Concrete slab
Screed (40 mm)
Imposed load
H
23.7 kN/m
3
0.9 kN/m
l
5.0 kN/m'
For prelimmary calculatIOn, an estimated self weIght IS Included. Assume
beam to be 533 x 210 x 92 UB (grade 43A). It IS suffiCiently accurate to take
beam weight of 92 kglm = 0.92 kN/m. Member size must be finally
confinned after all the deSIgn checks have been carned out.
10kN
! j I !


.. "
"
11
(c)
rectangles 2xl.4x3.0
=
8.4 m
2
tnangles 4 x 3.0 x 3.0/2 = 18.0m
2
Dead load Wd:
on rectangles 6.83 x 8.4
=
57 kN
on tnangles 6.83 x 18.0 = 123 kN
Imposed load Wj :
all rectangles 5.0 x 8.4 42 kN
on triaggles 5.0 x 18.0 90 kN
Ultimate load (factored) (Fig. 3.4);
uniformly distributed
on rectangles
on triangles
1.4 x 7 = 10 kN
1.4 x 57 + 1.6 x 42 = 147 kN
l.4x 123+1.6x90 =316kN
BM and SF
(Sec Fig. 3.5.)
Maxunum ultimate moment M;x
= 10 x 7.4/8+232 x 3.0 -158 x 1.7 -74 x 10.35=573 leNm
Maxtmum ultimate shear force F;x = 1012 + 232 = 237 kN
(d) Shear capacity
Using the deSign strength from Table 1.2 for grade 43A steel, notlng that
maxImum thickness of section IS 15.6 mm:
Py = 275 NJmm
2
clause 4.2.3 Shear capacity P" = 0.6 P
y
A"
= 0.6 x 0.275 x 531.1 x 10.2 = 897 leN
Shear force F;x IP" = 0.26
Therefore, as F;xIP" < 0.6, there will be no reduction m moment capacity (see
clause 4.2.5).
(e) Moment capacity
The concrete slab provides full restraint to the compressIOn flange (Fig. 3.6),
and lateral torsional buckJing is not considered. The chosen VB IS
3 4 S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R I ( D E S I G N T O 8 5 5 9 5 0 1
B E A M S I N B U I L D I N G S 3 5
f o r c e i s
k N m









0 . 8 8







= I V , L 3 / 6 0 E 1 ,






























2 9 7 . 0
8 0 . 7


3 9 7 ( 4 . 4
+

=












c l a u s e 4 . 2 . 5

3 9 . 7
S
9 ,
F o r c e s

D i r e c t i o n

r e s u l t a n t

0
0



34 STRUCTURAL-STEELWORK DESIGN TO SS 5950
clause 3.5.2 a plastic sectIOn (blT= 6.7) and at mid-span the shear force is zero.
dause 4.2.5
(f)
M==pySx=275 x 2370 x 10-
3
=651 kNm
Note that because the umts are Pr (N/mml) and S;. (cm)) then the 10-
3
must be mcluded for M= In order to obtam the correct umt of kNm.
Alternatively, there IS no need for 10-
3
if 0.275 kN/mm
1
is used for Pr
BUl
/ylez;t 1.2 PyZ-" = 1.2 x 275 x 2080 x 10-
3
= 686 kNm
Note that for I and H sectIons bent about the x axis the expression
governs the design. For bending about the y aXIS, however, the expressIOn
1.2 p)Zy governs the design. The factor 1.2 m this expressIOn may be
Increased to the ratio factored loadlunfactored load (clause 4.2.5):
M;./fr/o; = 5731652 = 0.88
SectIOn IS satlsfaclOlY.
Deflection
DeflectIOn (which IS a servIceability limit state) must be calculated on the
baSIs of the unfactored imposed loads:
W.,=90+42=132 kN
Assume the load IS approximately tnnnguJar and hence fonnulae are
available for deflectIOn calculalJons(6)
b
x
= W
x
L
J
I60El
x
= 132 x 7400
3
/(60)( 205 )( 55 400)( 10
4
)
=8.4 mm
BS table 5 DeflectIOn limit = 74001360 = 20.6 mm
(g)
2 no. 90x90x 10 ls
400 long
01_
a_50
"
:il
E
01- BC;J1n ,
0
"
,.,
u
01-
M22 bolts
Jlso
Fig. 3.7
Connection
The deSign of connections which are both robust and practicable, yet
economiC, IS developed by expenence. Typical examples may be found in
references (4, 7).
The connectIOn at each end of the beam mllst be able to transmi! the
ultimate shear force of 237 kN to the column or other support. The
connectIOn forms part of the beam, I.e. the pOint of support IS the column to
cleat mterface. DeSign practice assumes that the column bolts support shear
force only, while the beam bolts carry shear force, together with a small
bending moment.
BM=237xO.05=12.i kNm
Assume 9 bolts, 22 mm diameter (grade 4.6) as shown In Fig. 3.7.
39.7
BEAMS IN BUILDINGS 35
(i) COLUMN BOLTS
VertIcal shear/bolt = 237/6 = 39.5 kN (smgle shear)
clause 6.3.2 Shear capacity = Ps where IS the area at the roO! of
the bolt thread:
P. = 0.160 x 303 =48.5 kN/bolt
clause 6.3.3.2 Beanng capacity of bolts P
bb
= dtPbb:
P,,=22 x IOx 0.460= 101 kN/bolt
dause 6.3.3.3 Beanng capaCJly of the angles fdtpfu) IS the same as that for bolts, because
Pbs for grade-43A steel has the same value as Pbb for grade 4.6 bolts, I.e.
460 N/mm
2
In addition, the beann'g"capaclty tiflhe angles mllst comply with
the cnterion, P
be
i erpb112 (e defined in Fig. 3.7).
Pbs=50 x 10 x 0.460/2 = 115 kN/bolt
Note that the column flange will also reqUlre checking if it IS less than 10 mm
:;:tS:
i
Fo'",kN
:
,

(ii)
thick. Column bolt connection IS satisfactory. Capacities of bolts and beanng
values may alternatively be obtamed from reference (5).
BEMIBOLTS
r-c--- _ Direction
of BB.4I:N
resultant
Fig. 3.8
clause 6.3.3.3
(iii)
clause 4.2.3
(See Fig. 3.8.)
Double shear capacity /boU P
j
= 2 )( 0.160 )( 303 = 97.0 kN
Vertical shear/bolt = 242/3 = 80.7 kN (dollble shear)
Ma:umum honzontal bolt forces = (A/dtn=/ d
2
) due 10 bending moment
are discussed in SectIOn 8.4.
Honzontal shear/boit = 11.9 x 0.15/(2 x 0.15
2
) = 39.7 kN
Resultant shear/bolt = V(SO.7
2
+ 39.7
1
) = 88.4 kN
Beanng capacity of bolt, P
bb
= dtPbb
=22 x 10.2 x 460=97.6kN
ASPbl=Pbb, thcn beanng capacity of the web plate IS the samC as for the bolt.
,
Also, Pfu"'l- = 89 x 10.2 )( 460/2 = 209 kN
ANGLE CLEATS
Shear area of cleats {allOWing for 24 mm holes)
=0.9(400)( \0)( 2 - 3 x 2 x 10)( 24)'= 5904 n1ln
2
Shear capacity P" = 0.6 x 0.275 x 5904 =974kN '
A check for bending may also be carned out but will generally give a high
bending capacity relnuve to the applied moment(3)
3 0 S T R U O 1 U R A L S T E E L W O R K D E S I G N T O S I $ 0 5 0
P
a
f l u




3 . 8 E X A M P L E 5 . B E A M S U P P O R T I N G P L A N T L O A D S
( U N R E S T R A I N E D B E A M )
( a ) D i m e n s i o n s
M u m



B E A M S I N B U I L D I N G S 3 7
( c ) B M a n d S F



5 . 4
4 0 . 5
1 . 4 ( 4 . 0



1 . 4 ( 4 . 0 3 9 8

1 9 / 2

F 2 1 9 / 2 4 2 2 5 0 4

3 3 5 1 0 0 5




f o r

2 6 5






5 0 4 / 1 1 5 3 0 . 4 4

0 . 6







C d ) S h e a r c a p a d t y





0 . 6



1 . 4 1 8 . 8

7 . 2
4 . 5 5 4 . 0
5 0 4
( e ) M o m e n t c a p a c i t y



2 6 5 1 2 1 0

= l 0 0 5 / 1 2 1 0 = 0 . 8 3


36 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO 8S 5950
Fig. 3.9 Plant loads
6.0 m
, I
Flg.3.10
3.8 EXAMPLE 5. BEAM SUPPORTING PLANT LOADS
(UNRESTRAINED BEAM)
(a) Dimensions
Mam beam is simply supported and spans 9.0 m (Fig. 3.9). Boilers are
supported symrnetncally on secondary beams (A and B) of span 6.0 m. which
are at 5.0 m centres.
-.--,--1 It I
1.Sm .. l.5m l.5m 1.5m -
E
o
,.;
E
"
m
E
o
,,;
E
Beams B
I, I!-

I '.Om ,I, '.Om .\
(b) Loading
Boiler loading (each) 400 kN
Open steel floonng (earned on beams A and B)
Imposed load (outside boiler area)
0.3 kN/m
1
4.5 kN/m
1
The boilers produce reactions of 100 kN at the end of each secondary beam.
Allow 4.0 kN for the selfwclght of each secondary beam Inot desIgned here).
Assume 610 x 305 x 149 VB (grade 43) for main beam.
Self weight (ultimate) = 1.4 x 9.0 x 1.49 = 18.8 kN
With reference to Fig. 3.10:
Flooring on beam A = 0.3 x 4.0 x 6.0 = 7.2 kN
Imposed load on beam A = 4.5 x 3.0 x 4.0 = 54.0 kN
With reference to Fig. 3.11:
Floonng on beam B = 5.4 kN
Imposed load on beam B = 40.5 kN
8EAMS IN BUILDINGS 37
Ultimate pomt load = 1.4(4.0 + 7.2) + L6(200 + 54) =422 kN
Ultimate POlDt load rv
B
= 1.4(4.0 + 5.4) + 1.6(200 HO.5) = 398 kN
(c) BM and SF
S.Om ,1=:-1
S.Om
(d)
clause d.2.3
Ultimate shear force
F, = 1912 x 422 x 6.0/9.0 + 398 x l.0/9.0 =335 kN
Ultimate shear force
F, = 19/2 x 398 x 8.0/9.0 + 422 x 3.0/9.0 = 504 kN
With reference to Fig. 3. J 2:
Ultimate moment MA =335 x 3.0 = 1005 kNm
Ultimate moment MD =504 x l.0 = 504 kNm
Note that m calculatmg the moments, the small reductlOn due to the self
weight is Ignored.
Shear- capacity
DeSign stTength P
y
for steel 19.7 mm thick (grade 43A)=265 N/mm2 (see
Table 1.2).
Shear capacity P" = 0.6 PvA."
= 0.6 x 265 x 609.6 x 11.9 x 10-:; = ll53 k.N
Shear force FI = 335 ItN
FI/P. =335/1 153 =0.29
Shear force F2 = 504 kN
F
2
/P. = 504/1153 =0.44 S 0.6
This maximum coexistent shear force IS present at pomt B, while the
maXImum moment occurs at pomt A.
(e) Moment capacity
clause 3.5.2 The chosen sectIOn IS a plastiC section (blT=7.7).
Moment capacity Me = pyS;r
= 265 x 4570 x 10-
3
= 1210 kNm
Moment raho M"dMe = 1005/]210=0.83 < I
SectIOn IS sailsfactory.
3 8 S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R K D E S I G N T O I S 5 9 5 0
B E A M S I N B U I L D I N G S 3 0



= 0 . 9 4 ( f o r f l a n g e s )
I
0 . 8 8 6
= n u v A
. 0








j ( A f ( x ) / E 1 ) d x




9 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 4 5
1 0 0





5 0 4 / 1 0
0 . 3 7 5 1 3 4
2 2 1 2 1
3 3 8










5 . 0



2 . 7
C
I n
P 3
2 !

L s o n
4 . 5 m

.
1 0 4 5
B M d i a g r a m


= 2 0 7





0 . 7 6
= o i M A

= 7 6 4 / 9 4 6 0 . 8 1



1 6 1
6 6 8





a s a n








2 5 . 3

38 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO 8S 5950
(I)
clallse .;-.3.5
BS table -'4
BS table 13
clause 4.3.7.5
BS table J 1
clause 4.3.7.2,
BS rabies 13, 18
Budding resistance
The buckling resistance moment of Ihe beam In the part-span AB must be
found, and in this part the momenl vanes from 504 kNm 10 1005 kNm. It IS
assumed thal the steel floonng does not provide lateral restralDt, but that the
secondary beams give posltiona! and rotatIOnal restraint at 5.0 m spacmg.
Loading between the restTamts IS of a mlllOT nature (self weight only) and is
Ignored for use of SS table 13 as It would affect the moments by less than
10% (see also BS table 16).
LE =5.0 m
Slenderness..:. = LefTy
=5000169.9=72 (both ry and LE given In mm)
TorsIOnal index x = 32.;
)Jx = 2.2
\' = 0.94 (for N = 0.5, 1.e. equal flanges)
11 = 1.0 (for member nol loaded between restramts)
11 = 0.886
ALT =1JI1vA
= J.O x 0.886 x 0.94 x 72 = 60
Bending strength Pb = 207 N/mm
1
Buckling resistance A1b =PbSx
= 207 x 4;70 x 10-
3
= 946 kNm
EqUivalent unifonn moment factor IrJ needs to be obtained for a member not
loaded between restramts:
hence
P =504/1005=050
III =0.76
EqUIvalent uniform moment M = mAlA.
= 0.76 x lOO; = 764 kNm
hence M 1Mb = 764/946 = 0.81 and section is satisfactory.
Try a smaller sectIOn (610 x 229 x 140 UB):
SE=4150 cm
4
" = 99.4
P
b
= 161 Nlmml
Mb =668 kNm
Ji /Mb = I.l4
which IS not satisfactory.
This companson mdicales the senSitiVity of the buckling reSistance
moment to small changes In sectIOn properties, particularly to a reduchon In
flange width.
(g)
1045

355 588 kN m
BM diagram (areas In bold)
Fig. 3.13
BEAMS IN BUILDINGS 39
Deflection
Ca kulatlon of the deflectIOn for tile serviceability imposed loading cannot be
carned easily by the use of formulae, which become complex for noo*
standard cases. Serviceability point load
W
A
=200+54 kN
1J's=200+40.5 =240 kN
With reference to Fig. 3.l3, mid-span deflection may be found by the
method{8.9):
{, J fM(x)I1)dx
=(149 x 0.667+ 1045 x 2.75 +355 x 3.333)/
(205 x 124660 x 16.3 mm
Calculation by Macaulay's method(IO.II) gives the poml of maxlmwn
deflection 4.65 m from support 2 with a value of 17.6 mm.
DeflectIOn limIt = 9000/200 = 45 mm
An approximate estlmate of deflection IS often obtamed by treatmg the load
as an eqUivalent u.d.l.
2 no. 100 x 100 x 12 ls
500 long
(h) Connection
8_50
100
"
100
E
Beam ,
100
..
o 'lOO u

I M22 bolts
-I WO
The connectIOn at support 2 of the mam beam must tmnsmlt uitimate shear
force of 504 kN and follows the method given 111 Section 3.7(g):
M=504 x 0.05=25.3 kNm
Assume 22 mm bolts (grade 8.B) as shown m Fig.
Fig. 3.14 ' 'r"-
(i) COLUMN BOLTS
Verttcal shearlbolt =;04110 50.4 kN
clause 6.2.3 Shear capacltylbolt = 0.375 x 303 = 114 kN
dause 6.3.3.3 Beanng capacity of angleslbolt P
b
:! = 22 x 12 x 0.460 = 121 kN
but Pru-/bolt I' 50 x 12 x 0.460/2 = l38 kN
Note that the column flange will require checking if less than 12 mm thick.
Column bolt connectIOn is satisfactory.
l 0 O . 8



1 ( 1 0 0 . 8 2 + 5 0 6 2 )

2 3 0 3
1 1 . 9 i . 0 3 5
1 1 . 9 0 . 4 6 0 1 2 0

R e f e r e n c e s
B o w l i n g P . 3 . , K n o w l e s P . & O w e n s G . W . ( 3 9 8 8 ) f
S t r u c t u r a l


4 2 0 5 2 .

I n s t a b i l i t y
V a n N o s t r a n d R e i n h o l d


v o l . L o n g a n a n
4 0 S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R K D E S I G N T O 9 5 5 9 5 0






6 . 3 . 3 . 3
B e a r i n g c a p a c i t y / b o l t
c a p a c i t y o f w e b p l a t e
x

5 0 . 6
B E A M S I N n U I L D I N G S 4 1











1 1 3 t N
r e s u l l a n t
4 . 2 . 3

h o l e s )
= 0 . 9 ( 5 0 0 2 8 2 0 8
S h e a r 8 2 0 8 1 3 5 0


R E F E R E N C E S








C o n n e c t i o n s









40 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO 8S 5950
(ii) BEAM BOLTS
clause 6.3.3.3
,

C'! ";'1
- ,
;2
(iii)

'" \ resullant
,
'll> .
40!
clause 4.2.3
. I
I
Fig. 3.15
(See Fig. 3.15.)
Vertical shearlbolt
Horizontal shearlbolt
= 504/5
=Mdm,.)l.d'
= 100.8 !eN
= 25.3 x 0.20/2(0.10' + 0.20')
Resultant shearfbolt = .J(l00.8
2
+50.6
2
)
=50.6 !eN
=113 !eN
=227 !eN
=271 !eN.
= 120 !eN
Shear capacity (double shear) =0.375 x 2 x 303
Beanng capacttylbolt P
bb
= 22 x 11.9 x 1.035
Beanng capacity of web plate P
bJ
= 22 x 11.9 x 0.460
but P" l' 89 x 11.9 x 0.460/2 = 243 !eN
Beam bolt connection is satisfactory.
ANGLE CLEATS
i
Shear area of deats (24 mm holes)
=0.9(500 x 12 x 2 - 5x 2 x 12 x 24)=8208 mm
2
Shear capacity p ... =0.6 x 0.275 x 8208 = 1350 kN
F.jP" =50411350=0.37
I
Conne'ctlOll cleat IS satisfactory.
!
STUDY REFERENCES
TopIC
j. Lateral restraint
BS 5950
2. StIllt behavIOur
3. Strut behavIOur
4. ConnectIOns
5. Bolt details
6. Deflection fonnulne
7. ConnectIOns
8. Moment*llfell method
References
Dowllng P.J., Knowle.s P. & Owens G.W. (l988)
Structural Steel DesIgn. Stetd Construction institute
Marshal! W.T. & Nelson H.M. fl990) ElastIc
anaiysls. Structure, pp. 420-52. Longman
Coates R.c., Coutie M.G. & Kong F.K. (1988)
Instability of struts and frameworks, Stntctural Anaiysls, '
pp. 58-71. Van Nostmnd Remhold .
(1993) JOintS In Simple Connections val. 1. Steel
Canstruchon Insbtute
(985) Steelwork DeSIgn vol. I, Section propertles.
member capacities. Sleel ConstructlOn Instttute
(1992) DeSIgn theory, Steel DesIgners' Manual,
pp. lO26-50. Blackwell
(1992) Jomts In Simple Connections voL 2. Steel
Construction institute
Croxton P .L.e. & Martin L.H. (1990) A",,-n,on""
methods of analYSIS. SolVing Problems In Structures
VD!. 2. pp. 2'5-47. Longman
BEAMS IN BUILDINGS 41
9. method Contes R.c., Coulie M.G. & Kong F.K. (1988)
Moment-area methods. Structllrai AnalysIs, pp. 176-81.
Van Nostrnnd Retn.hold
10. DeflectIon
11. DeflectIOn
Mnrs-ball W.T. & Nel!on H.M. (1990) Singulanty
functIOns, Structures, pp. 233-8. Longman
Hearn EJ. (1985) Slope and deflectIOn of beams,
Mer:lramcr of Malenals vo!. 1, pp. l02-7. Pergamon
H I


P U R L I N S A N D S i O E R A I L S 4 3












































( b ) L o a d i n g
T 9











4 . 2 E X A M P L E 6 . P U R L I N

h i I t J L U i i



Fig. 4.1 Cold fonned
purlins
PURLlNS AND SIDE RAilS
In the UK purlins and side rails used in the constructlOn of industrial
buildings are often fabncated from cold fonned sectlOns. TIlcse sectlOns can
be desIgned in accordance with Part 5 of BS 5950, hut the load tables for
these sectIOns are frequently bused on test data. The sectIOns are marketed by
compames specUllizmg III this field who will nonnally gIVe the appropnate
spans and allowed laadings In their catalogues. SectIOns of this kind are
commonly of channel or zed form as illustrated in Fig. 4.1. Although theIr
design IS not covered in Ihis chapler, tbe selectIOn of cold formed sectIOns IS
discussed in Chapter 12.
Hot rolled sectIOns may be used as an alternatlve, and in some situations
may be preferred 10 cold formed sectIOns. The deSign of angles and hollow
sections may be carned out by empirical methods which are covered by
clause 4.12.4. The full deSign procedure (i.e. non-emplOcal) IS set out m this
chapter.
4.1 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR PURLlNS AND SIDE RAILS
The deSign of steelwork In bending IS dependent on the degree of lateral
restramt given to the compreSSlOn flange and the' torsIOnal restramt of the
beam, and also on the degree of lateral/torslOnai restramt given at the beam
supports. These restraints are given In detail in clause 4.3 and have been
discussed and demonstrated in Chapter 3. Side rails and purlins may he
considered to have lateral restrmnt of the compressIOn flange oWing to the
presence of the cladding, based on adequate flxmgs (clause 4.12.1). Loads
will be transferred to the steel member Via the cladding (see Fig. 4.2), and the
Fig. 4.2
PURLlNS AND SIDE RAILS 43
1.0 {fl

dead, Imposed and wmd pressure loads will cause the flange restrained by the
cladding to be m compressIOn. Wind suctIOn load can, reverse this
arrangement, I.e. the unrestrained flange will be In compression. TorSIOnal
restraint to a beam Involves both flanges bemg held in pOSition and for purl ins
and side rails this wil! be tnle only at the supports.
Side rails are subjected to both vertical loading (cladding) and honzontal
loading (Wind pressure/suction), but In general the vertical loading IS
considered to be taken by the cladding actmg as a deep girder. Consequently,
only moments In the honzontal plane (due to wmd) are considered in deSign.
In the deSIgn of new construction where the cladding is penetrated by holes
for access, ductwork or conveyors, the deSign engmeer should be satIsfied
that t/le cladding and fixmgs are capable of acting In this manner.
Sag rods are sometimes used to reduce the effective length of purl ins and
side rails, and result In continuous beam deSIgn (see Section 4.4). Where sag
rods are used, prov1Sl0n must be made for the end reactIOn on eaves or apex
beams. As IS shown in the following examples, there IS no reason why purl ins
and side rails should not be deSigned as beams subject to biaxial bending m
accordance with the normal deSIgn rules.
4.2 EXAMPLE 6. PURLlN ON SLOPING ROOF
(a) Dimensions
See Fig. 4.2: purl ins at 2.0 m centres; span 6.0 m Simply supported; rafter
slope 20"
(b) Loading
Dead load (cladding + insulatIOn panels)
Imposed load
Wind load
0.15 kN/m'
0.75 kNjm
2
(on plun)
0.40kNjm
2
(suctIOn)
Reference should be made to Chapter 2 for the derivatIOn of loads, lhe
directIOn In which each will act, and the area appropnate to each load.
Wdl
or
W/or W,.} MaXimum values of bending moment and shear force must be found at the
,sIll DIJI::IITi ]iJiIi Ii j':IUD'::jl ultimate limit state making due allowance for the slope angle and mcluding
6.0 m the 'If factors.
a12.0 m centres Assume purlin to be }52 x 76 channel sectIOn, grade 43A steel (see
Fig. 4.3 Fig. 4.3).
I,
L 8 0

6 . 0 x 0 . 1 8 = L O B







n o r m a l











f a c t o r s
a n d S F
M a x .
8 . 3



( d ) S h e a r c a p a c i t y
D e s i g n s t r e n g t h p , . i s g i v e n i n T a b l e 1 . 2 a n d f o r t h e s e l e c t e d p u r l i n s e c t i o n i s

9 7 5







1 3 0 x









B u c k l i n g
4 4 S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R I ( D E S I G N T O E S 5 9 5 0
F i g . 4 . 4

P U R L I N S A N D S I D E R A i L S
4 5
C e ) M o m e n t c a p a c i t y
T h e

b e n d i n g


7

4 . 2 . 5
A
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 !











F i N
t . 1 '
1 ,











44 STRUCTURAL STEELWORI( DESIGN TO as 5950
!
Fig. 4.4
Cladding
Self weight
Tota! dead load
2.0 x 6.0 x 0.15 = L80 kN
6.0 x O.IB LOB kN
kN
Imposed load =2.0 cos 20
0
x 6.0x 0.75
W, B.46 kN
Wind load x 6.0 x (-0.40)
-4.BO kN
The rafter slope of 20
0
results in purl ins at the same angle. Components of
load are used to calculate moments about the x and y axes, I.e. nonnal and
tangential to the rafter (Fig. 4.4). As with side rails, it would be possible to
Ignore bending in the plane of the cladding, but in practice, biaXial bending is
usually considered in purUn deSign.
Wch =2.88 cos 20
0
=2.71 kN
W
dy
= 2.88 sin 20
0
= 0.99 kN
Wu; = 8.46 cos 20
0
= 7.95 kN
Jt'i
y
= 8046 sin 20
0
= 2. 89 kN
W,,,,"= -4.80 kN
Note that WilY IS zcro as wind pressure IS perpendicular to the surface on
which it acts, I.C. nonnal to the rafter.
U1timate load W,.= \:,4 x 2.71 + 1.6 x 7.95 = 16.5 kN
where lA and 1.6 are the appropnate X
f
'factors (Section 1.7).
(c) BM and SF
'
Wk"
I I I I
"1

Fig. 4.5
(d)
clause 4.2.3
Max. ultimate moment M,. = 16.5 x 6.0/8 = 12.4 kNm
Max. ultimate shear force F,. = 16.5/2 = 8.3 k.N
Similarly, Wy = 6.0 kN
Shear capacity
M
y
=4.SkNm
F
y
= 3.0 k.N
DeSign strength py IS given In Table 1.2 and for the selected purlin section IS
275 N/mm2
Shear area A,.,. = 152.4 x 6.4 =975mm
2
Shear capacity P \.'X = 0.6 PyAv,.
=O.6x275 x 975 x 10-
3
=161kN
Shear area A,y = 0.9Ao ..
=0.9 x2 x 76.2 x 9.0 = 1234 mm'"
Shear capactty Pvy = 0.6 x 275 x 1234 x 10-
3
=204kN
It may be noted that in purlin deSIgn, shear capacity is usually high relative to
shear force.
Ce)
BS table 7
clause 4.2.5
PURLlNS AND SIDE RAILS 45
Moment capacity
The section classification of a c'hannei subject to biuxllli bending depends on
bIT and dlt which In this case are 8.47 and 16.5, respectively. The channel is
therefore a plastic sectIOn. Hence, the moment capacity
but Mo; must not exceed 1.2 PyZz
1.2 x 275 x 112 x 10-' 37.0 kNm
Note that 10-
1
must be mduded to give Mo; In kNm, when N/mm2 for
Py and cm) for Sx- Alternatively, py may be expressed as 0.275 kN/mm2.
but this reqUIres care later when aX:Ial forces and stresses arc used.
The raho Sy/Zy IS greater than 1.2 and hence the constaut 1.2 IS replaced by
the ratIO factored loadlunfactored ioad (6.0/[0.99 + 2.89J = 1.55).
Mcy must not exceed 1.55 P0y
1.55 x 0.275 x 9.0 kNm
The local capacity check may now be earned out (SectIOn 3.4):
Mz/Mo; + M/MC)' 1- i (for a channel section)
12.4/35.B + 4.519.0 0.B5
The local capacity of the section IS therefore adequate.
(f) Buckling resistance
The buckling resistance moment Mb of the section does not need to be found
because the beam IS restrained by the cladding In the .1' plane (Fig. 4.6) and
Instability IS not considered for a moment about the mmor axiS (Fig. 4.7)
(Scction 3.1).
Fig. 4.6
Fig. 4.7
4 6 S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R K D E S I G N T O E S 5 9 5 0
P U R L I N S A N D S I D E R A I L S 4 7
( g ) s u c t i o n
( h ) D e f l e c t i o n
T h e
f o r

a

=
3 M 4 . 0 1
4 . 0 1 = 3 . 0 1
i s
0 . 9 9 k N

0 . 7 5


3 0 m m





3 . 0 6 . 0


L n ' r , 6 0 0 0 / 2 2 . 4 2 6 8 l e s s




a n d
n u v A

1 4 . 5

2 6 8 / 1 4 . 5 3 8

0 . 4 9
0 . 9 0 2

0 . 9 4 l I t






e q u a l
3 0 8 i 4 . O k N m




4 . 3 7 .







n o t e





46 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO SS 5950
(g) Wind suction
The effect of the wmd suction load has so far not been considered, and in
some sltuallons it could be critical. Tn combinatton with ioads Wd and Wi, a
lower total load W is clearly produced.
Ultimate load W..- = LO x 2.71 + 1.4 x 4.8 = -4.01 kN
M, = -4.01 x 6.0/8 = -3.01 kNm
Wy = LO x 0.99 0.99 kN
My =0,99 x 6.0/8 0.75kNm
The value of MI is much lower than the value 12.8kNm used earlier, but
the negattve Sign Indicates that the lower flange of the channel is 10
and this flange is not restrained. The buckling resistance Ah
must therefore be found.
The effectlve length LE of the purlin may be found from BS table 9.
clause 4.3.5 LE = 1.0 x 6.0 = 6.0 m
Slenderness l = Ldry = 6000/22.4 = 268 (which is less than 350 as requrred
by clause 4.7.3.2) where LE and ry are in mm. EqUivalent slenderness lLT
allowing for lateral torsional buckling IS given by:
TorSional mdex x = 14.5
A/X =268/14.5 = 18
BS table 14 v = 0.49
11 =0.902
BS tabl, 16 n =0.94 (for P=O and y=O)
Clause 4.3.7.4
BS table 11
BS table 13
ALT = 0.94 x 0.902 x 0.49 x 268 = III
Bending strengthpb may be obtamed: Pb= 108N/mm
2
Buckling resistance M/) = puSx
= 108 x 130 x 10-
3
= 14.0kNm
The overall buckling check may now be carned out using an eqUIvalent
uniform moment factor (m) equal to 1.0 (member loaded between
restra1Ots):
mM..-/ Mb + Mcy -; 1
3.01/14.0+0.75/(275 x 41.3 x 10-'):=0.28
The overall buckling of the section IS therefore satisfactory.
The diagrams for bending moment and shear force shown m Fig. 4.5
mdicate that maximum values are not COincident and it IS not therefore
necessary to check moment capacity III the presence of shear load. Purlin
deSign does not normally need a check on web beanng and buckling as the
applied concentrated loads are low - nole the low values of shear force. The
check for beanng and buckling of the web IS particularly needed where heavy
concentrated loads occur, and reference may be made to Chapter 5 for the
reievant calculahons.
__ 4 __ 7
:I
Defieclton limits for purl ins are not specified ill BS table 5 but a limit of
span/200 IS commonly adopted.
DeflectIOn o;r=5W;rL
3
/384EI..-
where W;r IS the ser.'lceability Imposed load, I.e. 7.95 kN and E is
205 kN/mm
2
ox=5 x 7.95 x6oo0
J
/(384 x 205 x 852 x 10
4
)=12.8 mm
b;.=28.5mm
DeflectIOn limit = 6000/200 = 30 mm
(i) Connections
Fig. 4.8 Purlin connection
The connectIOn of the pllrlin 10 the rafter may be made by bolting Ilto a cleal
as shown m Fig. 4.8. The deSign of these connectlons IS usually nommal due
to the low reactIOns at the end of the pUrlins. However, the transfer of forces
between the purlin and rafter should be considered. For the channel secuon
chosen, Wx and Wy transfer to the rafter tlrrough a cleat. Bolts must be
provided but will be nommal due to the low reachons mvolved (8.0 kN and
3.0 kN). Chapter 3 gives calculatIOns for a bolted connectIOn In more detail.
Multi-span (contmuous) purlins may be used and mlOor.changes m deSign
are considered in SectIOn 4.4. '.
Putlin
CUI tram

4.3 EXAMPLE 7. DESIGN OF SIDE RAIL
(a)
(b)
Dimensions
(See Fig. 4.9): side rails at 2.0 m centres; span 5.0 m simply supported.
Loading
Dead load (cladding/insulation panels)
Wind load (pressure)
O.ISkN/m'
O.80kN/m'

A
I A


4 5 S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R K D E S I G N T O E S 5 5 5 0
P I J R U N S A N D S I D E R A I L S 4 9
M a x i m u m

f o r


l o a d
A s s u m e t h e s i d e

s e c t i o n



C l a d d i n g
I



= 2 . 5 5 k N



t o a d








F i g .

p '

4
d p s i g n = 2 7 5


i . 4



( I ) D e f l e c t i o n
( c ) C a l c u l a t i o n

u n f a c t o r e d




= 5 x 8 . O x





4 . 4
O F M U L T I - S P A N P L J R L I N
S h e a r c a p a c i t y
-
t : . i r - , ,



. , ; - ; -
o r d e r

4 . 2 . 3


















o r

- .
N A
48 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO BS 5950
Side
rail
X
Wind load
y
X
"g-g
E
c
iqi
'0
0
"
~ ~
N .
G
. ,
o.
Wind load
Fig. 4.9
c
E
,
."
u
.
"E
.0,
~
~
~
(c)
MaxlfllUm values of bending moment and shear force must be found
allowlOg for the wmd loading (bonzontal) only (Fig. 4.9) and inciuding tbe
safety faclor Yf'
Assume the side rail to be 125 x 75 x 10 unequal angle, grnde 43 steel. An
angle, such as that chosen,- provides greater resistance to bending (higher
section properties) about the x axis than the y axIS, compared to that for an
equal angle of the same area (weIght).
Cladding 2.0 x 5.0 x 0.18 = L80 kN
Selfwelgbt 5.0 x 0.15 =0.75 kN
Total dead load Wd =2.55k:N
Wind load W", = 2.0 x 5.0 x 0.80 = 8.0 k:N
The loads W", and Wd act In planes at nght angles producing moments
about x and y axes of the steel sectlon, but only moments about x are used in
dS=Slgn (as discussed in SectIOn 4.1).
:to .
Ultimate ~ ( n ~ . w
:1:_ . .0= Il.2kN
pI!! &
80
mz
BM and SF
WkN
With reference 10 Fig. 4.10:
i ,Ill! 1 ! 1 I ! i 12
Maximum moment AI., = 11.2 x 5.0/8 =7.0kNm
, I
Fig. 4.10
Maximum shear force Fx = 11.2/2 = 5.6 kN
(d) Shear capacity
Design strength py IS 275 NJmm
2
(Section 1.7).
clause 4.2.3 Sbear area Av =0.9 x 125 x ID = 1125 mm
2
Shear capacity P" =0.6 x 275 x 1125 x 10-
3
= 186kN
The shear capacity is clearly very large relatl ve to the shear force.
PURLlNS AND SIDE RAILS 49
(e) Moment capacity
For slflgle angles, iaternl restraint IS provided by the cladding, which also
ensures bending about the x rous, rather than about a weaker aXIS (Fig. 4.11).
The moment capaCIty only of the sectton is therefore Checked. The section
BS table 7 chosen IS defined as semI-compact havmg b!T= 7.5 and dJT= 12.5 (both
< 15), and (b + d)IT= 20 1< 23), hence:
llIa =pyZ;r
=275 x 36.5 x 10-
3
= ID.OkNm
M, /Ma = 7.0/10/.0 =0.70
SectIOn IS satisfactory.
The deSIgn of side rails does not nonnally mclude a check on web beanng
and buckling, as discussed in Section 4.2(g).
(l) Deflection
4.4
CalculatIOn of deflectIOn IS based on the serviceability condition, I.e. with
unfadored loads.
W
w
=8.0kN
ay = 5W
w
L' /3841,
= 5 x 8.0 X 5000' /(384 x 205 x 302 x 104)
=21.0mm
Although dause 4.12.2 avoids specifYing any value, use a deflection limit of,
say, U200 = 25 mm.
EXAMPLE B. DESIGN OF MULTI-SPAN PURLlN
Contmuity of a structural element over two or more spans may be useful In
order to reduce the maximum moments to be resisted, and hence the sectIOn
size. and to unprove the buckling resistance of the member.
1. In general, the bending moments In a contmuous beam are iess thun
those in simply supported beams of the same span. It should be
noted, however, that a two-span beam has the same moment (WL/8)
at the middle support as the mid-span moment of a Simply
supported beam.
2. The resistance of a member of lateral torsIOnal buckling IS
improved by continUity and this IS reflected in BS table 16.
Continuity may be achieved by fabricating members oflength equal to two
or more spans. Length will, however, be limited by reqUirements for delivery
P U R L I N S A N D S I D E f l A I L S 5 1
5 0 S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R I < D E S I G N T O O S 5 9 5 0
a n d f l e x i b i l i t y d u n n g s i t e e r e c t i o n . F o r t h e p u r l i n d e s i g n e d i n S e c t i o n 4 . 2 a ( I ) B u c k l i n g r e s i s t a n c e
l e n g t h o f n o t m o r e t h a n t w o s p a n s ( 1 2 m ) w o u l d b e a c c e p t a b l e ( t h e y c a n b e
d e l i v e r e d b u n d l e d t o g e t h e r t o r e d u c e f l e x i b i l i t y ) . C o n u n r n t y c a n a l s o b e A = = 6 0 0 0 / 2 2 . 4 = 2 6 8
a r r a n g e d b y U s e o f s i t e c o n n e c t i o n s c a p a b l e o f t r a n s m i t t i n g b e n d i n g m o m e n t s .
T h e f a c t o r a i s o b t a i n e d f r o m E S t a b l e 1 6 f o r / 3 = 0 a n d y = A l / A l 0 . j 0
S u c h c o n n e c t i o n s a r e c o s t l y t o f a b n c a t e a n d t o a s s e m b l e a n d a r e r a r e l y u s e d
a s t h e e n d m o m e n t A l a n d s i m p l y s u p p o r t e d m o m e n t A l 0 a r e e q u a l ( b u t
i n s m a l l s t r u c t u r a l e l e m e n t s s u c h a s p u r l i n s a n d s i d e r a i l s . U s i n g t h e s a m e
o p p o s i t e s i g n ) , h e n c e
e x a m p l e a s i n S e c t i o n 4 . 2 , t h e d e s i g n i s r e p e a t e d f o r a p u r l i n c o n t i n u o u s o v e r
t w o s p a n s o f 6 . 0 m . a 0 . 6 6
i t t = 1 . 0
i t = 0 . 9 0 2
( a ) D i m e n s i o n s A / x = 2 6 8 / 1 4 . 5 = 1 8 . 5
- w h e r e x i s t h e t o r s i o n a l i n d e x .
A s S e c t i o n 4 . 2 ( a ) .
E S t a b l e 1 4 = 0 . 4 9
= 0 . 6 6 x 0 . 9 0 2 ' < 0 . 4 9 x 2 6 8 = 7 8
( b ) L o a d i n g
E S t a b l e 1 1 p j , = 1 7 0 N / r n m 2
A s S e c t i o n 4 . 2 : a s s u m e p u r l i n t o b e 1 5 2 x 7 6 c h a n n e l , 4 3 s t e e l : = 1 7 0 x 1 3 0 x = 2 2 . 1 k N m
= 2 . 8 8 k N
I
= 2 . 7 1
1 2 . 4 / 2 2 . 1 + 4 . 5 / ( 2 7 5 x 4 1 . 3 x = 0 . 9 6
1 1 ' d y = 0 . 9 9 k N
U l t i m a t e l o a d r i ' , = 1 6 . 5 k N
U l t i m a t e l o a d I V , , = 6 . 0 k W
( g ) D e f l e c t i o n
F r o m E x a m p l e 6 . t h e i m p o s e d l o a d a t s e r v i c e a b i l i t y l i m i t s t a t e i s
( c ) D I I a n d S F
= 7 . 9 5 k W
W i t h r e f e r e n c e t o F i g . 4 . 1 2 :
& = 7 . 9 5 x 6 0 0 & / ( l 8 5 x 2 0 5 x 8 5 2 x = 5 . 3 m m
M , k N m
M a x i m u m u l t i m a t e m o m e n t ( a t c e n t r a l s u p p o d )
= 2 . 8 9 k W
\ : > /
5 ' = 1 4 . 5 m m
= 1 6 . 5 x 6 . 0 / 8 = 1 2 . 4 k N m
D e f l e c t i o n l i m i t G 0 0 0 / 2 0 0 = 3 O m m
1 0 4
N
F , = 0 . 6 5 x 1 6 . 5 = 1 0 . 4 k W
S i . = 4 . 5 k W m
F I g . 4 . 1 2 F , , = 3 . 8 k W
( d ) S h e a r c a p a c i t y
S h e a r f o r c e i s l e s s t h a n 0 . 6 s h e a r c a p a c i t y , a s S e c t i o n 4 . 1 ( d ) .
( e ) M o m e n t c a p a c i t y
E S t a b l e 7 T h e 1 5 2 x 7 6 c h a n n e l i s a c o m p a c t s e c t i o n ( b / T = 8 . 4 5 ) , h e n c e
5 x 1 3 0 x 1 0 3 = 3 5 . 8 k N m / v ! ' 7
= 9 . O k N m
I
1 2 . 4 / 3 5 . 8 + 4 . 5 / 9 . 0 = 0 . 8 5
50 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO 8S 5950
---=:::c:]
Fig. 4.12
and flexibility dunng Site erectIOn. For the purlin designed in SectIOn 4.2 a
length of not more than two spans (12 m) would be acceptable (they can be
delivered bundled together to reduce flexibility). ConnnUlty can also be
arranged by use of site connectIOns capable oftransmlltmg bending moments.
Such connecl1ons are costly to fabncate and to assemble and are rarely used
in small structural elements such as pUrlins and side rails. Using the same
example as m Section 4.2, the design IS repeated for a purlin contmuous over
two spans of 6.0 m.
(a) Dimensions
As Section 4.2(a).
(b) Loading
As SectIOn 4.2; assume purlin 10 be 152 x 76 channel, grade 43 steel:
H'd =2.88kN
W,u- =2.71kN
H'dy =0.99kN
Ultimate load TV .. = 16.5 kN
Ultimate load IVy = 6.0 kN
(c) BM and Sf
With reference iD Fig. 4.12:
MaXimum ultimate moment (at central support)
},{, 16.5 x 6.0/8 12.4 kNm
Fi = 0.65 x 16.5 = 10.4 kN
My =4.5kNm
Fy
(d) Shear capacity
Shear force IS less than 0.6 shear capacity, as SectIOn 4.Hd).
(e) Moment capacity
BS table 7 The 152 x 76 channel IS a compact sectlon (bIT= 8.45), hence
Ma. =275 x 130 x 1O-3=35.8kNm
Mey =9.0kNm
AMM=+My/Moy/1
12.4/35.8 +4.5/9.0 0.S5
..
(I)
BS table 14
BS fable 11
PURUNS AND SIDE RAILS 51
Buckling resistance
.l = LE/ry = 6000/22.4 = 268
The factor n IS obtamed from BS table 16 for P = 0 and}' = M/Ala = - J .0,
as the end moment AI and Simply supported moment Mo are equal (but
Opposite sign), hence
n
In = 1.0
11 =0.902
l/x IS.5
where x IS the torsIOnal index.
v =0.49
ALT =0.66 x 0.902 x OA9 x 268 = 78
Pb = 170 N/mm2
Mb = 170 x 130 X 10-
3
= 22.1 kNm
M,/M,+My/M",/ I
12.4/22.J + 4.5/(275 x 41.3 x 10,-3 = 0.96
(g) Deflection
From Example 6, the Imposed lond at serviceability limll state \s
Wu: =7.95kN
o:r =7.95 x 6000
1
/(185 x 205 x 852 x 10.\)=5.3mm
lV,y =2.89kN
oy =14.Smm
DeflectIOn limit 6000/200 = 30 mm
1 s t
c .
C R A N E

i n d u s t r i a l b u i l d i n g s h o u s e
h e a v y i t e m s m o v e d a s s e m b l y ,
f a b n e a t i o n











C R A N E W H E E L L O A D S
P a r t s T h e

a n d









h e a v y
a n d



s u r g e
C R A N E G I R D E R S 5 3





w h e e l
c a r r i a g e













o f








5 . 2 O v e r h e a d

0
- c
s o
V
a


a - c




rail
__ Crane gantry gIrder
{UB and plate
welded logetherj
Fig. 5.1 Crane gantry
glfder
5.1
CRANE GIRDERS
Industnal buildings corrunonly house manufactunng processes which involve
heavy Hems being moved from one pOint to another dunng assembly,
fabncatlOn or plant maintenance. In some cases overhead cranes are the best
way of providing a heavy lifting facility covering virtually the whole area of
the building. These cranes are usually electrically operated, ami are provided
by specialist suppliers. The crane is usually supported on four wheels running
on special crane rails. These rails are not considered to have significant
bending strength, and each IS supported on a crane beam or gtrder (Fig. 5.1).
The design of this girder, but not the rail, IS part of the steelwork designer's
bnef. However, the position and attachment of the rail on the crane gtrder
must be considered, as a bad detail can led to fatigue problems, particularly
for heavy duty cranes, The attachment of the rail should allow future
adjustment to be carried out, as continuous movement of the crane can cause
lateral movement of the raiL
CRANE WHEEL LOADS
Parts of a typical overhead crane are shown In Fig. 5.2. The weIght or load
associated with each part should be obtamed from the crane supplier's data,
and then be combined to give the crane wheel loads. Altemattve wheel loads
may be glven directly by the crane manufacturer. Reference may be made to
BS 6399: Part Ill) for full details of loading effects. The follOWing notes
apply to smgle crane operatlOn only.
The crab with the hook load may occupy any posItion on the crane frame
up to the mmimum approach shown m Fig. 5.2. Hence the vertical load on the
nearer pair of wheels can be calculated, adding an amount for the crane
frame, IS usually divided equally between the wheels. Maximum wheel
loads are often provided by the crane manufacturer.
An allowance for Impact of 25% 15 made for most lightlmedium dUty
cranes (classes Ql and Q2), and this IS added to each vertical wheel load. For
heavy duty cranes (classes Q3 and Q4) reference should be mllcie to
as 2573(2) and to supplier"s data for appropnate Impact values.
In addition to the vertical loads transferred from the wheels to the crane
rail, hOrIzontal loads can also develop. The first of these IS ealled surge and
acts at nght angles (laterally) to the girder and at the level of the raiL This
surge load covers the Ilcceleration and braking of the crab when movlOg
. 5.2 Overhead crane
5.3 Crane loads
Hook:
+
lift
CRANE GIRDERS 53
Wheel
carnage
along the crane frame, together with the effects of non-vertical lifting. The
value of this load IS assessed in BS 6399(1) at 10% of the sum of the crab
weight and hook load. It IS divided equally between the four crane wheels
when the wheels are double Hanged and can act in either direction.
The second hOrizontal load (longitudinal) IS the braking ioad of the whole
crane, and in this case acts along the crane girder at the level oflhe top flange.
The value of this load is assessed at 5% of each wheel load. and is therefore a
maXImum when the wheel load is a maxunum. As before, the braking load
covers acceleration as well as non-vertical lifting.
The loads are summanzed in Fig. 5.3. 10 addition, gantry girders Intended
to carry class Q3 and Q4 cranes (as defined in BS 2573: Part 1) should be
designed for the crabbing forces given In clause 4.11.2.















1 1 1 2 c I L )
W L / 4
c / 4 ) 2 / L




1 v 1 2 o ' L )
c f r '
( t w
L / 2




( c ) W h e e l l o a d s

0 . 7 ) / ( 1 5 . 0
0 . 7 ) / ( 1 5 . 0 2 8 . 6
6 7 . S k N
1 9 1 . 4






2 6 / 4 6 . 5
1 . 4 9 . 1


1 5 . 3







3 4 S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R K D E S I G N T O S S 5 9 5 0 .
C R A N E G I R D E R S 3 5
5 . 2 M A X I M U M L O A D E F F E C T S


5 . 3

( a ) D i m e n s i o n s













C
W t 2 c / L I
-




i k f
B e n d i n g
54 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO as 5950
The safety factor '11 for crane loads (ultimate limit state) is taken as 1.6, Le.
as for Imposed loads generally (SectIOn 1.7). Whenever the vertical load and
the surge' load are combined in the deSign of a member, the safety factor
should however be taken as lA for both loads (BS table 2). Further detailed
proVISions for gantry girders are given In clauses 4.11 and 2.4.1.2.
5.2 MAXIMUM LOAD EFFECTS
Fig. 504 MaXimum BM. SF
and R
Movmg loads, such as crane wheels, will result In bending moments and
shear forces which vary as the loads travel along the supportmg gtrder. In
slmply.supported beams the maXimum shear force will occur munediately
adjacent to a support, while the maximum bending moment will occur near, - -
but not necessarily at, In general, influence linei
J
,4,5} should be
used to find the load positions producmg maximum values of shear force and
bending moment.
The maximum effects of two moving loads may be found from fonnulae(J)
as demonstrated in Sectlon 2.5. For a simply supported beam the load
pOSitions shown In Fig. 5,4 gwe maXlmum values:
Shear force (max) = IT'(2 - clL)
Bending moment (max) = WL/4
or =2W(Ll2 - C/4)2IL
The greater of Ihe bending moment values should be adopted.
The deSign of the bracket supporting a crane girder uses the value of
maximum reaction from adjacent Simply supported beams, as in Fig. 504.
Where adjacent spans are equal, the reachon IS equal to the shear force, I.e.
ReactIOn (max) = IT'(2 - clL)
ZI
L
Shaar force and reaction
ZI

Banding moment
Bending moment
CRANE GIRDERS 55
In all cases the effect of self weight (unifomlly distributed) of the glrder must
be added.
5.3 EXAMPLE 9. CRANE GIRDER WITHOUT LATERAL
RESTRAINT ALONG SPAN
(a) Dimensions
(b)
(c)
Span of crane
Wheel centres
15.0 m
3.5 m
0.7 m Minimum hook approach
Span of crane girder 6.5 m (Simply supported)
Loading
Class Q2 (no crabbing forces need be calculated)
Hook load 200 kN
Weight of crab 60 kN
Weight of crane (excluding crab) 270 kN
Wheel loads
VertJcal wheel load from:
95.3 kN
28.6 kN
67.5 kN
hook load 200(15.0 - 0.7)1(15.0 x 2)
crab load 60(15.0 - 0.7)/(15.0 x 2)
crane load 27014
Total vertll:al load = 191.4kN per wheel
VertIcal load Wc (including allowance for Impact and 1'/)
= 1.25 x lA x 191.4 =335 kN
Where vertical load is considered acting alone then 'V/ IS 1.6 and
Wc becomes 383 kN.
Lateral (honzontal) surge load is 10% of hook + crab load:
=0.10(200+60) =26.0kN
TOlal lateral load = 26/4 = li5 kN per wheel
Surge load W
hc
(including lj) = 1,4 x 6.5 = 9.1 kN
Longitudinal (honzontal) braking loat;!. .IS 5% .of wheel load and
Including 'VI IS: -' ,.
0.05 x 1.6 x 19L4 = 15.3 kN per wheel
In the follOWing deSign It will become clear that the cntical considerations
are lateral buckling, and web beanng at the support. Hence first slzmg of the
girder would be based on these cntena, Assume a 610 x 305 x 179 VB
(grade 43) with extra plate (grade 43) welded to top flange. This plate IS
used to gIve udditional srrength to the top Ilange which IS assumed to act
alone to reSist the lateral (surge) loading. A channel section may be preferred
Instead of the fiat plate; this type of section was commonly used in the past.
5 6 S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R K D E S I G N T O a s S S S O
C R A N E G I R D E R S
5 7
D e a d l o a d d u e t o s e l f w e i g h t
S h e a r c a p a c i t y
k N / m )
4 . 2 . 3 D e s i g n

m m

N / m m 2
6 . 5 = 2 I . 8 k N
i : )
. 1
- S h e a r



x p l a t e ( 3 5 k g / n I
:
1 7 9 k g / r n U B
-
( 0
M o m e n t c a p a c i t y
F i g .
3 . 5 . 5 T h e c h o s e n s e c t i o n ( F i g .
a p l a s t i c s e c h o n w i t h
b i f B M a n d S F
b i f
= 7 5 . 5 / 1 0 . 4 = 6 . 5
M o m e n t


o r c / 4 ) 2 / L
3 . 5 / 4 ) 2 / 6 . 5
I
= 5 8 1

,
M o m e n t t o d e a d l o a d = 2 l . 5 x 6 . 5 / 8 = I B l c N m
M a x .
' j _ _
I
= 5 9 9

4 r .
- - P l a s t i c

F I g .



b e



3 . 5 / 4 ) 2 / 6 . 5

i f







3 . 5 / 6 . 5 )






= 6 7 5 0
3 . 5 / 6 . 5 ) = 1 3 . 3 k N
( f o r






-
4 = 5 6 0 0 ( 6 1 7 . 5 + 2 0 ) / ( 2 8 4

=

0 0 0 c m 4




56 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO 8S 5950
Fig. 5.5
Dead load due to self weight of girder (1.79 + 0.36 kN/m) and rail
(0.25 kN/m) Including YI IS
Wd = lA x 2AO x 6.5 =21.8k:N
r- 25 kg/m rail

(d) BM and SF
280 x 20 plaID (36 kgimJ
610 x 305 x 179 kg/m UB
I
Moment due to vertical wheel loads is
either W,Ll4 =335 x 6.5/4 =544 kN
or 21V,(LI2 - c14)'IL =2 x 335(6.5/2 - 3.5/4)'/6.5
= 581 kNm (664 kNm when acting alone)
Moment due 10 dead load =21.5x6.5/8=18kNm
Max. ultimate moment M", =581 + 18
= 599 kNm (682 kNm when acling alone)
Although the dead load maXImum BM occurs at mid-span, and the wheel
maxmlllm occurs a distance cl4 away, It IS usual to assume the value of Al", 10
be the sum of the maXIma as shown.
Moment due to surge load =-2 x 9.1(6.512 - 3.5/4)216.5
= 15.8kNm
Max. ultimate moment My = 15.8 kNm
Shear force due to vertical wheel loads IS:
IV, (2 - dL) = 335(2 - 3.5/6.5)
, =490kN (560kN when actmg alone)
shear force due to dead load=21.8/2= 11 kN
Max. ultimate shear force F", =490+ 11
=501 kN (571 kN when acting alone)
Lateral shear force due to surge loarl=9.H2 - 3.5/6.5)= 13.3 kN
Max.. ultimate shear force FI' =13.3 kN
Max. ultimate reactIOn R", =490+21.8=512kN
R, = 13.3kN
(e)
clause 4.2.3
Table 1.2
CRANE GIRDERS 57
Shear capacity
DeSign strength for chosen sectIOn with flange 22 mm thick:
Py =265 N/mm2
Shear capacity p V.T =0.6p'y Av
=0.6 x 0.265 x 617.5 x 14.1 = 1380 kN
F,IP,., =0.41 < 0.60
Shear capacity P", =0.6 x 0.265(307 x 23.6+280 x 120)=2030 kN
-"'yIP,y =0.01 < 0.60
(f) Moment capacity
clause 3.5.5 The chosen section (Fig. 5.6) IS a plastic sechon with
bIT (internal) =280/20 = 14
bIT (external) =75.5110.4 =6.5
,"0
I ' 'I I'll


tax1s 01 equal aroa)
For the section chosen. the deSigner may need to calculate the plastiC
modulus (S:c)' .7}, if th.is IS not available in published tables. The properties
may be obtamed from formulae given in Appendix A.
Area of pia le Ap =280x20 =5600mm
2
Total area A =228+5600 x 1O-
2
=284cm
2
Plastic section propeHles :
dp =56001(2 x 14.1)= 198.6 mm (i.e. 130 mm below top face)
S, =5520+[14.t x 198.6'+5600(617.512+20/2 - 198.6)JI0-'
=6750cm
l
Sy (for top flange only) = (23.6 x 307
2
/4 + 20 x 280
2
/4) I 0-:>
=948cm
3
ElaSllC sectIOII properties:
d, =5600(617.5+20)1(284 x ID')
I, = 152000+228 x 62.8' x 10-'
+ 5600(617.5/2 + 20/2 - 62.8)' x 10-'
= 198 000cm
4
Z, = 198 0001(617.5/2 + 62.8) 10-
1
=5320 cm'
11 400+20 x 280)/(12 x 10
4
)= J510ocm
4
;,.= J(lyIA)= J(l5 1001284)=7.28 cm
5 8 S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R I ( D E S I G N T O B S 5 9 5 0 ' 1 C R A N E G I R D E R S 5 9


i c f = S G 9 O + 2 O


x 9 3 5 0 / ( 3 0 7

c m '


2 3 . 6 / 2 4 3 . 6 / 2 = 6 0 4 m m
t o t a l





-
= 2 6 5 x 6 7 5 0 x
w h e r e

I 9 7 O k N m
5 , ,







0 . 4 0
A c t i n g



r e s i s t a n c e



= 1 . 0
t a b l e



l . 2 ( L




1 4


t a b l e











= 6 8 3 / 6 8 9 0 . 9 9

W e b b u c k l i n g
A t







F I g . 5 . 7




1 3 1






n ,


3 0 9 = 1 0 m m

F I g . 5 . 9
58 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO BS 5950
c
E
,
8
Fig. 5.1
for tensiOn flange about y-y axis
11/ =23.6 x 307]/(12 x 10
01
)= 5690cm
4
for compression flange about y-y aXIS
I
cf
=5690+20 x 280:W12 x 10
4
) =9350 cm-i
Zy (for top flange only) =2 l"flB
=2 x 93501(307 x 10-
1
)=609 cm:
TorSIOnal index may be calculated usmg th!! appropnate method in
BS appendix B.2.5.l(c).
h. - 23.6/2 -
rh
l
+hwtw =totol area=28 400mm
2
Eb? + = 2 x 307 X 23.6] + 280 x 20.0
3
+ 570J X 14.1
3
= 11.91 x 10b mm4
x 400/(11.91 x ID')]'"
Local moment capacity
MC)( =PySx
=265 x 6750 x 1O-J=1790kNm
To prevent plastiCIty at working load (see Section 3.4), M=;f.IA py where
factored loadlunfactored load= 1.4
M"", '/1.4 x265 x5320x W-
J
=1970kNm
MC)' =Py Sy where SylS for top flange only
=265 x948 x 10-
3
= 251 kNm
But MC}. ;f. i.4Pr Zy usmg constant 1.4 as noted above and.t;. for top flange
only,
MC)' ;f.1.4x265 x609x 1O-J=226kNm
Combined local capacity check
+ M/Al"y ;f. 1
Diaphragm 599J1790+ 15.8/226=0.40
Actmg alone without surge
M/Ma
Hence sectIOn chosen IS sails factory.
Buckling resistance
clallse 4.11.3
BS table 13
BS table 9
The buckling resistance may be found in the same way as In Sectlon 3.8(0,
but a!lowmg for the destabilizmg effect of the surge load. Hence
m =11 =i.0
No restramt IS provided between the ends 0 f the girder. At the supports the
diaphragm gives partial restramt agamst torsIOn, but the compressIOn flange
IS not reslramed (Fig. 5.7).
LE
m
r" ------------s-I-e-n-de-m-es-s-A-.
= 9330172.8 = 128
n./2
,vx 128129.5
BS table 14 N =lcfl(lcf+lif)
+ 5690) 0.62
v =0.80
BS table 13 u = 1.0 {conservatively)
clause 4.3. 7.5 LT =IIUVA.
= LO x 0.9 x 0.80 x 128= 102
BS table 12 Bending strength Pb = 150 N/mm2
Buckling resistance Mlu;
=128x6750x 1O-3=689kNm
clause 4.113 EqulValentuniform moment factor III = 1.0
Overall buckling check
+mIH)'lpyZy 1- I
5991864 + 15.8/(265 x 609 x 10 -') 0.97
Actmg alone without surge
M./Mb.
Hence the section IS satJsfactory.
Wj
I
(h) Web buckling
,
,
Rail plato
.1
,n,/2. I
r I -' b,
J-L..L_.-
Dl2', I

At pomts of concentrated load (wheel loads or reacttons) the web of Ihe
glfder must be checked for local buckling(8) (see Fig. 5.8). If necessary, load
canymg stiffeners must he Introduced to prevent local buckling of the web.
45" 45"
D/2
DispersiOn lengtlt under wheel
Fig. 5.8 b
l
=2x75 =150mm
clause4.11.5 n!=617+2x20 =657mm
Web slenderness..l =2.5dll
clause 452.1 =2.5 x 537114.1 =195
Compresslve strength Pc = 131 N/mm2
BS table 27c Buckling reSistance = (b
l
+ "l) t Pc
D/2
-f-- --,,;;;:T-
0/2 hi /nl
support
Fig. 5.9
=(150+657)14.1 xO.131 =1490kN
Max. wheel load = 383 kN
Hence buckling resistance IS satisfactory.
Mimmum stiff beanng length reqUired at support
b! I(tpc) - III mm
Fx =571 kN (support reaction)
nl=309mm
b I x 0.131) - -lOmm
I.e. no stiff beanng IS reqUired at support for web beanng.



( i ) W e b b e a r i n g
A t t h e w e b o f t h e g i r d e r b e c h e c k e d f o r l o c a l
( s e e F i g . 5 . 1 0 ) . I f n e c e s s a r y , b e a n n g s t i f f e n e r s m u s t b e i n t r o d u c e d t o
p r e v e n t
l o c a l c r u s h i n g o f t h e w e b .
c l a u s e 4 . 1 1 . 5
2 ( 7 5 + 4 3 . 6 +

c a p a c i t y
= 2 7 0 x 1 4 . 1 x 0 . 2 6 5 = I O a 9 k N
M a x i m u m w h e e l l o a d = 3 8 3 k N
, ' \ / 4 5 '
1 5
f l a n g e
\ 4 - p l a t e .
. - x 1 6 . 5
U n d e r w h e e l
R o o t o l
f i l l e t
l i i
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
1 6 . 5
i n 2 . 5
1
A t s u p p o r t

M i n i m u m s t i f f

n 2 = ( 2 3 . 6 + l 6 . S ) 2 . S = l O O m m
F 1 = 5 7 1
b 1 0 0 = 5 3 m m
b e a n n g a t t h e s u p p o r t

o f 5 3 m m ; c h e c k
t h a t t h e s u p p o r t s t h i s t o p r e v e n t w e b b e a n n g
c a p a c i t y g i r d e r f r o m b e i n g e x c e e d e d ( s e e F i g 5 . 1 0 ) .
D e f l e c t i o n
l o a d e x c l u d i n g i m p a c t
1 9 1 . 4 k I N
M a x . d e f l e c t i o n f o r p o s i t i o n
= a 3 / L 3 ) / 6 E J
a = ( L c ) / 2 = l . 5 m
D e f l e c t i o n l i m j t = 6 5 0 0 / 6 0 0 = l O . 8 m m
C R A N E G I R D E R S
f o r c e s a r e t r a n s m i t t e d t h e s u p p o r t i n g b r a c k e t b y d i r e c t b e a n n g
( F i g . 5 . 1 1 ) . H o r i z o n t a l - r e a c t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t f r o m
s u r g e l o a d ( 1 3 . 3 k I N ) a n d
h o r i z o n t a l b r a k i n g ( 1 5 . 3 k N ) . T h e s u r g e l o a d i s t r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e c o l u m n
b y
t h e d i a p h r a g m ( F i g . 5 . 7 ) . T h e b r a k i n g f o r c e w i l l b c t r a n s m i t t e d b y
n o m i n a l
b o l t s ; p r o v i d e , s a y t w o M 2 0 b o l t s ( g r a d e 4 . 6 ) .
5 . 4
E X A M P L E J O . C R A N E G I R D E R W I T H L A T E R A L R E S T R A I N T
T h e d e s i g n i n S e c t i o n 5 . 3 m a y b e r e p e a t e d b u t i n c l u d i n g
a l a t t i c e r e s t r a i n t t o
t h e c o m p r e s s i o n f l a n g e . I n p r a c t i c e s u c h a l a t t i c e g i r d e r
m a y h a v e b e e n
p r o v i d e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t h i s p u r p o s e , o r t o s u p p o r t a c c e s s p l a t f o r m s
o r
w a l k w a y s ( F i g . 5 . 1 2 ) . I n m o d e m U K p r a c t i c e i t i s r a r e l y e c o n o m i c t o i n c l u d e
s u c h a r e s t r a i n t i n o r d e r t o r e d u c e t h e b e a m s i z e , e x c e p t
i n h e a v y m d u s t n a l
b u i l d i n g s .
( a ) D i m e n s i o n s
A s S e c t i o n 5 . 3 .
( b ) L o a d i n g
A s S e c t i o n 5 . 3 ( m a k i n g n o c o r r e c t i o n f o r t h e c h a n g e d s e l f w e i g h t ) .
( c ) W h e e l t o a d s
A s S e c t i o o 5 . 3 .
C d ) B M a n d S F
A s S e c t i o n 5 . 3 , i . e .
M a x . I t ' ! , = 5 9 9 k N m ( 6 8 3 k N m w h e n a c t i n g a l o n e )
M a x . I t ' ! . , = 1 5 . 8 k N m
( e ) S h e a r c a p a c i t y
A s m a l l e r U B c h o s e n a s r e s t r a i n t i s A s s u m e a
5 3 3 w i t h n o p l a t e N o t e i n t h e d e s i g n i n S e c t i o n
5 . 3 w e b b e a n n g a n d b u c k l i n g w e r e c n t i c a t , h e n c e a r e v i s e d s e c t i o n h a v i n g
a
s i m i l a r w e b t h i c k n e s s i s c h o s e n .
0 0 S T R U C T U R A l . S T E E L W O R K D E B t O N T O E S I B I D
( I t ) C o n n e c t i o n

I
- - - -
- C
4
60 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO BS 5950
Fig. 5.10
(i) Web bearing
At the same pomts the web of the girder must be checked for locai crushing(8)
(see Fig. 5.10). Ifnecessary, beanng stiffeners must be introduced to prevent
local crushing of the web.
douse 4.11.5 Load dispersIOn under Wheel = 2(75 +43.6+ 16.5)=270mm
Beanng capacIty P
Crip
=270 x 14.1 x 0.265= 1009 kN
Maximum wheel load = 383 kN
Rail /cJ45 $75
fl


ange / , 436
+pi,t, .
7...L '..,:,. 16.5
Rool 01 Under wheel
fillel


t
l
At support
Load disperslOll at support:
Mimmum stiffbeanng=Fxl(tpyw) - 112
n, 100mm
Ft = 571 kN (SUpport reacllon)
b! x 0.265) - mm
Web beanng at the support reqUIres a muurnum stiffbeanng of 53 mm; check
that the supports provide this mlIllmum stiff beanng 10 prevent web beanng
capacIty of the girder from bemg exceeded (see Fig 5.10).
(j) Deflection
Serviceability vertICal wheel load excluding impact
WC= 191.4kN
Max. deflectIOn for position glYen{9)
.I, W,L'(3aI4L - a'IL ')/61
a =(L - c)/2= 1.5 m
oc=3.5mm
DeflectIOn limJt=6500/600= IO.8mm
CRANE GIRDERS 61
(k) Connection
The vertical forces are transmitted to the supporting bracket by direct beanng
(Fig. 5.11). HonzontaheacllOns are present from surge load (13.3 kN) and
honzontal braking (I5.3 kN). The surge load is transmitted to the column by
the diaphragm (Fig. 5.7). The braking force will be transmitted by nominal
bolts; provide, say two lv120 boils (grade 4.6).
SA EXAMPLE 10. CRANE GIRDER WITH LATERAL RESTRAINT
(a)
(b)
The design in Section 5.3 may be repeated but inCluding a lattice rcstramt 10
the compressIOn flange. In prachce such a lattice girder may have been
provided specifically for this purpose, or to support access platfonns or
walkways (Fig. 5.12). In modem UK practice It IS rarely economic to Include
such a restramt III order to reduce the beam Size, except III heavy mdustnal
buildings.
Dimensions
As SectIOn 5.3.
Loading
M Section 5.3 (making no correction for the changed self weight).
(c) Wheel loads
As Section 5.3.
(d) BM and SF
As SectIOn 5.3, I.e.
Max. A{t =599 kNm (683Id\fm when acting alone)
Mnx. j\-fy = 15.8 kNm
(e) Shear capacity
A smaller UB may be chosen as lateral restraint IS provided. Assume a
533 x 210 x 122 VB with no plate added. Note that tn the deSign In SectIOn
5.3 web beanng a!ld buckling were cntical, hence a revised section haVing a
similar web thickness IS chosen.
6 2
S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R K D E S I G N T O 5 5 5 9 5 0
C R A N E G I R D E R S 6 3
( I ) M o m e n t c a p a c i t y
= O . 6 x 0 . 2 6 5 x 5 4 4 . 6 x 1 2 . 8 = 1 0 8 k N
F ' / P , = 5 7 1 / 1 1 0 8 = 0 . 5 2
T h e c h o s e n U S i s a p l a s t i c s e c t i o n ( b I T = 5 . 0 )
M o m e n t c a p a c i t y A l a =
B u t
S e c t i o n i s s a t i s f a c t o r y .
( h ) D e f l e c t i o n
W h e e l l o a d = 1 9 1 . 4 k N
C a l c u l a t i o n a s i n S e c t i o n 5 . 3 ( j ) g i v e s b = 9 . O m m
L i m i t = 6 5 0 0 / 6 0 0 = 1 0 . 5 m m
A s S e c t i o n 5 . 3 b u t t h e l a t t i c e t r a n s m i t s h o r i z o n t a l f o r c e s t o t h e s u p p o r t : h e n c e
t h e d i a p h r a g m i s n o t n e e d e d .
T h e l a t t i c e g i r d e r w h i c h p r o v i d e s r e s t r a i n t t o t h e c r a n e g i r d e r t o p f l a n g e i s
l o a d e d b y
( i ) t h e r e s t r a i n t f o r c e o f 1 1 . 4 5 1 1 4 ( 1 3 . 0 6 k N w h e n a c t i n g a l o n e ) w h i c h i s
c o n s i d e r e d t o b e d i s t r i b u t e d b e t w e e n t h e n o d e s o f t h e l a t t i c e ;
( i i ) i h e s u r g e l o a d o f 9 . 1 k N p e r w h e e l ( 1 0 . 4 t i N w h e n a c t i n g a l o n e ) .
2 8 . 6 k N i o t a i
I I I I I
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
T h e t r u s s i s a n a l y s e d b y g r a p h i c s , c a l c u l a t i o n , o r c o m p u t e r , g i v i n g m e m b e r
f o r c e s a s t a b u l a t e d ( t i N ) :
P a n e l i o p c h o r d B o t t o m c h o r d D i a g o n a l P o s t
I 0 2 1 . 2 3 0 . 0 0
2 2 1 . 2 3 8 . 3 2 4 . 2 1 7 . 1
3 3 8 . 3 5 1 . 3 1 8 . 4 1 3 , 0
4 5 1 . 3 5 1 . 0 0 . 3 0 . 3
5 4 6 . 6 5 1 . 0 6 . 1 0
6 3 8 1 4 6 , 6 1 1 . 9 4 . 3
7 2 5 . 7 3 8 . 2 1 1 . 7 8 , 4
8 0 2 5 . 7 3 6 . 3 1 2 . 5
9
0
T h e a p p l i e d f o r c e s m a y a c t m e i t h e r d i r e c t i o n a n d h e n c e t h e m e m b e r f o r c e s
m a y b e e i t h e r t e n s i o n o r c o m p r e s s i o n . D e s i g n i n g t h e c h o r d m e m b e r s f o r a
c o m p r e s s i o n o f 5 1 . 3 t i N ; u s e a 3 5 x 4 5 x 6 e q u a l a n g l e
A L 5 I r , , . t . 0 x 8 1 3 / 8 . 6 7 9 4
p
t h e d i a g o n a l s f o r a c o m p r e s s i o n o f 3 6 . 2 t i N u s i n g t h e s a m e s i n g l e
a n g l e :
E f f e c t i v e

A = 1 1 5 0 / 8 . 6 7 = 1 3 3
= 8 3 N / m m 2

c l a u s e 1 . 2 . 3
S h e a r c a p a c i t y p 5 =
( I ) C o n n e c t i o n
( j ) L a t t I c e
6 2 3 m m
= 0 . 2 6 5 x 3 2 0 0 = 8 4 9 k N m
= I . 2 p , 4
= 1 . 2 x 0 . 2 6 5 x 2 7 9 9 = 8 9 0 k N m
= 6 8 3 / 8 4 9 = 0 . 8 0
c l a u s e 4 , 3 . 2 T h e e f f e c t o f t h e l a t e r a l m o m e n t M , . i s c o n s i d e r e d l a t e r i n p a r t U ) i n
c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h a r e s t r a i n t f o r c e e q u a l 1 0 2 . 5 % o f t h e f l a n g e f o r c e . N o t e t h a t
t h e v a l u e o f 1 % t n t h e i n i t i a l v e r s i o n b f c l a u s e 4 . 3 . 2 w a s c o n s i d e r e d l o b e t o o
s m a l l .
F l a n g e f o r c e m a y b e e s t i m a t e d a s : 5 9 9 / 0 . 5 2 3 = 1 1 4 5 t i N ( 1 3 0 6 t i N w h e n
a c t i n g a l o n e ) ; s e e F i g . 5 . 1 3 .
R e s t r a i n t f o r c e = 2 8 . 6 t i N ( 3 2 . 6 t i N w h e n a c t i n g a l o n e )
F i g
( g ) W e b b u c k l i n g / b e a r i n g
M i n i m u m s t i f f b e a n n g l e n g t h a i s u p p o r t t o r e s i s t r e a c t i o n o f 5 7 1 t i N .
f t
5 4 4 . / 2 2 7 2 m m
A = 2 . 5 x 4 7 7 / l 2 . 8 9 3
E S t a b / e 2 7 c
P r = 1 3 4 N / m m 2
M m . b e a n n g l e n g t h b , = 5 7 1 / ( 1 2 . 8 x O . 1 3 4 )
2 7 2 = 6 1 m m
n , = ( 2 l . 3 +

T h e r e f o r e , a s t i f f b e a n n g l e n g t h o f a t l e a s t 8 4 r u i n i s n e e d c d a t t h e s u p p o r t s t o
g i v e a d e q u a t c b e a r i n g s t r e n g t h f o r t h e g i r d e r .

9 . 1 1 N 9 . 1 I N
4 5 .
8 b a y s a t 8 1 3 . 5 m m
E S t a b l e 2 7 c C o m p r e s s i o n r e s i s t a n c e = A g P r
= 5 . 0 9 x l 3 5 x
E S t a b l e 2 7 c
62 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO BS 5950
Fig. 5.13
clause -1.2.3
Shear capacity Px
=0.6 x 0.265 x 544.6 x 12.8 = I 108 kN
F,IP, =57J11108=0.52
Cf) Moment capacity
clause 4.3.2
The chosen UB IS a plastic section (bIT = 5.0)
Moment capacity ,\lex = p,.Sr
But
SectIOn IS satisfactory.
=0.265 X 3200= 849 kNm
= i.lp-,Zy
= !.2 X 0.265 X 2799 = 890 kNm
= 683/849 = 0.80
The effect of the lateral momem M ... IS considered later In part 0) m
combination with a restramt force equal to 2.5% of the flange force. Note that
the value of 1% In the Initial version bf clause 4.3.2 was considered to be too
small.
Flange force may be estimated as: 599/0.523 = 1145 kN (1306 kN when
actmg alone); see Fig. 5.l3.
Restramt force = 28.6 kN (32.6 kN when actmg alone)
(g) Web buckling/bearing
BS table 27c
Mimmum stiffbeanng length a! support to resist reactIOn of 571 kN.
III =544.612 =272 mm
A. =2.5 x477111.8=93
Pc = 134 Nlmm
z
Min. beanng length b
l
=571/(12.8 x 0.134) - 272=61 mm
nz =(21.3 + 12.7)2.5 = 85 mm
Min. beanng length b
l
=5711( 12.8 X 0.265) - 85 =84 mm
Therefore, a stiffbeanng length of at least 84 mm IS needed at the supports to
give adequate beanng strength for the girder.
(h) Deflection
Wheel load = 191.4 kN
CalculatIOn as m Section 5.30) gives o=9.0mm
Limlt=65oo/600= 10.5 mm
Fig. 5.14
CRANE GIRDERS 63
(i) Connection
As Section 5.3 but the lattIce transmllS honzoniai forces 10 the support: hence
tbe diaphragm is not needed.
(j) Lattice
BS iable 27c
BS table 27c
I
The lattice girder which provides restramt to the crane gIrder top flange IS
loaded by .
(i) the restramt force of 11 AS k.N 03.06 kN when actmg alolle) which IS
considered to be distributed between the nodes of the lathce;
(ii) the surge lond of9.1 kN per wheel (JOAkN when actmg alone).
28.6 kN Iota!
IJ;lzkkkk
fu <\ 5 6 7S!9
pv0Z1St\t\
I
'0l
45'
8 bays al 813.5 mm
The truss IS analysed by grnphics. calculatiOn, or computer, glvmg member
forces as tabulated (kN):
Panel Top chord Bottom chord Diagonal Post
0 21.2 30.0 0
2 11.2 38.3 24.2 17.1
3 38.3 51.3 18.4 13.0
4 51.J 51.0 0.3 0.3
5 46.6 51.0 6.1 0
6 38.1 46.6 11.9 4.3
7 25.7 38.2 11.7 8.4
8 0 25.7 36.3 12.5
9
0
The applied forces may act m either directIOn and hence the member forces
may be either tenSlOn or compressIOn. Deslgnmg the chord members for a
compressIOn of 51.3 kN; use a 45 x 45 x 6 equal angle
A. = L/r rr = J.O x 813/8.67 = 94
Pc = IJ5 N/mmz
Compression reSistance Pc =.A.
g
Pc
=5.09x 135 x 1D-
1
=69kN
Deslgmng the diagonals for a compressIOn of 36.2 kN usmg the same smgle
angle:
Effective length = 1.0 X 813/cos 45 = 1150 mm
" = 1150/8.67 = 133
Pc =83N/mm
z
Pc =5.09x83xlO-
I
=42kN
6 4
S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R I < D E S I G N T O B S 5 9 5 0
T h e b a s i c l a t t i c e m e m b e r i s t h e r e f o r e a 4 5 x 4 5 x 6 e q u a l a n g l e a n d m i g h t
b e
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
f a b n c a t e d a s a w e l d e d t r u s s . F o r a m o r e d e t a i l e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f
t r u s s d e s i g n
r e f e r e n c e s h o u l d b e m a d e t o C h a p t e r s 6 a n d 1 2 .

C
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S T U D Y R E F E R E N C E S
T o p i c


-
I . l o a d i n g
5 5 6 3 9 9 D e s i g n
I : D e a d
2 . C r a n e t y p e s U S P a r t R u l e s

" ' 4 '
d e s i g n

- -
T r u s s e s a n d l a t t i c e g i r d e r s a r e f a b r i c a t e d f r o m t h e
v a r i o u s s t e e l s e c t i o n s
3 . I n f l u e n c e l i n e s
M a r s h a l l W . T . & N e l s o n E L M . ( 1 9 9 0 ) M o v i n g l o a d s
'

j o i n e d t o g e t h e r b y w e l d i n g o r b y b o l t i n g u s u a l l y
v i a g u s s e t
a n d i n f l u e n c e l i n e s , S n c t u r e s , 7 9 1 0 6 .
( c o n n e c t i n g ) p l a t e s . G e n e r a l l y t h e t r u s s e s a c t i n
o n e p l a n e a n d a r e u s u a l l y 4 . I n f l u e n c e l i n e s
C o a t e s R , C . , C o u t i e M . G . & K o n g F . K . ( 1 9 8 8 )
,
d e s i g n e d a s p i n - J o i n t e d f r a m e s , a l t h o u g h s o m e
m a m m e m b e r s m a y b e d e s i g n e d M u e l l e r - B r e s l a u s p n n c i p l e . M o d e l a n a l y s i s , S t r u c t u r a :
a s c o n t i n u o u s . W h e r e m e m b e r s l i e i n t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s t h e t r u s s
i s i c a o w n a s a
A n a l y s t s ,
1 2 7 3 1 . V a n N o s u n n d
s p a c e
T r u s s e s a n d l a t t i c e g i r d e r s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t e r t
t o l o n g s p a n s , a s 5 . I n f l u e n c e l i n e s W a n g C . K .
t h e y c a n b e m a d e t o a n y o v e r a l l d e p t h , a n d
a r e c o m m o n l y u s e d i n b r i d g e d e t e n - n i n a t e b e a m s , J n t e n n e d i a t e
c o n s t r u c t i o n , I n b u i l d i n g s t h e y h a v e p a r t i c u l a r a p p l i c a t i o n f o r r o o f
s t r u c t u r e s ,
p p . M c G r a w - H i l l
a n d f o r m e m b e r s s u p p o r t i n g h e a v y l o a d s
f r o m f l o o r s a b o v e ) a n d f o r 6 . P l a s t i c m o d u l u s
M a r s h a l l W . T . & N e l s o n H . M . ( 1 9 9 0 ) P l a i h c b e n d i n g ,
m e m b e r s h a v i n g l o n g e r s p a n s ,
S t r u c t u r e s ,
L o n g m a n
T h e u s e o f a g r e a t e r o v e r a l l d e p t h l e a d s t o
a l a r g e s a v i n g i n w e i g h t o f s t e e l
7 . P l a s t i c m o d u l u s
H o m e M A t . , & M o r r i s L . a . ( 1 9 8 l ) P l a s t i c
c o m p a r e d w i t h a u n i v e r s a l b e a m . T h i s s a v i n g o f m a t e n a l
c o s t c a n o f f s e t t h e L o w - R i s e
e x t r a f a b n c a t i o n c o s t s i n c e r t a i n c a s e s ,
8 . W e b b u c k l i n g a n d
D o w l i n g P A . . K n o w l e s P . & O w e n s G . W . ( 1 9 8 8 )
b e a r i n g S t r u c t u r a l C o n s t r u c t i o n I n s t i t u t e
9 . D e f l e c t i o n f o r m u l a e
( 1 9 9 2 ) D e s i g n t h e o r y , S t e e l M a n u a l
p p . 1 0 2 6 5 0 . B l a c k - w e l l
6 . 1
T Y P E S O F T R U S S A N D T H E I R U S E
A s e l e c t i o n
o f r o o f t r u s s e s i s s h o w n i n F i g . 6 . I , w h e r e r h e r o o f s l o p e s
a n d
s p a n s d i c t a t e t h e s h a p e o f t h e t r u s s a n d t h e l a y o u t o f t h e m e m b e r s . H i p p e d
t r u s s e s a r e u s e d f o r s m a l l s p a n s , e c o n o m i c a l l y
u p t o G m , t h e l a t t i c e g i r d e r s
f o r m e d i u m s p a n s , a n d t h e m a n s a r d f o r l a r g e
s p a n s . S u c h t r u s s e s a r e l i g h t l y
l o a d e d b y s n o w a n d w i n d l o a d , t o g e t h e r w i t h
a s m a l l a l l o w a n c e f o r s e r v i c e s .
I t i s u n u s u a l f o r l i f l i n g f a c i l i t i e s t o b e s u p p o r t e d f r o m
t h e r o o f t r u s s e s . T h e
.
r e s u l t i n g m e m b e r a n d c o n n e c t i o n s i z e s
a r e t h e r e f o r e r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l .
H e a v y t r u s s e s m a y b e u s e d i n m u l t i - s t o r e y b u i l d i n g s
w h e r e c o l u m n l o a d s
f r o m d i e f l o o r s a b o v e n e e d t o b e e a r n e d . E x a m p t e s o f t h e s e
a r e s h o w n i n F i g .
6 . 2 . T r u s s e s o f t h i s
v e r y h e a v y l o a d s , a n d a r e s i m i l a r i n l a y o u t a n d
m e m b e r s i z e t o b r i d g e s t r u c t u r e s .
A c o m m o n m e t h o d o f p r o v i d i n g s t a b i l i t y t o
a b u i l d i n g , w h e t h e r s i n g l e o r
m u l t i - s t o r e y , i s t o u s e a n a r r a n g e m e n t o f b r a c i n g
m e m b e r s . T h e s e a r e
e s s e n t i a l l y f o r m e d i n t o a t r u s s a n d c a n y t h e h o r i z o n t a l l o a d s ,
s u d s a s w i n d , t o
- x
t h e f o u n d a t i o n s b y a c t i n g a s h o n z o n t a l a n d v e r t i c a l
f r a m e w o r i c s . E x a m p l e s
a r e s h o w n i n F i g . 6 . 3 . B r a c i n g i s c o n s i d e r e d i n m o r e d e i a i l i n C h a p t e r
t O , a n d
g r a p h i c a l l y i l l u s t r a t e d i n C h a p t e r s 1 2 a n d 1 3
i n t e r m s o f t h e o v e r a l l s t a b i l i t y
\ o f s i n g l e s t o r e y b u i l d i n g s
9 , '

64 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO BS 5950


The basIc lattlcc member IS therefore a 45 x 45 x 6 equal'angle and mIght be
rabncated as a welded truss. For a more detailed considerahon or truss desIgn
reference should be made to Chapters 6 and 12.
STUDY REFERENCES
TopIC
1. Crane "loading
2. Crane types
3. lnf1uence lines
4. Influence lines
5. Influence lines
6. Plastic modulus
7. Plastic modulus
8. Web buckling and
bearing
9. Deflection fonnulae
References
as 6399 De.ngn Loading for Buildings
PIUt I: Dead and imposed loads (1984)
BS 2573: Part i Rules for the DesIgn 0/ Cranes:
Specification/or classificatIon. stress calculation and
desIgn crueria 0/ stnlclures (l9B3)
J\IarshlllJ W.T. & Nelson H.M. (1990) Movmg loads
and. influence lines, Structures, pp. 79-106. Longman
Coates R.c., Coutie M.G. & Kong F.K. (1988)
Mueller-Breslau;s ponclpie. Model anaiysls, Structural
AnalysIs, pp. 127-31. Van NostTand Remhold
Wang c.K. (1983) lnfluc;nce lines for stancally
delenmna!e beams. lntennediate Structural AnalySIS.
pp. 459-67. McGrnw-HiIl
l\1arshllIl W.T. & Nelson H.!U. (990) PlastIc bending,
S(ructflres, pp. 532-6. Longman
Horne M.R., & Morris L.J. (1981) Plasllc Design 0/
Low-Rise Frames. Collins
Dowling P.J., Knowles P. & Owens G.W. (1988)
Structural Sleel Design. Steel Construction Instltule
(1992) DeSign theory, Steel DesIgners' Manual
pp. 1026-50. Blackwell
TRUSSES
Trusses and lattice girders are rabncated from the vanous steel sectlOns
available, Jomed together by welding or by bolting usually Via gusset
(connecUng) plates. Generally the trusses act in one plane and are usually
designed as pm-Jomted frames, although some mam members may be designed
as continuous. Where members lie in three dimenSIOns the truss IS known as a
space frame. Trusses and lattice gIrders are particularly SUited to long spans, as
they can be made to any overall depth, and are commonly used in bridge
construction. In buildings they have partlcuiar applicatIOn for roof structures,
and for members supporting heavy loads (columns from floors above) and for
members having longer spans.
The use or a greater overall depth leads to a large saving in weIght of steel
compared with a uruversai beam. This saving of matenai cost can offset the
extra fabncatJOn costs In certam cases.
6.1 TYPES OF TRUSS AND THEIR USE
A selection or roof trusses IS shown tu Fig. 6.1, where the roof slopes and
spans dictate the shape or the truss and the iuyaut of the members. Hipped
trusses are used ror small spans, economically up to 6m, the lattice girders
for medium spans, and the mansard for large spans. Such trusses are jjghtly
loaded by snow and wmd load, together with a small allowance for servIces.
11 is unusual for lifting facilities to be supported from the roof trusses. The
resulting member and connechon sizes are therefore relatively small.
Heavy trusses may be used in multi-storey buildings where column loads
from the Hoors above need to be carned. Examples of these are shown In Fig.
6.2. Trusses of this type carry very heavy loads, and are Similar in layout and
member size to bridge structureS.
A common method of providing stability to a building, whether Single or
multi-storey, is to use an arrangement of bracmg members. These are
essentially formed into a truss and carry the horizontal loads, such as wmd, to
the roundattons by actmg as honzantal and vertical frameworkS. Examples
are shown m Fig. 6.3. Bracing IS considered in more detail in Chapter 10, and
graphically illustrated in Chapters 12 and 13 In terms of the overall stability
of smgle-storey buildings.
6 6 S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R I ( D E S I G N T O 0 5 5 9 5 0 T R U S S E S 6 7
















o r






n o d e






























= s 2 / r , ,
f o r

p
l i p p e d
a
l a t i m e e
p
M a n s a r d

" 4


A N D A N A L Y S I S



66 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO BS 5950
Fig. 6.1 Roof trusses
Fig. 6.1 Support trusses
Fig. 6.3 Bracmg
6.2
Hipped lalllce
Mansard
Column
Calumn

Ntruss
+,"d' t
11 1 1
Vierendeel
1
Multi.storey building Single-slOrey building
LOADING AND ANALYSIS
Loading will consist of dead, Imposed and wmd loads as described in
Chapter 2. CombinatIOns of loads glvmg maximum effects in mdividual
members must be considered (see Section 2.4) and safety factors},! must be
mcluded (Section 1.7).
The loads will usually be transferred to the truss by other members such as
purlins (Fig. 1.2) or by beams In the case of a floor truss. A wmd bracmg will
be loaded by the gable posts; or by side members such as the eaves beam_ It IS
ideal if the loads can be transferred to the truss at the node pomts, but
commonly {as shown In Fig. 1.2) this IS not possible. In roof truss deSign the
purlin pOSitions may not be known initially. and allowmg for the possibility
of purlin changes dunng future a random pOSition for loads IS
often allowed.
The analYSIS therefore mvolves several stages:
(a) AnalYSIS of the truSS asswrung pm-Jomts (except Vierendeel trusses) and
loading at the nodes.
This may proceed usmg manual methods - JOInt resolutlOn, method of
TRUSSES 67
sections and graphical means are all sUllable
fl
.
11
- or computer
techniques. Several analyses may be needed where different arrange-
ments of dead. Imposed and wllld loading must be considered.
(b) AnalYSIS of the load beanng member such us the rafter as a continuous
beam supported at the nodes and loaded by the purl ins. In cases where
the load pOSitions are uncertam the rafter moment may be taken as
IVLl6 (clause 4.IOc), where IV is the purllll load and L IS the node 10
node length perpendicular to IV.
(c) Assessment of stresses due to eccentricity of IIle connecuons. Ideally
the centroidal axes of members should meet at the nodes. Where [his
IS llot possible the members and connectJOns should be deSigned for
the moments due to the eccentnclty, if Significant.
(d) Assessments of the effects ofjomt rigidity -and deflectiOns. Secondary
stresses become Important In some trusses havmg short thick members,
but may be neglected where more slender members are used fdause
4.10).
The overall analYSIS of the truss will therefore IIlvo!ve the summatIOn of two
or more effects. Analyses (a) and (b) must alwnys be considered, while (c)
and (d) may be avoided by meetmg cemun conditions.
6.3 SLENDERNESS OF MEMBERS
The slenderness l of a compressIOn member (a strut) IS given by
).=Lclr
where LE IS the effective length of Ihe strut about the appropnate aXIs
r \s the radius of gyratIOn about the appropnate aXIs
The reqUirements of cia uses 4.7.2 and 4.7.10 define the effective lengths of
the chord and internal members of trusses and are illustrated in Figs. 6.4 and
6.5. These reqUIrements take mto account the effect of the nodes GOlnls)
which divide the top chord into a number of effectl\'e lengths. In the
lateral (out-of-plane) directton the purlins reslram the top chord. The mdius
of gyralloo appronnate 10 a gIven strut depends on (he possible aXIS of
buckling, and these are shown III Figs. 6.4 and 6.5.
The effecuve lengths of discontmuous struts are Illcreased wil<!re smgle
bolted connectIOns are used, resulting III reduced compreSSlve strengths.
Hence smgle bolted connections usually result ut less economIc trusses.
Where double angles are used us shown 10 Figs. 6.4 and 6.5 it IS necessary,
to reduce the slenderness of Ihe mdividual component Ismgle i1ngle) by
IOterconnectmg the angies at pom(s between the Joints. These connecllons are
usually a smgle bolt (mlnlmum 16 mm diameter). with a packing between the
angies equal to the gusset thickness. and are commonly placed at third or
quarter pOints along the member.
slenderness Ab + J.;)
where Am =szlr),y
le =s2/3r"" for members havmg connections which divide
S2 mlo three equal parts
t

1 : ; ?
6 8 S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R I ( D E S I G N T O 8 5 5 9 5 0
N o d a l c e n t r e s
I . c i

B o t t o m c h o r d b r a c i n g c e n t r e s
T R U S S E S 6 9
V I
D o u b l e
a n g l e
R H S
A m a x i m u m
s , / m 1 , .
a t
0 . 7
V I
U
S i n g l e
e n g t e
: 4 1
1 1
l i i i









s h o u l d



n o t e x c e e d 1 8 0












C O M P R E S S I o N R E S I S T A N C E
T h e
























T E N S I O N C A P A C I T Y
T h e



















D o u b i e
'
- a n g l e

A = m a x i m u m a t
o r


U
S i n g l e
a n g l e


66 STRUcTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO BS 5950
Fig. 6.4 .-.. for conUnuous
chords
Fig. 6.5 A for
discontinuous
struts
VI
Nodal centros
I I I
I
"
,
.1,
Bottom chord bracing centres
"
VI
X
llr
X
Double
Iv
angle
VI
RHS

S'ogl,
u angle
I V
l'" maximum 01
0.85 s,/rucr s2lrt'Y
1", maximum 01
0.7 sllrwor sprw
X=jiF
X Doublo
angle
,4. "" maxImum 01
0.85 Urmln or 0.7 Ur",,+ 30
vi
V IV
!
\, /,U
X .
./ .x
U vi V
Singla
angle
1", maXImum 01
0.85 Ur ..... or 0.7 Ur
rr
+ 30
Member connected 10 gusset !paralleIV-V)
by two or more bolts
TRUSSES 69
':'c should not exceed 50. These reqUirements are given In clauses 4.7.13.t(d)
and 4.7.9(c).
Slenderness for any strut should not exceed 180 for general members
resistmg ioads other than wmd loads, or 250 for members reSistIng self
weight and wmd load only (clause 4.7.3.2). For a member nomlally acting as
a he, but subject to reversal of stress due to Wind, the slenderness should not
exceed 350. In addition, very small secttons should be avoided, so that
damage dunng transport and. erectIOn does not occur, e.g. a llllrumum size of
angle would be 50_x 50 x 6 genemlly.
6.4 COMPRESSION RESISTANCE
The compression reSistance of struis IS discussed also III Chapter 7. The
compresslve strength Pc depends on the sienderness A. and the deSign strength
Pr' Tests on aXIally loaded, struts show that thelt behavIOur can be
represented by a number of curves which relate to the type of sectIOn and the
axlS of buckling. These curves are dependent on matenal strength and the
milial unperfechons, which affect the Illeiastlc behaVIOur and the Inelasttc
buckling load. For deSign the value of Pc IS obtamed from onc of four strut
curves or tables (BS tables 27a to 27d). The appropnate table IS chosen by
reference to section type and thickness, and to the iiXJS of buckling (SS
table 25).
The compressIOn resistance Pc IS
either Pc =.4 g Pa for slender secttons (see SectIOn 1.7)
or Pc =A
g
Pc for all other secltons.
where Ag is the gross sectIOnal area
Pa IS the compresslve strength based on a reduced deSign
strength (clause 3.6).
6.5 TENSION CAPACITY
The tenSIOn capacity Pr of a member IS
Pr
where is the effectIve sectIOnal area as defined in dause 3.3.3.
Where a member IS connected eccentncally to Its aXIs then allowance
should be made for the resulting moment. Altemattvely, such eccentnc
effects may be negiected by uSing a lower value of the efTective area For
a single angie connected through one leg:
=a, +3al a21(3al +a2)
where al IS the net sechonal area of the connected leg
a2 IS tlle sectlOnaj area of the unconnected leg
Full details of these reduced effective areas are given In clause 4.6.3.
7 0 S T R U C T U R A l . S T E E L W O R K D E S I G N T O 5 5 5 9 5 0
1
T R U S S E S 7 1
6 . 6 C O N N E C T I O N S
C o n n e c t i o n s a r c r e q u i r e d t o j o i n o n e m e m b e r t o a n o t h e r ( i n t e r n a l j o i n t s ) , a n d
t o c o n n e c t t h e t r u s s t o t h e r e s t o f t h e b u i l d i n g ( e x t e r n a l j o i n t s ) . T h r e e m a i n
t y p e s o f c o n n e c t i o n a r e u s e d :
b o l t i n g t o a g u s s e t p l a t e
o w e l d i n g t o a g u s s e t p l a t e
w e l d i n g m e m b e r t o m e m b e r
E x a m p l e s o f t h e s e a r e s h o w n a n F i g . 6 . 6 . T h e c h o i c e o f c o n n e c t i o n t y p e i s
o f t e n m a d e b y t h e f a b n c a t o r , a n d w i l l d e p e n d o n t h e a v a i l a b l e e q u i p m e n t ,
w i t h w e l d i n g b e c o m i n g m o r e e c o n o m i c a l t h e l a r g e r t h e n u m b e r o f t r u s s a n d
m e m b e r r e p e t i t i o n s .
I d e a l l y , m e m b e r s s h o u l d b e c o n n e c t e d s o t h a t c e n t r o i d a t a x e s ( o r b o l t
c e n t r e l i n e s i n t h e c a s e o f a n g l e s o r t e e s ) m e e t a t a p o i n t ( F i g . 6 . 6 ) . i f t h i s
c a n n o t b e a c h i e v e d , t h e n b o t h m e m b e r s a n d c o n n e c t i o n m u s t b e d e s i g n e d
f r o m t h e e c c e n t r i c i t y . i n m a n y e a s e s t h e g u s s e t p l a t e ' v i i i n o t l i e i n t h e p l a n e
o f t h e m e m b e r c e n t r o i d a l a x e s , b u t s t r e s s e s d u e t o t h i s e c c e n t r i c i t y a r e
i g n o r e d i n c o n s t r u c t i o n u s i n g a n g l e s , c h a n n e l s a n d t e e s ( c l a u s e 4 . 7 . 6 c ) .
D e s i g n o f t h e b o l t s o r w e l d s f o l l o w s c o n v e n t i o n a l m e t h o d s t 3 4 ) . B o l t s
( g i - a d e 4 . 6 o r 8 . 8 ) m u s t b e d e s i g n e d f o r b o t h s h e a r s t r e s s a n d b e a n n g s t r e s s
( s e e S e c t t o n 3 . 7 g ) . F r i c t i o n g r i p f a s t e n e r s m a y b e u s e d t S ) , b u t a r e n o t u s u a l l y
e c o n o m i c u n l e s s b o l t s l i p i s u n a c c e p t a b l e . D e s i g n s t r e s s e s m t h e g u s s e t m a y
b e c h e c k e d a s a s h o r t b e a m w i t h a c o m b i n e d a x i a l l o a d . S u c h d e s i g n i s n o t
r e a l i s t i c h o w e v e r , a n d i t i s s u f f i c i e n t t o c h e c k t h e d i r e c t s t r e s s o t i l y a t t h e e n d
o f t h e m e m b e r ( F i g . 6 . 7 ) , o n a n a r e a b x r a s s h o w n .
M i n i m u m b o l t s i z e i s u s u a l l y 1 6 m m , a n d m i n i m u m g u s s e t p l a t e t h i c k n e s s
i s 6 m m ( i n t e r n a l ) o r 8 n u n ( e x p o s e d ) .
0 . 7 0 . 7
F i g . 6 . 9 U s n g i n t e r n a l a n d e x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e c o e f f i c i e n t s g i v e n i n r e f e r e n c e ( 6 ) , t h e
w o r s t c a s e f o r w i n d l o a d i n g o n t h e r o o f s l o p e i s t h e c a s e ' w i n d o n e n d p l u s
i n t e r n a l p r e s s u r e ( F i g . 6 . 9 ) . T h i s g i v e s a n o u t w a r d p r e s s u r e o f
( 0 . 7 0 . 2 ) 0 . 6 8 = 0 . 6 i k N / m 2
N o t e m u s t b e t a k e n o f t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e s l o p e o n t h e v a l u e s n f e a c h l o a d a s
a p p r o p n a t e s c c S e c t i o n 2 . 7 ( d ) a n d F i g . 6 . 1 0 ) .
S t r e s s =
H i
_ _ _ _ _ - t
/
G u s s e t p l a t e
a t
6 . 7 E X A M P L E I I . R O O F T R U S S W I T H S L O P I N G R A F T E R
( a ) D i m e n s i o n s
( S e e F i g . 6 . 8 . )
B o l t e d t o g u s s e i p l a t e W e t d e d m e m b e r t o m e m b e r
F i g . 6 . 6 C o n n e c t i o n d e t a i l s
c a p j o i n t t b o t t e d l
S p a n o f t r u s s
R i s e o f t r u s s
R o o f s l o p e
T r u s s s p a c i n g
R a f t e r l e n g t h
F I g . 6 . 7 G u s s e t p l a t e s t r e s s
F i g . 6 . 8 R o o f t r u s s
1 6 . 0 m
3 . 2 m
2 1 . 8
4 . 0 m
8 . 6 2 m
1 6 . 0 m
( b ) L o a d i n g
C l a d d i n g / i n s u l a t i o n
R o o f t r u s s s e l f w e i g h t ( e s t i m a t e d )
S n o w / s e r v i c e s
W i n d p r e s s u r e s ( q )
0 . 1 2 k N / m 2
8 . 0 k N
0 . 7 5 k N / s n 2
0 . 6 8 k N / m 2
70 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO 8S 5950
b.b CONNECTIONS
Fig. 6.6 Connecuon details
ConnectIOns are reqUired to JOin one member to another (internal joints), and
to connect the truss to the rest of the building (external jOints). Three main
types of connectJon are used:
bolting to a gusset plate
welding to a gusset plate
welding member to member
Examples of these are shown 10 Fig. 6.6. The chOice of connectIOn type is
often made by the fabncator, and will depend on the available eqUipment,
with welding becommg more economical the larger the number of truss and
member repetitions.


Balled 10 gussel plate Welded member 10 member
Column
Cap Join! (boiled)
Ideally, members should be connected so that centroidal axes (or bolt
centre lines III the case of angles or tees) meet at a POint (Fig. 6.6). If this
cannot be achieved, then both members and COlmectlon must be deSigned
from the eccentnclty. In many cases the gusset plate will not lie in the plane
of the member centroidal a.'i:es, but stresses due to this eccentnclty are
ignored in construction usmg angles, channels and tees lclause 4.7.6c).
DeSign of the bolts or welds follows conventional methods{l.4l. Bolts
(grade 4.6 or 8.8) must be deSigned for both shear stress and beanng stress
(see Section 3.7g). Friction gnp fasteners may be used('s\ but are not usually
econotnJc unless bolt slip IS unacceptable. DeSign stresses m the gusset may
be checked as a short beam with a combined axial load. Such deSign IS not
realistic however, and it IS sufficient to check the direct stress only at the end
of the member (Fig. 6.7), on an area b x t IlS shown.
Mimmum bolt size IS usually 16mm. and minimum gusset plate thickness
IS 6 mm (internal) or 8 mm (exposed).
TRUSSES 71
m
,$ F<it. 30' F
, I \ Stress: br
-0- -0- -0-
I', b ,I G:I
Fig. 6.7 Gusset plate stress
c:
===-1:
'T'
6.1 EXAMPLE 11. ROOF TRUSS WITH SLOPING RAFTER
(a) Dimensions
(See Fig. 6.8.)
Span of truss 16.0 m
Rise of truss 3.2 m
Roof slope 21.8
0
Truss spacmg 4.0 m
Rafter length 8.62 m
Fig. 6.8 Roof truss
(b) Loading
0.7 C 0.7
\ " .

Cladding/insulatIOn O.12kN/m
2
8.0kN

Roof truss self weight lesumnted)
Snow/services
Wind pressures (q)
0.75 kN/m2-
0.68 kN/m
2
Fig. 6.9 mternal and external pressure coeffiCients given m reference (6), the
worst case for wind loading on the roof slope IS the case 'Wind on end plus
mtemai pressure' (Fig. 6.9). This gives an outward pressure of
-(0.7+0.2)0.68=-0.61 kN/m:!
Note must be taken of the effects of the slope on the values of each load as
appropnate (see SectIOn 2.7(d) and Fig. 6.10).

D e a d t o a d o n

l o a d o n r a f t e r










7 2 S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R I ( D E S I G N T O E S 5 9 5 0






T R U S S E S 7 3
( c ) T r u s s f o r c e s ( d e a d )
N o d a l f o r c e s

t h e
r a f t e r p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e n o d a l ( F i g . 6 . 1 1 ) .
A n a l y s i s


= 9 . 4 8 / 4 2 . 3 7 I N
= 2 4 . 0 1 4 = 6 . O O l c N
N o d a l l o r c e s
F i g . 6 . 1 1
( d ) T r u s s f o r c e s ( i m p o s e d )
T h e a s
f o r c e s a r e
T r u s s f o r c e s ( w i n d )
W i n d t h e t r u s s a s s h o w n 6 . 1 2 )
r e s u l t s t h e t a b l e :
2 7 , 0 / 4 = 5 2 5
6 . 1 2
- C o m p r e s s i o n




S M I n r a f t e r
A s s u m i n g




( g ) R a f t e r
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
M a x . F


U s e

s p a c i n g







a n d c l a u s e 4 . 1 0

i ' , ,

( f o r





3 . 5 . 3

= 8 0 / 8










4 . 2 . 5 M o m e n t



M e m b e r M e m b e r f o r c e s d u e t o :
D e a d
l o a d
I m p o s e d
l o a d
W i n d
l o a d




I
2
3








2 0 . 6













5 2 . t













4 6 . 7













1 1 2 . 2



























72 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO 8S 5950
Fig. 6.10
Dead load on each purlin
ciadding 4.0 x 2.0 x 0.12
own weight of purlin (say, 0.11 kN/m) and truss
0.11 x 4.0+8.0/10
=0.96kN
=l.24kN
Total dead load on purlin = 2.20 kN
Dead load on rafter Wd =2.20 x 8.6212.0=9.48kN
Imposed load on each purlin =4.0 x 2.0cos21.8 x O.75=5.56kN
Imposed load on rafter TV/ = 6.46 x 8.6212.0 = 24.0 kN
Wind load on each purlin =4.0 x 2.0 x 0.61 =4.88 kN (suction)
Wind load on rafter Ww =4.88 x 8.6212.0=21.0kN (suctIOn)
(c) Truss forces (dead)
Nodal forces Wdor WI

W
d
=9.4B/4 "" 2.37 kN
Wj '" 24.0/4 = 6.00 kN
Nodal forces Ww
Truss analysis is carned out piacmg concentrated loads at the nodes of the
truss, I.e. dividing the rafter ioad proportIOnal to the nodal centres (Fig. 6.11).
AnalYSIS by manual or computer techruques gIves forces as in the table
(OWIng to symmetry, half of the truss only is recorded).
Fig. 6.11 (d) Truss forces (imposed)
The forces are arranged as in (c) but have values of 6.00 kN, instead of
2.37 kN. Member forces are gIven ID the table.
(e) Truss forces (wind)
w .. W ..
2
,-
Wind forces on the truss are as shown (Fig. 6.12) and member forces are
agam analysed and the results given tu the table:
Member Member fDrces (kN) due tD:
Ww V _

Dead Imposed Wind Io4W
d
1.0JV
d
load Wd load W/ lond Ww +IAW/ +1.4W
w
\ t I
6. b. 2204 56.6 -46.7 121.9 -43.0
W..,= 21.0/4 '" 5.25 kN
2 2J.4 54.3 -46.7 116.8 -44.0
Fig. 6.12 3 20.6 52.1 -46.7 112.2 -44.8
4 19.7 49.9 -46.7 107.4 -45.7
5 -20.7 -52.5 42.8 -113.0 39.2
6 -17.8 -45.0 35.4 -96.9 3l.8
7 -1l.9 -30.0 20.7 -64.7 17.1
8 2.2 5"6
-5.3 12.0 -5.2
9 -3.0 -75 6.8 -162 6.5
10 4.4 ILL -10.5 23.9 -10.3
11 -2.9 -7.4 6.8 -15.9 6.6
12 2.2 5.6 -53 12.0 -5.1
13 -5.9 -15.0 16.0 -32.3 16.5
I'
-8.9 -22.5 22.8 -48.5 23.0
TRUSSES 73
CompressIOn force 1S positive.
As the wmd load is suctlOn, the load combinatIOns 1.411'" + lAW", and
1.2(TV" + TV/ + W
w
) may be Ignored.
(t) BM In rafter
Assummg purlin positions are not known
Purl in load W = l.4(0.96+0.44) +1.6 x 5.56 = 10.9 kN
clause 4.JO(c) BM =WLI6=1O.9 x 2.0cos21.8/6=3.36kNm
(g) Rafter
V'
6.4 and clause 4. J 0
Max. compressIOn F
Max. tenSIOn
Nodal distance = 8.6214 =
12l.9kN
43.0kN
2.16m
Use two -80 x 60 x 7 unequal angles spaced 8 mm apart to allow for
gusset plates with spacing washers at quarter pOints. I.t!. 0.54 m centres (Fig.
6.13). Note thatthey-yaxls IS for the smgie angle section and they-y aXIS IS
for the combined sectIOn.
rx =25.0mm
Slenderness A.= =0.85 x 2155125.0=73
Minimum ..1.= = 50
rw = 12.7mm
r;y =26.2mm
Slenderness Am =2155/26.2=82
A, =2155H4 x 12.7)=42
(for connections at quarter pOints) where AC IS based on tlte mmlmwn r of the
component (r"" for smgle angle) as the angle can faii us a component
between fasteners.
Ab = ';(82' + 42') = 92
clause 3.5.3 SectIon chosen IS with
dlt =80/8 = 101< 15,) and
(b+d)lt = 17.5 23,)
Table 1.2 Design strength py=275 N/mm2
BS table 25 Strut table for angles is table 27c, and for A=92:
BS table 27c
clause 4.2.5
Compiesslve strength pc = 123 N/mm
2
Compresston resistance Pc =A
g
pc
=21.2 x 123 x 10-; =261 kN
Moment capaCIty Mcr
=PyZ=
=275 x 24.3 x 10-
3
=6.7 kNm
Simplified local capacity check (for further diSCUSSIOn sce SectIOn 7.5):
7 4 S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R i < D E S I G N T O E S 5 9 5 0
T R U S S E S 7 5
( h ) B o t t o m c h o r d d e s i g n
M a x = 1 I 3 . 0 k N
M a x 3 9 . 2

a r e a + a , )
a i = ( L t 1 2 ) t D t
= 1 7 5 3 ) 6 2 2 x
o n e c a l c u l a t i n g
= 1 5 0 3 ) 6 = 2 8 2 m m '



2



r , , 2 1 , 4 m m
A , , , = 4 6 4 0 / 2 1 . 4 = 2 1 7
A r






1 4 . 4 x 3 4

( m e m b e r 1 0 )





C o m p r e s s i v e 1 2 5

= 6 . 9 1
S e c t i o n i s
C o n n e c t i o n
=

1 0 8
=





s a t i s f a c t o r y .


= 2 8 2
4 , 3 , 8 B u c k l i n g
4
= 0 . 8

4 . 8 . 3 . 3 F / A c

+ m M J A I , , 3 . 0

4 . 6 . 3 . 2









' 9

t a b l e 2 7 c





74 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO as 5950
clause 4.8.3.2 FlAg py + M/M= 1- I
121.91(21.2 x 275 x 10-')+3.36/6.7=0.71
Section satisfactory.
Buckling resistance moment of the seclion must be checked usmg:
Slenderness ). =
=2155/26.2=82
clallse 4,3,8 Buckling reSIStance ""h =O.8pb 2"
=0.8 x 275 x 24.3 x lD-
J
=5.35kNm
Overall buckling check (simplified approach):
clal/se 4.8.3.3 FlAg pc + mAl./klb l' ! where nt = 1.0
_____
Fig. 6,5 and
elm/se 4.7.1O.2a
Max. compressIOn F=23.9kN
Max. tension = 10.3 kN
Use 60 x 60 x 6 equnl angle
r",,=lL7mm
ryy= 18.2 mm
L= 1.72 m
A= O.85Urvv = 125 or
A= a.7Ur)'}' +30=96
BS table 27c Compresslve strength Pc =91 N/mm2 for A. = 125
CompressIOn resistance Pc =Ag Pc
= 6.91 x 91 x 10-
1
=63 kN
121.9/261 + 3.3615.35 = 1.00 SectIOn IS satisfactory.
(h) Bottom chord design
clause 4.6.3.2
clallse 4]3.1b
SS table 27c
Max lenSlOn = I J3.0kN
Max. compressIOn = 39.2 kN
Use two -75 x 50 x 6 unequal angles spaced 8 mm apart (semi-compact)
EffectIve area =al +5ala;: !(5a! +a;:)
al =(L-tl2)/-D/
=(75-3)6-22 x 6=300mm'
allowmg for one 22 mm diameter hole In calculahng aJ:
", =(50-3) 6=282mm'
A .. =300+5 x 300 x 2821(5 x 300+282)
=537 mm
2
/angle
Note that A .. becomes nef area jf clause 4.6.3.3 IS satisfied.
TenSIOn capacity P, =A.,py =2 x 537 x 0.275 =195 kN
CompressIOn resistance must be checked assuming lateroi restrmnt to the
bottom chord at the chord bracmg conneCllons, maxImum spacing 4.64 m
(Fig. 6.8).
=21Amm
"'m =4640/21.4=217
Ar =5801I0.8=54
(for connectIOns at quarter pomts, I.e. 0.58 m centre)
=224
Maxlll1um slenderness = 250
Compression strength Pc = 34 N/mm
2
Compression resIstance Pc pc
= 14.4 x 34 x 10-
1
=50.4 kN
Section IS satisfactory.
Fig. 6.14
m Connection
clause 6.3.2
dause 6.3.3.2
clause 6.3.3.3
Check the strength of the connecilon Jommg members 6, 7, 10 and 13.
Assume an 8 mm thick gusset plate and 2D'mm bolts (grade 4.6), sec Fig 6.14.
Max. force (member 13)=32.3 kN
Force change between members 6 and 7 is 32.2 kN. If members 6 and 7 were
10 be Jomed at this connection (to change Size or reduce fabncallon lengths)
then maxImum force (member 6) would be 96.9 kN.
7

22 mm holes lor 20 mm boils'
Shear capacity of bolts (double shear)
=160 x 2 x 0.245 = 78kN
Beanng capacity ofbol!s P
bb
=dtPbb =1 x 20 x 6 x 0,450=108kN
Bearing capacity of angles =2 x 20 x 6 x 0.450= 108 kN
but P
bs
'f elPbs12 = 40 x 6 x 0.45012 = 54 kN
Clearly a bolt Size of as low as 16 mm would be possible.
Gusset plate stress can be based on an effective width (Fig. 6.7) of
60/cos30 -22=47mm.
1 0 S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O f f i ( D E S I G N T O E S 5 0 3 0
- i * S M
T R U S S E S 7 7
x
N / m m 2 )








f a b n c a t i o n s a y , o r






( a ) D i m e n s i o n s


( c )
( d )
T r u s s f o r c e s




F o r c e

M e m b e r F o r c e

F o r c e
I
3
4
1 8 8
3 2 2
4 0 2
4 2 9
5
6
7
8


3 7 5
4 2 9






1 5

1 5 2
- 1 4 4



3 8
3 8


B M i n t o p c h o r d






1 . 6 0


1 . 4 W , ,




3 4 . l m m






x x





? S
4 2 9 / ( 2 0 . 9 x x







6 . 8
E X A M P L E 1 2 . L A T T I C E G I R D E R





( b ) L o a d i n g
T i m b e r f l o o r


( e )

T o p c h o r d
0 . 5 k N / m 2


= 1 3 . 4 x



c l a u s e 4 . 8 . 3 . 2

= P J , s
= 2 7 5
76 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO SS 5950
Fig. 6.15 Lllttu:e girder
Plate slress=32.3 x 10
3
/(8 x 47)= 86N/mm
1
(Ma:umum value is Py =275 N/mm
1
)
The remaining truss may be designed In the same way, with the
compression force usually bemg the mam design cntenon. It should be noted
Ihal It IS good practtce to limit the number of different member sizes being
used, probably nol more than four in total. The deflecllOn ofa roof truss is not
usually cntical to the desIgn, and the effects of sag under load may be offset
by precambering the truss dunng fabrication by. say, 50 mm or 1OOmm. If
the deflection is required then hand or graphical methods(7,B), or the Vlrtual
work method(9.1Ol, or nppropnale programs may be used. It should be noted
that deflectIon due to bolt slip can be significant compared with dead load
elastlc deflections.
6.8 EXAMPLE 12. LATTICE GIRDER
(a) Dimensions
See Fig. 6.l5: lattice gtrder fabncated from tubular sectIOns, span 8.0m;
spacing 3.5 m.
TImber JOlsls III 0.5 m cenlres
t 2 3 4
t
nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnl

5 6 7 B
I
Bal1.0m:B.Om I
' "
(b) Loading
Timber Joist floor
Floor fuushes
Imposed load
0.5 kN/m
1
0.2kN/ml
4.0kN/m
2
Dead load on Umber jOist:
floor 0.5 x 3.5 x 0.5 =0.88 kN
finishes 0.2 x 3.5 x 0.5 =0.35 kN
weIght of truss (estimated)=0.37 kN
Total load Wd = 1.60kN
Imposed load on umber jotst
W
j
=4.0 x 3.5 x 0.5=7.00kN
Load on girder from each JOIst = 1.4W
J
+ 1.6W
t
=1.4 x 1.60 x 1.6 x 7.00=13.4kN
Concentrated load at nodes=26.8kN
TRUSSES 77
(c) Truss forces
AnalYSIS of the truss
t
l.1) under the nodal loads gives the member forces (kN)
tn the table:
Top chord Bottom chord Diagonals
Member Force Member Force Member Force
188 5 -107 9 152
2 322 6 -268 10 -144
3 402 7 -375 1I 1I4
4 429 8 -429 12 -76
13 76
14 -38
15 38
16 0
Compression force IS pOSitive.
(d) BM in top chord
(See Fig, 6.16,)
BM in contmuot!S top chord = WLl8
=13.4 x LO/8=1.68kNm
(e) Top chord
Fig. 6.4
BS table 25
BS table 27a
clause 4.8.3.2
Max. compresSion F =429 kN
Max. BM M;.: = 1.68 kNm
Use 90 x 90 x 6.3 RHS
r= =34.1 mm
Slenderness A. =0.85 x l000/34.1 =25
Strut table for RHS is table 27a
Compresslve strength Pc =270N/mm
1
CompressIon resistance Pc =Ag Pc
=20.9 x 270 x 1O-'=564kN
Section chosen IS plastic (bIT = 14)
Moment capacity Mc =Py S
Local capaCIty check
FIAgPy+m;.: 1Ma -; i
=275 x 65.3 x 10-
3
= 17.96kNm
429/(20.9 x 275 x 10-
1
)+ 1.68/17.96=0.84
Section is sails factory.
Lateral 10rsIOnal buckling need not be considered if compressIOn flange IS
posItively restrmned connected (0 the tImber Joist flOOf, or for box sectIOns
lclause 8.2.6.1).


B o t t o m T r u s s F . K .
















7 .





9 .






























R e f e r e n c e s
I . T r u s s a n a l y s i s ( 1 9 9 0 ) A n a l y s i s
s t a t i c a l l y

78 STRUCTURAL STEELWOAI( DESIGN TO SS 5950
Fig, 6.17
(t) Bottom chord
Max. tensIon F=429kN
Use 90 x 90 x 5 rutS
Tension capacity P, =A
t
Py
= 16.9 x 275 x 10-
1
=465 kN
SectIOn IS satIsfactory.
(g) Diagonal
BS table 27a
(See Fig. 6.17.)
Max. compreSSIOn F = 152 kN
Max. tensIOn = 114 kN
Use 50 x 50 x 3.2 RHS
r ~ = 19.1 mm
Slenderness,l = 0 7 U r ~ =0.7 x 500!l9,1 cos45"=26
Compresslve strength Pc =269N/mm
1
CompressIOn resIstance Pr =A
g
pc
=5.94 x 269 x 10-
1
=160kN
TensIOn resistance P, =5.94 x 275 x 10-
1
= 163 kN
Secllon IS satisfactory.
(h) Connections
clause 6.6.5.1
All welded jOints with contmuous 4 mm welds.
Weld length =2(50+50/cos45") =241 mm
Design strength p ... =215 Nlmm
2
Weld resistance =0,7 x 4 x 2.41 x 215 = i45kN
The maXImum forces which may be transmitted between hollow steel
sectIOns are more complex and detailed references may be consulted if
reQUlred{ll)
As In SectIOn 6.7, the number of sectIOn sizes would be limIted in practice,
with the allowable vanallOn III member sizes. depending on the degree of
repetition expected.
STUDY REFERENCES
TopIC
L Truss analYSIS
References
Mnrshnll \V.T. & Nelson H.M. (1990) AnalYSIS of
slallcally delerrmrlille structures, Struclllres, pp. lQ-19.
Longman.
2. Truss analYSIS
>. Bolt deSign
4. Welding
5. Friction gnp bolts
6. Wind pressure
coeffiCients
7. Truss defleCllon
,.
Truss dcflectlOn
9. Virtual work
10. Virtual work
11. ConnectIOn of RHS
TRUSSES 79
Contes RC, eouUI! !\I.G. & Kong F.K. (1988)
AnalYSIS of plane trusses, S/mcrurol Alluly.SIS pp. 41-5 J
Van Nostrand RemJlOld
(1991) Steelwork DeSign voL 4, pp. 1011-10/10 Steel
Conslfuctton inslltme
(1991) Sleelwork DeSign vo!. '-1, pp. 11/1-11/\5 Steel
ConstructIOn Institute
(1991) Steelwork DeSign vo!. 4, pp. 10/1-10/10 Steel
Construction Inslltute
BS 6399 DeSign Loading for Buildings
Part 2: WilJd /oads (J 995)
Mnrshal! W.T. & Nelson H.i\L (1990) Deflecllon of
Slructures, SIn/Cll/reS, pp. 273-98. Longman
Wang C.K. (983) The gmphical method, illtermediale
StntctJ/ral Allalysls, pp 93-99. Pergamon
Marshall W.T. & Nelson H.M. (1990) Virtual work
and energy pnnclplcs. Sfmcfllres, pp 501-31. Longman
ConIes R.c., Coulie M.G. & Kong F.K. (1988)
ApplicatIOns of the pnnclple of vlnua! work, SlmC/Ilroi
AIJO(I'SIS, pp.134-75 Van Nos!rnnd Remhold
CIDECT (1985) Weided jOlnls. COlJStnlctJOn with
Hollow Steel SecllOlJS, pp. 129-42, British Steel
Corpor.l!lon Tubes DiVISIOn
r r h
1 7 1
S I M P L E


C o l u m n s ,

s i n g l e








d e s i g n

a d o p t e d

- ' i
. e
T Y P E S
T y p i c a l



h a v i n g

c o n n e c t i o n s
C o l u m n s

t h e
m o m e n t s

w h e r e

S t . &
S I M P L E A N D C O M P O U N D C O L U M N S
8 1
I L i C
U C

L a c e d






















1
n s A






SIMPLE AND COMPOUND
COLUMNS
Columns, sometimes !mown as stanchions. are vertical steel members In
'smgle and frames. They are pnnclpally designed to carry axiai
loads m compressiOn, but will also he subjected to moments due to
eccentncities or lateral loads or as a result of being part of a ngid frame,
contmuity moments. In some structures, particularly smglestorey frames
top lengths m ftames, the moments may have greater effect m,., .
the design than the axtal compressIOn; under some loading combinations
aXial tensIOn may occur (see Section 2.7(d) and Table 12.7).
Where columns are principally compressIOn members their behavIour
deSign are similar to those of struts (Sectlon 6.4). The loads carned are
usually larger than those in typical truss members, and the slmplificallOns
adopted in truss design (Section 6.2) should nol be applied.
7.1 TYPES OF COLUMN
Typical used In column deSign arc shown in Fig'c7oonl"o'<OSSi01
any section may be used. the problem of instability under aXial
results In preferred SectiOns of Circular or square types. Buckling is likely
occur about the aXIs of lower bending reSistance, and the use of sectIOns
havmg one axiS of very low bending resistance IS usually uneconomic.
However, as the range of hollow structural sectlO.IlS IS lumted, and
connections IS more difficult, the H and I sections are frequently used,
Columns may also be built up from smaller sectIOns or plates, bemg
welded ot bolted together as m Fig. 7.2. In some cases, the column may
the form of a iattlce girder, which will be particularly econorruc where
moments occur, such as tall building wmd frames, masts and cranes.
laced column and the battened column shown m Fig. 7.3 are used in
where overturnmg moments due to Wind or eccentricity (crane gantry
loading) are high.
7.1 Column cross
5cclions
7.2 Compound
scctlOns
SIMPLE AND COMPOUND COLUMNS 81
Prolerred
100
Olhars
RSCs
,"d
plate
-
lDl
laced
7.2 AXIAL COMPRESSION
I
VB
IL
RHS CHS
RSAs
"d
Jalllca
Battened
1
RSA
Welded
be<
Colwnns with idealized end connectlOns may be considered as failing In an
buckling mode{1.1) However, practical columns usually fail by
melasuc bending and do not conform io the Euler theory asswnptlOns{3,ot).
partlculariy with respect to elasuc behavIOur. Oniy extremely slender
columns remain linearly elastiC up to failure. Local buckling of thin flanges
rarely occurs In practIce when normal rolled sections are used, as their flange
tbicknesses usually conform to clause 3.5 of BS 5950.
The behaVIOur of columns and their ultimate strength are assessed by their
slenderness 1 and the matenal deSIgn strength Py, which ,Ire described bnefiy
in Section 6.4. <
8 2 S T R u C T U R A L S T E E L W O A K D E S I G N T O O S 5 9 5 0
J S I M P L E A N D C O M P O U N D C O L U M N S 8 3
F i g . 7 . 4 E n d f i x i t v /
e f f e c t i v e l e n g t h
7 . 3 S L E N D E R N E S S
S l e n d e r n e s s i s i v e n b y :
A = L s / r
w h e r e L . g = e f f e c t i v e l e n g t h
r = r a d i u s o f g y r a t i o n
T h e e f f e c t i v e l e n g t h o f a c o l u m n i s d e p e n d e n t o n t h e r e s t r a i n t c o n d i t i o n s a t
e a c h e n d . I f p e r f e c t p i n c o n n e c t i o n s e x i s t t h e n e q u a l s t h e a c t u a l l e n g t h . I n
p r a c t i c e , b e a m t y p e m e m b e r s c o n n e c t e d t o t h e e n d o f a c o l u m n , a s w e l l a s
g i v i n g p o s i t i o n a l r e s t r a i n t , p r o v i d e v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f e n d r e s t r a i n t f r o m
v i r t u a l l y f u l l f i x i t y t o n e a r l y p i n n e d .
1 3 5 t a b l e 2 4 i n d i c a t e s i n b r o a d t e r m s t h e n o m i n a l e f f e c t i v e l e n g t h o f a
c o l u m n m e m b e r , p r o v i d e d t h e d e s i g n e r c a n d e f i n e t h e a m o u n t o f p o s i t i o n a l
a n d r o t a t i o n a l r e s i r a i n t a c t i n g o n t h e c o l u m n i n q u e s t i o n - T h e v a n o u s c l a s s e s
o f e n d f i x i t y a l l u d e d t o i n 8 5 t a b l e 2 4 r e p r e s e n t a c r u d e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , a s
i n d i c a t e d i n F i g . 7 . 4 . T h e n o m i n a l e f f e c t i v e l e n g t h s t e n d t o b e l o n g e r t h a n
t h o s e o b t a i n e d u s i n g t h e E u l e r v a l u e s a s t h e y t a k e c o g n i z a n c e o f p r a c t i c a l
c o n d i t i o n s : t h a t i s , t h e r e i s n o s u c h c o n d i t i o n a s p i n n e d ' ( u n l e s s a p i n i s
d e l i b e r a t e l y m a n u f a c t u r e d , w h i c h w o u l d b e c o s t l y ) o r ' f i x e d ' . T h e r e f o r e ,
t a k i n g t h e c a s e h a v i n g b o t h e n d s ' f i x e d ' , i n r e a l i t y t h e e n d s w o u l d h a v e s o m e
f l e x i b i l i t y ; h e n c e a v a l u e o f 0 . 7 , r a t h e r t h a n t h e i d e a l i z e d E u l e r v a l u e o f 0 . 5 , i s
u s e d . A l t h o u g h t h e s e v a l u e s i n 1 3 5 t a b l e 2 4 a r e a d e q u a t e f o r c o l u m n m e m b e r s
i n m u l t i - s t o r e y b u i l d i n g s d e s i g n e d b y t h e s i m p l e d e s i g n ' m e t h o d , a m o r e
a c c u r a t e a s s e s s m e n t i s p r o v i d e d b y s e c t i o n 5 . 7 a n d a p p e n d i x E o f 1 3 5 5 9 5 0 :
P a r t I f o r c o l u m n s i n n g i d ' f r a m e s ( c o n t i n u o u s c o n s t r u c t i o n ) .
T h e r e s t r a i n t p r o v i d e d m a y b e d i f f e r e n t a b o u t t h e t w o c o l u m n a x e s , a n d i n
p r a c t i c e i n s t e e l w o r k f r a m e s t h i s w i l l g e n e r a l l y b e t h e c a s e . T h e e f f e c t i v e
l e n g t h s i n t h e t w o p l a n e s w i l l t h e r e f o r e g e n e r a l l y b e d i f f e r e n t , a n d s o w i l l b e
t h e s l e n d e r n e s s a n d A , . ) . F o r a x i a l l y l o a d e d c o l u m n s t h e c o m p r e s s i v e
s t r e n g t h P . i s s e l e c t e d f r o m 1 3 5 t a b l e s 2 7 a t o 2 7 d f o r b o t h v a l u e s o f
s l e n d e r n e s s , a n d t h e l o w e r s t r e n g t h i s u s e d i n t h e d e s i g n , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f a x i s .
T h e e f f e c t i v e l e n g t h o f a c o l u m n i n a s i n g l e - s i o r e y f r a m e i s d i f f i c u l t t o
a s s e s s f r o m c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f f i x i t y a s i n F i g . 7 . 4 a n d h e n c e 1 3 5 5 9 5 0 : P a r t I
g i v e s t h e s e s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . C l a u s e 4 . 7 . 2 c a n d a p p e n d i x D l s h o u l d b e
u s e d f o r t h e s e c a s e s .
I t i s e s s e n t i a l t o h a v e a r e a l i s t i c a s s e s s m e n t o f e f f e c t i v e l e n g t h , b u t i t
s h o u l d b e r e a l i z e d t h a t t h i s a s s e s s m e n t i s n o t p r e c i s e a n d i s o p e n t o d e b a t e ,
a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y i t i s n o t r e a s o n a b l e t o e x p e c t h i g h l y a c c u r a t e s t r e n g t h
p r e d i c t i o n s i n c o l u m n d e s i g n . I n t e r p o l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e v a l u e s i n 8 5 t a b l e
2 4 m i g h t p r o d u c e m o r e a c c u r a t e e s t i m a t e s , b u t s u c h i n t e r p o l a t i o n n m s t r e f l e c t
t h e a c t u a l r e s t r a i n t c o n d i t i o n s .
7 . 4 B E N D I N G A N D E C C E N T R I C I T Y
I n a d d i t i o n t o a x i a l c o m p r e s s i o n , c o l u m n s w i l l u s u a l l y b e s u b j e c t e d t o m o m e n t s
d u e t o h o n z o n t a l l o a d i n g a n d e c c e n i n c i t y o f c o n n e c t i o t i s c a r r y i n g v e r t i c a l
l o a d s . T h e t y p e s o f l o a d t h a t c a n o c c u r a r e s u n i m a n z e d i n F i g . 7 . 5 i n w h i c h :
i s t h e v e r t i c a l l o a d f r o m a r o o f t r u s s , t a k e n a s a p p l i e d
c o n c e n t n c a l l y ( c l a u s e 4 . 7 . 6 a f 2 ) )
( V 5 a r e h o n z o n i a l l o a d s d u e t o w i n d , a p p l i e d b y s i d e r a i l s
a n d a r e t h e c r a n e g a n t r y t o a d s , a p p l i e d t h r o u g h a
b r a c k e t a t a k n o w n e c c e n t r i c i t y
i s t h e s e l f w e i g h t o f t h e c o l u m n / s h e e i t n g
W E i s t h e r e s u l t a n t f o r c e e a r n e d t h r o u g h t h e t m s s b o t t o m c h o r d
I n s i n g i e - s t o r e y c o l u m n a n d t r u s s s t r u c t u r e s l o a d o c c u r s w h e n e v e r t h e
c o l u m n s c a r r y u n e q u a l h o n z o n t a l l o a t h o r u n e q u a l m o m e n t s . V a l u e s o f t h e
r e s u l t a n t f o r c e f o r d i f f e r e n t a r r a n g e m e n t s o f h o n z o n t a t l o a d i n g a r c s h o w n i n
F i g . 7 . 6 .
I n c a s e s s u c h a s m o s t b e a m / c o l u m n c o n n e c t i o n s w h e r e . e c c e n t n c t i y i s n o t
k n o w n p r e c i s e l y , c l a u s e 4 . 7 . 6 s t a t e s t h a t a v a l u e o f 1 0 0 m m f r o m t h e c o l u m n
f a c e ( f l a n g e o r w e b a s a p p r o p n a t e ) s h o u l d b e u s e d .
F o r t h e d e s i g n o f a c o l u m n u n d e r a t o a d s y s t e m s u c h a s t h a t s h o w n i n
F i g . 7 . 5 , l o a d f a c t o r s y j m u s t h e i n c l u d e d i n t h e . c a l c u l a t i o n s , E a c h l o a d m a y
c o m p n s e o n e o r m o r e l o a d t y p e s , e . g . l o a d W 5 w i l t b e w i n d l o a d o n l y , w h i l e
W 4 m a y c o n s i s t o f d e a d l o a d , i m p o s e d a n d w t n d l o a d . \ V h e n t o a d s a r e a p p l i e d
i n c o m b i n a t i o n , d i f f e r e n t l o a d f a c t o r s m a y b e r e q u i r e d f o r e a c h l o a d g r o u p
( s e e C h a p t e r 2 ) . U n l i k e s i m p l e l o a d c a s e s , i t w i l l n o l o n g e r b e c l e a r w h i c h
c o m b i n a t i o n p r o d u c e s t h e h i g h e s t a x i a l f o r c e s a n d m b m e n t s . C o m p l e x l o a d
c a s e s , a s s h o w n t a F i g . 7 . 5 , m a y r e q u t r e a l l p o s s i b l e c o m b i n a t i o n s t o b e
e x a m i n e d , a l t h o u g h w i t h e x p e n e n c e t h r e e o r f o u r w o r s t a r r a n g e m e n t s m a y b e
s e l e c t e d . T h e b e s t w a y o f e x a m i n i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f a l l o r s o m e c o m b i n a t i o n s
i s t h e u s e o f m a i n c e s . M a t n x m a n i p u l a t i o n s h o u l d b e a r r a n g e d i n t h e
f o l l o w i n g m a n n e r
U n f a c t o r e d l o a d m a t r i x = [ I F ]
L o a d f a c t o r / c o m b i n a t i o n m a t r i x
[ y j ]
F a c t o r e d l o a d m a t n x [ W , ] = [ I P ] x [ y 4
A x i a l f o r c e a n d m o m e n t c o e f f i c i e n t m a t n x e ]
A x i a l f o r c e a n d m o m e n t m a t n x [ F 4 u 1 = [ 1 V 7 ] T x
I a ]
T h i s m a t n x m e t h o d i s d e m o n s t r a t e d i n S e c t i o n 7 . 7 .
4 !
' i i
W A
' 4 '
W c
t
' T V
7 . 5 C o l u m n t o a d s F i g .
P i n n e d F i x e d
P a r t i a l
r e s t r a i n t i n
d i r e c t i o n
0 1
F r e e I n
p o s i t i o n
82 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO 8S 5950
Fig. 7 A End fixltyl
effective length
7.3 SLENDERNESS
Slenderness IS glVen by:
where LE = effective length
r = radius of gyration
The effective length of a column IS dependent on the restramt conditions at
each end. If perfect pm connectIOns e:(lst then LE equals the actual length. In
practtce, beam type members connectcd to the end of a colwnn. as well as
gtvmg posllional restraint, provide varying degrees of end restraint from
virtually full fixity to nearly pinned.
SS table 24 Indicates In broad terms the nommal effective length of a
column member, provided the deSigner can define the amount of positionai
and rotatlOnal restraint actmg on the column in question. The vanous classes
of end fixity alluded to In BS table 24 represent a crude classificatIOn, as
Indicated in Fig. 7.4. The nommal effective lengths tend to be longer than
those obtamed usmg the Euler vaiues as they take cogruzance of pracl1cal
conditions: that IS, there IS no such condition as 'pinned' (unless a pin IS
deliberateiy manufactured, which would be costly) or 'fixed'. Therefore,
taking the case haVing both ends 'fixed', In reality the ends would have some
flexibility; hence a value of 0.7, rather than the idealized Euler value of 0.5. IS
used. Although these values m BS table 24 are adequate for column members
buildings deSIgned by the 'sImple deSign' method, a more
accurate assessment IS provided by sectIOn 5.7 and appendix E of BS 5950:
Part i for columns m 'ngid' frames (contmuous constructIOn).
The restraint provided may be different about the two column axes, and in
practice in steelwork frames this will generally bethe case. The effective
lengths In the two planes willlherefore generally be different, and so will be
the slenderness P ... and Ay). For aXlllily loaded columns the compresslve
strength Pc IS selected from BS tables 27a 10 27d for both values of
Slenderness, and the lower strength IS used in the deSign, mespectlve of a.us.
tOL
Pinned Fixed
Partial
restramt In
direcllon
o.n
free In
position
lo2L
Fig. 7.5 Column lands
SIMPLE AND COMPOUND COLUMNS 83
The effectIVe iength of a column In a frame IS difficult to
assess from consideratIOns of fiXity as In Fig. 7.4 and hence SS 5950: Part I
gives these speCial consideration. Clause 4.7.2c and appendix Dl should be
used for these cases.
It IS essential to have a realistic assessment of effectrve length, but It
should be realized that this assessment IS not precIse and is open to debate,
and consequently 11 IS not reasonable to expect highly accumte strength
prediclJons In column deSign. interpolatIOn between the values In SS table
24 might produce more accurate estimates, but such interpolatIOn must reflect
the actual restraint conditions.
BENDING AND ECCENTRICITY
In addition to aXial compreSSIOn, columns will usually be subjected to moments
due to honzontalloading and eccentnclly of connections carrymg vertical
loads. The types of load that can occur are summanzed in Fig. 7.5 in which:
W
A
is the vertical load from a roof truss. taken as applied
concentncally (clause 4.7.6a(2))
Ws are honzontal loads due 10 wmd, applied by side rails
We and Wile are the crane gantry loads, applied through a
bracket at a known eccentriCity
W D IS the self weight of Ihe colwnnlsheetmg
W IS the resultant force carned through the truss bottom chord
In column and truss structures load Woccurs whenever the
columns carry unequal honzontal loads or unequal moments. Values of the
resultant force for different arrangements of honzontal loading are shown m
Fig. 7.6.
In cases such as most beam/column connectIOns whcre_eccentnclty is not
known preCisely, clause 4.7.6 states that a value of 100 mm from the column
face (flange or web as appropnate) should be used.
For the deSign of a column under a load system such as that shown III
Fig. 7.5, load factors 'If must be IIlciuded in the,calculatlOllS. Each load may
compnse one or more load types, e.g. load Wowill be wlIla load only. while
W
A
may conSist of dead load, Imposed and wllld load. When loads are applied
m combinatIOn, different load factors may be reqUIred for each load group
(see Chapter 2). Unlike Simple load cases. It will no longer be clear which
combinatIOn produces the highest aXial forces and mbments. Complex load
cases, as shown m Fig. 7.5, may requue all. possible combinatIOns to be
examined, although with expenence three or four worst arrangements may be
selected. The best way of exammmg the effects of all or some combinatIOns
IS tbe use of matnces. Matnx mampulatlOn should be arrnnged 10 the
follOWing manner:
Unfactored load matnx = [IV]
Load factor/combinatIOn matrix = [Yf]
Factored load matnx rW
y
] =fW} x [td
Axial force and moment coeffiCIent malnx 10:]
Axtal force and moment matnx fF,M]=PVy]T x 10:)
This matnx method is demonstrated in Section 7.7.

S ' T E E L W O R K D E S I G N T O E S 6 5 3 0
S I M P L E
C O M P O U N D C O L U M N S 8 5
L o a d i n g W ;
7 . 6 O V E R A L L B U C K L I N G
( W I + W 2 )
T h e


w 2
o v e r a l l















1 1



i s



M , l






L O C A L C A P A C I T Y
7 . 7 E X A M P L E
F O R I N D U S T R I A L B U I L D I N G
A t












































84 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO SS 5950
fo'lg. 7.6 Resultant force
{ ! roof truss bottom
chord
Loading
1
2
2
16
11
40
7.5 LOCAL CAPACITY
At any sectIOn in a column the sum of effects ofaxml load F and moments
M..rand M). must not exceed the local capacity. This IS considered to be
satisfactory if the combination relattonship sahsfies the followmg interaction
equation:
i
(a) for plastic and compact sections:
UC and jOist sections
+ M/Mry f I
RHS, CHS and. solid sectIOns
(MrlMn; )5/3 + .,. 1
Channei. angle and all other sectIOns
where .Mn;and Ai,yare the reduced plastiC moments m the presence of
aXial load, as defined in reference (5).
(b) For seml-compact and s1ender sechons, and as a simplified method for
compact sections In fa):
where Ag IS the gross sectIOnal area and Mo: and Mr::v are
capacities defined in Section 3.4.
___________________________
',! \it:,\' 7.6 OVERALL BUCKLING
,:.: .::.::.!!:
" ;'"
, .. "
:.
i::
. '::-:fl

7.7
<al
The failure of columns, Whether carrymg moments combined WIth an axml
load or not, will commonly IOvolve member buckJing. The ilssessment of
overall buckling reSistance Involves the same factors and procedUres as given
to SectIOn 3.2, but with an additional tenn for aXial load. Usmg a Simplified
approach \clause 4.8.3.3.1) Ule overall buckling check IS considered to be
satlsfactory if the combinatJOn relatIOnship is satisfied.
FlAg Pc + IJ/:rl'vf:/Mb + 11f,Af/p), 1- i
where Pr:: IS the compresslve strength (SectIOn 6.4)
m,n",.\" are the eqUivalent unifonn moment factors (Section 3.2)
Mb IS the buck1ing resistance (Section 3.5)
Zy IS the mmor axiS elastic sectiOn modulus (compressIOn face)
A more exact approach lciause 4.8.3.3.2) may be carned out usmg Mar and
AI"),, the maxlmum buckling moments about major and mmor axes In the
presence of axial load. In approach:
III:rM:/MC1..t + I
EXAMPLE 13. COLUMN FOR INDUSTRIAL BUILDING
DimenSions
(See Fig. 7.7.)
Overall height
HeIght of crane rail
Free standing bock wall
Crane rail eccentncIty
Cladding eccentnclty
12.5m
iD.Om
25m
0.501
0.25 m
(b) Loading (unfactored)
Roof truss reachons
Dead load
Imposed load
Wind load (suctIOn)
Crane girder reachons (vertical) Wc
50kN
78kN
90kN
Dead load (girder self weight) 20 k.N
Crane load incl. unpact (nearside) 220'kN
Crane load (far side) 150 !eN
Crane girder reactIOn (hon20nlal) If'fJC
Crane surge load 6kN
8 6 S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R I < D E S I G N T O 8 5 5 9 5 0 C O M P O U N D C O L U M N S 8 7





D e a d




T h e

1 0 . 2


1 . 2







, i v , , , i v _
t V 4
; s ' 3






1 . 4







I V , , 1 . 2
i . 6

1 . 4

F a c t o r e d l o a d i n g

x








W 4
. <
W c

; W v c


c

a

T L
( d )
- ( c ) L o a d f a c t o r s a n d c o m b i n a t i o n s
c l a u s e




3 7 6

j 1 2


a . 4

1 9
4 6 1
2 6 . 0
1 2
6 6
E l 9 .
86 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO SS 5950
{
Fig. 7.1
E
o
'"
T E
7!:2 0
\.SI ;i
E
"
Wind on side of building Ws.
Wind land lu.dJ. above bncbvork) 55 kN
Se1fwelght (column) W
D
Dead load
Cladding W DC
Dead load
10kN
16kN
The resultant force (WE for wmd) depends on the difference between the wmd
landing on the column bemg designed and that on the similar column on the
far side of the building (Fig. 7.6). Iflhe wmd load on the far side IS zero:
=IO.3kN
The resultant force (WE for crane) depends on the difference m the crane
(vertical) loading on the near and far' side columns (Fig. 7.6):
W
E
=3(220+ 150)0.51(4 x 12.5) = JO.2kN
The resultant force (IV E for dead load) depends on the crane girder dead load
producmg moments m opposite directions:
W
E
=3(20+20)0.51(4 x 12.5) = i.2 kN
Note that the crane surge loading (honzontal) produces no resultilllt force m
the truss as It mduces equal loads III both colwnns, and in the same directIOn.
All the unfadored loads may be shown In the load mntnx {W] kN:
Dead Imposed Crane Crane Wind
load load load loud load
vertical horizontal
!I'd JPj J J ' , ~ JV
ch
IV.
IVA
50 78 0 0 -90
IV. 0 0 0 0 55
Wc
20 0 220 0 0
H'llC
0 0 0 6 0
IVD
10 0 0 0 0
W
DC
16 0 0 0 0
WE 1.2 0 10.1 0 10.3
(c) Load factors and combinations
clause 2.'1.1.1 Possible combinatIOns of the different loads are:
\A Wd + 1.6 rv,
lA W
d
+L4 W",
1.4 W
d
+L6 WC>'
1.2 Wd+L6 W,+IA W .... +L4 Wcll
1.2 Wd + 1.6 iV, + 1.6 WC"
1.2 Wd + 1.2 IVj + i.2 Ww
1.2 lVd+!.2 W;+L2 lVC\.'+L2 W
ch
+L2 W..,
case (i)
case (ii)
case (Hi)
(d)
SIMPLE AND COMPOUND COLUMNS 87
Of Ihese combinations, three cases are selected as shmvn illld lire given m
mntnx fonn h'f]:
Case (I) Case (11) Case (!il)
W, 1.2 L2 1.2
IV, 1.6 1.6 !.2
W ~ iA 1.6 1.2
JJ'ch 1,4 0 1.2
IV", 0 0 !.2
Factored loading
As shown m SectIOn 7.4, the faclored landing malnx is
[W,l=[Jf1 x [rrlkN
Case (i) Cnse fiI) Case (Hi)
IV. 185 185 46
H'B 0 0 66
IVc 332 376 288
W
He
8,4 0 7.2
W
D 12 12 12
W
DC 19 19 19
WE 15.7 17.8 26.0
The lands for each loading case can be shown on diagrams as In Figs. 7.8,7.9
and 7.10.
185
1
185
"I
15.7
17.8
26.0
- -
1
332
1::'.-
~ ~
-
0
8.4
7.2
66
"I
I 12
"I
112
"I
1 12
Fig. 7.8 Fig. 7.9 Fig. 7.10
8 8 S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R K D E S I G N T O 0 5 5 9 6 0
( e ) C o e f f i c i e n t s
B e n d i n g b y









4 1
S I M P L E A N D C O M P O U N D C O L U M I I S
8 9


F 5 A l M 3 A l 3
0 . 0 0 . 0





J Y 0 c

1 2 5
0
8 7 . .
( g ) L o c a l c a p a c i t y
1






( 7 . 5 / 8 0 ) x ( 7 . 5 / 2 ) = 2 . 8 1 W 4





B M a n d a x i a l f o r c e
A s




1 7 . 9 )







+ A I J I r I C . I
0 . 3 2






b u c k l i n g
F o r c o m p r e s s i v e s t r e n g t h , t h e s l e n d e r n e s s A i s b a s e d






1 0 9

l I O N / m m 2






88 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO BS 5950
, '
(e) Coefficients
Bending moments and axml forces are produced by the factored loads. To
calculate axml force all vertical loads above tbe cross-section bemg checked
should'be added together. To calculate bending moments the products of
force and distance should be added together. This is agam usefully shown 10 a
matnx [Cl1, for axml force Fund bending momentM. The BM values are to be
calculated at three posltions as shown in Fig. 7.7. The coeffiCIents for BM are
Ul metres.
F, AI, AI, Ml
IV
A
I 0.0 0.0 0.0
lVn
0 7.5 2.81 0.13
IVc I 0.5 0.5 0.5
W
lIC
0 10.0 5.0 0.0
W
D
I 0.0 0.0 0.0
IV
Dc
j
-0.25 -0.19 -0.06
11, 0 -12.5 -7.5 -2.5
The coefficients for BM in relatIOn to the load Wo aUaw for a reduced value
of Wn as well as a reduced distance In calcuiatIng er. for pOSitions 2 and 3. For
example:
M, = W. (7.5/10) x (7.5/2)=2.81 W.
hence Cl = 2.81 m.
Similarly the value of Woc decreases for pOlOts 2 and 3 and this IS reflected
ID the value of IX:
M
2
=ff"DC (7.5110) x {-0.25)=-0.19 W
DC
(f) BM and axial force
As shown In Section 7 A, the BM and fixml force matnx IS
[F, M]=[W,]T x raj
Case {i}
Case (ii)
Case (iii)
F,
548
592
365
49
-40
381
AI,
87
50
167
AI,
125
142
86
The BM diagrams for each load case may be drawn as to Fig. 7.1 !.
Flg.7.Il
SIMPLE AND COMPOUND COLUMNS 89
CD 125
41 142 46
50
(g) Local capacity
Use a 305 x 305 x 137 DC section (grade 43). TIus IS a plasLlc sechon
BS table 6 (bIT =7.8, dlt = l7.9) and has a deSign strengthp), =265N/mm
2
clause 4.8.3.2
Moment capacity j\fcx =Py S;r
CASE (i)
=265 x 2298 x 1O-'=609kNm
Agpy =174.6 x 265 x ID-"=4630kN
Local capacJty check iSlmplified):
FlAg py +Mfil
a
;t I
548/4630+ 125/609 = 0.32
CASE (ii)
Local capacIty check:
59214630 + 1421609 = 0.36
CASE (iii)
Local capacity check:
365/4630 +381/609 = 0.70
(h) Overall buckling
For compresslve strength, the slenderness A IS based on an effective length
LE_
BSappelldixD(fig 19) LEX =1.5 x 12.5=18.75m, or
Ln =0.85 x ID.O =8.5m
A, = LEC,Ir, = 187501137 = 137
BS table 27b Pc = 86 N/mm2
A, = 8500/78.2 = 109
BS table 27c Pc = 11ON/mm
2
9 0 S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R I c D E S I G N T O S S 5 9 5 0
U s e o f
x
E S t a b l e s 1 6 , 1 7

1 1
a x i s
, t , . L s / r , , =

= 7 . 7

1 4 v =

( I )




1 3 n = 1 , 0 ,


E S r a b l e i S
P = 4 9 / 1 2 5 = 0 . 3 9
i n = 0 . 7 2
A L T
i i i t V A

1 1

1 8

F I A C P C o & A I X I M b


=
$ = 4 0 / 1 4 2 =


b u c k l i n g 4 4 6



1 3 , n = t O , < 1 . 0 ,



E X A M P L E 4 . L A C E D C O L U M N F O R I N D U S T R I A L B U I L D I N G
( a ) D i m e n s i o n s
P n n c i p a l

( b ) L o a d i n g
A s
C o m b i n e d f o r c e a n d S M







( d ) L o c a l c a p a c i t y



1 4 . 2 ) 2 7 5
S i M P L E A N D C O M P O U N D C O L U M N S 9 1
$ = 8 6 / 3 8 1 = 0 . 2 3


= 0 . 7 1




0 . 4



90 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO SS 5950 :r." . SIMPLE AND COMPOUND COLUMNS 91
----------------------- ".'.' ----------------------
Use lower value of Pc to obtam compressIOn resistance:
Agpcy =174.6 x 86 x 1O-'=150DkN
For moment resistance, the buckling strength IS always based on the minor
aXIS slenderness:
=Llry = 109
x=14.i (torsIOnal mdex)
ill
N
BS table 14 v = 0.71
u
CASE 0)
BS IQble 13 IJ = 1.0, m S; LO, as the column IS not loaded along Its length for this
combination.
P
BS mble /8 m =0.72
ALT =lIIIV).
=1.0 x 0.851 x 0.71 x 109=66
SS table J 1 Buckling strength Ph = 194 N/mm2
Buckling resistance },,[b =Pb Sot
BS table 18
BS table JJ
= 194 x 2298 x JO-
l
=446kNm
Simplified overall buckling check:
FlAg pc + -;. I
548Jl500+0.72 x 125/446=0.57
CASE (ii)
As for case (i), n = 1.0, 111 1.0.
P
m =0.48
As for case (i), buckling resistance = 446 kNm
Simplified overall buckling check:
592/1500+0.48 x j42/446=O.S5
CASE (Hi)
m = 1.0, n 1.0. as the column IS loaded along ItS length for Ibis
combinatIon.
'I
:.y
\
66
"1
SS tables 16, 17
BS tables 11
p 861381 0.23
Y
n =0.71
A.LT =0.71 x 0.851 x 0.71 x 109=47
Buckling strength Pb = 238 N/mm2
Buckling reSistance lvh =238 x 2298 x 1O-3=547kNm
Simpiified overall buckling check:
36:5Jl500+ LO x 38\/547=0.94
Section IS satisfactory. Using a smaller section (305 x 305 x 118 UC) results
m the Simplified buckling check> I.
zm
j" 14. LACED COLUMN FOR INDUSTRIAL BUILDING
m
O
.
a:::::: <
Fas '!d I
t __ U dimensIOns are as SectIOn 7.7(a) bul the IS revised os
7.2 shown (Fig. 7.12).
(b) Loading
12
As SectIOn 7.7(b).
(c) Combined rorce and BM
O.4m lO.4m
Fig. 7.12
CombinatIons of loads may be considered as before (including 'If factors)
usmg the same values of w'i to WE mcluslve. MaXImum values of BM and
force will vary slightly Qwmg to the revised cross-section.
Consider case (iii) only, I.e. J.2 (dead.+crane + wmd+ Imposed):
Max. BM =288.0 x 0.4+7.2 x 10.0+66.0 x 7.5
-26.0 x 12.5-19.0 x 0:65-46.0 x 0.4=326kNm
Ax.ial force =46.0+288.0+ 12.0+ 19.0=365 kN
(d) Local capacity
clause 4.7.8 The deSign of a laced column may be carned out assummg It to be a
single mtegral member, and checking the deSign of the lacmgs.
Use two -305 x 127 x 37 un sections. These are semi-compact sectmns
(bIT = 14.2) with a deSIgn strength py=275 N/mm
2
9 2 S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R I C D E S I G N T O O S 5 9 5 0
S I M P L E A N D C O M P O U N D C O L U M N S 9 3
M o m e n t o f i n e r t i a o f c o m b i n e d s e c t i o n
( 1 ) L a c i n g s
1 . = 2 ( 3 3 7 4 7 5 x 4 0 2 ) c = 1 5 2 6 7 0 c m 4
Z = 1 5 2 6 7 0 / 5 5 = 2 7 7 6 c m
M a x f o r c e i n e s t d i a g o n a l = ( 6 6 0 + 7 2 2 6 0 ) / c o s 5 1 3 0
c l a u s e 4 2 5
p , Z = 2 7 5 x 2 7 7 6 x
7 6 3 k N m
= 7 5 5 k N ( c o m p r e s s i o n )
L o c a l c a p a c i t y c h e c k
T h a d d i t i o n t h e l a c i n g s s h o u l d a t r a n s v e r s e f o r c e L q u a l t o 2 5 % o f t h e
-
a x i a l c o l u m n f o r c e , i . e . 0 . 0 2 5 x 3 6 5 = 9 . ! k N . N o t e t h a t ( h e o n g i n a l v a l u e o f
F / A
3 6 5 / ( 2 x 4 7 . 5 x 2 7 5 x 1 0 5 3 2 6 / 9 0 9 0 , 5 0 1 % i n c l a u s e 4 , 7 . S i w a s c o n s i d e r e d t o o s m a l l .
L a c i n g f o r c e = 9 . 1 / c o s S l . 3 a = 1 3 . 3 k N
T o t a l f o r c e = 7 5 5 + 1 3 3 = 8 8 8 k N
( e ) O v e r a l l b u c k l i n g
I e 4 4 4 o n e a c h s i d e o f c o l u m n
F o r c o m p r e s s i v e s t r e n g t h t h e
s l e n d e r n e s s A i s b a s e d o n a n e f f e c t i v e
U s e 6 0 x 6 0 x 6 e q u a l a n g l e
l e n g t h
c l a u s e 4 7 8 / i
E f f e c t i v e l e n g t h o f l a c u i g
V 1 0 0 0 2 ] = i 2 8 m
1 1 5 a p p e n d i x D ( f i g . 2 0 , 1
. = 1 . 5 x 1 0 . 0 = 1 5 . O m , o r
: 9 ! -
1 2 8 0 / 1 1 . 7
= 0 . 8 5 x I O . O = 8 . S m
2 : = 1 0 9
= V ( J J A )
1 1 8 t a b l e 2 7 c
C o m p r e s s i v e
s t r e n g t h P c = I l l N / m n r
= 4 1 5 2 6 7 0 1 ( 2 x 4 7 . 5 ) ] = 4 0 . t c m
C o m p r e s s i o n r e s i s t a n c e P . = 4 g P c
L g J r a
= 6 . 9 ! x I l l x
= 1 5 0 0 / 4 0 . 1 = 3 7
= 7 6 . 7 k N
. 4
-
= 8 5 0 / 1 2 . 3 = 6 9 S e c t i o n i s s a t i s f a c t o r y .
L o c a l s l e n d e r n e s s = L / r ,
= 1 0 0 0 / 2 6 . 7 = 3 3
S T U D Y R E F E R E N C E S c l a u s e 4 . 7 . S g
L i m i t i n g v a l u e f o r 4 = 5 0
O v e r a l l s ( e n d e r n e s s A b 1 . 4 1
T o p i c R e f e r e n c e s
x 3 8
I . E u l e r l o a d
M a r s h a l l W . T . & N e l s o n F L M . ( 1 9 9 0 ) E l a s t i c
5 3
a n a l y s i s , S t n z c t u r e s , p p . 4 2 0 5 2 . L o n g m a n
E S t a b l e 2 7 a
C o m p r e s s i v e s t r e n g t h p . b a s e d o n t h e h i g h e s t v a l u e o f A , i . e . 6 9 :
2 . E u l e r l o a d
C o n i e s I L C . , C o o N s M . G . & I C o n g F J C . ( 1 9 8 8 )
P c = 2 2 5 N / m m 2
o f s E m i s a n d f r a m e w o r k s , S t n i c t u r a l A , i o h s i s .
-
p p . 5 8 7 1 . V a n N o s t r a n d R e i n h o l d B e n d i n g a b o u t t h e A A a x i s ( F i g . 7 . 1 2 ) c a n b e a s s u m e d t o p r o d u c e a x i a l
f o r c e s i n t h e L I E s e c t i o n s .
3 . C o l u m n b e h a v i o u r B o w l i n g P . J . , K n o w l e s P . & O w e n s G . W . ( 1 9 8 8 )
5 , r u c n , r o / S t e e l D e s i g n . S t e e l C o n s t r u c t i o n l n s i i i u i c
k t i a l f o r c e
= m o m e n i i c e n t r o i d a l d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t i E s
4 . C o l u m n b c l i a v i o u r
I C i r b y P A . & N e t h e r c o t B . A . ( 1 9 7 9 ) i n - p l a n e
= 3 2 6 / 0 . 8 = 4 0 8 k N ( t e n s i o n a n d c o m p r e s s i o n )
i n s t a b i l i t y o f c o l u m n s , D e s i g n f o r S o i s c e i e , ' a l S r o b i l i o ' .
M a x i m u m c o m p r e s s i o n i n o n e U B
C o l l i n s
= 4 0 8 3 6 5 / 2 = 5 9 1
5 . R e d u c e d p l a s t i c
( 1 9 8 7 ) 5 1 c c / w o r k D e s i g n , v o l . t , S c c i i o n p r o p e r t i e s
C o m p r e s s i o n r e s i s t a n c e P . = A g
P c
m o m e n t
m e m b e r c a p a c i i i e s . S l e d C o n s t r u c t i o n I n s t i t u t e
= 4 7 . 5 x 2 2 5 x
S e c t i o n i s s a t i s f a c t o r y .
92 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO 85 5950
Moment of inertia of combined sectIOn
I" =2 (337 +47.5 x 40
2
)= 152 670 cm.j
Z" = 152 670155 = 2776 cm:;
clause 4.2.5 Mr;;r =Py Z" =275 x 2776 x JO-
3
=763kNm
Local capacity check

365/(2 x 47.5 x 275 x 10-')+326/909=0.50
(e) Overall budding
For compresslve strength the overall slenderness A IS based on an effective
length:
BS appendix D (fig. 20) La = 1.5 x 10.0 = 15.0 m. or
LEb =0.85 x 10.O=8.5m
r. = ';(I.,lA)
=';[152670/(2 x 47.5)]=40.1 cm
Aa =LE.!ra
= 1500/40.1 =37
1b =Li/rb
=850112.3=69
Local slenderness Ac =Ur
y
=1000/26.7=38
ciallse 4.7.8g LimIting vaiue for Ao:- = 50
Overall siendemess Ab ;t 1.4..1.
= lA x 38
=53
BS table 27a Compresslve strength Pe based on the highest value of A, I.e. 69:
Pe =225 N/mm2
Bending about the A-A axiS (Fig. 7.12) can be assumed to produce axIal
forces m the UB sectIOns.
A.'oal force =momentlcentroidal distance between UBs
=326/0.8 =408 kN (tensIOn and compressIOn)
lviaxlmum compressIOn m one UB
=408+365/2=591 kN
CompressIOn resistance Pe =Agpc
=47.5 X 225 x 1O-! = 1069 kN
Section IS satisfactory.
SIMPLE AND COMPOUND COLUMNS 93
(I) Lacings
Max. force m lowest diagonal =(66.0 + 7.2-26.0)/cos 51.3
0
= 75.5 kN (compressIOn)
In addition, the iacmgs should carry a transverse force equal to 2.5% of the
aXial column force, I.e. 0.025 x 365=9.1 kN. Note that the ongmai value of
1% In clause 4.7.8i was considered too smalL
Lacmg force = 9.lIcos 51.3" = 13.3 kN
Tota! force =75.5+13.3 =88.8kN
I.e. 44.4 kN on each side of column.
Use 60 x 60 x 6 equaJ angle:
clause 4.7.811 EffectIve length of lacmg = -I fO.80
2
+ 1.00
2
] = J .28 m
;, = 128011 1.7
= 109
BS table 27c Compresslve strength Pc = I J I N/mml
CompressIOn resistance Pe =A
g
Pc
Sechon is satisfactory.
STUDY REFERENCES
=6.91 X [11 x 10-
1
=76.7kN
TopIC References
I. Euler load J\-JnrshnlJ \V.T. & Nelson H.J\1. (1990) ElastIC stability
analYSIS, StnfClUf'eS, pp. 420-51. Longman
2. Eulcr load Conies RC., Coutle M.G. & Kong F.Ie (1988)
instability of struts and fmmeworks, Slrllclura[ AnalYSIS,
pp. 58-7l. Van Noslrnnd Rcmhold
3. Co!umrl belmvlour Dowling P.J., Knowles P. & Dwens G.W. (1988)
SlruclIIrai Steel Deslga. Steel Construclton inslllule.
4. Column behaVIOur
5. Rcduced plnstlc
moment
l(irby P.A. & Nethercot D.A. (1979) Inplane
IIlslability of columns, DeSign for Sl11tClurol Stability.
Collins
(1987) Steelwork Design. vo!. i, propertIes
membcr capacltics. Stccl ConstructIon J.nStltutc
C O L U M N B A S E S & B R A C K E T S 9 5
( 8 1
C O L U M N





























f l .
F L
8 . 2






















G u a s e t e d
A l
F G
1 . .


M L
1 >









"
COLUMN BASES & BRACKETS
The transfer of force between onc element of a structure and the next reqUires
partIcular care by the deSigner. A good detail may result from long
expenence of the use of structural steelwork, and many examples are
available for students to copy .or adapt(l,2) However, equally good details
may be developed with less expenence providing the followmg baSIC
pnnclples are adhered tD;



The forces to be earned must be set out and transferred between
different elements of the connection, I.e. a realistIc load path must
be assumed within the connechon.
SimpliCity of detail usually produces the most effective nnd robust
engmeenng solution, provided strength and stiffness reqUirements
are satisfied.
Any detail must be practicable and both from the
pOInt of view of the steelwork fabncator, and from that of the site
erector.
Column bases and brackets are connectIOns which carry forces and
reactIOns to a column eiemem. Bases transfer reactIOns from the foundation
to the column, while brackets may he used to transfer loads from crane
gtrders or Similar members. In addition, columns may recetve loads via beam
connectIOns (see SectlOn 3.7g) or cap plates (see Section 6.6).
B.I COLUMN BASES
Two mam types of column base are used and these are shown Ifi Fig. 8.l.
Welded or bolted construction can be used, or a combinahon of both, the
deCISion being dependent on whether or not the base IS attached to the coluITUl
dunng fabnca!1on, or later dunng site erectIOn. In general, the slmpler slab
base IS used in small and medium constructIOn when axml load dommates.
The gusseted base IS used in heavy constructIOn with larger column loads and
where 11 certam amount of fiXity IS reqUIred.
ConstructIOn reqUirements and details arc given In reference (3).
Fig. 8.1 Column bases
Fig. S.! Beanng pressure

COLUMN BASES & BRAC!<ETS 95
lL
Slah hase GU5Sllled base
B.2 DESIGN OF COLUMN BASES
Column bases transnut forces and moments from the column to lis
foundatIOn. The forces will be aXial loads, shear forces and moments about
either aXIs or any combinatIOn of them. Shear force IS 10 reality probably
transmitted by frictIOn between the base plate and the foundatlOU concrete,
but It IS common In deSign for this shear force to be reSisted totally by the
holding down bolts.
The common deSign case deals with aXlalload and moment about one aXIs.
If the raho of moment/axial load is less than JJ6 where L IS the base ienglh,
then a positive beanng pressure eXists over the whole base and may be
calculated from equilibnum alone. NomlOui holding down bolts are provided
In this case, and at least two are In facl provided to locate the base plate
accurately. If the mllo exceeds base lenglh JJ6, holding down bolts are
reqUired to provide a tensile force. Both arrangements are shown In
Fig. 8.2.
1,1
Bearing
pfllssure
F
----
)A!
.>
Blll!
lenSlon
Ibl

Where tensIOn does occur In the holding down bolts, a number of methods
of deSign are possible:
i. 11 IS assumed that the beanng pressure has a linear distributIOn to a
maximum value of 0.4 feu, where j"" IS the concrete cube strength.
This baSIS IS suggested in clause 4.13.1 and analYSIS of the beanng
pressure and bolt stresses may follow reinforced concrete theory
(F;g. 8.3).




3 .





( c l a u s e














8 . 4 D E S I G N O F B R A C K E T S










9 6 S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R K D E S I G N T O 5 5 5 5 6 0
C O L U M N B A S E S & 0 7

= b e a r i n g
t e n s i l e
m o d u l a r
i o t a i b o l t c r o s s

= G m d , A 3 I B
p i s
+ 4 , 0 = 0
= 6 d , F l l B p l a d _ p 1 1
m 4 t d / y 1 )







C F
1 r


P e r m i s s i b l e












8 . 3 B R A C K E T S
B r a c k e t s


( V / / I k N

k N f m m
, 1
96 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO BS 5950
Fig. 8.3 Remforced
concrete theory
Fig. 8.4 Approximate
analYSIS
(0'1

M-
i
"
Breadth B
Ir "" bearing pressure
/1'" tensile stress In bolts
m '" modular ratio
As: total bolt cross section
d=L-n
d\=O.5{d-n}+MlF
AI "" 6md
1
A
J
fB
ylS solution 01 yJ_ 3{d- dll 1,2 + A1y- Ald:::O
Ir '" 6d,F/IBy{3d_ y)j
1I '" mfc/dlj'-l)
2. An alternatIVe approximate analysIs IS somettmes used which
assumes that the oenmssible stresses for steel tensIOn and concrete
beanng are reached together. This method is shown m Fig. 8.4.
()'1

L3
T
"a
L y: mpcfll{mpc + PI)
C=M+FIU2 nl
Breadth B d- y/3
T= C-F
Resultant compression C Ic'" 2ClB
y
ReSUltant tenslOn T
Permissible compresslve stress Pt
PermIssible tensile stress PI
3. A rectangular pressure distributIOn may also be used. which leads
to a slightly different plate thickness and bolt sizes. The analYSIS IS
based on rem forced concrete theory for ultimate limit state.
In general. the first method is used to obtam beanng pressures and bolt
stresses. The thickness of the base plate IS obtamed usmg the steel strength
P.1'P from Table 1.2 of Chapter 1, but nol more than 270N/mru
2

MaXimum moment m plate 1 L2pJp Z (clause 4.13.2.3) where Z is the
elastic modulus of the plate section.
I For the case of concentnc forces only, the base plate thickness may be
obtamed from clause 4.13.2.2.
I
,
8.3 BRACKETS
Brackets are used as an alternative to cleated connectIOns (SectIOn 3.7g) only
where the latter are unSUitable. A common case of this sItuallon is the crane
girder support on a column (Sec lion 5.3k). The eccentnc connection by the
Fig. 8.5 Brackets
COLUMN BASES & BRACKETS 97
bracket IS necessary for the chosen structural arrangement. It does. however,
generate large moments m the coiumn (Section 7.7c) and IS therefore used
only where It IS essenliai to the steelwork iayoui.
Brackets may be connected either to tbe web or to the Hange of the column
using bolts. welds or a combinatlon of the two. Exampies are shown 111 Fig.
8.5. In Fig. 8.5(a). the moment acts out of plant! prodUCing tension In the
bolts, while III Fig. 8.5<b) tile moment IS In the plane of the connectIOn
resulting m a shear effect m the bolts. The bracket may be fabncated from
offcuts of rolled sections, or from plates appropnately shaped and welded
together. Connection 10 the column may be made durmg fabncallOn, or the
brackets may be attached durmg site erectIOn.
W Bolts In
tensIOn

la) Face connected moment
tout 01 planel
8.4 DESIGN OF BRACKETS

:;]>
ID
----------
----
------- ---
"
"
Bolts III
shear only
{b) lapped torsIonal moment
{in plane)
Brackets are subjected both to a vertical shear load and to a moment due 10
tile eccentnclty of the vertical load. Note that the moment will vary with the
POlllt III the bracket under consideratIOn. A bracket may also be subjected to
hOflzontal loads, but these are usually of a secondary nature. or may be
covered by a specml detail (Fig. 5.11).
Vertical loads are supported by welds or by bolts acting In shear. Ideally,
the moments also should be camed by balls In shear {or by welds), but some
bracket arrangements shown 10 Fig. 8.5(a) wil! gIve Dse to bolt tensIOn.
Vertlca! load Wis divided between the bolts or weld group unifonnly so
that:
Bolt shenr = WIN kN
or
Weld shear = IVIL
w
kN/mm
9 8 S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R K D E S t O N T O S S 5 9 5 0 C O L U M N B A S E S & B R A C K E T S 9 9
w h e r e N i s t h e n u m b e r o f b o l t s
L , . i s t h e t o t a l w e l d l e n g t h ( m m )
F o r a w e l d d e s i g n s t r e n g t h o f 2 1 5 N / m m 2 ( 8 5 t a b l e 3 6 ) , w e l d c a p a c i t i e s
( k N / m m ) m a y b e c a l c u l a t e d f o r e a c h w e l d s i z e . N o t e t h a t t h e w e l d s i z e i s i n
f a c t d e f i n e d b y t h e l e g l e n g t h a n d t h e d e s t g n d i m e n s i o n i s t h e t h r o a t d i s t a n c e ,
i . e . t h r o a t s i z e = l e g V a l u e s o f w e l d c a p a c i t y a r e g i v e n i n
r e f e r e n c e ( 4 ) .
W h e r e t h e m o m e n t p r o d u c e s b o l t s h e a r o n l y ( F i g . 8 5 ) t h e n t h e s h e a r o n
e a c h b o l t i s g i v e n a p p r o x i m a t e l y b y :
B o l t s h e a r = I V e d ) . , , J E d 2
w h e r e d i s t h e b o l l d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e b o l t g r o u p c e n t r o i d .
F o r a w e l d g r o u p t h e a p p r o x i m a t i o n i s :
W e l d s h e a r =
w h e r e i s t h e 1 , + 1 . f o r t h e w e l d g r o u p ( F i g . 8 . 1 1 ) .
I n s o m e c a s e s ( l i e m o m e n t p r o d u c e s b o l t t e n s i o n a n d i n t h e s e c a s e s b o l t
f o r c e i s c o n s i d e r e d p r o p o r t i o n a l t o d i s t a n c e f r o m a n e u t r a l a x i s . T h e n e u t r a l
a x i s m a y b e t a k e n a s d r ! 7 i n d e p t l i t ? t . a n d a s a r e s u l t :
B o l t l e n s i o n = J f e d m = / E d 2
w h e r e d i s t h e b o l t d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e n e u t r a l a x i s .
F o r a w e l d g r o u p :
W e l d s h e a r =
w h e r e i s t h e e q u i v a l e n t s e c o n d m o m e n t o f a r e a o f t h e w e l d a b o u t t h e w e l d
g r o u p c e n t r o i d .
T h e e f f e c t s o f v e r t i c a l l o a d a n d m o m e n t d u e t o e c c e n t r i c i t y m u s t b e a d d e d
e i t h e r f o r i n d i v i d u a l b o l t s , o r f o r p o i n t s i n a w e l d r u n . C l e a r l y , t h o s e p o i n t s o f
m a x i m u m f o r c e o r s t r e s s n e e d t o b e c h e c k e d , w h i c h o c c u r a t p o s i t i o n s
f u r t h e s t f r o m t h e g r o u p c e n t r o i d o r n e u t r a l a x i s .
W h e r e t h e m o m e n t p r o d u c e s s h e a r i n a b o l t , v e c t o n a l a d d i t i o n m a y b e
u s e d . I n c a s e s w h e r e t h e m o m e n t p r o d u c e s t e n s i o n a c o m b i n e d c h e c k m a y b e
u s e d ( c l a u s e 6 . 3 . 6 . 3 ) :
L 4 f o r o r d i n a r y b o l t s
w h e r e F 4 i s t h e a p p l i e d s h e a r
P . i s s h e a r c a p a c i t y
F , i s a p p l i e d t e n s i o n
. 1 ' ,
t s i e n s i o n c a p a c i t y
F o r a w e l d g r o u p a l l c o m b i n a t i o n s o f v e r t i c a l l o a d a n d m o m e n t p r o d u c e
s h e a r i n t h e w e l d , a n d v e c t o n a l a d d i t i o n i s u s e d a s n e c e s s a r y .
8 . 5 E X A M P L E I S . D E S I G N O F S L A B B A S E
( a ) D i m e n s i o n s
3 0 5 x 3 0 5 x 1 3 7 U C c o l u m n
( b ) L o a d i n g
A l l l o a d s i n c l u d e a p p r o p n a t e v a l u e s o f v i
C a s e ( i ) M a x i m u m v e r t i c a l l o a d 1 4 0 0 k N
C a s e ( i i ) L a r g e s t m o m e n t u n d e r m a x i m u m l o a d c o n d i t i o n s :
m o m e n t 6 0 k N m a n d 8 5 0 k N
C a s e ( i i i ) L a r g e s t m o m e n t u n d e r n u n i m u m l o a d c o n d i t i o n s :
m o m e n t 8 5 k N m a n t i 4 5 0 k N
( c ) B e a r i n g p r e s s u r e
( S e e F i g . 8 . 6 . ) A s s u m e b a s e 5 2 0 x 5 2 0 p l a t e a n d f o u r b o l t s ( g r a d e 4 . 6 )
2 0 m m d i a m e t e r .
T e n s i o n b o l t a r e a A , = 2 x 2 4 5 = 4 9 0 m m 2
d = S 2 0 5 0 = 4 7 0 m m
A s s u m i n g a c o n c r e t e c u b e = 3 0 N / m m 2
d o u s e 4 . 1 3 . 1 P e r m i s s i b l e p r c s s u r e = 0 . 4 x 3 0 = 1 2 . 0 N / m m 2
P r e s s u r e = 1 4 0 0 x I x 5 2 0 ) = 5 . 7 N / t n m t
A f / F = 6 0 / 8 5 0 = 7 ! m m
0 6 = 5 2 0 / 6 = 8 7 m m
M / F C
L / 6
B a s e a r e a A = 5 2 0 x 5 2 0 m m 2 = 2 7 0 0 c m 2
B a s e m o d u l u s Z = 5 2 0 x 5 2 0 2 / 6 m m 3 = 2 3 4 0 0 c m
P r e s s u r e = F / A + M / Z = 6 . 1 1 N / m m 2
E A S E ( i i i ) L O A D I N G
A l / F = 8 5 / 4 5 0 = 1 8 9 m m
d 1 = 0 . 5 ( 4 7 0 5 0 ) + 8 5 x m m
A = 6 x 3 9 9 x 1 5 x 4 9 0 / 5 2 0 = 3 3 . 8 x l O 3 m m 2
T h e d i s t a n c e y ( F i g . 8 . 7 ) i s t h e s o l u t i o n o f :
d t ) v 2 + A i v A i = 0
y 3 ( 4 7 0 3 9 9 ) y 2 + 3 3 . 8 x y 3 3 . 8 x l & x 4 7 0 = 0
h e n c e t ' = 2 8 8 m m
= 6 x 3 3 9 x 4 5 0 x x 2 8 8 0 x 4 7 0 2 8 8 ) ]
= 6 . 4 1 N / m m 2
B e a n n g p r e s s u r e s a t i s f a c t o r y ( C 1 2 N / m m 2 )
C A S E ( i ) L O A D I N G
F i g . 8 . 6
F i g . 3 . 3
I I
6 2 0
1
F I g . 8 . 7
C A S E ( i i ) L O A D I N G
98 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO BS 5950
where N is the number of bolts
Lw IS the Iota! weld length (mm)
For a weld design strength of 215 N/mm2 (BS table 36), weld capacities
(kN/mm) may be calculated for each weld size. Note that the weld size IS 10
fact defined by the leg length, and the design dimension IS the throat distance,
Le. throat size = leg lengthlV2. Values of weld capacity are given In
reference (4).
Where the moment Droduces bolt shear only (Fig. 8.5) then the shear on
each bolt IS given approximately by:
where dis the bolt distance from the bolt group centroid.
For a weld group the approximatIOn IS:
Weld shear=
where IS the + ly for the weld group (Fig. 8.11).
In some cases the moment produces bolt tensIOn and in these cases bolt
force IS considered proportional (0 distance from a neutral aXIs. The neutral
aXIs may be laken as d
r
l7 in depth(2J, and as a result:
where d is the bolt distance from the neutral axiS.
For a weld group:
where J: IS the eqUlvaleni second moment of area of the weld about the weld
group cenlroid.
The effects of verttcal load and moment due to eccentncity must be added
either for mdividual baits, or for POints In a weld run. Clearly, those pomts of
maximum force or stress need to he checked. which occur at positions
furthest from the group centroid or neutral aXIs.
Where the moment produces shear In a bolt, vectonal addition may be
used. In cases where the moment produces tensIOn a combined check may be
used (clause 6.3.6.3):
F + F,iP, 1- 1.4 for ordinary bolts
where F., IS the applied shear
P., IS shear capncHy
Fi is applied tensIOn
Pt IS tenSIOn capacity
For a weld group all combinations of vertICal load ami moment produce
shear In the weld, and veclonal addition is used as necessary.
COLUMN BASES & BRACKETS 99
8.5 EXAMPLE 15. DESIGN OF SLAB BASE
(a) Dimensions
305 x 305 x 137 UC column
(b) Loading
All loads mclude appropnate vaiues of I'r
Case (i) MaXimum vertical load I<lOOkN
Case (ii) Largest moment under maximum load conditions:
moment 60 kNm and 850 kN
Case (iii) Largest moment under nummum load conditions:
moment 85 kNm and 450 kN
(c) Bearing pressure
so-f-L !I
(See Fig. 8.6.) Assume base 520 x 520 plate and four halts 19rade 4.6)
20 mm diameter.
TenSion bolt area A .. =2 x 245 =490mm
2
d =520-50=470mm
Fig. 8.6
CASE (i) LOADING
Assummg a concrete cube strengthfcu =30N/mm
2
clause 4.IJ.l Penmssible pressure=OA x 30 = 12.0N/mm2
Pressure = 1400 x 10
3
/(520 x 520)=5.2 N/mm2
CASE fii) LOADING
MIF=60!850=71 mm
L16 =520/6 =87 mm
A/IF < L16
Base area ..4=520 x 520mm
2
=2700cm
2
Base modulus Z=520 x 520
2
/6mm
3
=23 400 cm:
Pressure=FIA +,U/Z=6.11 N/mm
2
CASE (Hi) LOADING
MIF =85/450= l89mm
Fig. 8.3 d, =0.5(470-50)+85 x



Fig, B.7
Al =6 x 399 x 15 x 490/520=33.8 x JO
l
mm
2
The distance y(Fig. 8.7) IS the solutIOn of:
.v=' -3(d _d
l
)y2 +Aly-A,d=O
y}-3(470-399) ),2+33.8 x ID3 y -33.8 X 10) x <170=0
hence 1'= 288 mm
=6d,FlfBy(3d-y)]
=6 x 339 x 450 x 10'/[520 x 288(3 x 470-288)J
=6.<11 N/mml
Beanng pressure sallsfactory l2N/mm2)
1 0 0 S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R K D E S I G N T O
5 5 5 9 5 0
C O L U M N
1 0 1
C d ) B o l t c a p a c i t y
8 . 6 E X A M P L E 1 6 . D E S I G N O F c R A N E G I R D E R B R A C K E T ( F A C E )
B o l t s t r e s s j '
= m f , ( d l y
( a ) D i m e n s i o n s
= I S
( 4 7 0 / 2 8 8 t ) = 6 I

= 6 ! x 2 4 5 x

c l a u s e 6 . 3 . 6 . 1
B o l t c a p a c i t y F ,
A ,
C o l u m n 6 1 0 x 2 2 9 x 1 4 0 U B
= 2 4 5 x


a r e s a t i s f a c t o r y .
P l a t e t h i c k n e s s
( b ) L o a d i n g
( S e e F i g .
M a x i m u m r a i l r e a c t i o n k N
( i n c l u d i n g a p p r o p n a i e o f
s u r g e l o a d c a m e d b y d i a p h r a g m r e s t r a i n t
I
8 . 8
6 . 4 1 N m m 2
B r a c k e t
U s e


M a x i m u m

M , = 4 6 2 x













S 1


1 . 2
F I g .
B r a c k e t














t a b l e



c l a u s e


1 9 0
e f f e c t


2 1 6 0 0 m m

W e l d




















100 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO BS 5950
Fig. 8.8
I'
283kN
Fig. 8.9
(d) Bolt capacity
Bolt stress;;
Farcelbolt
=mJ;(d/y-l)
= 15 x 6.41 (470/288-1)=61 N/mm'
=61 x 245 x 1O-3=14.9kN
clause 6.3.6.1
Bolt capacity PI =PI At
= 195 x 245 x 10-' =47.8kN
Bolts are sahsfactory.
(e) Plate thickness
(See Fig. 8.8.)
Table j.2
M;:l;Iomum bearing pressure from case (ii) loading = 6.41 Nlmm
2
Maximum BM (assummg constant pressure)
=6.41 x 520 x 100'/2= 16.7kNm
Some reducuon of BM may be found by usmg the trapezIUm pressure
distribution.
Tr)' 25 mm thick plate:
,Pyp = 265 N/mm2
clause 4.13.2.3
Plate modulus Z =520 x 25
2
/6=54.2 x lO)mm
J
Moment capacity = 1.2p)1' Z
= 1.2 x 265 x 54.2 x IO-J=17.2kNm
Plate IS satisfactory.
For larger loads and/or moments, a gusseted base may be reqwred,
particularly if the Ihickness of a slab base would otherwise exceed 50 mm.
The design IS tne same as given above, but m SectIOn 8.5(e) tbe plate
modulus Z is based on the combined effect of plate and gussets. At
thicknesses greater tlmn 25 mm, sleel grades other than 43A may be needed 10
avoid the possibility of bnttle fracture (BS table 4).
(t) Column/base plate weld
300
clause 6.6.5
The weld is. commonly deSigned 10 carry the mMtlmUm moment, Ignonng the
effect of vertical load. All compreSSion IS taken ut direct beanng (Fig. 8.9).
MaXimum tensIOn ID flange =M/(D-T)
=85 x 10)/300=283 kN
For one flange we Id length = 2 x 308 = 616 mm
Weld shear=283/616 =0.459kN/mm
Use 6 mm fillet weld, capaclty(4) =0.903 kN/mm
Weld IS satisfactory.
'1
Fig. 8.10
COLUMN BASES & BRACKETS 101
8.6 EXAMPLE 16. DESIGN OF CRANE GIRDER BRACKET (FACE)
(a) Dimensions
(See Fig. 8.10.)
Coiumn 610 x 229 x 140 UB
Crane girder eccentnclty 550 mm
(b) Loading'
MaXimum rail reaction 462 kN
(including appropnate values of }j)
Crane surge load camed by diaphragm restramt
Cc) Bracket
(d)
Use affcul of 457 x 191 x 89 un (grnde 43A)
Maximum BM in bracket
M.=462 x 0.2215 = 102kNm
Shear cnpaclty =0.6py A"
= 0.6 x 275 x 10.6 x 463.6 x 10-
3
=811 kN
Shear force Fv =462 kN
F. JP" =0,57 < 0.60
Moment capacity Afr:.T =Py S;r;
=265 x 2010 x 10-
3
=533 kNm
Bracket IS satisfactory.
End plate weld
(See Fig. 8.11.)
Shear force =462 !eN
Momenl = 102 kNm
clause 6.6.5.3 Use 6 mm fiUet weld
190
YI I
x-
6mm I =---.t
weld y
Fig. 8.11
Weld length =4 x 190+2 x 420= 1600mm
Weld force (vertical load) =462/1600=0.289 kN/mm
Weld second moment =1 x 420
3
112+4 x 190 x 220
2
=49 x lOomm
l
Weld shear (moment)
= 102 x 10-
3
x 2201(49 X 10
6
)
= 0.458 kN/mm
Note that In this case, the vertical shear and the shear due to moment act

y ' f O . 2 8 9 1 + O . 4 5 8 2 ]
0 . 5 4 2
= 0 9 0 3 N / m m

+ l I l / 1 3 6 = 0 . 5 1 + 0 . 8 2 = I . 3 3
( b ) L o a d i n g





A ! , = 4 6 2 x 0 . 5 5 0 = 2 5 4 k N m
c l a u s e 4 . 2 . 3 ( c , J 1 2 m m 2

x 2 6 5 x 1 2 0 2 0 x i r ' = l 9 I O k N


x x
b o l t h o l e s :
2 6 x 5 0 1
4 x x

= 5 2 2 0 c m 4
N e t I 2 4 5 8 0 c m 4
Z = 2 4 5 8 0 / 2 2 . 5 = 1 0 9 0





( d ) C o l u m n b o l t s
S h e a r f o r c e = 4 6 2 k N

U s e


x x 1 6 8 / 8 ( 9 0 2 1 6 8 2 )
= l 4 7 k N
V e c t o r



d c m ,
2 0 0 . 4 5 0 = 2 4 3 k N



S T U D Y R E F E R E N C E S








1 0 2 S T R U C T U n A L S T E E L W O R I < D E S I G N J O B S 5 9 5 0
C O L U M N B A S E S & B n A C K E T S 1 0 3
A



b o l t s
S h e a r 4 6 2



6 . 3 . 2 S h e a r
p ,

6 . 3 . 3 B e a r i n g c a p a c i t y
= l 9 8 k N
6 . 3 . 6 f o r c e 8 . 1 2 )
4 5 7 / 7 6 5


x 3 0 3 = l 3 6 k N
C o m b i n e d

I i B n o .

2 9 d i e ,






8 . 1 3 . )
C o l u m n
e c c e n t n c i t y m m

k 6 3 . 4 0
0 +
o l o _







102 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO BS 5950
(e)
clause 6.3.2
clallse 6.3.3
clause 6.3.6
Fig. 8.12
B.7
(a)
(b)
(c)
perpendicular 10 each other, and the resultant shear is obtamed by vectorial
addition.
Resultant = ViO.289' + 0.458']
=O.S42N/mm
Weld capacity =0.903 Nlmm
Weld IS satisfactory.
Connection bolts
Shear force = 462 kN
Out-of-plane moment=462 x 0.2415= 112 kNm
Use eight no. 22 mm diameter bolts (grade 8.8).
Shearlbolt F" = 462/8
Shear capacity p.
=Ps A.
=0.375 x 303
Beanng capacity of plate P
b
=drpbl
=57.8kN
=114kN
=22 x 20 x 0.450 = 198kN
Tensile force (Fig. 8.12)
den =45717 =65 mm
F,;::::;Md
m
dLd
2
=112 x 10) x 315/[(l5
2
+11S2+215
2
+3'J5
2
)2J=11IkN
TenSIOn capacity P, =P
I
AI
=0.450 x 303=136kN
Combined check
FsIP.+F/Pd 1.4
57.81114 + 1111136 = 0.51 +0.82 = 1.33
Bolts are satisfactory.
EXAMPLE 17. DESIGN OF CRANE GIRDER BRACKET (LAPPED)
Dimensions
(See Fig. 8.13.)
Column 305 x 305 x 158 UC
Crane glfiler eccentnclty 550 mm
Loading
As SectIOn 8.6(b)
MaXimum reactIOn 462 kN
Bracket
{
Fig. 8.13
m
'I'
sso
o '11 0-no
!I r 1
0
M
II! ! s:
o III 0 I g
0 I 0-
'i' 800.
lltJ 29 dia. holes
75 J!J 75 !or M27 bolts
III
I
Use two 20 mm thick plates (grade 43A) sbaped as Fig. 8.13.
Maxlmwn BM in bracket:
i '
I
:;;.
clause' 4.2.3(c)
Vector al
right angles
63.4 10 radius
147

Fig. 8.14
162
(d)
COLUMN BASES & BRACKETS 103
AIx =462 x 0.550=254 kNm
Shear area A,.. =0.9(450 - 4 x 29)20 x, 2 = 12 020 mm
2
Shear capacity P = Q.6py A
=0.6 x 265 x 12020 x
hence =0.24
Second moment of area of plate (cm ullltS)
=2 x 20 x 450j/12=30380cm.l
Minus bolt 'holes:
4 x 20 x 26 X 50
2
=580 cm.l
4 x 20 x 26 X 150
2
= 5220 cm-l
Net I=24580cm
4
Modulus Z = 24 580/22.5 = 1090
For brackets of this type 11 may be assumed that the bolts or welds provide
Imeral restramt to the compression zones. The moment capacity should be
taken as:
Mo=JJ
y
Z
x
=265 x 1090 x
Bracket IS satisfactory.
Coiumn bolts
Shear force = 462 kN
Moment =462 x 0,550=254kNm
Use eight no. 27 mm diameter bolts (grade 8.8) on each race.
SheariboJt due to vertical load=46218 x 2 =28.9 kN
Shear/bolt due to moment = Mdm,,)r.d 2
=254 x JQ-j x 168/8 (90
2
+ 168
2
)
= 147kN
Vector sum of shear= 162 kN/bolt
Shear capacJtylboit P, =Pl ri,
=375 x 459=172kN
Beanng capacity of p!aie =
=27 x 20 x 0.450=243 kN
Bolts are satisfactory.
Note that the lapped bracket reqUIres tWIce the number or bolts or a lllrger
sIze compared with the face bracket
STUDY REFERENCES
TopIC
L Connecllons
2. Connecllons
References
(1993) Jomls 111 Simple ConstmctlolI. \101. i. Slee!
ConslructlOn lnslitule
(1987) EDit & weld Clpacilics, Sue/work DesIgn \lo!. I,
Section propenlCs, member capacnies. pp. 22-4. Slee!
ConSlrucllon Inslltule

D e s i g n v o l .
p r o p e r t i e s ,
p . S t e e l
C o n s t r u c t i o n





















o f


1 0 4 S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R I ( D E S I G N T O B S 5 9 5 0


D o , i n

l o t
C O M P O S I T E




- -
- H - T . .
- - -
104 STRUCTURAL STEElWORK DESIGN TO BS 5950
3. Column bases
4. Weld capacity
(1980) Holding Down Sysrems for Steel Stanchions.
Concrete SocletylBCSAlSteel COrlStroc/ion institute
(1987) Strength of fillet welds, Steelwork DesIgn vol. I,
SectIOn properties, member capacities, p. 205. Steel
Construction lnstitUle
I
I
,:.

-,:
,
\.
-,,'
,;"
-.-,., .
.
',,':
"'-.'
";:-'
Fig. 9.1 Composite
sectIOns
COMPOSITE BEAMS & SLABS
The term composlte: can be used of any structural medium III which two
or more matenals mteract to provide the reqUlreCl strength and stiffness. In
steelwork constnll:tlon the term refers to which combine
steel sectlOOS with Concrete In such a way that the two act together.
Typical cross.sections of beams and slabs are shown In Fig. 9.1.
In situ concrete Preeas! umts ProiHed sleel sheeung
The performance of composite beams IS similar 10 that of remforced
concrete beams
fl
>, but there afe two mam differences. Firstly, the steel
section has a significant depth and its second moment of area may not be
Ignored, unlike that of the steel bar remforcement. Secondly, the concrete
to reinforcement bond, which IS essential' for reinforced concrete actIOn, IS
absent In composite beams generally and must be provided by shear
connectton. DeSign methods for composite beams therefore follow those
methods for rem forced concrete with modificatIOns as mdicated. OWlIlg to
the presence of the concrete slab, problems of steel compressIOn flange
mstability-and local buckling of the steel member are not usually relevant
III Simply supported members except dunng erection.
RecommendatIOns for deSign m composite constructIOn are not Included
ill Part I of BS 5950 but are mcluded Ill:
Part 3. i: DeSIgn 0/ composite beams (1990)
Part 4: DesIgn 0/ floors with profiled steel sheetllJg (1982)
The baSIS of deSign used in this chapter IS given III SectlOn 9.7.
1 0 6 S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R I < D E S I G N T O O S 5 9 5 0
9 . ! C O M P O S I T E B E A M S
T h e a d v a n t a g e s o f c o m p o s i t e b e a m s c o m p a r e d w i t h n o r m a l s t e e l w o r k
b e a m s a r e t h e i n c r e a s e d m o m e n t c a p a c i t y a n d s t i f f n e s s , o r a l t e r n a t i v e l y t h e
r e d u c e d s t e e l s t z e s f o r t h e s a m e m o m e n t c a p a c i t y . A p a r t f r o m . a s a v i n g i n
m a t e n a l , t h e r e d u c e d c o n s t r u c t i o n d e p t h c a n b e w o r t h w h i l e i n m u l t i - s t o r e y
f r a m e s . T h e
m a i n d i s a d v a n t a g e o f c o m p o s i t e c o n s t r u c i t o n i s t h e n e e d t o
p r o v i d e s h e a r c o n n e c t o r s t o e n s u r e i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e p a r t s .
A s i n
a l l b e a m d e s i g n , s h e a r c a p a c i t y a n d m o m e n t c a p a c i t y o f a
c o m p o s i t e s e c t i o n m u s t b e s h o w n t o b e a d e q u a t e . B u t i n a d d i t i o n , t h e
s t r e n g t h o f t h e s h e a r c o n n e c t i o n m u s t b e s h o w n t o b e s a t i s f a c t o r y , w i t h
r e g a r d t o b o t h c o n n e c t o r f a i l u r e a n d a l s o l o c a l s h e a r f a i l u r e o f t h e
s u r r o u n d i n g c o n c r e t e ( s e e S e c t i o n 9 . 4 ) . F o r f u l l i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e s t e e l a n d
c o n c r e t e , s u f f i c i e n t s h e a r c o n n e c t i o n m u s t b e p r o v i d e d t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e
u l t i m a t e m o m e n t c a p a c i t y o f t h e s e c t i o n c a n b e r e a c h e d . L o w e r l e v e l s o f
c o n n e c t i o n w i l l r e s u l t i n p a r t i a l i n t e r a c t i o n w h i c h i s n o t c o v e r e d i n t h i s
C o m p o s i t e b e a m s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y T b e a m s w i t h w i d e c o n c r e t e f l a n g e s .
T h e n o n - u n i f o r m d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l o n g i t u d i n a l b e n d i n g s t r e s s m u s t b e
a l l o w e d f o r a n d t h i s i s u s u a l l y a c h i e v e d b y u s e o f a n e f f e c t i v e b r e a d t h f o r
t h e c o n c r e t e f l a n g e . F o r b u i l d i n g s t h e e f f e c t i v e b r e a d t h
m a y b e t a k e n a s
o n e - q u a r t e r o f t h e s p a n ( s i m p l y s u p p o r t e d ) . C o n t i n u o u s b e a m s a n d
c a n t i l e v e r s a r e t r e a t e d d i f f e r e n t l y ( s e e E S 5 9 5 0 : P a r t 3 . 1 ) .
F i g . 9 . 2 M o m e n t c a p a c i t y
( N A i n s l a b )
F i g . 9 . 3 M o m e n t c a p a c i t y
( N A i n s t e e l
b e a m )
C O M P O S I T E B E A M S & S L A B S 1 0 7
,
B ,
0 . 4 5
x 0 = A p 1 J l o . 4 5 ( , . , B , l
a ,
S t o a t
I A -
A w : A / 2 _ o . 2 2 5
9 . 3 S H E A R C O N N E C T O R S
9 . 2 S H E A R A N D M O M E N T C A P A C I T Y O F C O M P O S I T E B E A M S
T h e s h e a r
c a p a c i t y o f a c o m p o s i t e b e a m i s b a s e d o n t h c r e s i s t a n c e o f t h e
w e b o f t h e s t e e l s e c t i o n a l o n e . C a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e s h e a r c a p a c i t y P . i s
g i v e n t n S e c t i o n 3 . 7 ( d ) :
P , = O . f l p y . 4 ,
M o m e n t c a p a c i t y i s b a s e d o n a s s t i m e d u l t i m a t e s t r e s s c o n d i t i o n s s h o w n
t n F i g s . 9 . 2 a n d 9 , 3 . W h e n t h e n e u t r a l a x i s l i e s i n t h e c o n c r e t e s l a b ( F i g .
9 . 2 ) t h e v a l u c o f m a y b e f o u n d b y e q u i l i b r i u m o f t h e t e n s i o n a n d
c o m p r e s s i o n f o r c e s . T h e m o m e n t c a p a c i t y
i s g i v e n b y :
= A p , + D / 2 x , , / 2 )
V / b e n t h e n e u t r a l a x i s l i e s i n t h e s t e e l s e c t i o n ( F i g . 9 . 3 ) t h e v a l u e
m a y b e f o u n d b y e q u i l i b n u m . T h e c e n t r o i d o f t h e c o m p r e s s i o n s t e e l
m u s t b e l o c a t e d , a n d m o m e n t c a p a c i t y a \ i . i s g i v e n b y :
= 4 / 4 ( D / 2 + D ) 2 ) 2 4 , , ( d , , D . 1 2 )
A l t e r n a t i v e l y , f o r m u l a e g i v e n t o O S 5 9 5 0 : P a r t 3 . 1 m a y b e u s e d .
M a n y f o r m s o f s h e a r c o n n e c t o r h a v e b e e n u s e d , o f w h i c h t w o a r e s h o w n
i n F i g . 9 . 4 , b u t t h e p r e f e r r e d t y p e i s t h e h e a d e d s t u d . T I n s c o m b i n e s e a s e
o f f i x i n g w i t h e c o n o m y . S h e a r c o n n e c t o r s m u s t p e r f o r m t h e p n m a t y
f u n c t i o n o f t r a n s f e r n o g s h e a r a t t h e s t e e l / c o n c r e t e i n t e r f a c e ( e q t u v a l e n t t o
b o n d ) a n d h e n c e c o n t r o l s l i p b e t w e e n t h e t w o p a r t s . l n ' a d d i t i o n , t h e y h a v e
t h e s e c o n d a r y f l . i n c t i o n o f c a r r y i n g t e n s i o n b e t w e e n t h e p a r t s a n d
c o n t r o l l i n g s e p a r a t i o n .
T h e r e l a t t o n s l u p b e t w e e n s h e a r f o r c e a n d s l i p f o r a g i v e n c o n n e c t o r i s
i m p o r t a n t i n d e s i g n w h e r e p a r t i a l i n t e r a c t i o n i s e x p e c t e d . F o r t h e d e s i g n i n
t h i s s e c t i o n . w h e r e f u l l i n t e r a c t i o n i s a s s u m e d , a k n o w l e d g e o f o n l y t h e
m a x i m u m s h e a r f o r c e w h i c h t h e c o n n e c t o r c a n s u s t a i n i s r e q u i r e d . T h e
s t r e n g t h s o f s t a n d a r d h e a d e d s t u d s e m b e d d e d i n d i f f e r e n t n o r m a l w e i g h t
c o n c r e t e s a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 9 . 1 .
T h e s t r e n g t h o f a l t e r n a t i v e s h e a r c o n n e c t o r s c a n b e f o u n d b y u s e o f a
s t a n d a r d p u s h - o u t t e s t ( E S 5 4 0 0 : P a r t 5 ) . T h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f a l l s h e a r
c o n n e c t o r s i s a f f e c t e d b y l a t e n t r e s t r a i n t o f t h e s u r r o u n d i n g c o n c r e t e , t h e
T a b l e 9 , 1 S h e a r s t r e n g t h o f h e a d e d s t u d s
D i a m e t e r
( m m )
H e i g h t
( m m )
S h e a r s t r e n g t h Q 0 ( k N )
f o r c o n c r e t e J , , ( N / m m 1 )
2 5 3 0 3 5 4 0
2 2
1 9
1 1 9 1 2 6 1 3 2 1 3 9
1 6
1 0 0
7 5
9 5 1 0 0
7 0 7 4
1 0 4
7 8
t 0 9
8 2
106 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO BS 5950
9.1 COMPOSITE BEAM.S
The advantages of composite beams compared with normal steelwork
beams are the mcreased moment capacity and stiffness, or alternatlvely the
reduced steel sizes for the same moment capacity. Apart from. a savmg in
matenal, the reduced constructIOn depth can be worthwhile m multi-storey
frames. The mam disadvantage of composlle constructIon IS the need to
provide shear connectors 10 ensure mteractlOn of the parts.
As in all beam desIgn, shear capacity and moment capacIty of a
composite section must be shown to be adequate. But m addition, the
strength of the shear connection must be sho\'.'1l to be satisfactory. with
regard to both connector failure and also local shear failure of the
surrounding concrete (see SectIOn 9.4). For full mteractlon of the steel and
concrete, suffiCIent shear conneclion must be provided to ensure that the
ultimate moment capacIty of the section can be reached. Lower levels of
connectlOn will result m partial mteracuon which is not covered in this
chapter(2)
Composite beams are essentially T beams with wide concrete flanges.
The non-uniform distributIOn of longitudinal bending stress must be
allowed for and this IS usually achieved by use of an effechve breadth for
the concrete flange. For buildings the effechve breadth may be Inken as
one-quarter of the span (simply supported). ContlOuous beams and
cantilevers are treated differently (see BS 5950: Part 3.1).
9.1 SHEAR AND MOMENT CAPACITY OF COMPOSITE BEAMS
The shear capacity of a Composite beam IS based on the resistance of the
web of the Sleel section alone. CalculatIOn of the shear capacity P,. IS
given In SectIOn 3.7(d):
Moment capacIty is based on assumed ultimate stress conditions shown
lO Figs. 9.2 and 9.3. When the neutral aXIs lies In the concrete slab (Fig.
9.2) the value of xp may be found by eqUilibrium of the tensIOn and
compreSSIon forces. The moment capacity lH. IS gIven by:
WIlen the neutral aXIS lies In the steel section (Fig. 9.3) the value of As.
may be found by equilibnum. The centroid of the compressIOn steel As.
must be located, and moment capacity M .. IS given by:
Alternatively, formulae given \0 as 5950; Pall 3.1 may be used.

."; ..:' ...
.,
I'
I
I
i
Fig. 9.2 Moment capacity
(NA in slab)
Fig. 9.3 Moment capacity
(NA In steel
beam)
9,3
1 '
8,
SHEAR CONNECTORS
'I
COMPOSITE BEAMS & SLABS 107
Asc= All - 0.225

Many forms of shear connector have been used, of which two are shown
In Fig. 9.4, but the preferred type IS the headed stud. This combines ease
of fi.XlOg with economy. Shear connectors must perform the pnmary
fUnctIOn of tmnsfemng shear at the steel/concrete mterface (eqmvaient to
bond) and hence control slip between the two parts. In'addition, they hnve
the secondnry function of carrymg tensIOn bel ween the parts and
controlling separahon.
The relatIOnship between shear force and slip for a given connector IS
Important in deSign where partmi interactIOn IS expected. For the deSign In
this section, where full interaCtion IS assumed, a knowledge of only the
max.lmum shear force which the connector can sustam IS reqUired. The
strengths of standard headed studs embedded in different normai weight
concretes are gIVen In Table 9.!.
The strength of alternative shear connectors can be found by use of a
standard push-out test (SS 5400: Part 5). The performance of all shear
connectors IS affected by lateral restramt of the surrounding concrete, the
Table 9.1 - Shear strength of headed studs
DllImeter Height Shear strength Qi (ItN)
(mm) (mm) for concrefeh .. (N/mml)
25 30 35 40
22 100 119 126 132 139
19 100 95 100 104 109
16 75 70 74 78 82
t y p e










i s







I T I I I T I T T 1 1 1 1 1 1 i i
i n
r

0 p 1 =
p z =
9 . 4 L O C A L S H E A R I N C O N C R E T E
T h e









1 0 6 S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R K D E S I G N T O O S 5 9 5 0
C O M P O S I T E B E A M S & S L A B S 1 0 9
4 !



c o n n e c i o r s








4 , 5
1 / f l I
S h e a r f a i l u r e
p l a n e s A I i
r e , n t o r c e m e n t a r e a s / u n , i
9 . 5 D E F L E C T I O N S
A s










a n d







X e + c r 1 0 1 2 + 1 a d
I , + A I D 0 , 1 2 / 4 ( 1 a d + 8 , 0 ! 1 1 2 a
I
10B STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO 8S 5950
Fig. 9.4 Shear connectors
Fig. 9.5 Connector force
Headed studs RSA offcuts
presence of tensIOn III the concrete, and the type of concrete used, i.e.
normal concrete or lightweight. For design of composite beams III these
cases further references(2) should be consulted.
The shear connection in buildings may be designed on the assumption
that at the ultimate limit state the shear force transmitted across the
mterface IS distributed evenly beh\'een the connectors. The shear force IS
based on the moment capacity of the sechon and connector force Qp is
shown In Fig. 9.5.
where
or
R
c
=0.45fCIJ B., xp (when NA m concrete)
R.,=0.45fCIJ S., Ds (when NA in steel)
The connector force Qp must be checked:
Qp;> O.8Q,
1 load
NPl connectors 't NJf1 connectors
t T T T T T T T T T T T TAT T J T T T T
_ R, m ,on,,,,,
9.4 LOCAL SHEAR IN CONCRETE
The total shear connectton depends not only on the shear connector
(headed stud, etc.) but also on tile ability of the surrounding concrete to
transmit the sllear stresses. Longitudinal shear failure IS possible on the
planes shown III Fig. 9.6. Transverse reinforcement combined with the
concrete should give a strength greater than the applied shear per umt
length v, such that:
l'"f J1.:" + I'p and
v
Fig. 9.6 Shear In concrete
COMPOSITE BEAMS & SLABS 109
where As\' 15 either + A
rb
) or 2Arb, depending on the shear path
J;. IS deSign strength of the reinforcement
1.. is the concrete cube strength
IS either (twice slab depth)
or (connector width + hVlce stud height)
vp> is the contribution of the profiled steej sheetmg, if present
Connector I
\ ' width
I
Shellf failure
planes leng!h L,
An and All! ilfe
remforcement areas/unit ler191h
9.5 DEFLECTIONS
Fig. 9.7 Transfonned
section
As In steel beam deSign, deflection must be calculated at the serllceability
limit state, I.e. with unfactored loads. The presence of concrete In the
sec lion means that the two different dastlc moduii (stec! nnd concrete)
must be mcluded, which IS usually achieved by \1se of the transfomled (or
eqUIvalent) TIle elastiC moilulus for concrete IS usually
modified to allow for creep. Under sustamed loading the elastiC modulus IS
about that under short term loading. The mod.ular ratio cc (= Er'
Et;) IS taken as 6 for short term loading, and 18 for long term loading. An
eqUIvalent ratio a.., may be used, based on the proportion of loading
considered to be long term, and is a linear interpolatIOn behveen these
values.
The values of neutral aXIS depth x .. and eqUivalent second moment of
area 19 arc shown III Fig. 9.7. This allows deflectlOlls to be calculated uSlOg
nonnal elashc fonnulae with a value for E . for 205 kN/rrun
2
B. I
Strmn
x .. '" 1O$f2 + ar!OI2 + 0s))/(1 + ar!
Ig + AIO+ 0$)2(411 + at) +
1 1 0 S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R K D E S I G N T O 0 5 5 9 5 0
B E A M S & S L A B S 1 1 1
9 6 C O M P O S I T E S L A B S
C c ) B M a n d S F
C o m p o s i t e


U l t i m a t e








A , .






F o r

-
i h e
i n t e r a c t i o n , 5 9 0 0 2 7 5 1 ( 0 . 4 5






= 5 9 0 0









U )
S h e a r
F o r c e






= 1 0 0


0 . 8 ) = 2 1 s t u d s

L , =
T h e s e
d i a . s t u d t o d i e .
1 7 5 m m
a t c r 5 .

a t


A s S e c t i o n
m m ' I m m
1 , , N / m m 2
D e a d
1 3 5

110 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO BS 5950
Fig. 9.8 Profiled sheeung
9.6 COMPOSITE SLABS
9.7
ComposIte slabs are constructed from profiled steel sheetlOg with two
typical sectIOns, as shown In Fig. 9.8. The sheetmg alone resists the
moments due to the wet concrete and other construction loads. When the
concrete has hardened the composite sectIOn reSists moments due to
fimshes and imposed loads. Composite actton is achieved by bond as well
as web mdentatlOns, and in some cases by end anchorage where the
connectors for composite beams are welded through the sheetmg.
In most cases deSign IS controlled by the construction condition rather
than by the performance as a composite section. In general, the failure of
the slab lIS a composue sectIOn takes place oWing to Incomplete
mteractlon, I.e. slip on the SI eel/concrete interface. For these rellsons,
deSign of composJle slabs with profiled sheetmg has evolved nom testmg.
Detllils of the test mformatlOn are available from manufacturers and SCl{4)
The effects of the sheetlng profile on connector performance and on beam
behaVIOur are also gIVen In the SCI publicatlOn{4)
EXAMPLE lB. COMPOSITE BEAM IN BUILDING
The deSign follows that given In SectIOn 3.7 for a non-composite beam.
The notation follows that of BS 5950: Part 3.i.
{a) Dimensjons
(b)
(See Fig. 3.2.)
Span 7.5 m Simply supported
Beams al 6.0 m centres
Concrete sillb 250 mm thick (feu = 30 N/mm
2
) spannmg m hvo
directIOns
Finishing screed 40 mm thick
Loading
As Section 3.7b allOWing the same self weight of beam.
Dead load !Vd = 180 kN
Imposed load IV; = 135 kN
..
Fig. 9.9
COMPOSITE BEAMS & SLABS 111
(c) BM and SF
Ultimate mOl1lent M% = 592 kNm
Ultimate shear force F;z = 242 kN
(d) Shear capacity
te)
Assume the beam to be 406 x 140 x 46 UB.
Shear capacity =O.6py A,.
=0.6 x 0.275 x 402.3 x 6.9=458kN
Shear force F" =0.52
Moment capacity
Use effecllve breadth Be as L 14, I.e. 1.85 m.
For neutral ru{}S In the concrete slab, see Fig. 9.2.
xp=APy
=5900 x 2751(0.45 x 1850 x 30)=65mm
In slab 250 mm thick, sec Fig. 9.9.
Moment capaCIty }.Ic=Apy
= 5900 x 2751(250 + 402.312 -6512)1 0-
6
=619kNm
M;z IMc =0.84
SectIOn is satJsfactory.
(f) Shear connectors
Force In concrete at mid-span:
Rc =0.45/"" Be Xp
=0.45 X 30 x 1850 x 65 X IO-
J
=1623kN
Use 19 mm diameter by 100 mm high headed stud 1.':onnectors.
Table 9.1 Q1: = 100 kN
r---------, Np = 1620/(100 x 0.8)=21 studs
19 Ola. slud
100 high
at 175 mm
spacing
10 dia. HT bars
at 200 crs.
'" 0.785 mml/mm
iy ",410 N/mml
Fig. 9.10
These are distributed evenly In each half span.
Spacmg = 3700121
(See Figs. 9.6 and 9.10.)
=115mm





4 . C o m p o s i t e s l a b s
S
U
I
I o r
( J V d +
1 1 2 S T R U C T U R A L


/ ( 1 / 2 )










9 3
S e c t i o n 9 . 7 =


4 = 7 9
I V L 3 I 6 O E J g










R E F E R E N C E S
T o p i c


t h e a n d
p p . 8 5 1 5 5 . V a n N o s t r a n d


S t r u c t u r e s o f S t e e l a n d
C o n c r e t e , p p .

R e i n f o r c e d a n d F r e s r r e s s e d C o n c r e t e , p p .

o f C o m p o s i t e S l a b s a n d
B e a n s w i t / i S t e e l D e c k i n g . S t e e l

h o t
B R A C I N G
L O A D I N G R E S I S T E D B Y B R A C I N G
B r a c i n g

T h e











S W A Y S T A B I L I T Y
I t




1 . 6 W , v e r t i c a l l y .


112 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO SS 5950
Lcngth of shear path
Shear per unit length v
=40+2 x 100=240mm
=R, J(Ll2)
= 162013700 = 43 8 Nlmm
Longitudinal shear capaCity -; 0.8LJ' Jlcu
= 0.8 x 240 x J30 = 1050 NJmm
and
=0.03 x 240 x 30+0.7 x 0.785 x 410
=441 Nlmm
Local shear is satisfactory.
(g) Deflection
Using unfactored Imposed loads as in SectIOn 3.7f, W= 132kN.
The propertIes of the transformed sections(4} are:
Fig. 9.7 r=AI(B,1J,)
=5900J(1850 x 250)=0.0128
SecllOll 9.7 at! = 10
x,=[25012+ 10 x 0.0128(201 + 250)]J(1 + 10 x 0.0128)
= 176mm
19=79700cm-i
DcflectIOn = WL
3
/60El
g
= 132 x 7400'1(60 x 205 x 79700 x 10') = 5.5 mm
DeflectIOn limit = 7001360 = 20,6 mm
Companng the section used (406 x 140 x 46 00) with that reqUired in
(533 x 210 x 92 VB) gIVes a clear mdicatlOn of the weIght
savmg achicved in compOSIte constructIOn. However, as discussed in
Sectlon 9.1, some other costs must be taken 1010 account in any cost
companson.
BRACING
10.1 LOADING RESISTED BY BRACING
Bracmg members" or braced bay frames, conslst usually of simple steel
sections such as flats, angies, channels or hollow sections arranged to form a
truss (Section 6.1). Thc members are often arranged, usmg so
that deSign may be on a tensIOn only baSIS.
A bracmg will carry loading which IS usually honzontal, dcnved from a
number of sources:





wind, crane and machinery loads actmg honzontally on a structure;
earthquake loads dcnved as an eqUivalent static honzontai load;
notIonal loads to ensure sway stability;
beam or column bracmg forces as a proportiOn of the iongltudinal
force;
loads present dunng the temporary constructIOn stage.
In addition, bracmg, wheUler permanent or temporary, IS usually necessary
for steelwork erectors to line and level properly the steel framework dunng
STUDY REFERENCES constructIOn.
TopIC Reference
i. Remforced concrete
2. Composite
constructIOn
3. TransfOlmed

4. Composile slabs
Kong F.K. & Evans R.H. (1987) Relliforced concrete
beams - fhe ultimate limit state, Remforced and
Prestressed Concrete, pp. 85-155. Van Nostrand
Remhold
Johnson R.P. (1982) Simply supported compostte
beams and slab, Composite Structures of Steel and
Concrete. pp. 40-100. Granada Publishing
Kong F.K. & Evans R.H. (1987) Elasttc theory,
Remforced and Prestressed Concrete. pp. 157-67. Van
Nostrand Remhold
Lnwson R.l\I. (1989) DesIgn of Composite Slabs and
with Steei Decking. Steel Construction lnstltute
10.2 SWAY STABILITY
It IS Important that all structures should have adequate stiffness agamst sway.
Such stiffness IS generally present where the frame IS deSigned to resist
honzontal forces due to the wmd loading. To ensure a mlflllllUm sway
prOVISIon, notatIOnal forces are suggested in clause 2.4.2.3 applied
honzontally.
1.O%ofYfW", or
0.5% of 1'1 PV ... + W
f
) if greater
aclmg m conjunction with i.4W
d
+ 1.6W
f
verucalJy.
This reqUirement IS In place of the honzontal wmd or other loads and In
practtce fonns a minimum proVISIOn.
1 1 4 S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R K D E S I G N T O O S 5 9 5 0
1 1 5

i n




a r r a n g i n g





















S I N G L E - S T O R E Y B R A C I N G
T h e



















r e q u i r e s






b r a c i n g









114 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO SS 5950
10.3 MULTI-STOREY BRACING
Fig. 111.1 Wind towers and
braCing
Fig. 10.2 Braced bay
frames
In multi-storey frames hOflzonlal forces may be reSisted by:



ngid!y JOlOling the framework with connectIOns capable of
reslstmg the applied moments and analysmg the fhune accordingiy;
providing stiff shear concrete walls usually at stair and lift wells,
and deslgmng these to absorb all the honzontai loads;
arrangmg braced bay frames of steel members fomung trusses as
shown In Fig. 6.3.
In all but the first case the steel beams and columns may be deSigned as
simply supported.
The arrangement of steel bracmg or wmd towers of concrete walls requires
care 10 ensure economy and simpliCity. Alternative arrangements are shown
In Fig. 10. L Symmclncal arrangements are preferred as Ihey avoid torsIOn 10
plan of the braced fTames.
The vertical bracmg must be used in conjunctIOn with SUitable honzontal
frammg. Wind loads are transmitted by the cladding of the building on to the
floors, and then 10 the vertical braced bays or lowers. DeSign should ensure
that adequate honzontal frames eXist at floor levels to carry these loads to
vertical bracmg. V/here concrete floors are provided no further provISIon may
be reqUired but In open frame Industna! buildings hOrizontal braCing is also
needed (Fig. 10.1).
Braced bay frames may take a number of different fonns as shown 10
Fig. 10.2. while it allows a tensIOn only deSign, creates
Symmetry
w,!nd lower
r---l
, ,
, ,
,-___ J
\
Plan outline
of building
Cross-bracmg
lack of symmetry
reQUlfOS additional
bracmg
,
r---
,
,
,
L __ _
Symmelry


/
HOrIZontal framing
or rigid floor
Eccentric
bHlclng
Ponal
Irame _LL-,_.l..L_
Mixed braCing
Fig. 10.3 Gable wmd
guder
10.4
BRACING 115
difficuity where door or wmdow openings are reqUired. The alternatives
shown may be used to accommodate openings, but will involve compressIOn
in the bracmg members. In the deSign of such members slenderness must be
kept as low as possible by lIse of tubes or hoUow sections, and by reducmg
lengths as far as practicable.
SINGLE-STOREY BRACING
The pnnclpal loading which reqUires the proVISIOn of braclllg 10 a smgle-
storey building IS Ihat due to wmd. In addition the longitudinal crane forces
will reqUITe braced bay support. The honzontal (wmd and crane surge) loads
transverse to the building are supported by ponai name actIOn, or column
cantilever actIOn, and no further bracmg IS needed In this directlOU.
Longitudinal forces do, however, reqUire support by a braced bay frame as
shown In Fig. 6.3, TIle wmd forces anse from pressures or sllctlOns on the
gable end and frictIOnal drag on the cladding of both the roof and sides of a
building (see SectIOn 12.4.3). Gable wmd girders are needed therefore at each
end oflhe building, and may be provided at the level oflhe rafters
or at the level of the eaves, as shown In Fig. lO.3. The gable wmd girders are
supported by vertical side brncmg as shown, which IS also used to support the
longitudinal crane forces_ The gable posts themselves are deSigned to span
vertically carrymg the wmd load ber-ween the base and the gable wmd girder.
,

,. ---

Wind gIrder
...... ;'
.-'f. ...
Side bracing __ i ...
,.
In addition some bracmg may be reqUired by the truss lower chord
members. This IS a restraint against buckling and is needed in cases wlH:re
reversal of stress In the bottom chord can occur. LightweIght roof structures
often have this deSIgn condition, when Wllld suctIOn on Ihe roof causes
compressIOn In the lower chord or the truss.
C o m p r e s s i o n m e m b e r
. 1
1 3 A d v i s a b l e t o
h a v e r e s t r a i n t
a t t h i s J o i n t
9 3
P r e s s u r e l a n d s u c t i o n ) E N
9 3
1 1 2 )
1 2 4 0 )
( 1 1 2 )
M e m b e r
F a c t o r e d m e m b e r f o r c e ( k N )
P r e s s u r e
S u c t i o n
1 8 4


2 7 0

O b a y s a t s . O m
i I







a n d a n d

B R A C I N G
1 1 7
1 0 . 5
B E A M T R U S S A N D C O L U M N
B R A C I N G
B o t h



r e s t r a i n t





B e a m s

C h a p t e r



C h a p t e r S

d i m e n s i o n s


C h a p t e r



C h a p t e r
I n


m a y



r e s i s t i n g






S e c t i o n
I n






T h e











( p l a s t i c




t o a d m g
; 1
I c )

E X A M P L E ( 9 , G A B L E W I N D
G I R D E R A N D S I D E B R A C I N G
4
2 ) 5
1 7 2
5


( a )
r ' . '
6

1 0 6


8
4 6
3 7
9
4 8
3 8 f :
t O









d e s i g n )













2 3 9
C o m p r e s s i o n
,,,, .:;0 I nUl" I UHAl :::iII::ElWORK DESIGN TO BS 5950
10.5
Fig. lOA SpeCIal restraints
BEAM TRUSS AND COLUMN BRACING
Both flexural and compression members may require iateral bracmg or
restramt to Improve their buckling reSistance. This provISIon has been
discussed in Ule appropnate cbapters:
Beams III buildings
Crane girders
Trusses
Columns
- ChaPter 3
- Chapter 5
- Chapter 6
- Chapter 7
In each case, the effectiVe length of tile portion of the member m comp""iSie,,j,
may be reduced by providing slOgle members or frameworks capable of
reslsUng the lateral buckling forces. The values of these lateral forces have
been assessed from test data and given In the appropnate clauses ofBS5950.:
In some cases, e.g. crane gIrders, the buckling force IS combined with other'-
lateral forces m the deSign of the bracmg.
TIle deSigner should always be aware of the need of bracmg In unusual
positions, and should examine all compreSSIOn members, and compreSSIOn
flanges, to ensure that adequate lateral restramt eXists and is sahsfactory.
Examples of restramls needed in lattice frameworks and portal frames
(plastiC deSIgn) are given ID Fig. lOA.

] \
8 AdVisable [0
have restraint
at this Jotnt
lattice
truss
Hinge resframls,--I-""",,,,,:l
(plastic deSIgn)
10.6 EXAMPLE 19. GABLE WIND GIRDER AND SIDE BRACING
(a) Dimensions
(See Fig. 105.)
Gable end panel widths (6 no.)
Depth of girder (in plan)
Side bay width
Eaves height
S.Om each
3.Dm
6.0m
12.5m
10.5 Wind girder
dimensIOns
10.6 Wind gmier
loading
(b)
(c)
BRACING 117

1
< 1 , 3 _I
'. 6 baysal 5.0m
Loading
Reactions (excluding }j) from gable stanchions (spannmg vertically) vary as
shown In Fig. 10.6.
Wind pressure or suctton (in brackets) resuits ill two sets of reactIOns.
These values are denved knowmg Cpt! and C
p
, and arc given In
SectIon 2.3.
Longitudinal load from crane (Section 5.1) = 12.0 kN.

t t t t
14 30 32 34 32 30 14
!-11.2) f-24.0) {-25.6} 1-27.2J !_25.6) 1-2<1.0) H1.2l
Member forces
Member forces may be obtained by any of the methods of analYSIS (SectIOn
6.2a) and the and suciton cases are shown ID the table; the loads
incorporate the factor Yj= lA.
Member Faclored member force (kN)
Pressure Suction
I 184 -147
2 299 -239
3 338 -270
4 -215 172
5 III -89
6 -133 106
7 69 -55
8 -46 37
9 48 -38
10 -184 147
11 -299 239
Compression is positive.

o r

( s e e

2 7 b



M a x i m u m c o m p r e s s i o n


2 7 b


3 . 3 . 3








2 7 b


1 . 0

1 0 . 7 M U L T I - S T O R E Y W I N D B R A C I N G
( a ) D i m e n s i o n s
( S e e F i g . 1 0 . 8 . )
7 s t o r e y s a t 3 . 5 m h i g h


1 1 6 S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R K D E S I G N T O 8 3 5 9 5 0



2
I 3 D t N
1
( e ) I n t e r n a l c h o r d



c l a u s e 4 . 6 . 3 . 1
( g ) S i d e b r a c i n g
R e a c t i o n
C r a n e
9 3 1 3 0 k M o r










1 8 8








= 8 6 0




3 2 . 3 1 4 9






2 7 b
118 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO BS 5950
(d) External chord
MaxImum force (compressIOn) 338 kN
Use 254 x 146 x 37 un (grade 43)
Slenderness J =O,85Ur.r or
=j.O Ury
(see Fig. 6.4 and Sectlon 12.7.2)
hence mnx. A= l.0 x 5000/34.7= )44
BS table 27b Compresslve strength Pc = 80 N/mml
CompressIOn reSistance Pc =Ag pc
x
SectIOn IS satisfactory.
(e) Internal chord
Maximum compressIOn 239 kN
Use 203 x 133 x 30 un (grade 43)
Slenderness ).= 1.0 x 5000/31.8 = 157
BS fable 27b Compresslve strength Pc = 68N/mm
2
Compression resistance Pr: = 38.0 x 68/10 = 258 kN
Maximum tension 299 kN
clause 3.3.3 Effecttve area A .. = 1.2 An.., but;t Ag
Allowing for two 26 mm diameter hoies
A .. = 1.2 (32.3-2 x 2.6 x 0.58)=35.1 cm
2
but
TensIOn capacity PI =A .. Pr
=32.3 x 275110=888kN
SectIOn IS satisfactory.
(f) Diagonals}struts
Maximum compression (diagonal) 172 kN.
Use 203 x 133 x 30 UB (grade 43)
Slenderness A = 1.0 x 5830/31.8 = 183
BS (able 27b pc=52N/mm::
Compression resistance Pc=38.0 x 52/10 =198kN
Maximum compressIOn {strut member 5) = III kN
1 1.0 x 3000/31.8 94
Use same section.

\i"
,
5
......... 4
"
It B.Om
Fig. 10.7
,
(g)
BS table 2
7
,
Side bracing
ReactIOn from Wind gIrder 93 kN
Crane load 12 kN
BRACING
MaXimum design ioad = lA x 93 = 130 kN or
=L2 x 93+1.2 x 12 =126kN
With reference 10 Fig. 10.7, the factored member forces (kN) are:
-130
1 188
3 -130
4 188
5 135
6 -135
7 270
119
IVlaximum tension In diagona-Is 2 and 4 {assummg cross-bracmg io avoid
compressIOn) = 188 kN.
Use 100 x 65 x 7 Angle
clause 4.6.3.1 Effecllve area Ac =a, +3al a21(3a!+a2)
al =(100-7/2)7-22 x 7=522nm1
2
Q1 = (65 - 7/2)7 = 43! mm
2
allOWing for one 22 mm diameter hole In connected leg (lOOmm)
Ac =522+3 x 522 x 4311(3 x 522+431)
= 860mm
2
TenSion capacity PI =Ac py
=860 x 275 x 1O-:>=237kN
Maximum compression In strut 3 = 130 kN
Use 203 x 133 x 25 un (grade 43)
A 1.0 x 6000/31.0 194
SS table 27b Pc =46 N/mm2
CompreSSiOn resistance Pc = 32.3 x 46/10 = 149 kN
Forces In the eaves girder 1, and malO frame members 5, 6 and 7 should be
considered in the deSign of these members when appropnate. The values of
these forces will need to be adjusted for )'fused in IIle CombinatIOn of forces
for each member.
10.7 HUL TISTOREY WIND BRACING
ta) Dimensions
(See Fig. 10.8.)
7 storeys at 3.5 m high
Bay width 4.0 m
Cross-bracmg with K-bracing on nlternatJve floors 10 allow door opemngs
1 2 0
S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R K D E S I G N T O O S
5 9 5 0
( b ) L o a d i n g
L
W i n d
l o a d i n g t r a n s m i t t e d t o
b r a c i n g b y c o n c r e t e ( l e a r s l a b s a t e a c h l e v e l .
( c )
M e m b e r f o r c e s
M e m b e r
f o r c e s U r N ) e x c l u d i n g
Y f a r e g i v e n f o r t h e l o w e r t w o s t o r e y s
P
L A T E G I R D E R S
N V E l
3 1 3 0 4
Z N
9 1
x 5 5 + i n
4
7 1 6
. -
6
1 9 7
. 9 1 0
7
3 1 9
4 2
I 3 1 7
I I
1 0
0
O c c a s i o n a l l y t h e r e q u i r e d b e n d i n g
r e s i s t a n c e o f a m e m b e r c a u n o t b e
N o t e t h a t w i n d l o a d i n g c a n a c t
i n t h e r e v e r s e d i r e c t i o n , w h i c h w i l l g e n e r a l l y
p r o v i d e d b y t h e l a r g e s t a v a i l a b l e
u n i v e r s a l b e a m ( 9 1 4
4 1 9 x 3 8 8 T J B ) a n d
r e v e r s e t h e f o r c e d i r e c t i o n i n e a c h m e m b e r .
M e m b e r 1 0 , w h i c h h a s z e r o l o a d ,
t h e r e f o r e t h e
h a s t o r e s o u t o u s i n g a p l a t e g i r d e r .
B a s i c a l l y , a p l a t e
F i g . 1 0 . 8
h o w e v e r , w i l l
3 1 7 k N i a t h i s w i n d r e v e r s a l
c a s e .
i s b u i l t u p f r o m t i r e e p l a t e s ( o n e w e b a n d
t w o f l a n g e s ) f a s t e n e d
t o g e t h e r t o
a n 1 - s h a p e , s e e F i g 1 1 . 1 . T h e r e a r e
m a n y e x a m p l e s o f p l a t e
( d )
C r o s s b n c i n g
. g i r d e r s . e . g . c r a n e
i n
m i l l b u i l d i n g s , r o a d a n d r a i l b r i d g e s
r o o f
c o n s t r a c t i o n o f s t a d i a , b a l c o n y g i r d e r s
i n c o n c e d h a l l s .
t e n s i o n = 1 . 4 x 4 7 2 = 6 6 1
E x a m i n a t i o n o f o l d e r
o f p l a t e g i r d e r s w o u l d s h o w t h a t t h e
U s e 2 0 3 x 1 3 3 x 3 0 U B
4 3 )
c o u n e c u o a
b e t w e e n t h e f l a n g e s a n d w e b p l a t e s
i s m a d e b y n v e t s o r b o l t s , v i a
a n g l e s e c t i o n s , a s
i n F i g 1 1 . 1 ( b ) . T h e s e p l a t e
g i r u e r s w e r e r e l a t i v e l y
S e c t i o n J O . 6 e
T e n s i o n
= 8 8 8 k N
m o r e p r e v a l e n t a s t h e d e p t h o f r o l l e d s e c t i o n s ,
p r i o r t o t h e 1 9 5 0 s , w a s l i m i t e d
-
t o a b o u t
0 . 6 m , w h e r e a s t o d a y u n i v e r s a l b e a m s
a r e r o l l e d u p t o 0 . 9 2 m d e c p .
( e )
S p l i c e s f o r t h i s
o f p l a t e g i r d e r , r e q u i r e d b e c a u s e o f
t r a n s p o r t a b o n
c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a n d / o r m a x n u m a v a i l a b l e
o f p l a t e , w e r e p r o v i d e d b y
c o m p r e s s t o n l . 4
m e a n s o f n v e t e d o r b o l t e d c o v e r p l a t e s .
U s e 2 0 3 x 1 3 3 x 3 7 U B ( g r a d e
4 3 )
.
T h e
a d v e n t o f w e l d i n g a l l o w e d t h e
t h e f r e e d o m t o t a i l o r - m a k e
a
1 = 0 . 8 5 x 4 0 3 0 / 3 4 . 7
= 1 1 6 c .
m e m b e r t o s u i t a n y
r e q u i r e m e n t . A s t h e c h o i c e o f p l a t e
i s r e s t n c t e d
8 3 t a b l e 2 7 b
= I 1 4 N / m x n 2
C o m p r e s s i o n r e s i s t a n c e P , = 4 7 . 5
x 1 1 4 / 1 0 = 5 4 1 k N
A s i n S e c t i o n l O . 6 g t h e f o r c e s
i n c o l u n m s 1 , 2 , 3 a n d 4 a n d b e a m s 6 , 9 a n d
1 0 m u s t b e t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t
i n t h e o v e r a l l d e s i g n o f t h e s e m e m b e r s w h i c h
w i l l i n c l u d e d e a d a n d i m p o s e d l o a d i n g
f r o m f l o o r s , e t c . T h e v a l u e o f
y r
a p p r o p n a t e
t o e a c h c o m b i n a t i o n o f l o a d s
m u s t b e u s e d ( S e c t i o n 2 . 7 ) .
S T U D Y R E F E R E N C E S
T o p i c
R e f e r e n c e
I . F r a m e s l a b i l i t y
( 1 9 8 8 ) S t a b i l i t y o f B u i l d i n g s . T h e h i s t i t u i j o n
o f
F I g . 1 2 . 1 P l a t e g i r d e r
s e c t , o o s l a l
l b l
I d
t i l l
1 ;.W STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO as 5950
(b)
(c)
'"
E
u
55 x
-"

..;

l'i
49




Fig. 10.8
(d)
SectIOn JO.6e
(e)
BS table 27b
Loading
Wind loading transmitted to brncmg by concrete floor slabs at ench ievel.
Member forces
Member forces (kN) excluding }'fare glven for the lower two storeys oniy:
I 993
2 716
3 -1304
4 -716
5 472
6 -197
7 319
8 -319
9 -317
10 0
Note that wind loading can act m the reverse direction, which wiJI generally
reverse the force directIOn In each member. Member 10, which has zero load,
however, will carry 317 kN in this wmd reversal case.
Cross bracing
Maximum lenslOn= lA x 472=661 kN
Use 203 x 133 x 30 UB {grade 43)
TensIOn capacity = 888 kN
K-bradng
MaXlmwn compression=lA x'319=447kN
Use 203 x 133 x 37 UB {grade 43)
.l =0.85 x 4030/34.7 = 116
Po =114N1mm'
CompressIOn resistance Pc =47.5 x 114/10=541 kN
As In Section lO.6g the forces In columns 1,2, 3 and 4 and beams 6, 911nd
10 must be taken mto account in the overall design of these members which
wiII include dead and Imposed loading from floors, etc. The value of 'If
appropnate to each combination of loads must be llsed (Section 2.7).
STUDY REFERENCES
TopIC
1. Frame slnbility
Reference
(1988) Stability o/Buildings. The lnslitulion of
Structural Engtneers
Plate girder
secUons
PLATE GIRDERS
I 1.1 INTRODUCTION
Occasionally, the reqUired bending reSIstance of a member cannot be
provided by the largest available umversaJ beam (914 x 419 x 388 UE) and
therefore the designer has 10 resort to uSing a plate guder. Basically, a plate
girder IS built up from three plates (one web and two flanges) fastened
together to fonn an see Fig 11. I. There are many examples of plate
girders, e.g. crane girders m heavy mill buildings, road and rail bridges, roof
construction of stadia, balcony girders In concert halls.
ExammatlOn of older forms of plate gtrders would show Ihat the
connectlon between the flanges and web plates IS made by nvets or boits, via
angle sections, as shown in Fig I U(b). These piate glfoers were relahvely
more prevalent as the depth of rolled sections, prior to the 19505, was limited
to about 0.6 m, whereas today Universal beams are rolled up to 0.92 m deep.
Splices for this type of plate girder, required because of transportation
considerations andlor maximum available length of plate, were provided by
means of nveted or bolted cover plates.
The advent of welding allowed the deSigner the freedom to a
member to SUIt any deSign requirement. As the chOIce of plate is restricted
{,I
Ibl 1,1 Idl
L U F l
i n t e r m e d i a t e s t i f f e n e r s
r e a d i l y l i e ) a n d I I . 1 ( d ) . T h e





















































1 2 2 S T R U C T u R A L S T E E L W D R K D E S I G N T D 8 5 5 9 5 0



















f l _ s . , , , .
' .


, ,





122 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO BS 5950


11
Table 11 1(11) I\.lmomum rolled length' Im) for selected range of wide flnts(l)
.. '.:. ;" 11 I! l' U j' lJ n J! /4 15 TO 11 lL'!
100 1I11!'"lll!!JUIlII ,,1'11'

...
m
,.
m
".
m
'"
...
'"
'"
'H
,.
'"
'"
11 13
,1 Il
"
'I IJ
.. "
"
"
,- "
1
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
.....
....
Ull!!I!I!UUllllUII :i_\:'.
11 U 11 li 11 P 11 n 11 11 11
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
1I ,I It 11 11 j' n I. If n
11 It 1. I1 U It If 11 It I'
Il 11 la 11 U It It 11 11
..
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

"
u
..
..
..
..
u
u
"
"
..
..
..
..
u
..
..
u
..
..
.'UIOUNnn
I; 11 10 11 lS 11 I1
u
"
"
u
u u .. u
u
"
.. u
u u .. u
u u .. u
u u u u
u
"
.. ..
u u ..
.. .. u ..
u .. u
.. .. ..
..
u
u
u
u
..
..
..
u
"
"
u
..
..
u
u
u
u
"
"
..
"
u
u
u
"
u
u
"
..
"
"
Table l1.Hb) Ma;umum rolled lengths (ht) for selected mnge of plntes
lln 5 ,no 11
11I."i.llU n
U
UO .no 11
11
ItlOC 11
ltU".:;II00 "
1I1 iSl!$<! 11
)11 'sn,e "

O:!, )ooa
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
..
"
"
"
"
..
"
"
"
"
..
..
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
..
..
"
..
..
"
..
..
..
"
..
..
..
"
..
..
"
"
11 I'
It If
It It
n 11
"
I. I I1
11 11
"
"
..
..
..
"
..
..
..
..
"
"
..
"
"
..
"
"
"
"
"
..
..
..
..
"
"
..
..
..
..
"
..
..
..
..
..
"
"
..
..
"
"
"
"
"
..
"
"
..
"
..
"
..
..
..
..
"
..
..
..
.. ..
I1 11
'f 11
If n
.. "
!I 11
If 11
n 11
If 11
I' 11
,t 11
It 11
11 It
only by Ihe discrete sIzes of railed plate (see Table 11 I) then this (onn of
construction can be economic In tenns of matenal. The flanges and web are
nonnally connected together by fillet welds. using seml- or fully automatic
welding procedures. The deSigner must assume that the load transfer IS
entirely through the welds as there IS no guarantee there IS a perfect beanng
between flange and web. Where a splice is reqUired, owmg 10 ma;umum
length of plate rolled or because there IS a change In plate thickness, a full
strength butt weld is reqUired. As there are a number of different types ofbuU
weld, the selectIOn of the appropnate type should be discussed with the
fabncator III order to produce an economic solullon.
Generally. a plate girder IS made doubly symmetncal, I.e. both flange
plates arc identical, like the universal sectIOns, see Figs. l1.1(a) and I l.l(b).
However, should deSIgn conditions dictate that a smgle aXlS of symmetry is
necessary, then a JudicIOUS chOIce of different plates for the flanges can
Fig. 11-2 Typical
plate girder
clallse 4.4.5.1
lOild cilrrying
stiffener
Intermediate stlffcncrs
PLATE GIRDERS 123
End uearlng
stiffener
\
readily accommodate this reqUirement, see Figs. Il.l(c) and ll.l(d). The
deSIgn strength of each plate IS dependent only on ItS own thickness and
grade of steel, unlike the Universal sectiOns where the deSign stTength IS based
on the thickest part of the I-section. I.e. the flanges. Also, different grades of
steel can be used for the plates within one girder. e.g. Ihe use of a notch
ductile steel, say SOC, for the tensIOn flange of a road bridge lfi order 10
elimmate the possibility of low cycle brtttle fracture.
Plate gIrders usually reqUire load carrymg stiffeners and mtermediate
stiffeners (non-load carrymg). see Fig. 11.2, dividing the web mto panels .
These have the followmg functIOns:



Load carrying stiffeners are used to diffuse any concentrated load
locally, mto the web. Tlus load can result from aX131 load III
columns connected to a flange or an end reactlOn fTom an
mtersectmg beam member, which can be connected 10 either the
flange or the stiffener Itself.
The sole funchon of intermediate sUffeners IS to control the shear
buckling resistance of any web area/panel bounded by the flanges
and an adjacent pair of intermediate stiffeners .
The elastiC cntical shear buckling of a web panel IS a function of
aid (known as the aspect ratio) and dll, where a IS the distance
between the two stiffeners bounding the web panel belllg
considered, dis the actual depth of the web plaie and I IS the web
plate thickness. Note that for umversal sections, the overall depth
D is allowed for calculating the shear area.
When the web IS relatively thin, the presence of i'1termediatt; stiffeners IS
useful in mamtammg the I-shape, particularly dunng transportation and
erectton. In very deep plate gmlers, additional honzonlal longitudinal
stiffemng may be necessary In the compreSSlOn zone, In order to mamtam an
economic web thickness. Tills particular deSign vanatlOn lies outside the
scope of BS 5950: Part I, but IS covered in BS 5400 and therefore will not
be discussed here.
The two main forces that a plate gtrder has 10 resist are bending moment
and shear force, though axml force, if present, would need to be taken mto
account. Though tu reality. the bending moment tplus any a;ual ioad) and
shear force would be reSisted by the whole section, the uSllal assumpuon
made for small and medium plate girders IS that the flanges resist the bending
moment and the web cames the shear force.
i U B S S Y






b e n d i n g c a p a c i t y .




















n i e t l i o d c a n n o t b e a p p l i e d
t o g a n t r y g i r d e r d e s i g n .
T h e




























i . e .
C 6 3 s







6 3 s






m o m e n t






m o m e n t


















E X A M P L E 2 1 . D E S I G N O F U N S T I F F E N E D P L A T E
G I R D E R
T H I C K W E B S
A
i s

















j
i t i H i H i t

1 6 5 0 0



F l g .

c l a u s e 4 . 4 . 4 . 1
c l a u s e 4 . 4 . 4 . 2



k N

.... , .... , ......... ! U BS 5950
The further apart the two flanges of a beam member are posItioned from
{he member<s centroidal aXIS, the better is the member bending capacity. The
depth of plate girders usually lies within the range of 1/12 to 1/8 of the span.
OccasIOnally, the depth of a girder might be limited by mmlmum headroom
I consideratIOns. Furthermore, there tmght be a constnllnt on the overall
deflection of the girder, to which the self weight of the gIrder could make a
significant contribution.
Clause 4.4 of the steel code BS 5950: Part 1 allows the designer three
different ways of proportIOning web plates:
;The web IS made deliberately thick, removing Ihe necessity for
:inlennediate stiffeners; the disadvantage IS that the weight of Ihe
\girder would be relatively heavy compared with that obtained by
uSing the other methods and could increase the cost of the
foundalions. However, Ihe overall fabncatlOn costs would be lower
(no stiffeners), which may more than offset Ihe extra matenal and
foundatton costs.
The web IS made thin enough to require intennediate stiffeners 10
conrroi the shear buckling action within any web panel.
Finally, the web thickness is mmltmzed by taking mto account
tensIon field action, thereby maXimizing the effectiveness of the
web and flanges. Tension field acttOn is discussed in SectIOn 11.7.
17tis melhod cannot be applied la gantry girder desIgn.
TIle design of the plate girder must also comply with Ihe guidance given in
clause 4.3, BS 5950 (lateral torsIonal buckling of beam members). The design
of load carrymg and intermediate stiffeners IS covered by clause The
different meUlOds of deslgnmg plate girders are illustrated by Examples
21-24 inclusIVe, which include further design informatIOn where appropriate.
11.2 DESIGN OF UNSTIFFENED PLATE GIRDER
clallse 4.4.4.1
clause 4.4.4.2
An unstiffened pIa le girder IS sImilar to a universal beam sectIOn, where the
web IS generally thick enough not to necessJlate shear stiffening/intermediate
stiffeners. According to BS 5950: Part 1, the moment capacIty of an
unstiffened plale girder depends on the value of dll, I.e.
If die < 63 (thick wcb), then Ule moment capaCIty of the plate
girder. can be detcrmincd as for untversal beams, I.C. according to
clause 4.2.5 or 4.2.6, BS 5950.
If dll;;:: 63 (thin web), then the moment capacity can be
calculated by one of hvo mcthods or n combination of the two
methods (clause 4.4.4.2). The two methods are:
- moment plus any nxml load reSisted by flanges only, and the
web IS deSigned for shear only (clause 4.4.5). It is assumed that
each flange IS subject la a uniform stress Pv.
- moment and aXial load resisted by whole sectIOn with the wcb
resisting tile combined shear and longItudinal slresscs (see
clause H.3).
PLATE GIRDERS 125
Similar to uOlversai beams, a plate gmler has to comply wllh clauses 3.5
(local buckling), 4.2 (members 10 bending) and 4.3 (laternl torsional
buckling), BS 5950. Also, a plate gIrder may reqwre end beanng stiffeners In
order to transfer the end shear into the supports, and load carrying stiffeners
where large concentrated loads have 10 be supported within thc span of a
member.
I I.3 EXAMPLE 21. DESIGN OF UNSTIFFENED PLATE GIRDER-
THICK WEBS
FIg. 11.3 Delails of girder
Fig. 11.4 BM & SF diagrams
([adored loads)
A plate girder, Simply supported over a span of 22 m, IS reqUired 10 carry the
loads indicated in Fig 11.3; Ihe uniformly distributed dead load includes the
self weight of the gIrder. The concentrated applied load IS the uxlili load
transferred from a column member (203 x 203 x 46 UC) and the ends of the
girder and those of adjacent gIrders are supported by 254 x 254 x 73 UC
columns. The depth of the plate gIrder is to be limited io 1.5 m owmg to
mlOlmum headroom reqUirements.
For the purpose ofthis example, the top (compressIOn) flange IS assumed 10
be "restrained laterally and prevented from rotating. The plate gmler IS to be
fabncnted from grade 43C steel.
20 kNlm
25 kNlm
i ! i ! I t
16500
I I
240 kN
1 kN

1,5500 :

1012 kN
7442 kNlm
1540




















i n








x 0 . 2 6 5 2 5










- i -

W = P v [ B D 2 ( B


x
= 2 3 . 4 m m = 4 3 0













( i ) W E L D W E B / F L A N G E U N C T I O N

m m x 2 S m m p l a t e




m m F W

















126 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO SS 5950
(a) Factored loading
column load - dead
- Imposed
u.d.!. - dead (including SW)
- Imposed
1.4 x 240 =J36kN
1.6 x450 =720kN
1.4 x 20
1.6 x 25
= 28kN/m
=40kN/m
(b) Moment and shear force
(c)
clame 4.4.2.2
clause 4.4.2.3
clause 4.2.3
The distributIOns of bending moment and shear force ill the simply supported
plate girder can readily be determmed by conventional elastic methods and
arc shown In Fig. 11.4.
Shear capacity
There arc two deSign reqUIrements regnrding tbe minImum web thickness for
the condition of no mtermediate sliffeners, I.e.
for servH:eability:
dlt :; 250
to avoid flange buckling:
till'; 250 (345Ip;;)
where P;f IS the deSign strength of the compressIOn flange. As the web is to
be deliberately made thick, I.e. d/t < 63, these requIrements are
automatically complied with. A qUick estunate of the mlmmum web
thickness can be denved usmg the overall depth of the seclion (D), I.e.
f?: 1500/63 =23.8 mm
From the relevant table for piates m Table 11.1 b, the nearest appropriate plate
thickness for the web IS 25 mm.
When the web IS thick, then the moment capacity for a plate girder IS
calculllled according to clause 4.2.5 or 4.2.6 depending on the magrurude of.
the shear load coexistent with maximum moment, I.e. 1166 kN. The shear
capaCity of a web of a built-up sectIOn IS defined as:
P,,=O.6 p;. A"
where A,,= Id. A good estimate of the shear capacIty of the web can be
obtamed by subshtutmg the ovemll depth of the gtrder (D) for d. which IS
unknown at this stage:
P,,=0.6 x 0.265 x 25 x 1500=5962kN
and as
F" $. 0.6 p... I.e. 1l66kN < 3577kN
clause 4.2.5 Then the member has a 'Iow shear load'. Note that the use of D instead of
d does not affect the outcome of this deSign check.
1
I'
PLATE GIRDERS 127
(d) Moment capacity
dause 4.2.5
In order to maXimize Its moment capaCity, the cross-sectIOn of the plate
girder should be proporttoned so as satisfY the reqUirements for a compact
sectIOn. The moment capacity for a compact piate girder with a thick web IS
given by:
Mcx=pyS" but 1.2 Py 2 .. or YPy 2" if S> 1.22.%
BS table 7 The bIT rallo for the outstand of the compreSSIOn flange for a compact
built-up section should not exceed 8.5, and assummg that the deSign strength
py IS 265 N/mm:?, then B ::;(17.3T -I- t). The plastiC moment capacity ofa plate
gmler IS:
Ma =Py [BD '-(B -I)(D -2T)'Jl4
hence
7442 ';0.265[(17.3T+25)1500'-(l7.3T)(1500 - 2T)'J/(4 x IQ')
Solvmg this equatlOn gtves T=23.4 mm and hence B =430 mm. Note that
the assumption regarding Py IS correct. Select 450 mm x 25 mm from the
range of wide Hats gIven IU Table l!.l(a) for the flanges. from which It
follows that the web size must be 1450mmx 25nuu. The actual plastiC
moment capacity of the plate gIrder IS
.11= =0.265[(450)1500'-(425)1450')/(4 x 10')
=0.265 x 29736
=7880kNm > 7442kNm
and L2py Z = 1.2 X 0.265450)1500
3
-(425)1450
3
]1(12 x 750 x 10
3
]
*..,=1.2xO.265fI8.59xl0
6
]1750 ,
= 7882 kNm > 7880 kNm
Therefore, the moment capacity of the deSign plate girder (7880 kNm) IS
adequate.
Use two 450 mmx25 mm wide flats
1450 mrnx25 mm plate
m WELD AT WEB/FLANGE JUNCTION
Next. the weld size required for the connection between the flanges and web
IS determined from the magmtude of the honzontul s-hear/mm at the web!
flange tnterface; assumtng a fillet weld on each side of the web,
FAfJ'l
qw =2J;-
= 1540(450 x 25)737.5/(2 x 18.59 x IQ') = 0.35kN/mm
Use 6 mm FW
An exammatlOn of Table Il.l reveals that both plates would need to be
spliced, as the appropnate maximum lengths available from the rolling mills
(flanges - IS m ; web - 19 m) are less than the overall length of Ihe plate

















































'LV ;:, r NUl,.. I UHAL II:;I:;.LWUB!< DESIGN TO 85 5950
girder. If the glfder can be transported as one unit, then make a welded Shop
,splice about 18m from nght-hand end, the welds being full strength butts. On
! the other hand, irthe girder has to be delivered in hvo parts owing to transport
consideratIOns, then make a bolted site splice near the centre of the girder.
The use of numencal controlled cuttmg mac1lines In the modem fabncatton
shops would mminuze any wastage, by utilizing the plate Offcllts to provide
stiffeners and other plate components for Ihis girder and other proJects.
(e) lateral buckling
,
;
According to the deSign brief, the compression flange of the gm:l:er IS
restramed laterally and therefore there IS DO need for a lateral torsIOnal
buckling check to be undertaken. If the flange had not been restrained, then
the.recommendatlOns of section 4.3, BS 5950 must be satisfied.
(f) Check bearing capacity and buckling resistance of web
At pomts of concentrated applied load and support reactions the web of a
plate girder must be cheCked for local web bennng and web buckling. If
necessary, load carrymg stiffeners must be Introduced to prevent these fonns
of local failure. The deSign checks are snniiar to those applied to unIversal
beams, as outlined in SectIOn 5.3, Example 9.
(0 AT POSITION OF APPLIED COLUMN LOAD
F,= 1056kN
clal1se 4.5.3
clause 4.5.2.1
acting m the plane of the web oflbe plate girder, i.e. no moment generated in
stiffeners. Assummg that the column base (supported by Ule compression
flange) provides a minimum stiff beanng of 203 mm, then the bennng
capacity of the unstiffened web at the junction of the web/flange is:
P = (b, +n 2) CPyw
=[203 +2.5(2 x 25)J x 25 x 0.265 =2170 kN
The associated buckling resistance (P
w
) is dependent on the slenderness of
the unstiiTcned web and a deSign strength of 265 N/mm
2
;
A. =2.5d!t=2.5 x 1450/25
=71N/mm2
=(b, +1I!l
=[(203+2 x 750) x 25J 0.071
=J45
=3020kN
TIle web IS adequate nnd therefore requires no load carrying stiffeners under
the concentrated load.
PLATE GIRDERS 129
(iI) AT THE SUPPORTS
The web at the nght-hand support, at wh.ich the greater reachon OCcurs, I.e.
1540 kN. aiso needs to be checked for beanng and buckling. It IS assumed
that a minimum stiff beanng provided by support IS 254/2 mm:
clause 4.5.3 Poop =[254/2 +2.5(25)J x 25 x 0.265=2095 kN
=71 N/mm2 (as above)
clause 4.5.2.1 Po. = [(254/2 + 750) x 25J 0.071 = 1555 kN
The web is adequate at both supports and therefore reqUires no load beanl1g
stiffeners. In this example, the use of a thick web has eJimmated the use of
load bearing stiffeners, thereby mlOJmizmg fabncatlOn.
See Figs. 11.21 and 11.25 for Ule construction details of this girder.
11.4 EXAMPLE 22. DESIGN OF UNSTIFFENED PLATE GIRDER-
THIN WEBS
In Ule previous example, the bending moment was reSisted by the Whole
section, while the shear capacity of the thick web IS clearly unutilized; this IS
Similar to the deSign of wuversal beams. The difference between the
uDlversal sections and plate girders IS that Ihe designer can select the web
thickness.
The plate guder in Example 21 IS redesigned usmg a thin web plate, In
order to make the web work more effiCIently. This IS achieved by companng
the deSign shear load with the web shear reSIstance. baSed on the cnticai
shear strength (qcr) and not on the design strength (py) as IS the case for thick
webs. The nonnal design practice for plate gIrders With thin webs will be
employed, by which the bending moment and aXial load are assumed 10 be
reSisted wholly by the flanges and the shear load by the web.
(a) Moment capacity of flanges
clause 4.4.4.2a The design assumption that the moment IS carned only by the flanges
means that a good esllmate of flange area can be detennmed.
AntlclpatlOg that the flange thickness lies Within the range 16-40 mm, then
p,.=265 N/mmz and hence:
A
r
=7442 x 10'/(0.265 x 1500) = 18 720 mm'
BS table 6 The limiting bIT ratIO of 8.5& (compact sections) IS still applicable, hence
the apprmomate flange thickness IS given by:
T= J[l8720117.3J=32.9mm, say 35 mm
hence
B = 18720/35 = 535 mm, sny 550 nun
S I G N T O 6 5 5 9 5 0
P L A T E

= 0 . 2 6 5

7 4 7 3
o f w e b
; i g n




t h e r e f o r e
c o l u m n





q c r = 7 7 . 4 N / m m 2
V c r = 0 . 0 7 7 4 x l 4 3 0 x 1 2 . 5 = 1 3 8 4 k N





I C r = 0 . l l O x 1 4 3 0 x t 5 . 0 = 2 3 6 0 k N C
1 1 0 N / m m 2







( c ) L a t e r a l t o r s i o n a l b u c k l i n g
U s e 6 m n i F W



( d ) D e s i g n o f l o a d c a r r y i n g s t i f f e n e r s














O F A P P L I E D L O A D
T h e






- s e r v i c e a b i l i t y :


= 3 2 5



I



= 3 0 . 4


SIGN TO BS 5950
Mcx =0.265 X 550[1500
2
- 1430
2
]/4 =7473 kNrn >7442 kNm
resistance of web
;lgn reqUIrements regarding the mmimum web thickness for the
)n of no mtennediate stiffeners arc the same as In Example 21, I.e.
. serviceability: dll <;; 250
aVOid flange buckling: dll <;; 250 (345IPYi) = 325
te girders WhICh are not deSIgned for tenSIOn actIOn, the elastic cntIcal
Tength (qcr) for thm webs can be determmed from table 21, BS 5950,
g the d/! and the aid values. In the specml case of llnstiffened thm
!Id= 0:', therefore the approprIate shear strength for a gIven d/t is
1 the lasl column of table 21.
.vcb tiuckness (t) IS unknown at fhlS stage, hence It is suggested that a
ss approximately half that of the thick web (Example 21) tS selected,
j (=25/2) mm, which m fact 15 a rolled thickness, see Table I 1.1 (b).
;ults in a dll ratIO of ! 4301I2.5 = 114 250) and as 1< 16 mm, then an
ion of table 21(b) mdicates that,
Vcr =0.0774 x 1430x 12.5 = 1384kN
.veb thickness of 12.5 mm IS adequate for the part-length from the left-
!d 10 Just nght of the applied pomt load, I.e. > 1012 kN, but not for the
fer of the gIrder, i.C. < 1540 kN. Recalculate the shear reSIstance of the
)etween the applied load and the nght-hand end, usmg a 15mm plate,
1as a shear buckling resIstance of:
Va =0.110 x 1430 x 15.0=2360kN < 1540kN
dll=95 and qcr= 110 N/mm2
at a 20% Increase m web thickness produces a disproportlOnate
(70%) In shear buckling resistance.
n from Table 11.1 (b), the maxImum available length of pi ate, I.e.
- 23 m and web - 19 rn, means that the web plate has to be spliced
___________________________
(i) WELD AT WEBIFLANGE JUNCTION
The determinatIOn of the weld connectmg the flanges to the web follows the
same method as that outlined m Example 21.
Use 6mm FW
(c) Lateral torsional buckling
As ill Exampie 21: there IS no need for a lateral torstonai buckling check as
the compression flange IS restramed.
(d) Design of load carrying stiffeners
ExammatlOn of the detailed calculations for web beanng and buckling in
Example 21 would readily mdicate that a web thickness of 15 mm would
reqUIre load carrymg stiffeners at both the concentrated load and end reactIOn
pOSIttons,
The code recommends .. for fhe condition where the outer edge of these
stiffeners IS not stiffened (normal prachce), that the outstand of the stiffener
should not exceed 191
s
6. However, where the outstand IS between I31
s
6 and
ciause 4.5,1.2 19t
s
e, then the stiffener deSIgn must be based on a core area of the stiffeners
havmg an outstand of I3l
s
6. In denving the compresslve strength Po of
stiffeners for welded plate girders, the deSIgn strength (Py) IS the lesser value
clause 4.5.1.5 for the web or stiffener, less 20N/mm2.
(i) AT POSITION OF APPLIED COLUMN LOAD
The applied load, 1056 kN, actmg In the plane of the web of the plate girder,
i.e. no moment generated in stiffeners, Similar to the
Example 21, the beanng capacIty of the IInsliffened web IS:
clallse 4.5.3 Pc"p = [(203 + 2 x 35) x 15] 0.275 = 1126 kN > I 056 kN
The assOCIated buckling reSIstance (P
w
) IS dependent on the sienderness of
the unslijJened web and a deSign strength of 275 N/mm
2
clallse 4.5.2.1 A=2.5d!1=2.5 x 1430115=238
Pc = 30.4 N/mm2
P",=[(203+2x 750) x 15] 0.0304=777kN < 1056kN
':.ClearlYI stiffeners are necessary to prevent the local buckling failure of the
.,up}.. <>t 11-. .. .. --_ _-



d e s i g n





























/ 1 2 ( 2






















( H )
W E L D F O R L O A D C A R R Y I N G S T I F F E N E R S













































1 5 ( 3 9 0 )
1 0 3 5 0

1 2 x










1 1 . 8












U s e

1 3 2
S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R K O E S I G N T O 6 5 5 9 5 0


4 . 5 . 1 . 3
P L A T E G I R D E R s
1 3 3
C l a u s e
A T T H E S U P P O R T S
C l a u s e






/
132 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO SS 5950
Fig. 11.5 Load carrying

clause 4.5.1.5
(11)
clause 4.4.6.7
where 'A IS the area of the stiffener in contact with the flange and is the
desIgn strength of the stifTeners. In this example, the stiffeners are subject to
external load and therefore must extend 10 the flanges, though may not be
necessarily conneeted to them, unless an external load illduces tensI01I 111 t/re
siijJelfer. Normally the flanges and web would be welded together, uSing
seml- or fully automatic welding, before the stiffeners are 'fitted'. This means
that the Inside corners of the stiffeners need to be coped/chamfered, say
15 mm, at the Junction of the web and flange, so that they do not foul the webl
flange weld. Hence,
A =2 x (160-15) x 12=3480mm
2
A p,,10.8 =3480 x 0.27510.8 = 1196kN > 1056 kN
I.e. the stiffeners are adequate III beanng.
As the outsland oflhe stiffeners IS slightly greater than 13t
s
E (156), then the
local buckling resIstance of a stiffened web IS based on the stiffener core area
of 156 x 12 mm!, together with an effective web area limited to 2 x 20t.
A, = 12(2 x 156)+(2 x 20 x 15)15 = 12 744 mm'
and Ihe corresponding rndius of gyratIOn. about an axis parallel to the web, IS
r=
12(2 x 156 + 15)' + (2 x 20 x 15)15)
12x12744
= 52.7 mm
It IS noted that the flange 15 restTllmiagamst lateral movement and
rolallon. As a result of Ulis flange rcsW -, It e ' assumed that the column
base IS restrmned laterally. -, re . ngth (LE) oflhe load
carrying s!iffeners can be laken as O:1&id uccd deSign strength of
(Pv-20), where Py is the less;r 'ffener, hence the
reduced strength 15 255 N/mm . G1 U
,(=0;7 Ur=0.7 x 143015n19.1
pc=252N/mm1.
P$=Asp,.= 12744 x O.252=321OkN >I056kN
The buckling reSlstance of the stiffener IS more than satisfactory.
Use two 160 mm x 12 mm nats
WELD FOR LOAD CARRYING STIFFENERS
TIle mlnlmUm weld size reqUired for connectmg the stiffeners 10 the web,
assuming a weld on each side of the stiffener, IS determmed as follows:
=0.14kNlmm
PLATE GIRDERS 133
When the stiffener IS also subject to an external load, then the shear load/mm
must be added to the above shear load. The ioad resisted by the stiffeners IS
the difference between the applied load and the mmimum load that can be
earned safely by the unstiffened web.
q, =(1056-777)1[2 x (1430-2 x 15)] =0.10 kNlmm
q.,=q,+q,=0.14+0.1O =0.24kNlmm
Use 6mm FW
clause 4.5.1.5b Note that if the rotation of the flange had not been restralDcd, then L= L .
AJso, had the column base (compression member) not been iateraJ/y
restrained, then the stiffeners would needed to be designed as part of the
compression member and the interfacmg connectJQn cheCked for any effects
from strut actIOn. '
(Ui) AT THE SUPPORTS
clause 4.5. J.2
clause 4.5.2.1
TIle reachon (1540 !eN) at the nght-hand support of the member IS greater
than the applied point load. and therefore stiffcners are necessary. The
restramt conditions with respect to the flange apply also to this location. The
deSign of sliffeners at both supports follows a similar pattern as the prevlOus
design caicujattons, except that the effectJve web area 15 limited to only 20t.
Try a 450 mm x 15mm wide flat.
The outstand of the sliffeners IS equivalent to 14.5I
J
G, whicil means the core
area of the sliffeners is reduced 10 2 x 195 mm x 15 mm. The local buckling
resistance of the stiffened web IS based on this core area of the stiffeners, plus
effective web area of 20 mm x 15 mm.
A, 15(390) + (20 x 15)15 = 10 350 mm'
15(390)' + (20 x 15)15'
12 x 10350
r=
= 84.7 mm
Agam, as the flange is restramed agamst lateral movcment and rotation, the
effective iength (L1J of the load carrymg stifTeners IS O,7Land with a design
strength of 255N/mm
2
, the slcndemeSSlS:.
,( =0.7 x 1430184.7 = 11.8
bence
Pc =255N/mm
1
P,= 10350 x 0.255=2639 kN> 1540kN
The buckling resistance of the stiffener is satisfactory. Make the load
carrying stiffener for the left-hand end of girder the same slZe.Now check the
bearing capacity of the end stiffener, note that as the stiffener is welded to
end of girder there IS no copmg, I.e. full stiffener area can be used.
P<rip=450 X 15 x 0.275 = 1855 kN > 1470 kN
Use 450 mm >< 15 him wide fiut























































































134 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO SS 5950
clause 4.5.8
However. It mIght be deemed necessary tbat the ends of the plme girder be
lorslOnally restramed dunng transportatIOn and erectIOn. This can be
accomplished by checking the second moment of area of the
Sliffeners at the supports agamst the guidance given In BS 5950:
1$;::: 0.34 r:tsD lTc
where =0.006
=0.3/1
=3011'
for A 50
for 50 < A 100
for 100 < ).
Assummg Ihat there IS no restramt to the compreSSion flange for the noted
slIuahons, I.e. Le and laking the lower value arry for the girder, then:
1=225001225= lOO
hence
Is 2: 0.34 x (0.3/100) x 1500) x 35 = 12 050 cm"
now
I.e. change end stiffeners to 450mmx20mm flats (/I=15200cm\
(iv) WELD FOR END STIFFENERS
Full strength bun weld
/
-=--=--=-=-rrF==;;;j
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
I 'H. __ .... "".
:J
:r----n
I' 't
tlJ
Fig. 11.6 End beanng
stiffener
Finally, calculale the size of the welds connectmg the sliffeners to the web,
noting that the web IS connected on one side of the stiffener. The minimum
weld size required for connectmg the stiffeners to the web, assummg a weJd
on each side of stiffener, IS delennmed as follows:
q, = 15'/[2 x 5 x (450- 15)/2] =O.IOkN/mm
In addition, the stiffener has to resist the difference m ioad between the
reaction and the mmnTIum load carned by the unstiffened web when buckling
or beanng IS taken mto consideratIOn. Assume a stiffbeanng 254/2 = 127 mm
and with ,( = 238:
p" = 30.4 N/mm
1
P .. =[(127+750)15] O.0304=400kN
The support reactIOn Induces an externa! load to the stiffener, nnd is the
difference between the load carned by an unstiffened web and the reactIOn,
therefore the additional shear loadfmm IS
q, =(1540-400)/[2 x(l430-2 x 15)] =0.41 kN/mm
qw =ql +ql =0.10+0.41 =0.51 kN/mm
Use 6mm FW
See Figs. 11.22 and 11.25 for constructIOn arrangement of this gIrder.
.

::'
0',

,
:;:
I
f,
,


)1
l
i,
'J
11.5
clause 4.4.6.4
PLATE GIRDERS 135
DESIGN OF STIFFENED PLATE GIRDER
It IS the nonnal practice m the Untied Kingdom to use mtennediate stiffeners,
particularly for large span or heavily loaded plale girders. The use of the
mtennediale transverse sliffeners Improves the shear capacity of a thill web,
and generally lends 10 a reductlOn In the web thickness. compared with the
corresponding unstiffened web thickness, as Example 23 will demonstrate.
The spacing of the tntennediate stiffeners controls the cntical shear
strenglh of the web. The deSigner should attempt to minimiZe web thickness
without Ihe use of loo many stiffeners, otherwise the fabncallon cost could
become uneconomic. Usually aid rallos of about J.4 will lead to economic
constructIOn; however, practical considerations may dictate a wider spacing.
The outstaod of intennediate stiffeners should comply with the same
reqUirements as load beanng stiffeners, as outlined in Sec lion 11.4(0).
Intennediate stiffeners are reqUIred ID have a minimum stiffuess aboUl the
centre of the web, I.e. when
ald< 1.41, then II?:.1.5 dJ/Jla
1
aid?. 1.41, then lI?. 0.75 dl)
where liS the minimum thickness reqUired for the actual spacmg a, IISl1lg the
lenslOn field aC/IOII, see Example 24.
No Increase In the minimum stiffuess IS reqUired when the stiffener IS
subjected only to transverse loads in plane of the web. However, if the
stiffener IS subject to lateral forces or a net moment anslng from transverse
lond(s) acting eccenlnc to the piane of the web, then the minimum value
needs to be Increased to satisfy the guidance outlined in clause 4.4.6.5, BS
5950.
clallse 4.4.6.6 Intennediate stiffeners not subject to external loads or-momeniS should
be checked for a stiffener force (Fq):
Fq=V-VI.s; .Pq
where V is the maximum shear III the web adjacent 10 the stiffener.
VI IS the shear buckling resistance of the web panel lqcr).
deSigned without using tensIOn field action
P
q
IS the buckling reSistance of an Iniennediate stiffener
When miennediale stiffeners, or load carlJ'l1lg stifJelterS which a/so aci as
mtermediate slijJeners, are subject to externallonds and moments, they must
satls(v the follOWing mteractlOn expressIOn:
Fq -Ft F;r !If,
---' +-+-<
P
q
p. Ai
rs
-
where Fq IS the stiffener force previously defined
F" IS the external load or reaction
P:r IS the buckling reSistance of loud carrymg sliffener
Jd
I
IS the moment on stiffener due 10 eccentnc applied load
IS the elastic moment capacity of the stiffener
and if Fq < Fx. then (FtI-F.r) IS made zero.
I
l i b S T R U C T U R A L
S T E E L W O R K D E S I G N T O a s 5 9 5 0
5 2 2
I I 6
'
1 1 l o a d s





a l o n g















r o t a t i o n a l l y

n o t

0


2 3 D E S I G N O F S T I F F E N E D P L A T E G I R D E R

E X C L U D I N G T E N S I O N F I E L D A C T I O N
E x a m p l e i s t o

w e b t h i c k n e s s






R e f e r e n c e E x a m p i e
i s
P L A T E G I R D E R S
1 3 7
s t i f f e n e r
m





f o r





t h e


t h e


= 1 1 5







7 5

u n
X 1 2 5 = l 6 8 0 k N >



& d = 3 0 0 0 / 1 4 3 0 2 I






c a n





i s
F r o m c a l c u l a t i o n s
i t s e e n



l e n g t h g i r d e r t h e n



s p l i c e

M o m e n t c a p a c i t y o f f l a n g e s
A g a i n





n g h t
E x a m p l e t h e n s t i f f e n e d w e b
t o


m a t e n a l




h a n d


n n n i m u m


( b )
E x a m p l e 2 2

r e s I s t a n c e o f w e b
T h e
r e g a r d i n g

a r e f r o m e x a m p l e s



x 1 0 )

N / m m
U s i n g

t h e

o b t a i n e d t a b l e 1 ( b )
I






i a d i r
t o
2 5 0


m




t o








a c c e p t a b l e

l o c a t i o n t h e

s t i f f e n e r

t h e

' j
1 8 0 0 / 1 4 3 0 = 1
I I d e c i s i o n s





3 -
1 Jb STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO BS 5950
ciouse 4.5.2.2
11.6
(a)
(b)
douse 4.4.2.2
clause 4.4.2.3
... -_.
If loads or reactions are applied direct or through a flange, in between web
stiffeners, then the guidance gtven m clause 4.5.2.2. BS 5950 must be
satisfied with respect to the stress, aiong the compression edge of the
appropnale web paneL This stress is a combinatton of any applied uniform
load (kN/m) acting along the flange plus any point loads or distributed loads
shorter than the smaller panel dimenSIOn, divided by this smaller dimenSIOn
all divided by the appropriate web thickness. The stress,[..d, must not eXCeed
the compressIOn strength, Pd, which IS dependent on whether or not the
compressIOn flange IS restramed against rotation relative to flange:
rotatjonaJly restrained
[
2 J E
P,d 2.75 + In) --,
(a u- Id/I)
not rotahonatly restTalOed
[
2 1 E
P" 1.0 + la/d)'J Id/I)'
EXAMPLE 23. DESIGN OF STIFFENED PLATE GIRDER-
EXCLUDING TENSION FIELD ACTION
Example 22 IS redeSigned here to illustrate the effect on the web thickness
when mtennediate stiffene.rn are used. This partIcular plate gtrder deSign does
not use tension field actton. Any additional benefit that accrues from utilizmg
this structural actIon IS demonstrated in Example 24. Reference 10 Example
22 IS advisable.
,
!
Moment capacity of flanges
Again, assummg that the flanges resist oniy the moment, then the deSign of
the flanges IS identical to that for Example 22, I.e. 550 mm x 35 mm,
Shear resistance of web
The design requtrements regarding the mimmum thickness for webs using
mtennediate stifTeners are different from those used in prevIOus examples, i.e.
for serviceability: aid> j.O
aid So LO
to avoid flange buckling: aid> 1.5
aid $1.5
dlt < 250
dJI S 250/(alcf)5
dll So 250 (345/"Yf)
dll So 250 (455/p,,)O.5
Beanng JIl mind the overall girder dimenSIOns and the locatlOn of the
ioad canymg stiffener at the ends and under the applied load (see Fig.
11.3), preliminary deciSIOns must be made with respect to the spacmg of
the intennediate stiffeners. Applymg the suggested aJd= 1.4 produces a

PLATE GIRDERS 137
stiffener spacing of 2.0 m. The part of the girder SUbjected la the largest
shear loading, i.e. between the nght-hand end and at the applied load
position, is 5.5 m long. The spacmg of 2 m would not therefore be practical
for that length. It may be more appropnate to place an mtennediate
stiffener 2.5 m ftom the nght-hand end, l.e. 3 m from the applied load. For
the stiffened girder 10 be economiC, compared with the Wlstiffened gIrder,
the web thickness must be reduced, i.e. try 12.5 mm. This results In a
value of dlJ = 1430/12.5 = 115, which satisfies the mInimum serviceability
and flange buckling cnterion of dJJ S; 250.
Check the web panel adjacent to end;
1.75
qc,.=94 N/mm2
x 1430 x 12.5 1680 kN > 1540kN
Check the web panel adjacent applied load:
2.1
qcr = 89 N/mm
2
x 1430 x 1590kN > 1370kN
11.7 RH portIOn of gIrder .
(stiffener spacing)- A thmner web plale (say JOmm) can be shown to be madequale for this part-
length.
The maximum shear 10 the web panel adjacent to left-hand end is 1012 kN.
From the calculatIons in Exampie 22, It can be seen that the shear resistance
BS table 21b of an unstiffened 12.5 mm plate (condition aJd= co) IS 1384 kN. That IS, if a
unifonn web of thickness 12.5 mm IS used along the length oflhe girder, then
the part-length from the left-hand end to the applied load need not be
stiffened. Alternatively, as a splice is reqUired near the pomt load (6 m from
nght-hand end, see Examp-Ie 2), then a stiffened 10 mm web plate could
prove to be more economIC, when the net cost of stiffener fabricatJon agalllsl
Ihat of materia'! savmg IS evaluated. In order to detennllle the number of
mtennediate stiffeners required in the left-hand partAiength, estimate the
Il1lntmum spacing for the m!Domum shear load within that length:
lviinimum shear strength reqUired for end panel
1012 x 10'1(1430 x 10)
=71 N/mm
2
Using the appropnate dlt value (143), the maXImum aid to produce tbis
strength can be obtamed from table 2I(b), BS 5950, Le. 1.3, wbich
represents a maXImum spacmg of 1.86m. Therefore, pJace the first
mtermediate stiffener 1.8 m from left-hand end, and then calCUlate the
maXImum shear m the adjacent panel and apply the same procedure to
establish the spacmg of the next stiffener, etc. Based on these caiculatlOns, Jt
IS proposed Ihat the spacing of the stiffeners IS 1.8 m, 2.3 m, 4.0 m and 8.4 m.
Check that these spacmgs are acceptable:
Left-hand end panel:
aid 1800/1430 1.26,
qcr = 74.5 N/nun
2
Vcr = 1065 kN > 1012kN












































138 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO BS 5950
Fig. 11.8 LH end of girder
(sti ffener spacmg)
clause 4.5.2.2
1800 4000 , I
1012 890 7J3 618
Second panel from left-hand end;
aid =230011430= 1.61
qCr = 62.9 N/mm:!
Vcr = 899 kN > 890 kN
Third panel from left-hand end:
aid =400011430=2.8
qcr = 53.8 N/mm:!
= 769 kN > 733 kN
The last panel, 8.4 m long, Immediately left of the applied pOIm load, has to
resist a maximum shear of 618 kN, which generates a shear stress of 43.2
Nlmm
2
This shear stress IS less than the value of qrr for an Ilnslif/ened 10 mm
web, Le. 49.2N/mm
2
(see lasi column of table 2l(b), BS 5950). Structurally,
there IS no need for an additionai stiffener to reduce the panel length.
However, It IS probably advisable to Introduce another mtennediate stiffener,
so as 10 subdivide the pane! mto two equal panels. This additional stiffener
will help to reduce any flange and web distortIOn dunng transportatIOn and
erectIOn OWing 10 the thin web.
Note that when considenng the shear buckling reSistance of those web
panels bounded on one side by a load carrymg stiffener, the Implication IS
that these stiffeners also act as mtermediate stiffeners and must be deSigned
accordingly.
FinaHy, as the unifonnly distributed lond (68kN/m) IS applied directly to
the flange, then a check On the web between the stiffeners.ls necessary. The
maximum value of the compreSSlDn stress acting on the edge of the web for
this example IS obtnlned by usmg the thinner plate Size, I.e.
hd=68/10=6.8N/mm
2
On other hand, the mlOimum value of compressIOn strength IS obtamed by
taking the largest stiffener spacmg. Taking mto account thnt In this exampie,
the flange IS rotatlonaUy restrumed:
PnI = [275 +
= 29.9N/mm
1
The edge of the web on the compression side IS satisfactory.

:-,.. ;,..",
.....
I
PLATE GIRDERS 139
Use two 550 mm x35 mm wide fiats
1430mmx12.5mm plate and
1430 mmx 10 mm pi:lte
(i) WELD AT WEB/FLANGE JUNCTION
Calculation for the weld connectmg the flanges to the web IS as per Example
21, and results In qw= 0,46 kN/mm.
Use6mmFW
(c) Lateral torsional buckling
(d)
clause 4.4.6.4
cimtse 4.4.6.6
,

As In Example 21, there IS no need for a lateral torSIOnal buckling check as
the deSign boef states that the compressIOn flange IS restrained.
Design of Intermediate stiffeners
Exammmg the aid ratios for the different panels shows that only the left-hand
end panel has a value less than I A I (= /2). Therefore, both cntena for the
minimum stiffness apply. USing the calculated web thicknesses produces safe
estimates of tile mlfllmum stiffness (t should be based on tensIOn field actIOn as
detennlned in Example 24):
LH end panel
remammg panels
Try 75 mm x 10 mm flats.
1, > I.5 (1430 x 10)'1(1.800)' = 135 cm'
i$>O,75x1430x12.5j =2IOcm
4
The outstand of the stiffener (75 mm) IS less than 131$ (130 mm).
i.= 10 (2 x 75 + 10))/(12 x 10
4
)=341 cm
4
> 210 cm
4
Check the stiffener force (Fq) does not exceed the buckling reSistance of the
stiffener (P
q
) for the mtennediate stiffener located In the nght-hand part-
iength (Py=255N/mm
2
);
r-------,--,----,-
10(2 x 75 + 12.5) + (20 x 12.5)12.5
J
r=
12[(10(2 x 75) + (20 x 12.5)2.51
=28.0mm
A. =0.7 x 1430128.0=36
Pr: =218N/mm
2
P
q
=4625 x 0.218 = 1008 kN
V = 1370kN (shear at stiffener posdion, see Fig. IIA)
V.t =qr:r dl (choose lower qcr of the adjacent paneis)
I: Fig. 11.9 Intermediate stiffener
i ;
=0.089 x 1430 x 12.5 = 1591 kN
Fq = V- V
J
=(I370-1591) --> 0'5: P'l




t o i t .


4 . 4 , 6 . 7 c a n a t d i s t a n c e
t h i s

















( i )
W E L D F O R I N T E R M E D I A T E S T I F F E N E R S






= 1 2 . 5 2 1 ( 2 x 5 x 7 5 ) = 0 . 2 1 k N / m m










T h e






c l a u s e 4 . 5 . 3



w e b

4 . 5 . 2 . 1
A = 2 . 5 & t = 2 . 5 i 4 3 0 / 1 2 . 5 = 2 8 6







P L A T E G I R D E R S 1 4 1
c l a u s e 4 . 5 . 1 . 2



s t i f f e n e r

x























4 . 4 . 6 . 6




1 1 6 6

= V V , l 1 6 6 7 0 3 x 4 6 3 k . N





c l a u s e 4 . 5 . 4 . 2 T h e













A l s o ,







f l V r i )
U s e

c l a u s e 4 . 5 . 2 . 5 1 ,
.... ,. ' ................ , ,nL. ..... , UC.:JI\;JI>I I U C;:'
Intennediate sliffeners should extend to the compresSJOn flange, but Dot
necessarily be connected 10 It. Stiffeners not subject to external load or
dause 4.4.6.7 moment can be lenninated at a distance of about 4t from the tension flange.
clause 4.5.3
clause 4.5.2.1
For this example, taking the smallest web thickness (l 0 mm), then stiffener
can end within 40 mm of flange. Note that intennediate stiffeners at any
specific position can consist of a pmr of stiffeners placed symmetrically about
the plane of the web or a smgle stiffener placed on one side of the web. The
latter is effective for the ouler girders of a bridge when slOgle stiffeners are
welded to the Inner face oflhe web to give the girder an appearance of being
unstiffened when Viewed by the public.
The arrangement of the intermediate stiffeners IS given in Fig. J 1.23.
(i) WELD FOR INTERMEDIATE STIFFENERS
For mtennediate stifTeners subject to no external loading, the minimum weld
size required for connecting the stiffeners to the web, assuming a weld on
each side of the stiffener, is delennined as follows:
q, = 12.5'1(2 x 5 x 75)= 0.21 kN/mm
Use 6mm FW
(e) : Design of load carrying stlfTeners
i
Exru11lnaiion of the detailed calculations for web beanng and buckling m
Example 21 would readily mdicate that a web thickness of 12.5 mm requires
load carrying stiffeners at both the concentrated load and end reaction
pOSitions.
(I) AT POSITION OF APPLIED COLLlMN LOAD
The applied load, 1056 kN, acts in the piane of the web of the plate glfder, I.e,
no moment 15 generated in stjITener5. Similar to the calculations outlined in
Example 2 I, the beanng capacity of the unstiffened web is:
P
Orip
= [(20) +2 x 35) x 12.51 0.275 =938 kN
The aSSOCiated buckJing reSIstance (P.,.) -IS ,dependent on tbe sienderness of
the unsliJJened web and a deSign strength of 275 N/mml,
A=2.5d!t=2.5 x 1430/12.5=286
pc=22.0N/mm
2
P
w
=[(203+2 x 750) x 12.5J 0.022=468 kN
Clearly, stiffeners are necessary 10 prevent Ule local beanng andbuckling
failure of the web at the position of the pomt load.
Try a pair of J60mm x 12mm flats.
dause 4.5.1.2
clause 4.5.1.5
clause 4.4.6.6
clause 4.5.4.2
clause 4.5. J .5b
PLATE GIRDERS 141
As the outstand of the stiffeners 15 slightly greater than 13(,1 (56), the
local buckJing resistance ofa stiffened web IS based on a Stiffener core area of
156 x 12 mm
2
, together with an effective web area linllted to 2 x 20t.
As =(2 x 156 x 12)+(2 x 20 x 12.5)=4244 mm
2
r=
12(2 x 156 + 12.5)' + (2 x 20.x 12.5)12.5'
12 x 4244
= 89.8mm
As the flange IS restramed agaInst lateral movement and rotation and by
ImpJicatl0n the coiwnn base, the effective length of the stiffeners can be
taken as 0.7 L. With a reduced deSign strength of 255 N/mm2, i.e. (py - 20),
then:
A=O.7Ur=O.1 x 1430/89.8 = tU
pr = 255 N/mm
2
P" =A
s
Pc=4244 X 0.255 = 1082 k:N
When calculatmg Ihe shear resistance of panel adjacent to the load carrymg
stiffener, there IS the unplied assumption that the stiffener acts as an
mtennediate stiffener. Therefore, an additional cheCk must be made usmg the
mteraction expressIOn prevIOusly noted. Using the lesser entkal silear
resistance of the two adjacent panels and assuming that the panel has a
unifonn IOmm plate, Le. Ignore the splice, then:
Vs =0.0492 x i430x IO=703kN
V = 1166 (see Fig. 11.4)
F, = V- V,= 1166-703 =463 kN
=463-1056-+0
As there is no moment actmg on the stiffener, Ms = 0 then the mteracllOn
expressIOn reduces to:
F,IP,= 1056/1082=0.98 < I
The bearing capacity for load carrymg web stiffeners is obtamed, based on
the stiffeners bemg coped/chamfered (J 5 mm) at the mSIde corner:
<APv/O.8
A =2x(l60-15)x 12=3480mm
1
Ap"/0.8 =3480x0.27510.8=1196kN> 1056kN
The buckling resistance and beanng capacity of the stiffened web IS
satisfactory.
Use hvo 160 mm x 12 mm tlats
Note that if the rotatIOn of the flange had not been restramed, then
L=L. Also, had the column base (compressIOn member) not been laterally
restramed, then the stiffeners would need to be designed as part of the
compression member and the interfacing connection cheCked for any effects
from strut aclton.






































































142 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO SS 5950
elm/se 4.4.6.7
IH) WELD FOR LOAD CARRYING STIFFENER
The mlmmum weld size reqUired for connecting the stiffeners to the web,
assummg a weld on each side of the stiffener, IS detenmned as follows:
In addition, there IS the external load to be taken mlo account:
q, =(1166-703)/[2 x (1430-2 x IS)} =0.17 kN/mm
q,. =q, +q,=0.10+0.17 =0.27 kN/mm
(Hi) AT THE SUPPORTS
Use 6mm FW
Load carrymg sliffeners are reqUired at both ends of the girder. Their deSign IS
based on the worse Sl!uatlOn, I.e. the reactIOn (1540 kN) at the nght-hnnd
support. The restramt conditions with respect to the flange apply also to this
location. The deSign of these stiffeners at both supports follows a Similar
pattern as the deSign calculatIOns noted in Example 22.
Try a 450 mm x 15mm wide flat.
The olllstand ofthe stiffeners IS equivalent 10 which means the core area
of the sliffeners IS reduced to 2 x 195 mm x 15 mm. The local buckling
reSlslance of the stiffened web IS based on this core area of the stiffeners,
clause 4.j.l.2 plus an effective web area of20 mm x 12.5 mm.
clause 4.5.2.1
r=
12 x 6100
= 116mm
Agam, as the flange IS restramed agamst lateral movement and rotation, the
effective length (LE) of the load carrymg stiffeners IS 0.7L and with a deSign
strength of255 N/mm
2
, the slenderness IS:
hence
A=0.7 x 1430/116=8.6
Pc =255N/mm:!
P, =6100 x 0.25S= IS50kN
F = 1540-1680 --+ 0
Af.=O
Therefore, the mierachon fonnula becomes;
F./P..,=15401l550=0.994 < I
clause 4.5.3
PLATE GIRDERS 143
The buckling reSistance of the stiffener IS satisfactory. [I.lake the load
beanng stiffener for the left-hand end of gIrder the same Size. Now check the
beanng capacity of the end stiffener; note that as the stiffener IS welded 10
end of girder there IS no copmg, I.e. the full stiffener area can be used.
P crip = 450 x 15 x 0.27510.8 = 2320 kN > 15<10 kN
Use 450 nun x 15 mm wide nat
Should the ends oflhe glTder be reqUired to be torslOnally restramed dunng
transportatIOn and erectton, then Ihe end stiffeners would need to be changed
10 450 mm x 20 mm fiats, see last paragranh, SectIOn 11 A(d) for details.
(Iv) WELD FOR END STIFFENERS
elmlse 4.4.6.7
Minmmm weld is given by:
q, = 125'/[S x (42S-1251i2}=0.IS kN/mm
Asswmng a stiff beanng of 127 mm (= 254/2) with ;t = 286 then the
mimmum load .capacity for an IIl1stifJelled web: ;
pc=22N/mm
2
0.022=241 kN.
In addition, the support reaction mduces a load into Ihe stiffener, and is the
difference between the load earned by an unstiffened web and the reactIOn,
therefore the additional shear load/mm IS:
q, =OS40-241)/[2 x (1430-2 x IS)} =OA6kN/mm
Cl =Qt+Q2=0.15+0A6 =0.61 kN/mm
Use 6mm FW
See Figs. 11.23 and 1l.25 for the constructIOn detaiis of this gIrder.
I L7 DESIGN OF GIRDER INCLUDING TENSION FIELD ACTION
Note (hat this method of deSign cannot be applied to gal/tlJ' girders. TIle malO
advance In plate glfder deSign has been the mtroductlOn of tenSIOn field
actIOn, whereby the benefit accrued from the post-budded strength of the web
can be utilized. Generally, any plate element subject to a dommant sheanng
actIOn, such as a web of a plate girder, IS deemed to have 'failed', when tile
magmlude of the shear causes It to buckle out of plane owmg 10 the
compression component within the shear field. However, if the edges of the
plate element are remforced, say like a web panel in a stiffened plate girder,
then that portIOn of the panel, which IS parallel to the tenSIOn component,
contmues to resist addilional shear load. The web no longer has any strength
m the direclton parallel to the compreSSion direcllon, as It has buckled. In
effect, the plate gIrder behaves like an N-type lattice girder, with the flanges
acting as the lap and bottom chords and the 'tension components' of the web
actmg as pseudo diagonal members, as shown In Fig. 11.10.

P L A T E G i R D E R S 1 4 5
T h e


t o


v ,
R i j = H q / 2






.





F i g .
















L










F i g .






t h e




. ' s p a n n i n g


m o m e n t






F I g .



















U T I L I Z I N G

T h e





1 4 4
S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R t c D E S I G N r o a s 5 9 5 0
F i g . 1 1 . 1 0 T e n s i o n





















t h e n






+ q j - V k 4 d r







7 ) 8 7 1
0 . 2 5 B T 2 p , f
A i d , , , ,













r e q u t r e d










g e , .
t h e







144 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO BS 5950
fig. 11.10 TenslOlI field
IlCllOn
clause 4.4.5.4.1
clause 4.4.5.4.1
dause 4.4.5.4.4
Designers are allowed 10 take advantage of this extra web strength, and
thereby reduce the web thickness, I.e. the baSIC shear reSistance of a web
panel utilizing the tensIOn field aClion is defined as:
where
Vb=qb dt
qb IS Ihe baSIC shear strength, which IS a function of d/t and aid,
and is obtained from the appropnate table 22, BS 5950
The mean longitudinal stress fis the stress m the smaller flange (associated
with the web panel being considered) due 10 tbe moment and/or axtni load. If
this flange plate IS not fully stressed (f < Py). then additional shear resistance
can be genemted from this reserve of flange strength (Py-f), glVing a
combined shear resistance for the web panel of:
Vb = (qb +qr/Kf)dr but 0.61',dr
! K
f
= M
pf
(I _L')
4Mpw P.vf
where q! is the flange dependent shear strength bemg a fUnctIOn of d/t and
aid, and 'IS oblamed from the appropriate table 23. BS 5950
/=M/[(D-T)B1J+fa (axial load stress)
Mp! =O.25BT
2
py!
Mp", = 0.25td
2
py...
Note that the parameter Kfis dependent on the maximum moment that exists
In the web panel bemg considered.
The disadvantage of tension field action IS that In order to develop the
post-buckled strength of the web. the top corners at the ends of the girder
have 10 be prevented from being pulled inwards, under the actIOn of the
diagonal tenSlOn forces. TIlis is achieved by deSigning the 'ends' to act as
anchors. The anchor force (Hq) reqUired to produce the necessary ngidity
at the ends IS generated as a direct result of the tension field action, and is
defined as:
Hq = 0.75dt
P
)'JI _ qcr:......
0.6py
If er.. < qb), then this force Hq can be multiplied by If.,-qcr)l(qb-qcr),
where:
Iv IS the applied shear stress
qb is the basic shear strength
qcr IS the critical shear strength ..,
tile values ofh, qb and qcrshould be based on the conditions that appertain to
nearest panei to tile end which utilizes tenSIon field actton, i.e. represented by
the shaded areas In the Figs. 11.11-13 mc!uSlve.
clause 4.4.5.4.2
clause 4.4.5.4.3
Enrl panel rCSlsts
tensIOn field action
Fig. 11.13 End post rcsisls
tenSion field acllon
clause 4.4.5.5
PLATE GIRDERS 145
The anchor force, Hq, tnduces a longitudinai shear force, R
IJ
, and moment,
MIJ. which have to be reSisted by Ihe end-posVstiffeners and are defined as:
RIJ=H/2
MIJ=H
q
d/lO
There are three different methods by which Ihe ends of the girder can
be designed to restst the additional forces mduced by the anchor force:


The end panels are designed wllhollt tensIOn field actIOn, though the
remainder of the panels are deSigned for tensIOn field aetlOn, see
Fig. 11. J I. In addition, these end panels have to be deSigned as a
beam spannmg behveen the flanges for a shear force Rifand a
moment MtJ- The end stiffener must be deSigned to resist Ihe end
reaction plus the compressIOn force due to the moment Atl/' This
method has the advantage of relal1veiy stiff end panels, but at the
expense of smaller end panels or tilicker webs III the end panels,
depending on practlcal and fabncation consideratIOns.
The end panels are deSIgned to utilize tensIOn field acllon. There are
two alternatIves for the deSign of the end DOSI(5);
- the end post compnses a single stiffener, see Fig. 11.12: the
end posl must be deSigned to resist the end reactIOn plus a
moment equal to Mif This results in substantml end sliffeners,
but the width and thickness of the end post must not exceed
those of the flange, otherwise the designer must resort 10 uSing
the fust method. The top of the end post must be connected by
full strength welds to the flange.
- the end post comprises a double stiffener, see Fig. 11.13: both
stiffeners of the end post must be checked as part of a beam
spanning between the flanges resisting a shear force RIJ and a
moment My- In addition, the inner stiffener (over tile support)
musl be deSigned for the compressIOn due to bearing (reactIOn).
This method reqUires suffiCient space beyond the centre of the
support member 10 extend the glrder to accommodate the
double stiffener.
The deSign of nny web panei with an openmg musl satisfy the
recommendations given in clause 4.15, BS 5950. In addition, for any panel
In which there IS an opening with a dimenSion greater than 10% of tbe
mmlmum panel dimenSion, that panel must be deSigned without utilizlOg
tensIOn field actIOn. However, the ndjacent panels can be deSigned WIth or
without the utilisatIOn of tensIOn field achon, as appropriate.
II.B EXAMPLE 24. DESIGN OF STIFFENED PLATE GIRDER -
UTILIZING TENSION FIELD ACTION
The deSign specificahon IS the same as for Example 21, with the plate guder
being deSigned utilizmg tenSIOn field actIOn.


E x a m p l e 2 2 . i . e .









































P L A T E G i n o E n s 1 4 7
U s i n g t h e n e x t p l a t e t h i c k n e s s ( 9 m m ) w o u l d s h o w t h a t t h e t h i r d p a n e l f a i t s t o
t h e s h e a r r e s i s t a n c e e n t e n o n . N o t e t h a t t h e r e t s v i r t u a l l y n o s h e a r











1 9 0 0 / 1 4 3 0 =
=
































e n d

1 1 . 1 7 E M & d i a g i a m s




146 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO 8S 5950
r
(a) Moment capacity of flanges
clause 4.4A.2a Agam, assummg that only the flanges resist the moment, then the desIgn
of the flanges IS identical to that for Example 22, Le. 550 mm x 35 mm.
clause 4.4.5.4. j
(b) Shear resistance of web
The design requirements regarding the mmlmum thickness for webs uSing
mtermediate stiffeners with respect 10 serviceability and local flange buckling
are outlined lO SectIOn 11.6(b), Example 23.
First consider the web m the nght-hand end panel, which cames a shear of
1540kN and a moment The magmtude of the moment actmg on this panel
can be defined only after the stiffener spacing has been decided. In order 10
make prelimmary deCISions regarding the spacmg of the mtermediate
stiffeners, use the same spacing for the girder designed in Example 23 as a
guide. Place the first mtemtediate stiffener 1.7 m from the end support;
therefore, the appropnale moment IS 2520 kNm. Beanng In mind that the web
plate m the prevIOus example (no tensIOn field actIOn) IS 12.5 mm
thick, check the adequacy of a ID mm plate, which gives dJr = 143:
aid = 1700/1430 = Ll9
qb = lO8 Nlmm
2
(table 22b)
q[ = 323 N/mm2 (table 23b)
j =(2520 x 10')/[(1500-35)550 x 35] +0 = 89N/mm'
Aip] =0.25 x 550 x 35
2
x 0.265 X 10-
3
=44.6 kNm
'Mp ... =0.25 x 10 x 1430
2
x 0.275 X 10-
3
= 1405 kNm
44.6 ( 89)
Kf = 4 x 1405 j - 265. = 0.00527
Vb =(108+323 JO.005 27)1430 x 10 x 10-
3
= 1880kN
Fig. 11.14 Stiffener posJtions
at RH end
< 0.6 x 0.275 x 1430 x 10 x 10-
3
=2360kN
Place another mtermediate stiffener 3.6 m from the support.
Check second panel from nght-hand end:
5103
7442
M=51O) kNm
ald= 1.33
44.6 ( 181)
K.r=4x 1405 1-
265
=0.00252
V
b
=(J02+302 JO.002 52)1430 x 10 x 1O-;J = 1675 kN
Check third panel from nght-hand end
M=7442kNm
ald= 1.33
K
r
=-.-- 1--. =0.00003
1'-----_/ SF -L2::.
1
1
n66 1295 1.124 1540
44.6 ( 264)
. 4 x \405 265
Fig. 11.1581\-1 & SF diagrnms V
b
=(!02+302JO.0000))1430 x ID x 10-
3
= 1482 kN
,gOO 110{l 1l!OO I 3100
Fig. 11.16 Stiffener posilions
tit LH end
lOll e53 733 5-13
Fig. 1 1.I 7 BM & SF diob'TamS
clause 4.5.2.2
PLATE GIRDERS 147
Using the next plate thiclrness (9 mm) would show that the third panel fails to
satisfY the shear resIstance cntenon. Note that there IS virtually no shear
contributIOn from the flange m the third panel, as the flange JS almost fully
stressed, I.e. 264 N/mm
2
.
Now considering the left-hand part-length, again assume a change In plate
thickness to the left of the point load and make the web 7 mm thick. Though the
stiffener spacing of the preVIOus example was used as a baSiS, It IS proposed that
the final intemtediate stiffener spacmg from the left-hand end is i.9 m, 2.2 m.
2.8 m and Ihen three equal panels of3.2m. The web panels need to be checked
withdll=204, which still satisfies tilesen!lceability and flange buckling cntena
of dJr
Check left-hand end panel:
M= 1800kNm F,= 1012kN
ald= 1900/14)0= 1.33
Kf = 4 (I - = 0.008 60
Vb =(77.1 +350JO.008 60)1430 x 7 x 10-
3
= 1071 kN
Check second panel from left-hand end:
M=3578kNm
aid = 2200!l430 = 1.54
Kr = 44.6 (I _ 127) = 0.00591
4 x 983 265.
Vb =(68.0+306JO.005 91)1430 x 7 x 10-) =916 kN
Check third panel from left-hand end:
M=5364kNm F,=733 kN
ald=2800/1430= 1.96
44.6 ( 190)
Kr =-- 1 -- = 0.00321
4 x 983 265
V
b
=(59.0+ 256 JO.0032I) 1430 x 7 x 10-
3
=735 kN
19nonng the flange contributIOn m the fourth panel, then Qb=59.0 N/mm2
{ == 590 kN) which IS more Ihan adequate for a shear of 543 kN.
Note that when considenng the shear buckling resistance of those web
panels bounded on one side by a load carrymg stiffener, the ImplicatIOn IS
that these stiffeners also act as intermediate stiffcners and must be deSigned
accordingly.
The unifonnly distributed load (68 kN/m) IS applicd directly to the flange,
and therefore a check on the web between the stiffeners becomes necessary.
The maximum value ofthc compresSiOn stress actmg on tile edge of the web for
this example IS obtamed by usmg the thinner plate Size, Le.
ied= 6817 = 9.7 N/mrn
2





1 2 0 5 x
( 3 3 0 0 /

= 4 2 . 2
( I )
W E L D A T W E B / F L A N G E J U N C T I O N



( c )
L a t e r a l t o r s i o n a l b u c k l i n g





( d )
D e s i g n o f i n t e r m e d i a t e s t i f i e n e r s



=
T h e r e f o r e ,






1 . 5 ( 1 4 3 0 x l o f f u 7 0 0 ) ' = 1 5 2
F o r


4 6
1 . 4 1

3 7 c m 4



x
c m 4





2 5 5 N / m m 2 ) :

1 0 ( 2 > <
+ ( 2 0 x

l 2 [ ( 1 0 ( 2 x 7 5 ) + ( 2 0 x 1 0 ) I O J

= 0 . 7 x 1 4 3 0 / 3 1 . 4 = 3 2
p .
P 9

1 4 2 4 k ? f





F 9 V .



= 3 6 . 1 m m


P 9
2 4 8 O x 0 . 2 4 0 5 9 5 k N
V 8 8 3 k N


q r r d i

= 0 . 0 3 2









I







W E L D F O R






( e )
L o a d c a r r y i n g s t l f f e n e r s











S T E E L W O n K O E $ i f l i 4








1"*0 t:i! HUG I UHAl SrEElWQRK DESIGN TO 88 5950
On other hand, the minimum value of compression strength IS ob tamed by
taking the largest stiffener spacmg. Taking mto account that, in this example.
the flange IS rotattonally restramed:
[
2 ]205X103
P,d 2.75 + -::(3:::30:0:
0
:-:;-:-14:::3'"0)'" (1430;7)'

The edge of the web on the compression side IS sahsfaclory. Smaller spacing
and/or thicker webs would give more conservative results.
WELD AT WEB/FLANGE JUNCTION
Use rn'o 550 mm x35 mm "id!! fiats
1430mmxl0mm plate and
1430mmx7mm plate
Calculation for the weld connecting the flanges to the web is as per Example
21, resulting 10 qw=0.47 kN/mm.
Use 6mm FW
(c) Lateral torsional buckling
As m Exampie I, there IS no need for_ a lateral torsIOnal buckling cheek as
the deSign brief states that the compression flange IS restramed.
(d) Design of Intermediate stiffeners
Examinmg the aid rahos for the different panels shows that only the left-hand
clause 4.4.6.4 end panel has a value less than i.41( = V2). Therefore, both enteria for the
mimmum stiffuess apply. USing the calculated web thicknesses (I must be
based on tension field action):
clallse 4.4.6.6
For iOrnm web and aid < i.4J
Is> 1.5 (l430x 1O).J/{l700)1 = 152cm
ol
For 7 mm web and aid < lA I
i ls> 1.5 (l430 X 7)3/(l800)1 46cm
4
For 7 mm web and aid ;:: lA I
Is> 0.75 x 14JOx7
3
37cm"
Try 75 mm x 10 mm flats.
The outstand of the stiffener (75 rum) IS less than 13t
s
" (130 mm).
,
, I
s
=1O(2x75+JO)J/(l2xlQ4)=34Icni
4
> 152cm
4
Check the: stiffener force (Fq) does not exceed the buckling reSistance of
the stiffener (P
q
) for the fust llltermediate stiffener from the nght-band end
(PJ'=255N/mm
2
):
I'
i .
,."
I.
.,' .
dause 4.5.11

10(2 x 75 + 10)' + (20 x IO)IO'
12[(10(2 x 75) + (20 x 10)101
=3 1.4 nun
A =0.7 x
pc: =234 N/mm
1
P,
PLATE GIRDERS 149
V = 1424 kN (shear at stiffener position, see Fig. 11.15)
1's =qc:r ell (choose lower qa- of the adjacent panels)
x 1430 x kN
Fq =V-Vs
$P,
Also, check the Hrst intermediate stiffener from left-hand end:

10(2 x 75 + 7)' + (20 x 7)7'
12[(10(2 x 75) + (20 x 7)7J
=36.1 mm
A =0.7 x 1430/36.1 =28
Pc: =240 N/mm
2
P, =2480 x
V = 883 kN (shear at stiffener pOSition, see Fig. 11.17)
Vs =qc:r dt (choose lower qa- of the adjacent panels)
x 1430 x 7
F'1 =V-Vs
=883-320=563 $P
q
The remammg Intermediate stiffeners can be shown to be adequate. When
tension field action IS utilized, aU stiffeners, including mtennediate stiffeners,
constitute the 'compressIon components' ofthe N.type iattlce girder model, see
Fig. I I .10. Therefore, the Intennediate stiffeners should be fitted
between or connected with continuous weld to both flanges. Sec additional
notes given In SectIon 11.6(d) in Example 23.
The arrangement of the mtermediate stiffeners IS given In Fig. 11.24.
(0 WELD FOR WEB/INTERMEDIATE ST1FFENERS
For mtermediate stiffeners subject to no extemalloading, the mimmUm sbear
permm length reqUired is the same as for Example 23.
Use 6mm FW
(e) Load carrying stlffeners
ExammaIJon of the detailed caicuiatlOOS for web beanng and buckling III
Example 23 would readily mdicate that load earrylOg stiffeners are reqUired
at both the concentrated load and end reactiOn positions. The ioad carrying
stjffeners at tbe supports 10 effect become end posls/stiffeners.











































150 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO 85 5950
(f) Load carrying stiffener at position of applied column load
The applied load, lO56 kN, acts In the plane of the web ofthe plate girder, I.e.
no moment IS generated In the stiffeners.
Try a pair of 160 mm x 12 mm flats.
clause 4.5.1.2 The outstand of the stiffeners is slightly greater than 13t.J e (156), therefore
the local buckling resistance of a stiffened web is based on a stiffener core area
of 156 x 12 mm:\ together with an effeClive web area limited to 2 x 20t:
clause 4.4.6.6
A, = (2 x 156 x 12} + (2 x 20 x lO) = 4144 mm
2
12(2 x 156 + 10)' + (2 x 20 x 10)10'
12 x 4144
= 89.8 mm
The effec!Jve length of the stiffeners IS taken as 0.7L, as the flange IS
restrained agamst lateral movement and rotatIOn and, by IffiPlicatlOn, the
column base. With a reduced deSign strength of 255 Nlmml, I.e. (py- 20),
then:
.l.=0.7 Ur=O.7 x 1430/89.8= IU
Pc = 255 N/mm
1
P.r=A.Jp,-=4144 x 0.255= 1056 kN
When calculatmg the shear resistance of panels adjacent to the load carrymg
stiffener, there IS the Implied assumptton that the stiffener acts as an
Intermediate stiffener. Therefore, an additional check must be made
UStng the mteracUon expreSSIOn prevIOusly noted. Using the lesser critical
shear resistance of the two adjacent panels and assuming that the panel has a
uniform ID mm plate, I.e. Ignonng the splice, then:
Vs =D.028x 1430x7=280kN
V =1l66 (see Fig. 11.15)
Fq =V-I'.J=1166-28D=886kN
=886-1056-+0
As there IS no moment actmg on the stiffener, Mz=O then the mteracuon
expreSSiOn reduces to:
F)P,= 1056/1056= 1.00 ,; I
clause 4.5.4.2 The beanng capacity for load carrymg web stiffeners IS obtamed, based
on Ihe sliffeners bemg coped/chamfered (15 mm) at the mside corner:
F.r < AfJ
ys
/0.8
A =2x(I60-15)x 12=3480mm
2
Apy,IO.8 =3480x0.17510.8 =1196kN> 1056kN
The buckling resistance and beanng capacity of the stiffened web IS
satisfactory.
Use two 160mmxl1mm fiats
"0'11' _-------------------------P-LA_TE_G_'R_O_E_RS __ 1_S_1

,
, .
,

clause 4.5.1.5b Note that if tht: roiatmn of the flange had not been restramed, then
L=L. Also. had the column base (compresston member) not bl!en laternlly
restramed, Wen the stiffeners would need to be deSigned as part of the
compresston member and the mlerfaclOg connection checked for any effects
from strut actton.
(;) WELD FOR LOAD CARRYING STIFFENER
The minimum weld size reqUIred for connecting the stiffeners to the web,
assurrung a weld on each side of stiffener, IS determmed as follows:
clause 4.4.6.7 ql = 12.5
2
/(2 x 5 x 160)=0.10kN/mm
In addition, there IS the external load to be taken mto account.
q, =(I166-280)/[2x(l430-2x 15)] =0.32kN/mm
qw =ql +ql=O.JO+O.32 =0.41 kN/mm
Use 6mm F\V
(g) Design of at the supports
clause 4.4.5.-1.2
dame 4.4.5.4.3
End-postslsiiffeners are reqUired at both ends of the girder. In plate girders
where tenSiOn field action IS utilized. the 'end stiffenl!rs'. play an Important
structural role, m that they have 10 resist the Dnchor force without which
tensIOn field actlOn would not be generated. SectIOn 11.7 outlines three
methods of providing the necessary resistance to the anchor force. In the
example bemg considered, the deSign specificatujn states that the ends of the
girder must not project beyond the centre lines of the supporting columns.
Therefore, the chOlce IS reduced to one of two methods:
I,)
(h)
Deslgn the panel munediately adjacent to the
without tensIOn field actIOn and to resist additional forces due to anchor
force; deSign end post/stiffener to withstand reactIOn and force due to
moment.
DeSIgn an end-post/stiffener which has to provide the total resistance
to the anchor force.
The restramt conditions with respect to the flange apply also to the ends.
(0 METHOD la)
ciame 4.4.5.4.2 (See Fig. 11.11.) RedeSign the nght-hartd end panel withouI tensIOn
field action. This can be accomplished in two ways:
(all) Retam the web thicknesses obtamed in Section I L8(b), but reduce the
width oflhe end panels, so that the aClual shear stress IS less than the
corresponding shear buckling strength. The posltiomng of other
mtennediate stiffeners may have to be amended.
(aI2) Retam the spacmg ofthe mtermediate stiffeners as detennmed in SectIOn
Il.S(d), but Increase the web thicknesses until the actual shear stress IS
less than the shear buckling strength of the panel.
i Q Z
S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R I ( D E S I G N T O O S 5 9 5 0
A p p l y i n g


















w i t h o u t










/
t 5 8
K 1 = 4

= 0 . 0 0 3 2 0


1 3 4 4 k N























P L A T E G I R D E R S
1 5 3
M a k i n g







1 0 7 0 1 / 1 1 2





4 . 5 . 1 . 2 T h e


1 3 s ,


x
1 2 x 9 2 0 0
= 1 2 8 m m
c l a u s e 4 . 4 . 6 . 6 T h e















g i r d e r ,


















' 4 4 2





u t i l i z i n g






F i g .



=
" c i

c l a u s e 4 . 4 . 5 . 4 . 2
c l a u s e 4 . 2 . 3
I STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO BS 5950
I'''' '11"" "'11"" j 1
I 2400 I 2DOO 1
1100
1
Fig. 11.18 ReVised stiffener
spacing
Fig. U.19 MO & Sf diagrams
Applymg method (nil), first calculate the actuai shear strcss ID thc'end'panel:
/=(1540 x 10')1(1430 x 10)= 108 N/rnm'
nnd knowmg dll= 143, delemune the aid rutio from table 2I(b),
BS 59:0 whJch give a value of qr:r at least equai to 108 N/mm2, i.e.
0.83, wlncil would result ID a panel width-of about LIBm. Place the two
Intermediate stiffeners tn the nght-hand part of tile gm:ler at 1.1 m aod 3.1 rn
from the end and check the adequacy of the modified panels.
Check first panel from right-hnnd end - without tensIOn field action:
die = 143 ald=O.77
qr:,. = 120N/nun
2
V" =0.120x 1430x 10=1715kN > 1540kN
Check second panel from right-hand end - utilismg tension field action:
M =4447kNm
aid = 1.40
K _ 44.6 (. 158)
i - 4 x 1405 I - 265 = 0.00320
Vb =(99.2+295v'O.003 20)1430 x ID x 10-' = 1660kN
Check third panel from nght-hand end - utilizing tension field achon:
M =7442kNm
aid = 1.68
K _ 44.6 ( 264)
/ - 4 x 1405 1 -265 = 0.00003
Vb =(92.5 + 267v'O.00003)1430 x 10 x 10-
3
= 1344 kN
In addition, the end panel bounded by the end post and an lntennediate
stiffener has to be checked as a beam spanning between the flanges of the
gtrder. This means that the end stiffener has to be ellpable of reSisting the end
reactlOn nnd the compression force ansmg from Alif and the intennediale
stiffener has to rCSlst an additional force from Alif'
Trial section for nght-hand end-postJbeanng stiffener - 450 mm x 20 mm
BS table 6 blT=(450-10)1(2x 20) = II > 8.5, but< 13,
d/J= 1100/10 = 110> 98 but < 120
This tha,t the 'beam' IS semi-compact and its moment capaCity,
IrrespectIve of Its shear load, can be detennmed from Me=PyZ;r. Check the
shear: capllclty of the web in the 'beam',
clause 4.2.3
P,,=0.6 x 0.275 x 1100 x 10= 1815 kN > 1120kN
,-.'
clause 4.5.1.2
PLATE GIRDERS 153
Making the conservative assumption that only the 'flanges' of the 'beam'
reSist the and that the adjacent intermediate stiffener .has the same
sectIOn Size,
Mo = 0.275 x 4 50[ III 0' - 1070'J/(12 x 555 x 10')
=2650kNm
which mdicales that the moment capacity of the 'beam' IS more than
adequate, compared with 320 kNm.
Check the buckling resistance of tbe end-postibeanng stiffener:
The full section of the end stiffener can he used in the buckling checlc, as
brr< 13.
A, = (450 x 20) + (20 x 10) = 9200 mm'
20(450)' + (20 x IO)ID'
12 x 9200
r=
= 128 mm
clause 4.4.6.6 The flange IS restrained agamst lateral movement and rotatIOn and, uSing
a deSign strength of 245 N/mm2, the slenderness becomes:
hence
.( =0.7x 1430/128=7.8
Pr: =245N/mm
2
P, =9200 x 0.245 =2255 kN
F, = 1540+320/1.09= 1835kN
F,
M: =0
Therefore: the Interaction fonnula becomes:
F,IP,= 1835/2255 =0.814 < 1
The buckling resistance of the end-postlbeanng stiffener is Slltlsfactory.
clause 4.4.5.4.2 Now check Ihe bearing capacity of the end stiffener, noting that as the
stiffener is welded to the end of the girder, there IS no cop 109, Le. the full
stiffener area cnn be used:
P
mp
=450x20xO.26510.8=2980kN> 1835kN
If the end stiffener had been fitted behvecn the girder flanges, then the
stiffener would have been coped Ilnd a check on the reduced bcanng capacity
at the bottom of the stiffener would have needed to be undertaken.
Use 450 mm x 20 mm wide Uat
As tbe fIrst Intermediate stiffener from the nght-hand end fonns part of the
'beam', use a pair of 225 nun x 20 mm wide fiats.
The calculations gIven 10 the last paragraph, SectIOn 11.4(d) IUdicate that
this stiffener provides suffiCient torSIOnal restramt to the ends of the girder,
should this be a deSign reQUirement.
1 5 4 S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R K D E S I G N T O 5 9 5 0
( i i ) W E L D F O R R H E N D P O S T / B E A R I N G S T I F F E N E R S
M i n i m u m

1 0 2 / 1 5










l e N / m m
T







7 0 . 2

























P L A T E G i R D E R S 1 5 5
o f













= 1 0 m m :
0 . 7 5
0 . 5
= 2 2 4 0
1 1 2 0 k 1 4
= 2 2 4 x = 3 2 O k N m




























O T H E R C O N S I D E R A T I O N S






154 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO SS 5950
(H) WELD FOR RH ENO POSTIBEARING STIFFENERS
Mimmum weld is given by:
q, = 10'/[5 x (450-10)12]=0.09 kN/mm
Assummg a sliffbeanng of 127mm (=254/2) and with ,(=357 then the :;:.-
minimum load capacity for an :tnsrifJened web:
Pc = 15 N/mml
Pw =[(127+750)10] 0.015= !32kN
In addition, the support reactIOn mduces a load into the stiffener,. and is the
between the load carned by an unstiffened web and the reactIOn:
therefore the additional shear load/mm IS: .
q, =(1835-132)1(2 x 1430) =0.60 kN/mm
q =QI+Q2=0.09+0.60 =0.68kN/mm
Use 6mm FW
Now consider the left-hand portIOn of the girder. In order to keep the
number of different web plate thicknesses to a mlmmum, make the web of the
ieft-hand panel 10 mm thick, while retamlOg the stiffener spacmg
determmed m Section 11.S(b). Check the shear buckling resistance of the end
panei without tensIOn field actIOn:
d/I = 143 a/d= 1.33
qcr =70.2 N/mm
2
V" =0.0702 x 1430 x 10= 1004 kN '" 1012 kN
It appears that the 10 mm plate Just falls 1 %); however, a panel dimensIOn
of 1900 mm was used for ease of calculatIOn. Exammatlon of the details of
the panel would indicate that the clear dimenSion of the web should be
IS70mm 1=1900-20-10). RecalculatIOn would show that the 10 mm plate
IS Just adequate.
Make the stiffeners at the left-hand end the same slze as
those for the nght-hand end. Checking these stzes would reveal them to be
more than salIsfactory as the deSign conditions are less severe.
Exammation of Table 11.Hb) mdicates that the maximum length for a
7mm plate IS 13m and for a 10 mm plate the length IS ISm. The deSign
solutiOn Indicates that the web plate for both the nght-hand portion (from the
pOint load to the nght-hand end) and the left-hand end needs to be ID mm
thick, with the remalOmg piate bemg 7 mm thick. By making the splice Jomts
at 3 m and 16 m from left-hand end, it IS possible to utilize the maxlmum
length of7mm thick plate and a total length of9m forthe 10 mm plate which
IS exactly half the maximum length for that thickness of plate. The actual
maXimum iength for 10 mm plate rolled by Bntish Steel is lS.3 m, which
means that two web plates can be cut from this length. The extra 0.3 m would
allow for the cuttlOg and necessary edge preparatIOn.
If the second method (al2) IS applied, I.e. retalOmg the ongmal spaclOg of
the IOtennediate stiffener of L 7 m, '1.9 m and 1.9 m within the nght-hand part
,
.,

-,-
(iil)
clause 4.4.5.4.3
clause 4.4.5.4.4
PLATE GIRDERS 155
of the gIrder, then a 15 mm web plate would be for the end panel.
This would introduce another plate thickness. The deSIgn sohlhon fTOm the
method tall)-would be more economic. :
See Figs. 11,24 and 11.25 for the construction arrangement of the girder,
which IS based on the deSign solution determmed by method (all).
METHOD (b)
(See Fig, 11.12.) DeSign the nght-hand end stiffener for the condition of
the adjOining panel deSigned utilizmg tensIOn fieldacllon, as deSigned in the
prevIous sectlOn. Calculate the anchor force, and the corresponding
longitudinal shear load and moment, usmg t = 10 mm:
Hq =0.75 x 1430 x 10 x 0.275)1
Rif = 2240/2 = 1120kN
My = 224 x 1.430/10 = 320kNm
70
0.6 x 275
2240kN
The stiffener has 10 act as an end beanng stiffener and an end post, and has to
resist both the end reaction (1S40kN) and a moment equal to 213 kNm
X 320). Also. the width and thickness oflhe stiffener must not exceed the
width and thickness of the flange. AsSumlOg that the end stiffener has the
dimenSIOns of the flange. I,e. 550mm x35mm. then Its plastiC moment
capacity about lis own axiS IS 275 x 550 x 351.1(4 x 10
6
)=46.3 kNm which IS
considerably less than the 213 kNm required. It would reqUire a stiffener
slgnificantly larger than 550 mm x 35 mm. thereby rendenng this method
mvalid for this example, as the Iimllahon on maximum Slze would be
vlDlated.
(h) Alternative design solution for end posts
(See Fig. 11.l3.) If the design brief had allowed the girder to be supported
across the whOle width of the supporting columns, I.e. the sltuatlOn when
there are no adjacent girders. see Fig. 11.13, then the method outlined in
clause 4.4.5.43(b) could be applied. The method is Similar 10 method (all),
I.e. the web between the two end posts, together with the end posts would be
deSIgned as the 'beam', while the web of the adjacent end panel would be
deSigned for tensIOn field action, as outlined in Section 11.S(b).
11.9 OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
The examples have dealt with the deSIgn of the common fonn for plate
girders, I.e. constant depth and doubly synunelnc cross-sechon, as
recommended by BS 5950: Part i. An exammatlon of the different tiesIgns
for the deSign example, I.e. Examples 21-24 mc!uslve, would reveal that as
the overall weight of the girder (and hence matenal costs) decrease, there IS a
c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n c r e a s e i n f a b r i c a t i o n
c o s t . e . g . s p l i c e s , s t i f f e n e r s . T h e
a c t u a l
I c a s t c o s t s o l u t i o n
d e p e n o o n t h e c o m b i n e d
m a t e r i a l a n d f a b r i c a t o r
C o s t s .
E x p e r i e n c e h a s s h o w n t h a t
t h e c o s t s b e t w e e n d i f f e r e n t
f a b r i c a t o r s C a n
V a r y
c o n s i d e r a b l y , p a r t l y
o w m g t o t h e t h e i r e x p e r t i s e a n d t h e
f a b r i c a t i o n f a d i l j t i e s
T h e r e f o r e , i t i s e s s e n t i a l
t h a t t h e d e s i g n e n g i n e e r
h a s a g o o d w o r l t h i g
r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e
n o m i n a t e d , f a b r i c a t o r ,
a s t h e l a t t e r s k n o w l e d g e o f
f a b r i c a t i o n d e t a i l s c o u l d l e a d
t o r e d u c e d
c o s t s ,
e . g . w h a t i s t h e m o s t c o s t
e f f e c t i v e e d g e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r
b u t t w e l d s ? I s t h e b e s t
s o l u t i o n f o r j o i n i n g
t w o
f l a n g e s o f d i f f e r e n t t h i c k n e s s e s
o b t a i n e d b y t a p e r i n g t h e t h i c k e r
p l a t e d o w n t o
t h e t h i c k n e s s o f t h e t h i n n e r
p l a t e a t a s p i k e p o s i t i o n ?
I s i n t e r m i t t e n t f i l l e t
w e l d i n g m o r e e c o n o m i c t h a n
c o n t i n u o u s w e l d i n g w h e n t h e
c a l c u l a t e d w e l d
s i z e f o r a c o n t i n u o u s w e l d i s m u c h
l e s s t h a n t h e m i n i m u m
s i z e o f G m m ?
W i t h l a r g e s p a n g i r d e r s ,
t h e d e s i g n e r c a n t a k e
a d v a n t a g e o f s h o p
f a b n c a t j o n s p l i c e s
n e c e s s a r y o w i n g t o l i m i t i n g l e n g t h s
o f r o i l e d p l a t e b y
v a r y i n g t h e w e b a n d j o r f l a n g e t h I c k n e s s e s .
I n d e e d , I n E x a m p l e s 2 2 . 2 3
a n d
2 4 , U s e w e b t h i c k n e s s
w a s v a r i e d a l o n g t h e l e n g t h o f
t h e g i r d e r a c c o r d i n g
t o
t h e s h e a r r e q u i r e m e n t s
L i k e w i s e , t I l e s i z e o f t h e
f l a n g e s c a n b e m a d e
t o
r e f l e c t t h e m o m e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n
a l o n g t h e g i r d e r l e n g t h ,
p r o v i d e d a n
i m p r o v e n t e , , t e n t h e
o v e r a l l
e c o n o m y o f t h e s t r u c t u r e , i n c l u d i n g
f o u n d a t i o n s
c a n b e c l e a r l y d e m o n s t r a t e d . N o r m a l l y ,
c h a n g e s i n f l a n g e s i z e a l o n g
t h e
g i r d e r a r e n o t e c o n o m i c f o r
b u i l d i n g s , b e c a u s e o f t h e
m o d e m p r a c t i c e o f
a u t o m a t i c / s e m i _ a u t o m a t I c w e l d i n g .
H o w e v e r , t h e e m e r g e n c e o f
t h e w e l d e d
t a p e r e d p o r t a l f r a m e ( ' v i t h
v a r y i n g
f l a n g e s a n d
w e b d e p t h ) p r o d u c e d b y
d e d i c a t e d e q u i p m e n t h a s
s e e n a n i n c r e a s i n g u s e o f t h e
t a p e r e d / i l a u n c h e d
b e a m s , m m u l t i - s t o r e y b u i l d i n g s
a s t h e y c a n r e a d i l y a c c o m m o d a t e
s e r v i c e s
w i t h i n t h e i r d e p t h .
O t h e r p r a c t i c a t s i t u a t i o n s
c a n a r i s e i n w h i c h v a r y i n g t h e w e b
d e p t h / f l a n g e s
c o u l d p r o v e e c o n o m i c . F o r
e x a m p l e , i n a h e a v y m d u s t i - i a j
b u i l d i n g , a c r a n e
g i r d e r m a y b e r e q u i r e d t o
s p a a t w i c e t h e n o r m a l d i s t a n c e b e c a u s c
t h e ' c e n t r a l
c o l u n m ' h a s t o b e r e m o v e d
t o a l l o w a r a i l w a y s i d i n g
t o e n t e r t h e s i d e o f t h e
b u i l d i n g . I f t h e c o l u m n s
a r e s t a n d a r d i z e d f o r e c o n o m y
r e a s o n s , t h e n t h e e n d s
o f a l l c r a n e g i r d e r s
m u s t h a v e t h e s a m e d e p t h a t t h e
c o l u n m s u p p o r t s . F o r t h e
d o u b l e - l e n g t h g i r d e r , t h i s
m e a n s t h a t i t s d e p t h h a s t o b e
v a r i e d d o w n w a r d s i n
o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n t h e
c r a n e r a i l l e v e i a t a s p e c i f i e d h e i g h t ,
a s i l l u s t r a t e d b y .
F i g . 1 1 . 2 0 . T h e r e v e r s e
s t t u a t s o a c a n a r i s e f o r t h r o u g h
r o a d / r a i l b r i d g e s w h e r e
t h e s o f l i t o f t h e b r i d g e n e e d s
t o b e h o r i z o n t a l , i . e . t h e
h e i g h t o f t h e g i r d e r
w o u l d b e v n e d a l o n g t h e g i r d e r
l e n g t h .
F i g . 1 1 . 2 0 T y p i c a l v a r i a b l e
d e p t h g i r d c r s
W e b
s p l i c e
G I R D E n S
1 5 7
W e b
r
t i ,
F i g . 1 1 . 2 1 D e t a i l s o f u n s t i f f e n e d p l a t e g i r d e r t h i c k
w e b
4 5 a x 1 5
4 5 0 x 1 5
F i g . 1 1 . 2 2 D e t a i l s o f u n s t i f f e n e d p l a t e
g i r d e r t i u n w e b
4 5 0 x
4 S O x l s
F i g . 1
D e t d l s o f u n s t i f f e n e d p l a t e g i r d e r
e x c l u d i n g
t e n s i o n f i e l d a c t i o n
j
I
C : : : : ~ ____ :::::OJ
[
J
Fig. 11.20 Typll:al van<lble
depth girders
.""'.=
corresponding IIlcrease: in fabncahon COS!, e.g. splices. stifTeners. The actual
least cost solution will depend on the combined matenal and fahncator Costs.
Expenence has shown Ihat the costs between different fabricators can vary
considerably, partly owing to t/le their expertise and the fabricatIOn facilities.
Therefore, it is essential that the deSign engineer has a good working
relationship with the nommated.fabncator, as the latter's knowledge of
fabricalion details could lead to reduced costs, e.g. what IS the most cost
effective edge prepamtirin for butt welds? Is tllC best solution for Joming two
flanges of different thicknesses obtamed by tapering the thicker plate down 10
the thickness of the thinner plate at a splice position? Is mtermittent fillet
welding more economic than continuous welding when the calcuiated weld
size for a continuous weld is much less tban the mmimum Size of 6 mm?
With large span girders, the deSIgner can take advantage of shop
fabncation splices necessary owmg to limiting lengths of roUed plate by
varying Ihe web andlor flange thicknesses. Indeed, m Examples 22, 23 and
24, the web thickness was varied along the length of the girder according to
the shear requirements. LikeWIse, tile sIze of the flanges can be made to
reflect Ihe moment distribution along the glfder length, provided all
Improvement in the overall economy of the stntcture, mcluding foundations,
can be clearly demonstrated. Normally. Changes in flange size aiong Ihe
girder are not economic for buildings, because of the modern prnctice of
automatic/semi-automatic welding. However, the emergence of the welded
tapered portal frame (with varymg flanges and web depth) produced by
dedicated equipment has seen an increasing use of the taperedlhaunched
beams, in multi-storey buildings as they can readily accommodate servIces
within their depth.
Other practical situatIons can arise in which varying the web depth/flanges
could prove economic. For example, in a heavy mdustrial building, a crane
gtrder may be reqUired to span twice the nonnal distance because the 'centra!
column' has to be removed to aUow a railway siding to enter the side of the
building. If the columns are standardized for economy reasons, then the ends
of all crane girders must have the same depth at the column supports. For the
double-length girder, this means that its depth has to be vaned downwardS in
order to mamtain the crane rail level at a specified height, as illustrated by.
rig. 11.20. The reverse Situation can arise for through road/rail bridges where
the soffit o( the bridge needs to be horizontal, i.e. the height of the girder
would be vrlned along the girder length.
W,b
splice
3750 j
W,b '
1430x25
r- _ I Detail X
4000
18250
Web 1430x25
18000
Flanges 450 x 25 Flanges 450)( 25
16500
", Fig.11.21 Details ofunsliffened plilte gmier - thick web
, J
','; 450X15L
16000
Web 1430 x 12.5
Detail Y
11
[
Ranges 550 x 35
16500
Fig. 11.22 Details ofunsliffened plate girder - thin web
" .. ,
.'" 16000
Web 1430x 10
DetallY
B>
'. ,
450)( 15
I I
u u
JL I
B Flnnges 550)( 35
1n5 )( 10
1800
.2300,\
4000
.\
4200 4200
,
':.'.:: Fig. 11.23 Details of un stiffened pinie guder- excluding tensIon fie/d aellon
':j
., ))
PLATE GIRDERS 157
W,b
splice
pA
i
11,
5500
6000
Web 1430:-; 15
~ AL.2/l60x12
.
W,b
splice
A
5500
6000
Web 1430 x 12.5
I
h
,
I
~ 1500
450x15
I
J
A 1 i
l160
x 12
~
3000
~ 1 5
450 x 15
P L A T E G i R D E R S 1 5 9
A s t h e r e a d e r b e c o m e s f a m i l i a r w i t h 8 5 5 9 5 0 : P a r s i
d e s i g n g u i d a n c e
o t h e r f a c t o r s m i g h t n e e d t o b e c o n s i d e r e d i n d e n y i n g t h e f i n a l d e s i g n
s o l u t i o n :
F a t i g u e w h e r e r e p e a t e d l o a d i n g i s a d e s i g n c o n d i t i o n , e . g . f o r
c r a n e a n d b r i d g e g i r d e r s , f a t i g u e r e s i s t a n c e m u s t h e c h e c k e d .
B r i t t l e f r a c t u r e n o t c h d u c t i l e s t e e l m a y h a v e t o b e u s e d f o r t h e
t e n s i o n f l a n g e , s e e O S 5 4 0 0 ( 3 1
L a r g e t e m p e r a t u r e r a n g e s p e c i a l b e a n n g s m a y h a v e t o b e m a d e a t
t h e s u p p o r t s t o a c c o m m o d a t e t h e e x p a n s i o n a n d c o n t r a c t i o n .
D e f l e c t i o n c o m p l i a n c e w i t h t h e a p p r n p n a t e d e f l e c t i o n l i m i t w o u l d
m e a n e i t h e r i n c r e a s i n g g i r d e r s t i f f n e s s o r c a m b e r i n g t h e g i r d e r .
D e f l e c t i o n l i m i t a t i o n s a r e m o r e s e v e r e f o r c r a n e g i r d e r s .
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n a n d e r e c t i o n s i t e s p l i c e s a r e u s u a l l y r e q u i r e d f o r
s i m p l y s u p p o r t e d s p a n s o v e r 2 5 4 0 m . S p e c i a l h a n d l i n g a n d l i f t i n g
a r r a n g e m e n i s m a y b e n e c e s s a i ' y a s a r e s u l t o f t h e l o w t o r s i o n a l
s t i f f n e s s o f p l a t e g i r d e r s . W i n d l o a d i n g m i g h t b e a p r o b l e m d u e t o
t h e l a r g e s u r f a c e a r e a o f a g i r d e r .
C o m p o s i t e d e s i g n o f p l a t e g i r d e r s i s n o t c o v e r e d , b u t d e s i g n g u i d a n c e i s g i v e n
i n r e f e r e n c e [ 3 ] . F i n a l l y , a l w a y s c h e c k t h a t t h e r e q u i r e d p l a t e s i z e s a r e
c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e .
B r i t i s h S t e e l C o r p o r a t i o n
O S 5 9 5 0 S t r u c t u r a l U s e o f S t e e l u ' o r k i n B u i l d i n g P a r t I :
C o d e o f p n s c t i c e f o r t h e d e s i g n o f s i n i p l e a n d c o n t i n u o u s
c o n s i n i c t i o n : h o t r o l l e d s e c t i o n s ( 1 9 8 5 )
9 5 5 4 0 0 S t e e l , a n d C ' o n i p o s i t e B r i d g e s P a r t 3 :
C o d e o f p r a c t i c e f o r t h e d e s i g n o f s i e e l b r i d g e s ( 1 9 8 2 )
( 1 9 9 2 ) P l a t e g i r d e r s , S t e e l D e s i g n e r ' s M a n u a l , p p . 4 6 4
4 6 6 , B l a c k w e l l
P o r t e r 9 / 4 . , R o c l c e y I C C . & E v a n s 1 1 . R . ( 1 9 7 5 ) l ' h e
c o l l a p s e b e h a v i o u r o f p l a t e g i r d e r s l o a d e d i n s h e a r ,
S t r u c t u r a l E n g i n e e r , v o l . 5 3 ( A u g ) , p p . 3 1 3 2 5
( 1 9 9 2 ) P l a i e g t r d e r s , S t e e l D e s i g n e r ' s i t / a n n a ) p p . 4 4 9
4 5 4 . B l a c k w e l l
L a w s o n I L M . & R a c l n n a n , L W . ( 1 9 8 9 ) D e s i g n f o r
O p e n i n g s i n W e b s o f C o m p o s i t e B e a m s . S t e e l
C o n s t r u c t i o n t n s t i i u i e
O w e n s G . W . ( 1 9 8 9 ) D e s i g n o f F a b n c o n s d C a n i p o s e t e
B e a m s i n B u i l d i n g s . S l e e t C o n s t r u c t i o n t n s t i t u i e
I S O S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R K D E S i G N T O O s 5 9 5 0
3 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 0
W e b
s p l i c e
0 0 0 0
I W e b W e b 1 4 3 0 < 7 I ' W e b 1 4 3 0 x 7
1 4 3 0 x 1 0
I
I I
L
2 / 2 2 5 x 2 0
0
c i
1 9 0 0 2 2 0 0
J
4 0 0 0
F l a n g e s
9 5 0 c 3 5
4 2 0 0
I
I
a l l s x 1 0
4 2 0 0
x 2 0
x 1 2
2 4 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 1 0 0
1
1 5 0 0
4 5 0 x 2 0
4 5 0 x 2 0
D e t a i l Z
F i g . 1 1 , 2 4 D e i a i l s o f s i f i ' e n t d p l s i e g i r d e r u t i l i z i n g t e n s i o n f i e l d a c t i o n
F u l l s i r e n g i h
b u t t w e l d s
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
5 5 0 x 3 5
4 5 0 x
x
x 1 0
D e t a i l V L o a d b e a r i n g l n t e r m e d i e i e
s i i f f e n e r s s t i t t e n e r s
F W t o b e 6 m m c o n t i n u o u s
j
S e c t i o n A A S e c t i o n 8 8
F l a n g e i p t i c e o n l y
o r 2 5 m m p l a t e
F u l l s i r e n g i l i
i
b u t t w e l d s
D e t a i l X
4 5 0 x
t t r e n g i h
b u n w e l d u
D e t a i l Z
F l 0 . 3 1 . 2 5 S t i f f e n e r d e t a i l s o f t h e p l a t e g i r d e r e x a m p l e s
x I o ] [ l 7 5 . 1 0
E n d p 0 5 1 I n t e r m e d i a t e
s t i f l e n e r s
S e c t i o n C C S e c t i o n D D
R e f e r e n c e s
S T U D Y R E F E R E N C E S
T o p i c
I . P l a t e i n f o n i , a t i o n
2 . P l a t e g i r d e r d e s i g n
3 . P l a t e g i r d e r d e s i g n
4 . S h e a r b o c l d i n g
5 . T e n s i o n f i e l d a c t i o n
6 . T e n s i o n f i e l d a c t i o n
7 . D p e n i n g s
8 . C o m p o s i t e p l a t e
158 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO SS 5950
W,b
13 ono
Web 1430:.: 7
Of'
I1
,
------
I 01>
Flanges gA
I
C

550 x 35
I.n5xl0
1,160 x 12
1900
2200 r 4000
4200 4200

Fig. 11.24 Details of siffened plate glfder - utilizing tensIOn field actIOn
Full strength
Flange splice onlv butt welds
rI' "j' 5
1
50'" I 1 450x15 ;; 1/
! 0 <::) 160x12, 2/75xl0
/_ Full strength .., <:> ,
".,."..:",:? . !:. .
Dl!tail X Dl!tail Y Load bearmg Intermediate
sliffeners stiffeners
I All FW to be 6 mm continuous I SecllOn A-A Section B-B
450 x 20
It! welds
JL,
cb
End post Intermediate
DetailZ
stiffeners
Section c-c Section D-D
Fig. 11.25 Stiffener demiis of the plate gIrder examples
1100
PLATE GIRDERS 159
As the reader becomes familiar with as 5950; Part j desl!:,111 guidance,
other factors might need to he considered In denvmg the final destgn
solution:
Fatigue - where repealed loading IS a deSIgn condition, e.g. for
crane and bridge girders. fatigue reSistance must bc checked.
Brwlefractllre-notch ductile stee! may have to be used for the
tension flange, see as 5400
P1
Large temperature range - special beanngs may have to be made at
the supports to accommodate the expansion and contractIOn.
Dtiflectlon compliance with the appropnatl! defieclJon Hmt! would
mean either Increasmg gIrder stiffness or cambermg the girder.
DeflectIOn limltauons are more severe for crane girders.
Transportation and erect/on - site splices are usually reqUIred for
simply supported spans over 25-40 m. Special handling and lifting
arrangements mny be necessary as a result of the low torsiOnal
stiffness of plate girders. Wind loading mIght be a problem due 10
the large surface area of a gIrder.
Composite design of plate gIrders IS not covered, but deSIgn guidance IS given
In reference [3]. Finally, always check that the required plate Sizes are
currently available.
STUDY REFERENCES
TopIC
I. Plale InfonnatlOn
2. plate guder deSign
3. plate girder deSign
4. Shear buckling
5. TensIon field acllOn
6. TenSIOn field actlOn
7. Openmgs
8. Compostte plale
Re/erf!1lces
British Sleel Corporallon
BS 5950 Stmctural Use of Sfeelwork 1/1 Building Part !:
Code of practice for the deSign of Simple and contUluDIlS
constmctton: hOI rolled sectIons (1985)
BS 5400 Steel. Concrete and Composlle Bridges Part 3:
Code of pracuce for the deSign of steel bridges (1982)
(1992) Plale girders. Sleel DesIgner's Manual, pp. 464-
466. Blad:well
Porter O.M" Rockey KC. & Evnns 1I.R. (1975) 11le
collapse behaVIOur of plate girders loaded in shear,
Structural Ellgl1leer, voL 53.(Aug). pp. 313-25
(992) Plale guders, Steel Dcslgner's Mallllal pp. 449-
454. Blac!..-.ve!l
Lawson R.M. & RacJun:m. J.W. (1989) Dcslgn/or
Openmgs 111 Webs oJ Composite Beams. Steel
ConstructIOn Instltule
Owens G.W. (1989) Dcsign oJFabncated Composlle
Beams In Buildings. Sleel ConstructIOn InstItute
P A R f ]
I I I
T H E D E S I G N O F
S T R U C T U R A L
S T E E L F R A M E W O R K S
T h e d e s i g n o f s i m p l e e l e m e n t s
g i v e n I n P a d
i s u s u a l l y o n l y p a r t o f t h e
o v e r a l l b u i l d i n g c o n c e p t . h i s
n e c e s s a r y t o d e v e l o p a s p a t i a l a w a r e n e s s o f t h e
s t r u c t u r a l f r a m e w o r k I n t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s . T h e
a c t i o n o f t h e w h o l e f r a m e w o r k
m u s t b e c o n s i d e r e d i n c l u d i n g i t s b e h a v i o u r u n d e r
l a t e r a l l o a d i n g . I n s o m e
c a s e s f r a m e a c t i o n ( c o n t i n u o u s c o n s t r u c t i o n )
m a y b e p r e f e r r e d t o c o n n e c t e d
e l e m e n t d e s i g n ( s i m p l e c o n s t r u c t i o n )
f r o m c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f c o s t o f
a p p e a r a n c e . M a n y o f t h e d e s i g n p r o c e d u r e s u s e d i n
P a r t I I h a v e b e e n
d e v e l o p e d i n P a r t I , a n d i t i s a d v i s a b l e f o r t h e
s t u d e n t f i r s t t o b e c o m e f a m i l i a r
w i t h e l e m e n t d e s i g n .
PART
11
THE DESIGN OF STRUCTURAL
STEEL FRAMEWORKS
The design of simple elements given In Part r is usually only part of the
overall building concept. It is necessary to develop a spatial awareness of the
structura", framework In three dimensIOns. The achon of the whole framework
must be considered including lis behaviOur under lateral loading. In some
cases frame action (contmuous construction) may be preferred to connected
element deSign (simple construction) from considerations of cost of
appearance. Many of the design procedures used in Part 1I have been
developed in Part I, and it IS adVisable for the student first to become familiar
with element design.
1 1 2 1
D E S I G N O F S I N G L E - S T O R E Y
B U I L D I N G - L A T T I C E G I R D E R
A N D C O L U M N
C O N S T R U C T I O N
1 2 . 1 I N T R O D U C T I O N
O v e r h a l f o f t h e t o t a l m a r k e t s h a r e o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n a l s t e e l w o r k f a b n c a i e c l
i n t h e U n i t e d K i n g d o m i s u s e d I n s i n g l e - s t o r e y b u i l d i n g s . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s
a l m o s t c e r t a i n t h a t a n e n g i n e e r w i l l , a t s o m e t i m e , h a v e t o d e s i g n o r c h e c k
s u c h a b u i l d i n g . W h e r e a s p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s h a v e i n t r o d u c e d t h e d e s i g n o f
v a n o u s s i m p l e e l e m e n t s , t h e n e x t t h r e e c h a p t e r s e x t e n d t h e d e s i g n c o n c e p t o f
t h e o v e r a l t d e s i g n p r o c e d u r e o f w h o l e s t r u c t u r e s , i . e . t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l
s t r u c t u r a l a r r a n g e m e n t s . E s s e n t i a l l y , m o s t m e m b e r s i n f r a m e ' v o r k s a r e
p o s i t i o n e d s o a s t o t r a n s f e r l o a d i n s p a c e t o o t h e r m e m b e r s a n d e v e n t u a l l y
d o w n t o t h e g r o u n d , b y t h e s i m p l e s t , e c o n o m i c ' s t r u c t u r a l ' r o u t e . T h e n e x t
t w o c h a p t e r s w i l l b e d e v o t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o t h e v a n o u s d e s i g n a s p e c t s o f
s i n g l e - s i o r e y s t r u c t u r e s . T h o u g h t h e s e s t r u c t u r e s r e p r e s e n t t h e s i m p l e s t f o n n
-
o f t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l f r a m e w o r k s , t h e y w i l l i l l u s t r a t e m o s t o f t h e s t r u c t u r a l
d e s i g n c r i t e n a w h i c h a n e n g i n e e r m i g h t e n c o u n t e r . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r c h a p t e r
o u t l i n e s t h e d i f f e r e n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s u s e d i n d e s i g n i n g a l l t h e s t r u c t u r a l
m e m b e r s f o r a c o m p l e t e b u i l d i n g , b a s e d o n t h e m a i n f r a m e b e i n g o f l a t t i c e
g i r d e r a n d c o l u n m c o n s t r u c t i o n s e e F i g . 1 2 . 1 ) . I n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r . t h e s a m e
b u i l d i n g w i l l b e r e d e s i g n e d u s i n g p o r t a l f r a m e c o n s t r u c t i o n . F o r b r e v i t y , o n l y
t h e m a i n s u p p o r t i n g f r a m e w i l l b e r c d c s i g n c d a s a p o r t a l f r a m e , a s t h e d e s i g n
o f i h e r e m a i n i n g s i r u c t u r a l m e m b e r s i s c o m m o n t o b o t h f o r m s o f
c o n s t r u c t i o n .
I n d e v e l n p t n g t h e s t r u c t u r a l a r r a n g e m e n t f o r a s i n g l e - s t o r e y b u i l d i n g o r
e v e n a m u l t i s i n r e y b u i l d i n g i t s h o u l d b e h o m e i n m i n d t h a t t h e s h o r t e r i l i e
s p a n o f a s t r u c t u r a l m e m b e r t h e m o r e e c o n o m i c i t b e c o m e s . H o w e v e r , i h e
c l i e n t / o w n e r o f a s i n g l e - s t o r e y b u i l d i n g f r e q u e n t l y s t i p u l a t e s , a s i n t h i s d e s i g n
e x e r c i s e , t h a t t h e f l o o r a r e a s h o u l d b e f r e e o f i n t e r n a l c o l u m n s i n o r d e r t o
o b t a i n t h e g r e a t e s t f l e x i b i l i t y o f s p a c e w h i c h c a n r e a d i l y a c c o m m o d a t e a n y
f u t u r e m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o t h e u s a g e o f t h e f l o n r a r e a , w i t h o u t m a j o r s i n i c t u r a l
DESIGN OF SINGLE-STOREY
BUILDING - LATTICE GIRDER
AND COLUMN
CONSTRUCTION
11.1 INTRODUCTION
Over half of the total markei share of the constructional steelwork fabncllled
In the Umted Kingdom IS used In smgle-storey bUildings. Therefore, It IS
almost certain that an engineer will. at some time, have to design or check
such a building. Whereas previous chapters have Introduced the deSIgn of
vanous sImple elements, the next three chapters extend the design concept of
the overall design procedure of whole structures, LC. three-dimenslOual
strucrural arrangements. Essentially, most members ID_frameworks are
pOSitioned so as to transfer load In space to other members and eventually
down to the ground, by the Simplest. economic 'structural' route. TJlc next
two chapters will be devoted specifically to the vanous deSign aspects of
smglestorey structures. Though these structures represent Ihe Simplest fonn
of Ihree-dimenslOnal frameworks. they will illustrate most of the structural
deSIgn cntena which an engmeer nught encounter. This particular chapter
oUllines Ihe different consideratIOns used m deslgnmg all the structural
members for a complete building, based on the mam frame bemg of lattice
girder and column constructIOn (see Fig. 12.1). In the next chapter, the same
building will be redeSigned usmg porta! frame constructIOn. For brevity, only
the malO supportmg frame will be redesigned as a portal frame, as the deSign
of the remammg structural members IS common to both forms of
construclion.
Tn developmg the structural arrangement for a smgle-storey building or
even a multi-storey building 11 should be borne m mmd that Ihe shorter the
span of a structural member the more economic tt becomes. However, the
client/owner of a smgle-storey building frequently stIPulates, as In this deSign
exerCise, that the floor area should be free of internal columns m order 10
obtam the gremest flexibility of space which can readily accommodate any
future modificatIOns to the usage of the floor area, without major SIOlcturai
a l t e r a t i o n s t o t h e b u i l d i n g . F o r e c o n o m i c
r e a s o n s ( s u c h a s h a v i n g a f l o w - l i n e
p r o d u c t i o n o p e r a t i o n ) , m o s t i n d u s t n a l b u i l d i n g s
h a v e a r e c t a n g u l a r f l o o r p l a n ,
a n d t h e r e f o r e a l w a y s a r r a n g e , w h e r e p o s s i b l e ,
t o s p a n t h e m a i n f r a m e s a c r o s s
t h e s h o r t e r d i s t a n c e , t h c r e b y
m m i m n i n g m e m b e r s i z e s ( s e e F i g . 1 2 . 2 ) .
T h o u g h t h e c l i e n t u s u a l l y g i v e s t h e d e s i g n e r
a f r e e c h o i c e o f s t r u c t u r a l
a r r a n g e m e n t , t h e b e s t ' l e a s t c o s t ' s o l u t i o n
i s n e v e r t h e l e s s e x p e c t e d , i n a
p a p e r W g i v i n g c o m p a r a t i v e
c o s t s o f f o u r d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f s i n g l e - s t o r e y
a n - a n g e m e n t s ( r o o f t r u s s , l a t t i c e g i r d e r , p o r t a l f r a m e a n d
s p a c e f r a m e ) t h e
s i n g l e - s p a n p o r t a l f r a m e s e e r r u n g l y d i d
n o t p r o d u c e t h e m o s t e c o n o m i c
a n s w e r f o r t h e s i n g l e - b a y f r a m e , w h e n a s s e s s e d
o n i n i t i a l c o s t . T h e s t u d y
i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e l a t t i c e g i r d e r c o n s t r u c t i o n
p r o d u c e s t h e m o s t e c o n o m i c
s o l u t i o n f o r t h e s p a n b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d i n
t h e d e s i g n e x a m p l e . H o w e v e r , w h e n
o n e t a k e s i n t o a c c o u n t t h e c o s t o f m a i n t a i n i n g t h e s t a t u t o t y
m i n i m u m
t e m p e r a t u r e w i t h i n s u c h b u i l d i n g s t h e n t h e l o w r o o f
c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a p o r t a l
f r a m e c o u l d h a v e a f i n a n c i a l a d v a n t a g e
o v e r o t h e r f o r m s o f c o n s t r u c t i o n
d u n n g t h e l i f e s p a n o f a b u i l d i n g ( u s u a l l y 5 0 y e a r s ) .
T h i s i s p r o b a b l y w h y ,
t o g e t h e r w i t h i t s s i m p l e , c l e a n l i n e s , t h e
m o s t c o m m o n f o r m o f s i n g l e - s t o r e y
b u i l d i n g f o u n d o n a n y m o d e m u i d u s t n a l
e s t a t e i s t h a t o f p o r t a l f r a m e
c o n s t r u c t i o n , w i t h o v e r 9 0 % o f a l l s i n g l e - s t o r e y b u i l d i n g s
s o
O E S i G N O F S I N G L E - S T O n E Y B U I L O i N G
L A T r i C E G i R O E n A N O C O L U M N C O N S T R U C T i O N
1 6 5
D e s p i t e t h e d o m i n a n c e o f p o r t a l f r a m e c o n s t r u c t i o n
i n t h e p a s t , t h e r e i s a
g r o w i n g d e m a n d f r o m t h e h i - t e c h i n d u s t r i e s f o r l u g h e r q u a l i t y a n d f l e x i b i l i t y
m t h e u s e o f b u i l d i n g s . T h e s t r u c t u r e s o f s u c h b u i l d i n g s
a r e f r e q u e n t l y f l a t -
r o o f e d u t i l i z i n g s o l i d / c a s t e l l a t e d b e a m s
o r l a t t i c e g i r d e r s . T h e a d v a n t a g e o f
t h e l a t t i c e g i r d e r o r c a s t e l l a t e d f o r m o f c o n s t r u c t i o n
i s t h a t i t a l l o w s s e r v i c e s
l o b e a c c o m m o d a t e d w i t h i n t h e d e p t h o f t h e r o o f
c o n s t r u c t i o n , a t t h e e x p e n s e
o f d e e p e r r o o f c o n s t r u c t i o n w h e n c o m p a r e d w i t h
p o r t a l f r a m e s .
I n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e o v e r a l l d e s i g n p r o c e d u r e f o r
a b u i l d i n g , t h e
f o l l o w i n g d e s i g n e x e r c i s e w i l l d e a l w i t h t h e c o m p l e t e
d e s i g n o f a s i n g l e -
s t o r e y b u i l d i n g b a s e d n n l a t t i c e g i r d e r a n d c o l u m n
c o n s t r u c t i o n . H o w e v e r , i n
C h a p t e r 1 3 a n a l t e r n a t i v e a p p r o a c h , u s i n g p o r t a l f r a m e s
a s t h e m a i n
s u p p o r t i n g s t r u c t u r e , w i l l b e c o n s i d e r e d ; t h a t i s , t h e s i m p l e l a t t i c e
g i r d e r s w i t h
u n i v e r s a l s e c t i o n s a s c o l u m n m e m b e r s w i l l b e r e p l a c e d b y
a s e n c s o f p o r t a l
f r a m e s .
1 2 . 2 D E S I G N B R I E F
A c l i e n t r e q u i r e s a s i n g l e - s t o r e y b u i l d i n g , h a v i n g
a c l e a r f l o o r a r e a ,
9 0 m x 3 6 . 4 m , w i t h a c l e a r h e i g h t t o t h e u n d e r s i d e o f t h e
r o o f o f
4 . 8 m , w i t h p o s s i b l e e x t e n s i o n t o t h e b u i l d i n g
i n t h e f u t u r e . T h e s l o p e o f t h e
r o o f m e m b e r i s t o b e a t l e a s t
I t h a s b e e n s p e c i f i e d t h a t t h e b u i l d i n g i s t o b e
i n s u l a t e d a n d c l a d w i t h P M F m e t a l s h e e t i n g p r o f i l e L o n g
R i b l 0 0 0 R
( 0 . 7 0 m m t h i c k , m i n i m u m n e c e s s a r y f o r r o o f t o p r e v e n t d a m a g e
d u n n g
m a i n t e n a n c e a c c e s s ) . A s u b s t r a t a s u r v e y o f t h e s i t e , l o c a t e d
i n a n e w
d e v e l o p m e n t a r e a o n t h e o u t s k i r t s o f C l u i s b o r o u g l i , N o r t h Y o r k s h i r e ,
h a s
s h o w n t h a t t h e g r o u n d c o n d i t i o n s a r e a b l e t o s u s t a i n
a f o u n d a t i o n b e a r i n g
p r e s s u r e o f I S O k N / m 2 a t O . S m b e l o w e x i s t i n g g r o u n d l e v e L
1 2 , 3
P R E L I M I N A R Y D E S I G N D E C I S I O N S
T h e t w o c o m m o n a r r a n g e m e n i s f o r o p e n w e b ( l a t t i c e )
g i r d e r s a r e i l l u s t r a t e d
b y t h e d i a g r a m s i n F i g . 1 2 . 3 , i . e . t h e W a r r e n
o r P r a t t t r u s s g i r d e r s . T h e
d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e i , . v o t y p e s i s b a s i c a l l y t h a t t h e W a r r e n
t r u s s h a s p a i r s o f
d i a g o n a l m e m b e r s o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e s a m e l e n g t h , w h i l e
t h e P r a t t t r u s s h a s
s h o r t v e r t i c a i s a n d l o n g d i a g o n a l s . U n d e r n o r m a i
c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f g r a v i t y
l o a d i n g w h e n t h e r e i s n o l o a d r e v e r s a l , t h e P r a t t t r u s s
i s s t r u c t u r a l l y m o r e
e f f i c i e n t b e c a u s e t h e s h o r t v e r t i c a l m e m b e r s w o u l d b e
i n c o m p r e s s i o n a n d t h e
l o n g d i a g o n a l s i n t e n s i o n . H o w e v e r , w h e n t h e r e
i s l o a d r e v e r s a l i n t h e
a l W a r r e n
T w o c o m m o n
f o r m s o f l a t t i c e
g i r d e r
I b I P r a t t
1 6 4
S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L w O n I ( O E S i G N T O P S 5 9 5 0
F i g . 1 2 . i
T y p i c a l t r u s s a n d
c o l u m n C o n s t r u c t i o n
F i g . 1 2 . 2 P r o p o s e d m a i n
r m m e s p a c i n g
l ' s
F i g 1 2 3
f t
164 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO SS 5950
Fig. 12.1 Typical truss and
column conS-ruclion
Fig.
i
Proposed mam
frame spaCing
alterations 10 the building. For economic reasons (such as havmg a flow-Itne
production operatIon), most industnal buildings have a rectangular floor pian,
and therefore always aITIlnge, where possible, to span the main frames across
the shorter distance, thereby mtnlIIDzing member sizes (see Fig. 12.2).
.Though the client usually gives the deSigner a free chOIce of structural
arrangement, the best 'least cost' solution IS nevertheless expected. 1n a
paper(l) gIving comparative costs of four different types of smgle-storey
arrangements (roof truss, lattice girder. portal frame and space frame) the
Single-span portal fmme seemingly did not produce the most economic
answer for the single-bay frame, when assessed on initial cost. The study
mdicated that the lattice glfder construction produces the most economic
solutIOn for the span bemg considered in the deSign example. However, when
one L,kes mto account the cost of mamtammg the statutory mirumum
temperature within such buildings then the low roof constructIOn of a portni
frame could have a financial advantage over other forms of construchon
dunng the lifespan of a building (usually 50 years). This is probably why,
together with its simple, clean lines, the most common fonn of smgle-storey
building found on any modern mdustnal eslate IS that of portal frame
construction, with over 90% of all smgle-storey buildings so constructed!l)
11 .\
11 III
,-r
i I ,
I I I '
E
I
v
.,;
JJ
I I

I I I I
-'-
90.0 m
, .,.
" :
DESIGN OF SINGLESTOREY BUILDING -LATI!CE GIRDER AND COLUMN CONSTRUCTION 16S
Despite the dominance of portal frame construction m the past, there IS a
growmg demand from the hi-tech mdustnes for higher quality and flexibility
in the use of buildings. The structures of such buildings are frequently fiat-
roofed utiliZing solid/castellated beams or lattice girders. The advantage of
the iathce glfder or castellated fonn of constructton is that It allows servIces
to be accommodated within the depth of the roof constructIOn, at the expcnse
of deeper roof construction when compared with porta! frames.
In order to understand the overall deSIgn procedure for a building, the
following design exercise will deal with tbe complete deSign of a slngle-
storcy building based on lattIce gIrder and column constructIOn. However, In
Chaptcr 13 an alternative approach, usmg portal frames as tile mam
supporting structure, will be considered; that IS, the sImple lattice girders wilh
universal secttons as column members will be replaced by a sencs of portal
frames.
12.2 DESIGN BRIEF
A client reqUires a smgle-storey building. havmg a clear floor area,
90 m x 36.4 m, with a clear height 10 the underside of the roof steelwork of
4.8 m, with possible extensIOn 10 the building m the future. The slope of the
roof member is to be at least 5". It has been specified that the building IS 10 be
Insulated and clad with PMF metal sheetmg profile Long Rib IOOOR
(0.70 mm thick. mlmmum necessary for roof 10 prevent damage dunng
maintenance access). A substrata survey of the site, located m a new
development area on the outskirts of GUlsborough, North Yorkshire, has
shown that the ground conditions are able to sustain a foundatIOn beanng
pressure of 150kN/m
2
al O.Sm below eXlstmg ground leVel.
12.3 PRELIMINARY DESIGN DECISIONS
Two common
fonns of lattIce
gIrder
The two common arrangements for open web (lattice) girders arc illustrated
by the diagrams in Fig. 12.3, I.e. the Warren or Pratt truss girders. The
difference between the two types IS baSically that the Warren truss has pairs of
diagonal members of approXimately the same length, while the Pratt truss has
short verticals and long dingonals. Under nonnai circumstances of graVity
londing when there is no ioad reversal, the Pralt truss IS structurnHy more
effiCient because the short vertical members would be In compression and the
long diagonals In tensIOn. However, when there IS load revcrsal III the

lal Warren

(b) Prall
1 6 6 S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R K D E S I G N T O O S 5 9 5 0
D E S I G N O F S I N G L E - S T O R E Y B U I L D I N G L A T t I C E G I R D E R A N D C O L U M N C O N S T R U C T I O N
1 6 7
F i g . 1 t 4 S i r u c t u r a l
a r r a n g e m e n t o f
m a i n f r a m e
m e m b e r s
d i a g o n a l s t h e n t h e W a r r e n t r u s s m a y p r o v e t o b e t h e m o r e e c o n o m i c
a r r a n g e m e n t . A l s o , t h e W a r r e n t r u s s m a y g i v e l a r g e r a c c e s s s p a c e f o r c i r c u l a r
a n d s q u a r e d u c t s a n d ' s c o n s i d e r e d i n h a v e a b e t t e r a p p e a r a n c e . T h e r e f o r e , t h e
W a r r e n t r u s s h a s b e e n s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s d e s i g n e x e r c i s e .
O n e o f t h e c h e a p e s t f o r m s o f c o n s t r u c t i o n f o r t h e l a t t i c e g i r d e r s w o u l d b e
i f t h e a n g l e s e c t i o n s , u s e d f o r t h e d i a g o n a l s ( w e b m e m b e r s ) , w e r e w e l d e d
d i r e c t l y t o t h e t o p a n d b o t t o m c h o r d s , f a b n c a t e d f r o m T - s e c t i o n s , a n d t h i s
c o n s t r u c t i o n w i l l b e t h e b a s i s o f t h e m a i n d e s i g n . A n a l t e r n a t i v e f o r m o f
c o n s t r u c t i o n i s t o u s e t u b u l a r ( h o l l o w ) s e c t i o n s , w h i c h a r e b e i n g m c r e a s i n g l y
i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o h i - t e c h s t e e l b u i l d i n g s . T u b u l a r s e c t i o n s h a v e i t g o o d
a p p e a r a n c e a n d a r e e f f i c i e n t a s c o m p r e s s i o n m e m b e r s b u t a r e d i f f i c u l t t o
c o n n e c t s a t i s f a c t o r i l y , p a r t i c u l a r l y w h e n s u b j e c t t o h i g h l o a d s , w h e n s t i f f e n e r
p l a t e s a r e r e q u i r e d t o c o n t r o l b e n d i n g o f t h e s e c t i o n w a l l s .
T h e s l o p e o f t h e t o p c h o r d i s c h o s e n t o r e f l e c t t h e m i n i m u m s p e c i f i e d ( 5 ' )
o r t h e r e a b o u t s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , b e c a u s e t h e r o o f s l o p e i s l e s s t h a n 1 5 ' t h e n t h e
s h e e t i n g w i l l n e e d t o b e l a i d w i t h s p e c i a l s t n p m a s t i c l a p s c a l e r s , m o r d e r t o
p r e v e n t c a p i l l a r y a c t i o n a n d h e n c e r a i n l e a k i n g i n t o t h e b u i l d i n g . O t h e r
p r a c t i c e s f o r e n s u r i n g w e a t h e r t t g h t n e s s a r e t o i n c r e a s e t h e s i d e a n d e n d l a p s
a n d f a s t e n e r f r e q u e n c y . S u c h d e t a i l s s h o u l d b e c h e c k e d w i t h t h e s h e e t i n g
m a n u f a c t u r e r ' s c a t a l o g u e . T h e a l t e r n a t i v e i s t o u s e s t a n d i n g s e a m t y p e
s h e e t i n g w i t h c o n c e a l e d f i x i n g s . A s r e g a r d s l i m i t i n g d e f l e c t i o n , t h e r e a r e n o
m a n d a t o r y r e q u i r e m e n t s , b u t c o m m o n l y a c c e p t e d c n t e n a f o r a t y p i c a l
i n s u l a t e d b u i l d i n g a r e L / 2 0 0 f o r r o o f s a n d L i t S D f o r v e r t i c a l w a l l s .
T h e r e q u i r e d s l o p e c a n b e a c h i e v e d b y m a k i n g t h e d e p t h o f t h e l a t t i c e
g i r d e r a t t h e e a v e s e q u a l t o 1 / 2 0 o f t h e s p a n a n d t h e d e p t h a t t h e c e n t r e o f t h e
s p a n I / I D . A s s u m i n g t h e c o l u m n d e p t h t o b e 0 G m t h e n , w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o
F i g . 1 2 . 4 :
1 . 8 6 m
1 . 0 6 m
4 _ t a m
S p a n b e t w e e n c o l u m n c e n t r e s ( L 3 6 . 4 + 0 . 6 ) = 3 7 . 0 m
S p a c i n g o f l a t t i c e f r a m e s = 6 . 0 m
H e i g h t t o u n d e r s i d e o f g i r d e r 4 . 8 m
D e p t h o f g i r d e r a t e a v e s i . 8 5 m
D e p t h o f g i r d e r a t r i d g e ( a p e x ) 3 . 7 0 m
A c t u a l s l o p e o f r a f t e r ( 1 . 8 5 / 1 8 . 5 ) ] = 5 . 7 1 '
1 2 . 4 L O A D I N G
B e f o r e a n y d e s i g n c a l c u l a t i o n s c a n b e u n d e r t a k e n , t h e l o a d s t h a t c a n o c c u r o n
o r i n a b u i l d i n g h a v e t o b e a s s e s s e d a s a c c u r a t e l y a s p o s s i b l e . T h e l o a d s w h i c h
n o r m a l l y g o v e r n t h e d e s i g n o f a s i n g l e - s t o r e y b u i l d i n g a r e d e a d l o a d s t h ) s n o ' v
i o a d t 2 t a n d w i n d l o a d i n g t t 4 ) . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e d e s i g n e r s h o u l d g i v e t h o u g h t t o
t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f u n u s u a l l o a d i n g s , s u c h a s d r i f t i n g o f s n o w t s ) , a n d
o v e r l o a d i n g o f a g u t t e r i f t h e d o w n p i p e s b e c o m e b l o c k e d o r c a n n o t c o p e w i t h
a l a r g e v o l u m e o f r a i n w a t e r d u n n g a d e l u g e . M o d e m b u i l d i n g s m a y a l s o b e
r e q u i r e d t o a c c o m m o d d i e s e r v i c e s , s u c h a s d u c t i n g o r s p n n k l e r s y s t e m s . T h e
w e i g h t o f I h e s e i t e m s c a n b e s i g n i f i c a n t a n d i t i s a d v i s a b l e t h a t a d v i c e f r o m
t h e s u p p l i e r s i s s o u g h t . ( N o t e t h a t t h e s n o w l o a d i n f o r m a t i o n r e f e r r e d t o i n
r e f e r e n c e s ( 2 ) a n d ( 6 ) i s t o b e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n U S 6 3 9 9 : P a r t 3 , C o d e
o f
P r a c t i c e f o r S n o w L o a d s ) . A l s o ,
d e p e n d i n g o n t h e f u n c t i o n o f a b u i l d i n g ,
d y n a m i c l o a d i n g f r o m c r a n e o p e r a t i o n s c a n b e a n e x t r a d e s i g n c o n s i d e r a t i o n .
1 2 . 4 . 1 D e a d l o a d
T h e d e a d l o a d s a f f e c t i n g t h e d e s i g n o f t h e b u i l d i n g r e s u l t f r o m t h e s e l f w e i g h t
o f t h e s h e e t i n g ( i n c l u d i n g i n s u l a t i o n ) , t h e s e c o n d a r y m e m b e r s a n d m a i n
f r a m e s a n d w i l l b e i n c l u d e d i n t h e d e s i g n c a l c u l a t i o n s , a s a n d w h e n t h e y
o c c u r . E s t i m a t i n g t h e s e l f w e i g h t o f s h e e t i n g a n d
s e c o n d a r y m e m b e r s i s
r e l a t i v e l y e a s y a s t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r s '
c a t a l o g u e s . A s s e s s i n g t h e s e l f w e i g h t o f t h e m a i n f r a m e i s m o r e d i f f i c u l t , a s
t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d b e f o r e t h e d e s i g n o f t h e f r a m e . D e s i g n e r s
w i t h
e x p e n e n c e c a n m a k e r a p i d e s t i m a t e s . I n t h i s d e s i g n e x a m p l e , a
r o u g h g u i d e
w o u l d b e t o m a k e i t a b o u t 1 5 % o f t h e t o t a l g r a v i t y l o a d a c t i n g o n t h e m a i n
f r a m e . C l e a r l y , t h e s e l f w e i g h t o f f r a m e s s p a n n i n g s m a l l e r d i s t a n c e s , a s a
p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e t o t a l g r a v i t y l o a d i n g , w o u l d b e l e s s a n d f o r l a r g e r s p a n s
t h e
p e r c e n t a g e i s l a r g e r . T h e s e l f - w e i g h t o f t h e B S C p r o f i l e L o n g R i b I O U O R
w i t h
i n s u l a t i o n w i l l b e t a k e n a s 0 . 0 9 7 h 0 4 1 m 2 .
1 2 . 4 . 2 S n o w l o a d
T h e r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e s n o w l o a d i n g i s a t p r e s e n t
c o n t a i n e d
m U S 6 3 9 9 : P a r t
1 t 2 l F o r t h e p r o p o s e d s i t e ( G u i s b o r o u g h ) i t i s e s t t m a t e d t h a t
t h e r e l e v a n t s n o w l o a d i s 0 . 7 5 k N / m 2 ( a c t i n g o n p l a n ) t h o u g t i i t i s a n t i c i p a t e d
t h a t i n P a r t 3 o f U S 6 3 9 9 t h e r e
b e r e g i o n a l v a n a t i o n s , a s i s a l r e a d y
p e r m i t t e d i n t h e f a r m b u i l d i n g c o d e 5 5 5 5 0 2 . T h e e q u i v a l e n t s n o w l o a d
a c t i n g a l o n g t h e i n c l i n e d r o o f m e m b e r i s 0 . 7 5 c o s
L L 0 . 7 5 x O . 9 9 5 =
0 . 7 5 k N / m 2 . T h e u s e o f a n e q u i v a l e n t l o a d m a k e s d u e a l l o w a n c e f o r t h e p u r l i n
s p a c i n g b e i n g g i v e n a s a s l o p e d i s t a n c e . H o w e v e r , a t t h i s
s l o p e i t i s s e e n t h a t
t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n l o a d o n s l o p e a n d o n p l a n i s n e g l i g i b l e .
2 . 4 . 3 W i n d l o a d
F r o m C P 3 C h a p t e r V P a r t 2 ( a l s o t o b e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o U S 6 3 9 9 ) , t h e
w i n d
l o a d i n g o n t h e b u i l d i n g b e i n g d e s i g n e d c a n b e e s t a b l i s h e d . A l s o , t h e r e a d e r i s
d i r e c t e d t o r e f e r e n c e ( 4 ) w h i c h d e a l s m o r e f u l l y w i t h w i n d l o a d i n g o n
b u i l d i n g s a n d c o n t a i n s t h e b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n o n w h i c h r e f e r e n c e ( 3 ) i s
3 7 . 0 n
166 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO SS 5950
Fig. 12.4 Structural
arrangemelll of
mam frame
members
diagonals then the Warren truss may prove to be the more economic
arrangement. Also, the Warren truss may give larger access space for circular
and square ducts and is considered to have a better appearance. Therefore, the
Warren truss has been selected for this design exercise.
One of the cheapest forms of construction for the lattice girders would be
if the angle sectIOns, used for the diagonals (web members), were welded
directly to the top and bottom chords, fabncated from T-secttons. and this
construction will be the baSIS of the mam deSIgn. An alternative fonn of
construction 15 to use tubular (hollow) sectIOns, which arc being mcreasmgiy
Incorporated into hi-tech steel buildings. Tubular secttons have li. good
appearance and are effiCient as compression members but are difficult to
connect satlsfactorily. parhculariy when subject to high loads, when stiffener
plates are reqUIred to control bending of the section walls.
The slope of the lop chord is chosen to reflect the mmimum specified (5
a
)
or thereabouts. Consequently, because the roof slope IS less than lS
a
then the
sheetmg will need to be laid with speCial stnp mastic lap sealers, ill order to
prevent capillary action and hence ram leaking Into the building. Other
pracllces for ensunng weatherhghtness are to Increase the side and end laps
and fastener frequency. Such details should be checked with the si1eehng
manufacturer's catalogue. The altemallve IS to use standing seam type
sheetmg with concealed fixings. As regards limiting deflectiOn, there are no
mandalOry reqUirements, but commonly accepted cntena for a typical
Insulated building are iJ200 for roofs and iJl50 for vertIcal walls.
The reqUIred slope can be achieved by making the depth of the lattIce
gIrder at the eaves equal to 1/20 of the span and the depth at the centre of the
span III O. Assumlllg the colwnn depth to be 0.6 m then, with reference to
Fig. 12.4:
1.85 mrr-J f\l\i\J
1.85m r
Z
\/VVYYVV\Z\4
<I.BOrn
I mm I
Span between column centres (L-36.4+0.6) =37.0 m
Spacmg of lattice frames 6.0 m
Height to underSide of gIrder 4.8 m
Depth of girder at eaves 1.85 m
Depth of girder at ridge (apex) 3.70 m
Actual slope of rafter fO=tan-
1
(1.85/18.5)] 5.71c
11.4 LOADING
Before any deSIgn caJculaltons can be undertaken, the loads that can occur on
or In a building have to be assessed as accurately as possible. The ioads which
..
!
i
I
\
\
1
,.
DESIGN OF SINGLE-STOREY BUILDING -LATIICE GIRDER AND COLUMN CONSTRUCTION
167
normally govern the deSIgn of a Single-storey building arc dead loads(2), snow
ioad{l) nnd wind 10ading
P
.4). In addition, the deSIgner should give thought 10
the possibility of unusual loadings, such as drifting of sno\\,(6), and
overloading of a gutter if the downpipes become blocked or CUlUlOt cope with
a large volume of rainwater rlunng a deluge. Modem buildings may also be
reqUired to accommodate services, such as ductmg or sponkler systems. The
weight of these Items can be Significant and it IS adVisable that adVice fTOm
the suppliers IS sought. (Note that the snow ioad informahon referred to m
references (2) and (6) IS to be Incorporated in BS 6399: Part 3, Code of
Practice for Snow Loads). Also, depending on the fi.mctlon of a building,
dynamIC loading from crane operations can be an ex-tra deSign consideratIOn.
12-4.1 Dead load
The dead loads affecting the deSIgn of the building result from the self weIght
of the sheetmg (including insulatIOn), the secondary members and malO
frames and will be mcluded In the deSign calculatIOns, as and when they
occur. Esltmating the selfwelght of slteetmg and secondary members IS
reJatlvely easy as this mformatlOn IS contamed In the manufacturers'
catalogues. Assessmg the selfWelght of the mam frame IS more difficult, us
this mformatiOn IS reqUired before the destgn of the frame. DeSigners with
expenence can make rapid eslimates. In this deSign example, a rough guide
would be to make It about 15% of the totnl gravity load actmg on the mam
frame. Clearly, the selfwetght of frames spanmng smaller distances, us a
percentage of the total gravity loading. would be less and for larger spans the
percentage IS larger. The self-weight of the BSC profile Long Rib 1000R WIth
UlsuiatlOn wi!! be taken as 0.097 kN/mz.
11.4.2 Snow load
The relevant mformatlOn regarding the snow loading IS at present contamed
ID BS 6399: Part I (2). For the proposed Slte (GUlsborough) It IS esttmated Ihat
the relevant snow load is 0.75kN/m
z
(actmg on plan) though It IS antiCipated
that In Part 3 of BS 6399 there vim be regIOnal vanallons, as IS already
permitted in the fann building code BS 5502. The eqUivalent snow load
aclmg along the mclined roof member IS 0.75 cos 0=0.75 x 0.995 =
0.75 kN/ml. The use ofan equivalent load makes due allowance for the puriin
spacmg being gIven as a siope distance. However, at this slope It IS seen that
the difference m load on slope and on plan tS negligible.
12.4.3 Wind load
From CP3 Chapter V Part 2 (also to be Incorporated into BS 6399), the wmd
loading on the building being deSIgned can be established. Also, the reader IS
directed to reference (4) which deals more fully with WInd loading on
buildings and contains the background infonnatlOn on which reference (3) IS
b a s e d . A s t h e s i t e i s l o c a t e d i n G u i s b o r o u g h , t h e n
f r o m r e f e r e n c e ( 3 ) , t h e
b a s i c w i n d
i s e s t i m a t e d a s b e i n g 4 5 i n / s ( F i g .
I o f r e f e r e n c e ( 3 ) ) ; t h e
f a c t o r s 5 , a n d
a r e b o t h 1 . 0 . F r o m t h e i n f o r m a t i o n s u p p l i e d ,
t h e g r o u n d
r o u g h n e s s i s a s s u m e d t o b e 3 , n o d b e c a u s e t h e b u i l d i n g
i s l o n g e r t h a n 5 0
i n
t h e ' b u i l d i n g s i z e
i s d e s i g n a t e d a s c l a s s C . F r o m T a b l e 3 0 3 , l a l o w i n g
t h e
b u i l d i n g h e i g h t i s i n t h e S l O i n r e g i o n , t h e
f a c t o r s 2 i s f o u n d t o b e 0 . 6 9 .
b a s e d o n a h e i g h t o f 1 0 m . ( A s l i g h t l y
l o w e r v a l u e m i g h t l i e o b t a i n e d b y
m t e r p o i a t i o n , a s t h e a c t u a l h e i g h t
i s 5 . 5 m ) . H e n c e t h e d y n a m i c p r e s s u r e
( q )
i s :
q

e x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e
b u i l d i n g ( w i t h

o f
s r . a b u i l d i n g h e i g h t r a t i o
a n d a b u i l d i n g p l a n r a t i o
i h v = 9 0 M / 3 7 . 0 2 . 4 3 ) a r e o b t a i n e d f r o m
T a b l e 7 ( w a l l s ) a n d T a b l e s ( p i t c h
r d n f s ) t 3 1 T h o u g h t h e d i m e n s i o n s
u s e d i n t h i s e x a m p l e a r e b a s e d
o n t h e c e n t r e
l i n e s o f m e m b e r s , i t i s t h e u s u a l
p r a c t i c e t o u s e t h e o v e r a l l d i m e n s i o n s o f
a
b u i l d i n g . H o w e v e r , t h e l a t t e r w o u l d
n o t m a t e r i a l l y a f f e c t t h e c a i e u i a t e d
v a l u e & T h e i n t e r n a l p r e s s u r e c o e f f i c i e n t s
a r e a s s e s s e d f r o m A p p e n d i x l i t i ) .
a s s u m i n g t h a t t h e t w o l o n g f a c e s o f t h e b u i l d i n g
a r e e q u a l l y p e r m e a b l e w h i l e
t h e g a b l e f a c e s a r e n o t ; t h a t i s ,
+ 0 . 2
t h e w i n d i s n o r m a l t o a p e r m e a b l e
f a c e a n d 0 . 3
n o r m a l t o a n u n p e r m e a b l e f a c e . H o w e v e r ,
i t c o u l d b e
a r g u e d o n e s h o u l d
f o r t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f d o m i n a n t o p e n i n g s ,



h a v e n o t b e e n f i n a l i z e d a t t h e d e s i g n
s t a g e ;
i h a t i s , t h e d e s i g n e r m a k e s t h e
a p p r o p r i a t e d e c i s i o n ,
o n t h e
i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e r e g a r d i n g
o p e n i n g s m t h e

u s e t h e
c l a u s e i n r e f e r e n c e ( 3 ) w h i c h a l l o w s t h e
d e s i g n e r t o t a k e t h e m o r e o n e r o u s o f
- 1 - 0 . 2 a n d 0 . 3 . T h i s c o v e r s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y
o f a d o m i n a n t o p e n i n g , p r o v i d e d i t
i s c l o s e d d u n n g a s e v e r e s t o n n . T h e r e s u l t i n g w i n d l o a d i n g
c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e
b u i l d i n g ( e f . 2 . 9
f r a m e o n l y ) , a r e g w e n i n F i g .

i s d e t e r m i n e d b y i n t e r p o l a t i o n . I f
i s n o p o s s i b i l i t y o f

o p e n i n g , t h e n o n l y w i n d e a s e s B
C a p p l y
T h e d i a g r a m s s h o w t h a t t h e m a x i m u m

t h a t c a n a c t o n t h e
a n d g a b l e s o f t h e b u i l d i n g i s i . O x

t h e m a x i m u m l o c a l ,
p r e s s u r e , f o r w h i c h t h e
s h e e t i n g h a s t o b e d e s i g n e d , i s g e n e r a l l y
s i g n i f i c a n t l y
h i g h e r . h i a s s e s s i n g t h e l o c a l
p r e s s u r e o n t h e r o o f s h e e t i n g , a r e v i s e d v a l u e o f
h a s t o b e o b t a i n e d f r o m T a b l e 3 ( 3 ) ,
n o t i n g t h a t c l a d d i n g i s d e f i n e d a s c l a s s
A , h e n c e
= 0 . 7 8 a n d t h e a p p r o p r i a t e v a l u e o f q = 0 . 6 t 3 ( 1 . 0
x 0 . 7 8 x
1 . 0
i s d r a w n t o t h e l a r g e r v a l u e o f
w h i c h o c c u r s a t t h e e d g e z o n e s o f r o o f s ,
a s i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e
T h e r e f o r e ,
t h e m a x i m u m d e s i g n p r e s s u r e ( i n t h i s
c a s e , s u c t i o n ) a c t i n g o n t h e r o o f
s h e e t i n g i s
4 - C ' , , , ) q = ( 1 . 4 + 0 . 2 ) 0 . 7 6 = 1 . 2 2 k N / m 2 .
S i m i l a r l y f o r t h e s i d e c l a d d i n g w h e r e
b a s e d o n a h e i g h t o f 5 m
( a c t u a l 6 . 6 5
t h e l o c a l c , , v a l u e i s
t h e p r e s s u r e
s u s t a i n e d b y t h e
s h e e t i n g i s
( 1 . 0 + 0 . 2 ) 0

W i n d
I
I
I n
d i r e c t i o n
C
1 '
E H
o . a
+
=
T h e s e w i n d l o a d s , b a s e d o n p r e s s u r e e o e f l l c i e a t s ,
a r e u s e d w h e n
d e t e r m i n i n g t h e l o a d s a c t i n g o n a p a r t i c u l a r s u r f a c e
o r p a r t o f t h e s u r f a c e o f a
b u i l d i n g , i . e . t h e y a r e a p p l i c a b l e
i n t h e d e s i g n o f t h e l a t t i c e g i r d e r o r c o l u n - i n s .
H o w e v e r . m e s t i m a t i n g t h e w i n d l o a d s a c t i n g
o n t h e w h o l e o f t h e b u i l d i n g ,
t h e f o r c e c o e f f i c i e n t s h a v e t o b e u s e d ; t h a t
i s , t h e t o t a l w i n d l o a d o n a
b u i l d i n g i s c a l c u l a t e d f r o m :
F ' C j q A
C f o b t a i n e d f r o m T a b l e
a n d
i s t h e e f f e c t i v e f r o n t a l a r e a . T h i s
m e a n s t h a t w h e n t h e w i n d i s b l o w i n g p e r p e n d i c u l a r
t o t h e l o n g i t u d i n a i a x i s o f
t h e b u i l d i n g , t h e n 5 2 = 0 . 6 0
a n d
q = 0 . 4 5 k N / m 2 , h e n c e :
F '

1 8 . 0 f r a m e


F ' = 0 . 7

1 6 8
S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R i c D E S I G N T O 8 5 5 9 5 0
D E S I G N O F S i N G L E - S T O R E r B U I L D I N G
L A T T I C E G I R D E R A N D C O L U M N C O N S T R U C T I O N
1 6 9
W i n d
d i r e c t i o n
-
0 . 0
- F H
A
0 . 0
C r ,
0 . 7
- I i :
' I ,
:
4 1 ' .
1 '
F i g . 1 2 . 5 E x t e r n a l a n d
j a t e m a l w i n d
c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r
b u i l d i n g
i l l
H R
0 . 1
0
168 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO BS 5950
based. As the site IS located in GUlsborougn, then from reference (3), the
bOSle wmd speed is eshmated as bemg 45 mls (Fig. 1 of reference (3)); the
factors S, and S 3 arc both 1.0. From the information supplied, the ground
rouglmess IS assumed 10 be 3, and because the building is ionger than 50 rn,
the 'building size" 15 desIgnated as class C. From Table 3(3), knowing the
building height is In the 5-10 m region, the factor S 1 is [ound to be 0.69.
based on a height of 10 m. (A slightly lower value mIght be obtamed by'
interpolation, as the actual height IS 8.5 m). Hence the dynnmll: pressure (q)
IS:
. q =0.613 (LO x 0.69 x LO x 45)'11000
=D.59kN/m
2
TIle external pressure coefficients for a building (with a roof slope of
5.7'>, a building height ratio Jtlw=8.5/37.0=O.23 and a building p'[an ratio
Ilw=90.0/37.0=2.43) are obtamed from Table 7 (walls) and Table 8 (pitch
roofs)(3) 1110ugh the dimenSIOns used in this example are based on the centre
lines of members, it is the usual practice to use the overall dimensions of a
building. However, the latter would not matenally affect the caicuiated
values. The Infernal pressure coeffidents are assessed from Appendix E(3),
assuming that the two long faces of the building are equally permeable while
the gable faces are not; that is, + 0.2 when the wmd is normal to a permeable
face and -03 when normal to an 1Il1permeable face. However, It could be
argued that one should allow for the occurrence of donunant openings,
partlcularly if delails of operungs have not been finalized at the deSign stage;
that is, the designer makes the appropriate deciSIOn, depending on the
mformation available regarding opemngs In the buildingg-. Therefore, use the
clause m reference (3) which allows the designer to take the more onerous of
+{l.2 and -0.3. TIlis covers the possibility of a dommant opening, provided it
IS closed dunng a severe storm. TIle resulting wmtlloading conditions for the
building (er. Fig. 2.9 for frame only), are gIven in Fig. 12.5. The value of 0.95
IS determined by mterpolation. If there IS no possibility of a dommant
openmg, then only wmd cases Band C apply (see Fig. 12.5).
The diagrams show that the maximum pressure that can ae! on the sides
and gables of the building IS 1.0 x 0.59 kN/m
2
However, the mnxuntim locnl ,
pressure, for which the sheeting has to be deSigned, IS generally Significantly
higher. In assessing the local pressure on the roof sheetmg, a revised value of
Sl has to be obtamed from Table 3(3}, noting that cladding IS defined as class
A. Ilence S.;>=0.78 and the appropriate value of q =0.613 (LO x 0.78 x
1.0 x 45)2!1 000 =0.76 kN/m
2
. Attention is drawn to the larger value of Cpt!
which occurs at Ule edge zones of roofs, as indicated in Table 8(3) Therefore,
the maxlmmn deSign pressure (in this case, suction) actmg on the roof
sheetlng IS
(Cp.+C
p
,) Q=- (1.4+0.2)0.76= -L22kNlm'-
Similarly for the side cladding where S2 = 0.70 based on a height of 5 m
llactual 6.65 m) and the local C
p
value IS i .Om, then the ma;umum pressure
sustained by the side sheeting IS
(1.0+0.2)0.61 =0.73 kNlm'.
Fig. 12.5
DESIGN OF SINGLE STOREY BUILDING -LATIICE GIRDER AND COLUMN CONSTRUCTION 169
External and
mtemal wmd
coeffiCients for
building
0.3
I
rn
",io
h-\!l
;l--

A
0 . 0'0
j I !
0
j
i
I t
Wind c::::>
mlo
m 0.3

ID

direcllon
1'1
9
0
0.8
I
t
EB
i
m' 0
m
0.6


B
-'0

I! !
0
,
0.8

+

I Cpd
1.0
rn

N -0.13 N
C
0.7
0 ..... - ---- -- Cl
Wind

directIon
n
Ul -0.43 tn 0.2
,,----
0.5
t
rn
0.1
r--; __ _0.63 __ ....
0
o 0
t
0.3
These wmd loads. based on pressure coefficients, are used when
de!ermimng the loads actmg on a particular surface or part of the surface of a
building, I.e. Uley are applicable In the deSign of the lattIce girder or columns.
However, In estlmattng the wmd loads acting on Ule Whole of the building,
Ihe force coefficients have to be used; that is, the tolal Wind load on a
building IS calculated from:
F'=Cfq At!
where Cfis obtalfled from Table JO{J) and At! is the effeclIve frontal area. This
means that when the wind is blowmg perpendicular to the longitudinal aXIs of
Ihe building, then S2=0.60 and q =0.45kN/m
2
hence:
F' = 1.0 x 0.45 x (6.0 x 6.65)= 18.0 kN per malO frame
For the case of Ule wind blowmg on Ihe gables, then:
F' =0.7 x 0.59 x [37.0 (6.65+ 1.8512)J= 116 kN
1 7 0 S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R K D E S I G N T O O S 5 9 5 0 D E S I G N O P S I N G L E - S T O R E Y B U I L D I N G L A T T I C E G I R D E R A N D C O L U M N C O N S T R U C T I O N
1 7 1







C r 1
C o n s i d e r


0 . 0 4 w


0 . 0 4 1 3 7 . 0 ( 9 0 . 0 4 8 . 5 ) 0 . 5 9 + 2






8 . 5 ) 0 . 5 9 + 2 7 . 5 8 ( 3 7 . 0 4 7 . 5 8 ) 0 . 4 5 ]
1 . 6 + 0 , 5 = 2 . 1






















































1 . 1 5 0 . 8 1





u . d . I .
s p a n
s e e
p u r l i n
t . 3 4

= t . 6 2 6 m


L
170 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO 8S 5950
This force of 116 kN has to be distributed between the bracmg systems (see
Section 12.8).
In addition tD direct wmd pressure, there can be frictIOnal drag forces. For
rectangular clud buildings, these drag forces need to be taken mto account
only where the ratio of the dimenSIOn In the wind direction (d) compared
with the dimensiOn normal to the wmd directIOn (b) IS greater than 4. The
drag force can be determmed from
ll
}'
F' = Cri (roof surface) q, + (wnll surface) q2 ]
Consider the wmd blowmg parallel to the longItudinal aXIS of the building;
then dlb = 2.43 and d/h= 10.7, i.e. drag force must be taken mto account.
Under this wmd condition, the selected sheetmg has ribs running across the
wmd and therefore e
r
= 0.0:1(3) and for (he condition It S b, the code of
prachce(3) stales that:
F' = C/,[b(d-4h)q,+2h(d-4h)q,]
= 0.04[37.0(90.0 -4 x 85)059 + 2 x 6.65(90.0 -4 x 6.65)0.45]
=49.0 (rooO+ 15.2 (wnlls)=64.2kN
which has to be reSisted by the braced bay(s) (see SectIOn 12.8).
When the wmd is deemed to blow In the lateral directIOn, then dlb=OAJ
and dill =4AO . t\s the ribs of the sheetmg do not run across the wmd
directIOn, then C
r
=O.OI, and the drag force is delennmed rrom(3)
pi' =Cr[b(d -4h) ql +2h (d -4h) q2]
=0:01[90.0(37.0-4 x 85)059+2 x 758(37.0-4 x 7.58)0.45]
= 1.6+0.5=2.1 kN (= 0.2kN per mam frame)
That 15, when the Wind is blowmg In the longItudinal directIOn of a smglebay
building, the drag force can be slgnificam, while the drag force per frame In
the lateral directIOn IS comparaltveiy small and is usually Ignored.
12.5 DESIGN OF PURLlNS AND SHEETING RAILS
One of the imtial deCISions ihat the engmeer has 10 make is the spacmg or
centres of the mam frames. Though the paper on c:osts{l) indicates thal 7.5 m
spaclOg would be more economIC, It has been decided to use 6.0 m centres
owmg to the practical consideratIon of door opemngs. Also, if large bnck
panel walls are used in the side elevations Instead of sheetmg, it IS adVisable
m any case 10 liollt the frame centres to nbout 6.0 m or less to avoid havmg to
use thicker than standard cavIty wall constructIOn.
As mdicated in Section 1.5, the Imposed loading actmg on a smgle-slorey
structure IS due to snow and Wind, which is carned irutially by the cladding and
is transferred into the secondary members, purlins (roof) and side rails {vertical
walls). These members, which are usually deSigned as double-spnn members,
transfer the Imposed loads pius thelrowu self weight by fiexuml actIOn on to the
malO frames as a senes of po m! loads. Therefore, another deCISIOn to be made IS
the actual spacmg of the purlins, which IS dependent on the snow load and the
profile and thickness oflhe metal sheettng selected for the cladding.
It has been shown(l} that the spacmg of purl ins has little effect on the total
cost of purl ins, though mcreased spacmg would lead to an increase III cost of
~ ~ . ' : ' ..
:42
DESIGN OF SINGlESTOAEY BUILDING -LATIrCE GIRDER AND COLUMN CONSTRUCTION
171
sheeting. JVletal sheelmg is generally used in long multispan lengths to
mlmmlze the number of transverse JOints. Such long lengths can be easily
handled on the roof (as purl ins gl\'e support), but nOI as side cladding because
I1 IS difficult to support vertically dunng erectIOn, even with scaffolding. In
this example, the client has specified the sheetmg. Nevertheless, the
maximum length over which the sheetmg can span has to be established. The
Ptv1F slieeltng profile Long Rib WDOR when used as roof cladding has to
support a snow load of >0.75 kN/m
2
andior a local wmd sUctIOn of
1.22 kN/m
2
. Note that the high local wmd pressllres/SItCClOlIS apply ollly co
the deSign oJ the cladding. From the PMF catalogue(6) and assummg that the
length of sheet runs over at least two spans, It can be shown that the selected
profile can sustUln 1.65 kN/m
2
over a span of about 2.0 m, while complymg
with the deflection limHatlOn for roof sheelmg of L1200.
Today, the deSign oflhe secondary members IS domlnateu by cold fonned
sections. Though there IS a Bntish Standard covenng the deSign of cold
fanned members (SS 5950: Part 5(l)), the manufacturers tend to develop new
profiles. based on the resuhs of extensive testlOg. There are a number of
manufacturers of purlins and sheeung rails and therefore, III making a chOice,
one needs to consuil the vanous manufacturers' catalogues.
The 'deSign' of cold fanned members consists of looking lip the relevant
table for the chosen range of sec lions. The chOIce of a particular
manufacturer's products IS dependent on a client's or deSigner's expenences
and preferences. Table 12.1 illustrates a typical purHn load table based on
mfonnauon from a manufacturer's catalogue (Ward Multibeam(II) for the
double-span condition. The loads shown m the table are based on lateral
restramt bemg provided to the top flange ofthe purlin by the sheetlOg. Also, It
should be noted that the loads quoted tn Table 12.1 are for ultima!e !oad
condition, Le. [adored, and that the self weight of the purlin has already been
deducted from the limiting vaiues of load gIven In the table.
Assume the overall distance between the ouler faces ofthe column members
IS 37.6 m, which ifdivided into 24 equal portions would give purl in centres
about 1.570m (on the slope). The gravity loading (dead plus snow) supported
by the purlins IS 1.6 x 0.75+ tA x 0.097 = J .34 kN/m
2
, while the ma:(Jmum
uplift on the purl ins IS j A (0.097 - LI5 x 0.59) = -0.8\ kN/m
2
From Table
12.1(a), knowmg the purlin ien!:,>1h of 6.0 m, purl in spacUlg of 1.570 m and the
gra\'lty lond to be supported by the purlin (1.34 kN/m
2
). the P!45155 sectIOn
seems adequate. (Usually purlin spacmg tends to be cost-effeclive m the range
1.8-2.0 m).
If the deSign load is limited to 1.34 kN/m
2
(factored), then the maximum
spacmg for this particular profile would be:
where
L,
u.d.1.
span x max. npplied load
u.d.l. - see third column of Table 12.1(a) (13.07 kN)
span - purlin length, I.e. 6 m
applied load - 1.34 kN/m"2
13.07
L,
6.0 x 1.34
i.626m

, _ W J f l J t . , i u f l f l L
L 3 b S I U N l O B S 5 9 5 0
T a b l e




' : : -
P 3 4 5 1 4 5
' 3 . 9 5 2 . 7 9 2 3 3
. 9 9 3 . 7 4 1 3 5 1 , 4 0
3 , 2 7 1 . 3 6
8 , 0 7
P 1 4 5 1 5 5
3 5 3 5 I I I 2 . 5 9 2 . 2 2 3 , 9 4
l , 7 3 3 . 5 6 3 , 4 3
. 3 0
. 2 0
P 3 4 5 ( 7 0 3 7 . 8 3
3 . 5 7 2 . 9 1 2 , 5 5
2 . 2 3
3 . 9 8 3 . 7 8 1 . 6 2
3 3 7
P 8 7 5 3 4 0 i 6 . 5 2
3 3 0 2 . 7 5
2 , 3 6 2 . 0 7 3 , 3 4 3 , 6 5
3 3 0 i . 3 8
. 2 7
P 3 7 5 ( 5 0
( 8 3 5
3 . 7 3 3 . 0 9 2 . 6 5
2 3 2 2 , 0 6
3 . 8 6 3 . 6 9 3 5 P 3 7 5 3 6 0
2 0 . 2 3 4 . 0 5 3 3 7 2 . 8 9
2 . 5 3 2 . 2 5 2 . 0 2
3 . 3 4 3 , 6 9
5 6
P 3 7 5 1 7 0
7 2 4 7
P 3 4 5 3 4 5 1 1 , 7 4 3 , 9 6 3 . 6 3 1 . 4 0
3 . 2 2
3 . 0 9 0 . 9 8 0 . 3 9 0 . 3 7
0 7 5
9 3 8 5 3 5 5
1 3 . 0 7 2 . i i 3 . 3 2
. 5 6 3 3 6 3 . 3 3 3 , 0 9 0 . 9 9
0 . 9 1
0 . 3 4
9 3 4 5 ( 7 0 1 4 . 1 9
Z 3 7 1 . 9 7 6 . 6 9 1 , 4 6
U I
/ . 0 5
0 . 9 9
0 . 9 /
P 1 7 5 1 4 0 i 3 . 9 8 2 , 3 3 1 . 9 8
3 . 6 6
3 . 4 6 3 . 2 9
3 . 3 6 3 . 0 6
0 . 9 7
0 8 0
P 3 7 5 3 5 0
( 5 . 6 7 2 . 6 3 2 . 3 3
3 . 8 7 3 . 6 3 3 . 4 5 1 3 1 3 . 3 9
3 , 0 9
3 , 0 0
P 3 7 5 6 0 3 7 . 0 7 2 . 8 5
2 , 3 7 2 . 0 3 3 . 7 8
3 . 5 8 3 . 4 1
3 . 3 9
1 . 1 9
3 . 0 9
P 1 7 5 1 7 0 1 8 . 9 3 3 . 3 6 2 , 6 3 2 . 2 5
3 , 9 7 3 . 7 5
3 3 7 3 , 4 1 1 . 3 1
3 . 2 3
P 3 7 5 3 0 0
2 3 . 5 6 3 . 9 3 3 . 2 7 2 , 8 0 2 . 4 5
2 . 3 8 ' 9 6 . 7 8
. 6 4
3 , 5 3
P 2 0 5 1 4 5
3 7 . 0 9 2 . 8 5 2 3 7 2 . 0 9
3 , 7 8 ' . 5 8 3 . 4 2
3 . 2 9
3 . 3 9
3 . 3 0
P 2 0 5 3 5 5 3 9 . 0 3 3 . 3 7 2 6 4 2 3 7
3 , 9 8 3 . 7 6 3 . 5 9 3 . 4 4
3 3 2
( . 2 2
P 3 0 5 3 6 5
2 0 . 9 2 3 . 4 9 2 . 9 3 2 . 4 9 2 . 3 8
3 . 9 4 ' . 7 4 1 3 8
8 , 3 4
P 2 0 5 3 8 0 2 3 6 9
3 . 9 5 3 . 2 9 2 . 8 2
2 . 4 8 2 , 3 9
3 . 9 7 1 . 7 9
3 . 6 5
3 3 2
P 2 0 5 3 9 0 2 5 3 0 4 , 2 5 3 . 5 4 3 . 0 4 2 . 6 6
2 3 6 2 . 3 3
3 . 9 3 3 . 7 7
3 . 6 3
, . , ,
P 8 7 5 3 7 0
3 6 . 3 0 2 . 3 3 3 . 9 4
3 . 6 6 8 . 4 6
3 . 2 9 3 . 3 6 3 . 0 8 0 , 9 7
0 , 9 0
P 3 7 5 2 0 0
1 9 . 4 0 2 . 7 7 2 . 1 1 1 . 9 5 1 . 7 2
1 . 5 4 1 . 1 9 1 . 2 6 1 . 4 5
/ , 0 7
P 2 0 5 3 5 5 8 6 . 1 6 2 3 5 ( . 9 6 3 . 6 3 3 , 4 7
3 , 3 3 3 . 0 7 0 . 9 8
0 . 9 0
P 2 0 5 3 6 5 3 8 , 0 6 2 . 5 8 2 . 3 5 3 . 8 4 3 . 6 3
3 , 4 3 3 . 2 9
3 . 3 7 3 . 0 8 0 . 9 9
P 2 0 5 3 8 0
2 0 . 4 4 2 , 0 2 2 , 4 3 2 , 0 9 3 . 8 3
3 . 6 2 i . 4 6
3 . 3 3 8 . 2 2
3 . 3 2
P 2 0 5 3 9 0 2 3 . 9 9 3 . 3 4 2 , 6 2 2 , 2 4
3 . 9 6 8 . 7 5
3 3 7
3 . 3 3 3 3 3
P 2 0 5 7 0 0
7 3 3 3 3 3 6 2 . 8 0 2 . 4 0
2 , 3 0
' . 8 7 3 , 6 8 3 . 5 3 3 . 4 0
3 . 2 9
P 2 3 5 3 7 0 2 2 . 7 6 3 . 2 5 2 . 7 8 2 3 2 2 . 0 3 3 . 8 3
1 . 6 3 3 . 4 8
3 . 3 5
3 . 2 5
P 2 3 5 3 9 0 2 6 , 5 7 3 , 8 0 3 . 3 6 2 . 7 3 2 3 7
2 . 3 3
3 . 9 0 8 . 7 3 3 3 8 1 . 4 6
P 2 3 5 1 0 0 2 8 , 4 2 4 , 0 8 3 , 3 3 2 , 9 0 2 . 5 4
2 1 6 2 , 0 3 3 . 8 5
3 . 6 9 3 3 6
P 2 3 5 2 3 0
3 3 . 3 8 4 . 8 4 4 , 0 3 3 . 4 6 3 , 0 3
2 . 6 9 2 . 4 2 2 , 2 0 2 . 0 2
3 . 8 6
( a ) ( g r a v i t y
3 3 . 6 3 2 3 3 . 9 4 3 . 6 6 8 . 4 5
3 . 2 9 1 . 1 6 3 , 0 8 0 . 9 7 0 , 8 9
0 1 3 3 0 ( 5 0 3 2 . 3 0
2 . 5 6 2 , 3 3 3 . 3 3 3 . 6 0 3 . 4 2
. 2 8 3 . 3 6 ( . 0 7 0 . 9 8 0 1 8 4 5 3 3 0 3 3 . 9 4 2 3 9 3 , 9 9 3 , 7 3 3 . 4 9
. 3 3 3 . 3 9 ( . 0 9 3 . 0 0 0 , 9 2 0 1 3 4 5 3 4 0 1 3 3 2 2 . 6 6 2 . 2 2 3 . 9 0 3 . 6 7 3 . 4 8
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 . 0 2
0 1 ( 4 5 3 5 0 3 4 . 6 7
2 . 9 3 2 , 4 5 2 . 3 0
3 . 8 3 3 . 6 3 3 . 4 7
3 3 3 3 . 2 2 3 . 3 3
0 1 3 4 5 3 4 0 ( 3 . 2 6 3 . 8 8 ( . 5 6 3 , 3 4 3 . 3 7 1 . 0 4 0 . 9 8
0 8 5 0 . 7 8 0 3 2 0 1 3 4 5 3 5 0
3 2 . 3 8 2 . 0 6 3 . 7 2 3 . 4 7
1 . 2 9 3 . 3 5 1 . 0 3 0 . 9 4 0 . 8 6 0 . 7 9 0 1 3 4 5 3 6 5 6 3 . 8 7
2 . 3 3 1 . 0 3
L 6 5 1 . 4 4
1 . 2 6
4 . 1 6 1 . 0 5 0 . 9 6 0 8 9 i t 3 7 5 3 4 0 3 4 . 2 9 2 3 9 ' . 9 3 3 . 7 0 ' 3 , 4 9
1 3 2 3 . 3 9 3 . 0 9 0 . 9 9 0 . 9 2 1 3 7 5 3 5 5 3 6 . 4 4
2 . 7 4 2 . 2 8
3 . 9 6 3 , 7 3 3 . 5 2 3 3 7
3 , 2 5 1 j 4 0 5 R 1 7 5 3 7 0 3 9 . 5 5 3 . 0 9 2 . 6 9 2 . 2 3
3 . 9 3 3 . 7 2
3 3 5 1 . 4 1
3 . 2 9 3 . 3 9 3 6 2 0 5 3 4 5
1 7 . 4 3 2 , 9 0 2 . 4 2
2 . 0 7 3 . 3 3 1 . 6 3 3 . 4 5
3 3 2 3 , 2 3 3 . 3 2
0 1 3 7 5 3 5 5 3 4 . 2 4
2 . 0 3 8 . 7 0 ( . 4 5 3 . 2 7 3 . 3 3
. 0 2 0 . 9 2 0 8 5 0 3 8 0 1 8 7 5 3 7 0 3 6 0 . 4 2 . 2 9
. 9 3 3 . 6 4 3 , 4 3
3 , 2 7 3 . 3 5 3 , 0 4
0 , 9 5 0 1 3 3 6 2 0 5 ( 4 5 3 5 . 3 2 2 . 8 6 3 . 8 0 3 3 4 3 3 5
3 . 2 0 . 0 8 0 . 9 3 0 . 9 0 0 . 3 3 0 1 2 0 5 3 5 5 3 6 , 5 7 2 3 7 3 . 9 7 3 . 6 9 1 . 4 8
3 3 2 3 . 3 9 3 . 0 8 0 . 9 9 0 . 9 3 0 1 2 0 5 3 7 0
3 8 . 6 9 2 . 6 7 2 . 2 3 3 , 9 3 3 , 6 7 i , 4 9
3 , 3 4 3 . 2 3 3 . 3 3 3 . 0 3
l i i )
C l a d d i n g n i l l o a d t a b l e ( p r e s s u r e l o a d i n g )


. 5 p u
5 ' . 1 , 5 ,
D E S I G N O F S I N G L E . S T O R E Y B U I L D I N G
L A T T I C E G I R D E R A N D C O L U M N C O N S T R U C T I O N
1 7 3
t h a t i s ,


















t h i s












































































, ... " .... , un" ... .., I t:.c ... Ut=:;:iHjN 1 U BS 5950
DESIGN OF SINGLE-STOREY BUILDING -LAITICE GIRDER AND COLUMN CONSTRUCTION
173
-
Table 12.1 Double span faclored loads !kN/m
1
) [or selected Multibeam secttons
that IS, the deSIgn spacing of 1.570 m is just within the capacity of the purlin
(based on mfOml<ltion given in Wnrd Building Components manual. see Reference 8)
section P145155. However, Table 12.1 shows that this sectlOn IS near Its
UDL
l'urlin CcntreJ" 'mm)
'deflection limit, I.e. not mc!uded for a 6.5 m span. Therefore, It might be
Spnll SectlOll ill 1000 1200 1401l 1600
"00
1000 lioo
"OIl 1600
adVisable to select a deeper section, I.e. use P175140 profile. If a vudin 'safe
50 PI45130 11..55 1.)' lo93 1.65 1.44 12. 1.16 1.05 0.96
0.89"
PI45145 13.95 1.79 1.)1 1.99 1.74
'"
1.<\0 127 1.16
1.07
load' table does not state the deflection limit, check with the manufacturer
1'145155 15.55 3.11 l.59 2.ll 1.94 1.7J 1.56 1.41 1.)0
1.20
that the limIt of 1200 is not exceeded.
1'145170 I7JB 157 2.97 2.55 l.2J 1.98 \.78 \.62 1.49
1.)7
1'175140 16.52 3,)0 2.75 2.36 2.07 1.84 1.65 ISO 1.38
1.27
For the majority of design cases, the deSign of the purlin section would
pn5150 IB.55 3.71 J.09 2.G5 1.)2 2.116 I.B6 1.69 1S5
1.43
now be complete. However, under some WInd conditions thc resultant uplift
PI75160 20.23 4.05 3.)7 2.119 2.53 1.25 207 L84 1.69
1.56
1'175170 22A7 4.49 3.75 3.21 2.BI 2.50 2.25 1.04 1.87
1.73
on the roof can produce a stress reversal In the purlin. thereby mducmg
6.0 PI45130 9.74 1.62 1.35 1.16 1.01 0.90 0.81 0.74 0.68
0.52 compression In the outstand flange, e.g. In this exercIse the uplift IS
'145145 lJ.74 1.96 1.63 lAD
'.22 1.09 0.98 0.89 0.82
0.75
0.81 kN/m
1
._ As this flange is not laterally restrained by the cladding, then
1'145155 iJ.07 1.18 1.B2
IS'
1.3,
12'
1.1l9 0.99 0.91
0.84
PI45170 14./9 1.37 1.97 1.69 US 1.3/ Us /.08 0.99
0.9/ some fonn of restramt to the flange may be necessary; check with the
1'175140 13.98 2JJ 1.66 1.46
'29
J-[6 1.06 0.97 0_90
manufacturer regarding any special restramt requITement for wmd uplift.
r175150 15.67
26'
2.1B 1.87 L6J IA5 1.3, 1.19 1.09 1.00
1'175160 17.07 2.85 2J7 2.03 1.78 1.58 1.42 1.)9
1.19
,.,
Indeed. under high wmd loading, the wmd uplift-no snow condition could
P175170 IB.93 J.l6 1.63 1.25 1.97 1.75 1S7 1.43 Ut
1.21
result ill a more severe loading for the purlin than Ulal due la graVity loading.
PI75200 23.56 3.93 3.27 280 2.45 2.18 1.96 1.78 1.54 ISI
1'2051-45 n.09 2.85 2.)7 2.03 1.78 1.58 1.41 129 1.19 1.10 As the metal cladding IS nonnally fIxed by self-tapping screws (deSigner's
1'205155 19.03 3.17 1.64 127 1.98 1.76 1.59
I."
J.Jl
,,,
choice) then Ihe samc load-span table ITable 12.1 a) can be used for suction
P2051ti5 20.92 JA9 2.91 2A9 2.18
'"
1.74
IS' 1.45 1.34
P2051BO 23.69 3.95 329 Hl 2.46 219 \.91 1.79 1.65 ISl conditions, provided the anti-sag tIe arrangements are adllered 10 (sce next
P205190 25.50 4.25 3.54 3.04 2.66
D'
2.13 1.93 1.77 1.63
paragraph). Note that if Ihe seiected ciadding had been metal or asbestos
1'205200 27.18 05 3.79 3.25 2.84 217 2.07 !.B9 1.75
7.0 P175160 14.71 2.10 1.75 \.50 1.3, 1.17 1.05 0.96 0.88 0.8!
sheehng fixed with hookbolts, then a mid-span restraint \\'ould have been
P175170 16.30 2.33 1.94 1.66 1.46 1.29 1.16 1.06
"7 0.90
necessary(S), as the wmd uplift condition exceeds this particular
1'175200 /9.40 1.77 1.3/ 1.93 /.71 /.J9 1.16 I.JJ 1.07
manufacturer's IimJt of 50% of the perrmssible gravity Joading, P205155 16A6 1,)5 1.96 UII 1.47 1.)1 US 1.07 0.98 0.90
I.e.
P20Sl65 18.05 :wB 2.JS U4 1.61 1A3 1.29 1.17 1.08 0.99
0.8111.34=60%. Such limitatIOns are dependent on individual
P2051BO 20.44 2.92 2.43 1.09 l.S3 1.62 jA6 1.33 1.27 !.u
P20SJ90 11.99 3.14 l.61 U. 1.96 1.75 ,37 1.43 1.),
'21
manufacturer's recommendahons.
P20S200 3.)' 280 2.40 2.10 1.87 ].611 1.53 \.40 129
ties at mid-span of the purl ins spanrung more than 6.1 m are
P235170 22.76 3.25 1.71 1,)1 203 1.81 }.63 1.48 US
'.25
recommended by the manufacturer, Such ties are reqUired to prevent 1'235190 26.57 3.80 3.16 1.71 1.)7 2.1 I 1.90 1.73
IS'
\.46
1'235200 211.-42 4.1l6 3.311 2.90 2.54 m 2.0) 1.85 1.69
10' distortions and misaligrunent of purlins durtng the fixmg of sheetmg or Where
P2352J0 33.BS 4.84 -4.03 3.46 3.03 269 2.42 120 lDl U6
extreme aXlalloads eXist. Under nonnal conditions, It would appear that sag
(a) Purlin load table (gravity londing)
bars are not reqUired in this example, as the purlin span IS less than 6. i m.
However, if any purlin forms part of the roof bracmg system, then sag bars
UDL
RIIil Celllno!; {mm) may become necessary.
5,m Sectioll ON 1000 1700 1400 1600 1800 lOO!) ,,110
"OIl
2600 Commg now to the deSign of the side rails for the VertIcal walls. as snow
5.0 RIJ0130 lOA) 2.09 1.74 1.49 1.)0 1.16 1.04 0.95 0.87 0.80
loading IS not a deSign problem, the sectIOn is.usually chosen IOde'pendent of
RIJ0140 11.63 2,)3 1.94 1.66 !.45 1.79 \.16 1.06 0.97 0.B9
the purlin. The wmd conditions for the sides/gables (Fig. 12.5) mdicate that a RlJOl50 12.BO 2.56 2.13 LB3 1.60 1.42 US 1.16 1.07 0.98
R145130 JI.94 2,)9 1.99 1.71 1.49 U3 \.19 1.09 1.00
'"
pressure of lA x 1.0 x 0.59 kN/m
2
and a suctIOn of -1.4 x 0.8 x 0.59 kN/m
2
RI4S140 13.32 2.66 2.22 !.90 1.67 IAS I.Jl 12' 1.11 1.02
are the appropnate design loading, which acts perpendicular to the sheetmg RHSI50 14.61 2.93 2.45 2.10 1.83 1.63 1047 1.)3 1.22 1.13
RI4S165 16.64 3.33 2.77 2.38 2.08 1.85 1.66 1.51 1.39 u.
(allowed implicitly by clause 4.12.4.4b; Utat IS, it IS assumed that the vertical
0_0 RI45130 10.10 1.68 1.40 1.20 1.05 0.94 0.84 0.77 0.70 0.65
panel of sheeting (connected 10 the side rails) behaves as a deep gIrder,
RI4S140 11.26 1.88 1.56 LJ4 1.17 1.04 0.85 0.78 0.12
RI45150 12.38 1.06 1.71 1.-47 '29 US ].0)
u.94 0.S6 0.79 thereby imposmg negligible flexural action (due to self weight) on the side
RI4S165 /3.87 l.31 /.Y3 /.65 1.U 1.28 1./6 /.05 0_96 0.89
roils m the vertical plane. (Try bending a flat sheet of paper In the plane of the
RI75140 14.2S
D'
1.98 L70 1049 '.)2 1.19 \.08 0.99 0.92
R175155 \6.44 274 l28 1.96 1.71 1.52 137 ,15 f.!4 1.05 paper). However, care must be taken during erection to reduce any distortion
R17SJ70 18.55 J.09 2.68 2.21 1.93 Ln !j5 1.41 '29 1.19
that can occur in side rails before tile ciadding is attached. The reduction of
R205145 t7AI 2.9lJ 2.42 2.07 Ut 1.61 1.45 1.31
12'
1.12
Rl05t55 19.10 3.18 2.65 2.27 1.99 1.77 1.59 !AS I.JJ '21 such distortion is discussed in the next paragraph. To maxlmlze the strength
70 R!7SJ40 12.39 1.77 1.48 1.26 1.11 0.911 0.B9 0.80 0.74 0.68
of the side rails, they are placed normal to the sheeting and column members.
RJ75155 14.24 2.03 1.70 1045 127 1.13 1.02 0.92 0.B5 0.18
Wind load pemnUmg, the side rails can be spaced further apart. In this
R17S170 160A 219 1.91 1.64 lA) 1.27 Ll5 1.04
"5
0.88
RlO5145 15.12 2.16 1.80 IS. 1.35 1.20 I.OB 098 0.90 0.83
example, one could use the same purlin Size (p175140). However, the
RlOSI55 16.57 2.37 1.97 1.69 JAil 1.31 1.18 1.011
0"
0.91
manufacturer of the Multibeam system produces speCial sectIOns for cladding
RlOS170 18.69 2.67 l2J 1.91 1.67 i.411 1.34
12' 1.11 1.03
/b) Cladding rnil load lable (pressure loading)
rails and reference to Ihelr cataloguerS) would indicate that the section size
R145130 is suitable for the same reasons given in seiectmg the purl in profile..






























1 . 5 6 2
O F L A T T I C E G I R D E R







































1 9 3 . 6 k N ,



1 7 4 S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R K D E S I G N T O 9 5 5 9 5 0
L A T T I C E




o f s e c o n d a r y m e m b e r d e s i g n
P u r l i n P 1 7 5 1 4 0
R 1 4 5 1 3 0

174 STRUCTUAf,L sTEELWORK DESIGN TO SS 5950
11.5.1
There IS also the possibility of havmg 10 restram laterally the colwnn
member, which might cause the maximum spacmg of some rails to be
reduced.
The m3:(ImUm factored wmd suctiOn (-lA x 0.8 x 0,59= -O.66kN/m
2
)
actmg on the sheetmg would cause compressIOn In the Dutstand flange,
therefore mid-span restramts may become necessary. In uSing the cladding
secUon (R145130), the manufacturer limitS sucllon loading to 80% of the
allowable WlOd pressure load. By COincidence, the suctIOn coeffiCient is 0.8
and therefore the same section selected to withstand the wmd pressure Can be
used. '
It IS essentJaI dunng erection that any distortion, which can occur in side
rails before the cladding IS attached, IS minimized. This can be achieved by
employmg the 'smgle strut' system (for use up 10 6.1 m frame centres), as
recommended by the manufacturers(B}; that IS, any distortIOn and levelling IS
controlled by adjusting [he diagonal tles before the placement of the sheeting
(see Fig. 12.1). The inherent benefit of the slOgle strut system IS the mid-span
resln!lni It provides.
In practice, the Jomts of the double-spanmng purlins/rails are staggered
across each frame, thereby that each intennediate malO frame
receives approximately the same total purl in loading; that IS, the larger
centm\ reactions ansmg from the continUity are applied to alternative frames.
The self weight of selected purlin section (P175 140) IS 0.035 kN/m.
The purlinslsheetmg rails are attached to the pnmary structural members
by means of cleats, bolted or welded to the mam members. As an Integral part
of the Multibeam system, the manufacturer supplies speCial cleats. If a
manufacturer does not supply cleats, then they have to be deSigned (see
Chapter 4). Nevertheless, It IS essenHal that any standard hole arrangements
sltpulated by the manufacturer are complied with. OtherWise, extra cost could
be mcurred for a non-standard arrangement.
Summary of secondary member design
Purlin slze:-Ward Multibeam - P175140
Actual spacing of purl ins (on slope) = 1.570 m
Actual spacmg of puriins (on plan) = i.562 m
Side rail srze: Ward Muhibeam - R145130
Actual spacing of side rails: see Secllon 12.7
12.6 DESIGN OF LATTICE GIRDER
Taking the overall dimenslOns for the mam frame as defined in SectIOn 12.3.
a good structural arrangement for the 'web' members 15 to make the
mclina!lon of these diagonals In the regIOn of 45"-60" to the honzonla!. By
dividing the top chord member, over half the span, Into five equal panel
widths, t!ten the diagonals In the end panel are;t 45", while those at the mid-
DESIGN OF SINGLESTOREY BUILDING - LATIICE GIRDER AND COLUMN CONSTRUCTION
175
Fig. 11.6 Member
numbenng for
Inttu:e guder
10 panels @ J.7" 31.0 m
9 pallels @ J]" J.J m
span are at 65" (see Fig. 12.6). This means that the purHn posltio!ls along the
lap chord do not comcide with the member Intersectmg pomts (connecnons)
of the frame panels. Therefore, m addition 10 the pnmary axial forces, Ihe lOp
chord member has to be deSigned 10 reSist the bending achon mduced by the
purtin loads.
In splle of the fact that the top and bottom chords will 10 practice be
continuous members, a safe assumptIOn IS to analyse the lattICe gIrder
mitiaUy as a pm-]ollllcd frame, thereby allowlOg the pnmary aXial forces In
the vanous members to be evaluated readily; !hat IS, the f1exural m:llOn In the
top chord caused by the purlin loads can be Ignored for the purpose of
calculating the pnmary aXial forces. Indeed, clause 4.10 penmls such a
procedure.
., ffi-0nsequently, any purlin load needs to be redistributed 50 that It IS applied
at the panel pOints. This IS Simply done by dividing the total load actmg
eate girder by the number of panels III the top Chord, I.e. as there are ID
then the panel load is the total load/ID. Note that the two outennost
i
d nodes carry Just over half the load, as they support only half a pant!!
): h of roof, plus any sheetmg overlap. It can be shown that this apparent
tributlOn of load does not matenally affect the magnlturles of the aXial
orces m the members. There IS an Implied assumptIOn that the self weight of
the girder IS unifonnly distributed throughout the frame. This apprmomntion
would have a negligible effect on the outcome of the deSign of a girder of this
size.
Havmg decided the geometry of the girder and the differem patterns of
loading reqUIred, the next stage IS to calculate the unfaciored loads actmg on
the gtrder; see Table 12.2. The noted wmd loads (w .. ) are based on a wmd
coeffiCIent of -1.0; wmd loads for other wmd coeffiCients are obtamed by
multiplymg tbe noted values by the appropnate coeffiCient. Total self weight
of the gtrder IS estimated, based on the preVIOusly suggested figure of 15% of
the total dead load; that IS, the dead load, excluding self weIght, IS
20.1+7.0+166.5
then the estimated self weIght IS
. 193.6 x O.92kN/m.
ConsideralJon of the vanollS load combinutlOns (Section 2.70

l o a d s ( l e N ) o n l a t t i c e



t o n i ! ( i v 1 )
s h e e t i n g a n d
0 . 0 9 x 6 . 0 x 3 7 . l l
= 2 1 . 6 2 . 1 6
0 . 9 1 2 I o n p l a n )
i n s u l a t i o n
p u r l i n s
2 6 x 0 . 0 3 5 x 6 . 0
= 5 . 5 0 . 5 5
0 . 2 3 2 ( o n p l a n )
s e l f
0 . 9 2 ( c a t ) x 3 7 . 0
= 3 4 . 0 3 . 4 0
1 . 4 3 5 t o n p l a n )
S n o w l o a d ( i v , )
0 . 7 5 x 6 . 0 x 3 7 . 0
1 6 6 . 5 1 6 . 6 5
6 . 9 6 6 ( o n
W i n d l o a d ( n c )
0 . 5 9 x 6 . 0 i t 3 7 . 1 8
= 1 3 1 . 6 1 3 . 1 6
5 . 5 5 1 ( o n s l o p e )
i n d i c a t e s
t h e r e a r e o n l y t w o l o a d c o n d i t i o n s f o r w h i c h
t h e g i r d e r n e e d s

b e d e s i g n e d , i . e .
' . m a x i m u m

1 . 4 w d + 1 . 6

1 . 4
A s





























I f























I f





























2 . 1 6 + 0 . 5 5 3 . 4 0 5 . l






















1 0
1 2
D E S I G N O F S i N G L E . S T O R E Y B U I L D I N G
L A I T I C E G i R D E R A N D C O L U M N C O N S T R U C T I O N
1 7 7
2 2

N o d e


1 3 1 5


2 . ,
I A
176
STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO BS 5950
Table 12:1 Unfactored loads (1cN) on jalhce grrder
Deal load (!VJ)
shecHng and
Insulation
purlins
self weight
Snow load (lVt)
Wind lond (11' .. )
O.09x6.0x37.1B
=
26 x 0.0)5 x 6.0
0.92 (cst) x 37.0
O.75x6.0x37.D
O.59x6.0x37.IB
Total
lond
21.6
5.5
34.0
166.5
131.6
Panel Purlln
load lond
2.16 0.912 fon pian)
0.55 0.232 (on plnn)
3.40 1.435 (on plan)
16.65 6.966 (on plan)
l3.16 5.557 (on slope)
lndicatcs that there are only hvo load conditions for which the girder needs to
be deSigned, I.e.
'. maximum gravity loading: 1.4 Wd+ 1.6 \VI
maxImum uplift loading: 1.0 It'd+ lA Ww
As wmd londing on the girder always produces an uplift condition for this
example, then the lond combination 1.2wJ+ 1.2w;+ 1.2w>v will produce
conditions between t.he combinations A ami B (see Fig. 12.5) and therefore
need not be considered for the design of the girder.
12.6.1 Forces in members
Knowing the 'pane!' loads, an eJastic analysis of the guder can now easily be
undertaken manually, by reso! ving forces at a joint or by other
methods{9>. Note that gravity loading (dead+snow) acts In the vertical
dircchon, while the nind loading acts perpendicular to the mclined roof
members.
Alternatively, the pnmary aXial forces In tbe members can be detennmed
by n computer analYSIS. However, the kind of analysIs program to which tlle
designer may have access can vary, and the followmg observations might
prove helpful:
Always mmimlze the maxtmwn difference between adjacent node
numbers, e.g. m Fig. 12.7 the maximum difference is 2. By this
Simple ruie, computing costs are kept to a mmlmum.
If the analYSIS program is capable of handling
structures, then the aXial forces can be evaluated by making the
assumption that aU members have equal areas. Though this
assumphon IS not correct (as will be demonstrated clearly by the
final member sizes for the gIrder) it has no effect on the magnitudcs
of the pnmary aXial forces. TIle assumptton only affects the lattice
girder deflections.
However) if the only program available is a rigid frame analYSIS
package, then check the program specification to see whether or oat
it has a facility for handling plUMended members:
DESIGN OF SINGLE-STOREY BUILDING -LAITICE GIRDER AND COLUMN CONSTRUCTION
177
. 12

" 3' 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 l
I 1
Fig. 12.7 Node nwnbcnng
for lattice gudcf.
-lfit has this facility, then make all the diagonais pmned at both
ends; make top and bottom chords continuous, except for the
ends (adjacent to the vertIcals) which should be pmned (see
Fig. 12.7). Do not also make the end verticalS as this
produces numencal instability. Make the chords relatively stiff
by puttmg the seeond moment of area (inertia) for the chords
equal to, say, 100 cm
4
This will ensure thar any moments
generated in these members are oommaL Such nom mal
moments are induced owmg to the small relative movements of
. the panei nodes. fA Similar effect would occur with slight
settlement of the supports for a continuous beam). Agam make
all members have equal area.
- If the ngid frame analYSIS program does not have this facility,
then make the second moment of area of the web members very
small, say 0.01 cm
4
, and make aU members have equal area. An
anaiysis will result in the same numerical values obtamed from
other analyses. This SImple 'device' ofusmg Virtually zero
merlla, In fact, prevents the wcb members from attractmg
moment, thereby producmg effectively a pm-ended condition
for the members so deSignated; that is, althougll the top chord is
contmuous, the loads are being applied only at the nodes (panel
pomts) and because the connected web members are made to
act as pm-ended, then only nom mal moments can be mduced
mto the top chord. The chord behaves essentwlly as a sencs of
members between panel points.
Owmg to the symmetry of the components of vertlcai loading (dead and
snow) on the girder, the gtrder need only be analysed for panel loads
eqUlvalent to the condition LO Wd (= 2.16+0.55+3.40=6.1 I kN). The
resulting member forces can then be proportIoned to g1Ve the appropnate
forces due to 1.4 HId (8.554 kN) and 1.6 Wt (26.64 kN). However, separate
anaiyses are reqUIred for wmd loading owmg to the nonsymmetnca! nature
of this type of ioading.
The results from the different elastic analyses are shown In Figs. 12.8(a)
(dead load), 12.8(b) (wmd 00 side) and 12.8(c) (wmd on end). The aXial
forces m each member, duly factared, are summarized in Table 12.3. Though
the analYSIS for wmd on the sides IS executed' for wind blowmg from left to
nght, it should be borne in mJnd that the -wmd can blow m the reverse
direCtion, I.e. nght to left. Therefore, if wind affects the design (as In this
























7 7 . 3 5 2 . 2







































6 4 . 2
9 7 . 8























9 2 . 6 6 2 . 0




















9 9 . 2
5 6 . 1
2 7 . 0

2 3 . 4





6 6 . 5
3 7 . 0
1 7 . 9

1 7 . 9
4 9 . 5





9 . 5
1 . 3
5 . 4
2 8 . 3
1 3 . 3
1 . 8
7 . 6
8 8 . 0
4 1 . 5
5 . 5
2 3 . 5


9 . 7


5 4 . 8
7 . 3
3 1 . 3


1 1 . 0















1 7 8 - S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R K D E S i G N T O E S 5 9 5 0

D E S I G N O F S i N G L E - S T O R E r B U i L D I N G L A T T I C E G i R D E R A N D C O L U M N C O N S T R U C T i O N
1 7 9




1 4

1 5 1 4


3
+ 3 . 6

1 3 . 1 7






1 7



W i n d
F i g .
u n f a c i o r e d


178 'STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DES!GN TO SS 5950
(i1) Dead !oild
15.14 7.57 3.95
_166.9 , _157.4 V -149.9
1
(b) Wind on side walls
I-tOO I
1317 13.17 \
1317
\
_ \ _166.1 \ _"8.3
_129:1
"'

o +99.7 +150.1


w
,
Fig. 12.8 Lattice gmJer.
- unfactored
member loads
rkN)
lcl Wind on end willis
case), members musi be designed for the worst condition, irrespective of
wmd case, I.e. only the worse load from either Fig. 12.8b or Fig. 12.8c is
recorded in Table 12.3.
nle vanous members making up the Warren truss have been grouped, so
that a common member size for any Individual group of members can readily
be detennmed.
Havmg eS1ablished the Individual factored forces, the deSIgn loads fOf
each member (resulting from the two load combinations bemg considered)
can be obtamed; see columns (A) and (B) III Table 12.3.
An assessment must now be made of the fiexural actIOn ill the top chord
caused by the purlin loading bemg applied between panel jomts. By taking
account of the fact that the top chord In the halfspan will be fabncated
contmuous, then the bending moments In the top chord can be assessed either
manually by the moment distribuhon method or by a continuous beam
computer program. ll1is IS achieved by asswnmg that the contmuous member
\S 'supported' at panel pomts. Alternatlve.ly, the top chord or even the whole
truss can be reanalysed with n rigid frame computer program, with additional
nodes bemg Introduced at the loaded purlin pOSitions, jf a facility for
:;,
X
.'.
DESIGN OF SINGLE STOREY BUILDING -LATIICE GIRDER AND COLUMN CONSTRUCTION
179
Fig. 12.9 Positiomng of
purlins aiong top
chord member
Table 12.3 Member forces for gmvlty and wmd loads (kN m)
Members 1.011'<1 1.411'<1 I.owj lAw/ (2)+(3) (1)+14)
(I) 12) 13) (4) lA) Ill)
Top 1,10 +25.1 + 35.2 +109.5 - 77.3 +144.7 - 52.2
chord 2,9 +59.0 + 82.7 +257.4 -181.3 +340.1 -122.3
3.8 +75.7 +106.0 +330.2 -232.5 +436.2 -156.8
4,7 +81.3 +113.8 +354.3 -249.6 +468.1 -168.3
5,6 +79.2 +110.9 +345.2 -245.5 +456.1 -166.3
Bottom 11,21 0.0 0.0 0.0 +5.1 0.0 +5.1
chord 12,20 -45.8 64.2 -199.8 +144.4 -264.0 +98.6
13,19 -69.8 97.8 -304.4 +210.2 -402.2 +140.4
14,18 -80.2 -112.3 -349.6 +241.1 -461.9 +160.9
15,17 -81.5 -114.1 -355.2 +242.7 -469.3 +161.2
16 -76.4 -106.9 -333.0 +229.4 -439.9 +153.0
Web 22,43 +30.6 + 42.8 +133.2 92.6 +176.5 62.0
compresswn 24,41 +32.5 + 45.6 +141.9 99.2 +187.5 66.5
26,39 +19.1 + 26.7 + 83.1 56.1 +109.8 37.0
28,37 + 9.1 + 12.8 + 39.8 27.0 + 52.6 17.9
30,.35 + 1.2 + 1.7 + 5.4
+ 6.9
+
7.1
+
8.1
31,34 + 5.5 + 7.7 + 24.1 - 23.4 + 31.H - 17.9
Web 23,42 -35.3 49.S -154.1 +107.6 -203.6 + 72.3
tensIOn 25,40 -20.2 28.3 88.0 + 59.4 -JI6.3 + 39.2
27.38 9.5 13.3 41.5 + 28.5 54.8 + 19.0
29,36 L3 1.8 5.5
-
9.7 7.3 11.0
32,33 5A 7.6 23.5 + 23.9 3J.J + 18.5
acceptmg pomt loads within a member iength IS not available. See Fig. 12.9
for pOSitions of purlins relative to .panel JOints along the top
member.
The oflhe top chord can be tgnored in the determmatlon of the
:bcnding moments along the chord as It will have mmlmal effect on the
moments for this SlZe of frame. Also, for the analYSIS It \S assumed thut the
ends of the are which agam is a safe assumptIOn, as It
could be argued that though the 'apex.' end is contmuous with the other
chord, there rematns the possibility of a site connection at the apex.. Therefore
the end might not achieve full continUity, depending on fabncatlOn details.
Alternatlvciy, the two separate computer operations (ror the pnmary aX1lI1
forces and for the moments In the top chord) could be combined to run as one
loading condition, I.e. purlin loads being applied at corrcct pOSitions, with the
top and bottom chords made continuous and all web members pmJOlnted.
n @ 1.570 - 11270 fTI
1.332
\ j\ /
r-
/ 1\
f'
1/"
/ \ /,

1.318
11 @ 1.562", 17.182 m
18.500 m
d 2 3 0 . i

= 2 1 2 > 1 9 s s l e n d e r
D E S I G N O F S I N G L E - S T O R E ? B U I L D I N G
L A T T I C E G I R D E R A N D C O L U M N C O N S T R U C T I O N
1 8 1
m e m b e r s . T h e p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e s e c t i o n s i z e s c h o s e n
a r c o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e
r e l e v a n t t a b l e s i n t h e S C I g u i d e U ) a n d t h e s t e e l
t o b e U s e d i s g r a d e 4 3 s t e e l ,
B a s i c a l l y , t h e d e s i g n o f t h e l a t t i c e g i r d e r r e d u c e s
t o t h e
i n d i v i d u a l d e s i g n o f m e m b e r e l e m e n t s , a n d f o l l o w s
I h e p n n e i p t e s o u t l i n e d i n
P a r t I .
1 2 6 . 2 . 1 T O P C H O R D M E M B E R
W i t h r e f e r e n c e t o T a b l e 1 2 . 3 a n d F i g . 1 2 . 6 , T a b l e
1 2 . 4 s u m m a r i z e s t h e f o r c e s
a c t i n g o n t h e v a n o u s p a n s o f t h e t o p c h o r d ( b a s e d
o n a m a n u a l a n a l y s i s ) ,
o w i n g t o t h e d e s i g n c o n d i t i o n s ( A ) a n d ( B ) . L a t e r , t h e s l i g l u
v a r i a t i o n s i n
a x i a l f o r c e s a r i s i n g f r o m a c o m p u t e r a n a l y s i s w i l l b e
d i s c u s s e d i n t h e l i g h t o f
t h e d e s i g n o b j e c t i v e s . O n l y t h e w o r s t l o a d c o n d i t i o n
f r o m d e s i g n c a s e ( B ) h a s
b e e n t a b u l a t e d , i . e . f o r m e m b e r s 1 a n d I D , t h e f o r c e
5 2 . 2 k N ' v i i i g o v e r n t h e
d e s i g n , n o t 3 1 . 1 k N ( s e e T a b l e 1 2 . 3 ) , a n d s i m i l a r l y
f o r t h e m o m e n t s .
T a b l e 1 2 . 4 F o r c e s i n t o p c h o r d f o r b o i h i d e s i g n c o n d i t i o n s
D E S I G N T O 8 5 5 9 5 0
a l N e i b e n d i n g m o m e n t s t N m l
W I A x i a l l o a d s I 1 N I
i n
F A g
a n D a x i a l l o a d i n
. r
l o p c h o r d m e n i b e r
i d A x i a l l o a d s I t N I
2 ,
W h e r e t h e e x a c t p o s i t i o n s o f
t h e p u r l i n l o a d s r e l a t i v e
t o p a n e l p o i n t s a r e
n o t k n o w n , c l a u s e 4 . 1 0 a l l o w s t h e l o c a l
b e n d i n g m o m e n t t o b e t a k e n
a s e q u a l
t o T V L / 6 F i g 1 2 1 0 ( a ) s h o w s t h e
b e n d i n g m o m e n t d i a g r a m f o r
t h e h a l f c h o r d
a s a r e s u l t o f t h e a n a l y s i s f o r
g r a v i t y l o a d i n g , t o g e t h e r w i t h
a d i a g r a m
i n d i c a t i n g t h e v a r i a t i o n o f
p r i m a r y a x i a l l o a d ( b a s e d o n p a n e l l o a d
a n a l y s i s )
m e a c h m e m b e r ( p a n e l ) l e n g t h o f t h e
t o p c h o r d ( F i g . 1 2 . 1 D b ) . O n t h e
o t h e r
h a n d , w h e o a c o m p u t e r a n a l y s i s
i s u n d e r t a k e n f o r t h e c a s e w h e r e
v e r t i c a l
l o a d s a r e a p p l i e d a t t h e p u r l i n
p o s i t i o n s , t h e n t h e r e w i l l b e m i n o r
v a r i a t i o n s
a l o n g a m e m b e r l e n g t h , c o i n c i d e n t
p u r l i n p o s i t i o n s s e e F i g .
l 2 . l O c ,
T h i s i s d u e t o t h e s m a l l
c o m p o n e n t o f e a c h v e r t i c a l l o a d p a r a l l e l
t o t h e r o o f
s l o p e . C l e a r l y , w i t h w i n d l o a d i n g ,
w h i c h a c t s n o r m a l t o t h e s l o p e t h e r e
i s a n
v a r i a t i o n o f a x i a l f o r c e w i t l u n
a m e m b e r l e n g t h , w h e n a p p l i e d a t
p u r l i n
p o s i t i o n s .
1 2 6 2
M e m b e r s i z e s
O n e o f t h e d e c i s i o n s w h i c h w i l l
a f f e c t t h e d e s i g n o f
s o m e m e m b e r s i s t h e
a c t u a l c o n s t m c t i o n o f t h e g i r d e r . I t
h a s a l r e a d y b e e n n o t e d ( S e c t i o n
1 2 . 3 ) t h a t
a n e c o n o m i c f o r m f o r l a t t i c e g i r d e r s i s
t o w e l d t h e d i a g o n a l m e m b e r s
( a n g l e s )
t o t h e c h o r d m e m b e r s ( T - s e c t i o n s ) ,
T h i s e l i m i n a t e s g u s s e t p l a t e s ,
a p a r t
p o s s i b l y f o r s i t e b o l t e d j o i n t s ,
w h i c h a r e n e e d e d t o a s s i s t
t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f
w h a t m i g h t h a v e b e e n
a l o n g g i r d e r . A s s u m i n g t h a t t h e
g i r d e r w i l l b e
d e l i v e r e d i n t w o s e c t i o n s , t h e n
s i t e c o n n e c t i o n s n e a r j o i n t s I I , 1 2
a n d 1 3 ( s e e
F i g . 1 2 . 7 ) w i l l b e
n e c e s s a r y .
H a v i n g a n a l y s e r t t h e g i r d e r
a n d d e t e r m i n e d t h e m e m b e r
f o r c e s t h e n e x t
s t e p i n t h e d e s i g n p r o c e s s
i s t o s e l e c t s u i t a b l e m e m b e r s i z e s f o r
t h e v a n o u s
a s
M e m h e r , A x i a l l o a d
M o m e n t I i c N m )
( A )
( B )
( A )
( B )
1 . 1 0
+ 1 4 4 . 7
5 2 . 2
1 4 . 1 7
+ 6 . 0 4
2 , 9
+ 3 4 0 . 1
1 2 2 . 3 1 4 . 1 7
+ 6 . 1 4
3 , 8
+ 4 3 6 . 2 1 5 6 . 8
1 0 . 6 9
+ 4 . 6 3
4 , 7
+ 4 6 8 . 1
1 6 8 . 3 1 3 . 9 4
- 1 6 . 0 4
5 , 6 4 5 6 . 1
1 6 6 . 3 1 3 . 9 4 6 , 0 4
A s t h e t o p c h o r d i s t o b e f a b r i c a t e d i n
o n e l e n g t h , i . e . c o n t i n u o u s , t h e n t h e
m o s t c n t i c a l p o r t i o n o f t h a t l e n g t h i s m e m b e r 4
o r 7 , w h i c h h a s a n a x i a l
c o m p r e s s i o n o f 4 6 8 . 1 k N a n d a b e n d i n g m o m e n t o f 1 3 . 9 4
k N m f o r t h e d e s i g n
c a s e ( A ) , T h e m e m b e r i s p n m a r i l y a s t r u t a n d t h e d e s i g n
b e b a s e d o n
t h a t f a c t , i . e . d e s i g n f o r l o a d c a s e ( A ) a n d c h e c k
f o r c a s e ( 1 3 ) . T h e - d e s i g n
p r o c e d u r e i s e s s e n t i a l l y a t r i a l a n d e r r o r m e t h o d , i . e .
a s e c t i o n i s s e l e c t e d a n d
t h e n i t s a d e q u a c y c h e c k e d a g a i n s t
v a r i o u s d e s i g n c r i t e r i a . I f t h e s e c t i o n s i z e i s
i n a d e q u a t e o r t o o l a r g e , t h e n a d i f f e r e n t s i z e
i s c h o s e n .
T r y 1 9 1 x 2 2 9 x 4 1 T e e t c u t f r o m 4 5 7
x 1 9 1 x 8 2 U B ) .
( a ) C l a s s { / i c a t i o n T h i s c h e c k h a s t o b e d o n e f r o m
f i r s t p r i n c i p l e s a s
T - s e c t i o n s a r e n o t c l a s s i f i e d i n t h e S C I
T h e w o r s t d e s i g n c o n d i t i o n s
f o r t h e t o p c h o r d o c c u r a t a p a n e l p o i n t ,
i . e . t h e s t e m o f i h e F - s e c t i o n i s i n
c o m p r e s s i o n f o r t h e d e s i g n c a s e ( A ) . T h i s
m e a n s t h a t t h e s p e c i a l l i m i t a t i o n s ,
n o t e d i n B S t a b l e 7 , f o r s t e m s o f T - s e c t i o n s , a p p l y .
C = = 1 . 0
b 1 9 1 , 3 i
. 0 C 8 . D s p l a s t i c
1 3 5 t a b l e 7
1 3 5 t a b l e 7
;;, I nUL..l UHJ\L :::; Il::t::LWOHK DESIGN TO BS 5950
Fig. 12.10 Bending moments
nOli axml load in
top chord member
7.75
11.14
lal Net bending moments !kN ml
144.7
340.1
436.2
468.1 456.1
]
!b) AxIal loads IkNJ
0 w
,
:r :r
0
ID

<'l
"- ID

M

ID ID
ID
0 W
;;
;;
i! :J
!;I !;I
N 0 m 0
ill
"
ID ID



Icl Axial loads !kN)
Where the exact posItions of the purlin loads relative to panel pomts are
not known, clause 4.10 allows the local bending moment to be taken as equal
to WL/6. Fig. 12.1 O( a) shows the bending moment diagram for the half-chOrd
as a result of the analysts for grnVlty loading, together with a diagram
mdicatlUg the variation of primary nxinl load (based ,on panel load analysIs)
m each member (panel) length of the top chord (Fig. 12.10b). On the other
hand, when a computer analysIs IS undertaken for the case where vertical
loads are applied at the purfin positions, then there will be minor variauons
along a member length, COIncident with purlin positions-see Fig. 12.10c.
TIus is due to the small component of each vertical load parallel to the roof
slope. Clearly, with wind loading, which acts nonnal to the slope, there is no
variation of axial force within a member length, when applied at purlin
positions.
12.6.1 Member sizes
One of the deCISIOns which wiII affect the deSign of some members is the
actual construction offhe glrrler. It has already been noted (SectIOn 12.3) Ihilt
an economic fonn for lattIce girders is to weld the diagonal members (angles)
to the chord members (T-sections). This elimmates gusset plates, apart
possibly for site bolted joints, which are needed to assist transportation of
what might have been a long girder. Assllnlng that the girder will be
delivered in two sections, then site connections near Joints 11, 12 and 13 (see
Fig. 12.7) will be necessary.
Havmg analysed the girder and detennmed tbe member forces, the next
step In the deSign process is to select SUitable member sizes for the vunous
,'.
",.,
DESIGN OF SINGLESTOREY BUILDING - LATIICE GIRDER AND COLUMN CONSTRUCTION
181
members. The properties of the section sizes chosen are obtained from the
relevant tables in the SeI guide(IO) and the steei to be used is grade 43 steet,
withp
y
=275N/mm
2
BaSically, the deSign of the lattice girder reduce:; to the
Individual deSign of member elements, aud follows the pnnctpies outlined in
Part 1.
12.6.2.1 TOP CHORD MEMBER
BS table 7
BS table 7
With reference to Table 12.3 and Fig. 12.6, Table 12.4 summanzes the forces
actmg on the various parts of the top chord (based on a manual analYSIS),
owmg to the design conditions (A) and (E). Later, the sligtlt variations m
aXial forces anslOg from a computer analYSIS wil1 be discussed in the light of
the deSign Objectives. Only the worst load condition from deSign case (E) has
been tabulated, I.e. for members .1 and'l 0, the force -52.2 kN will govern the
design, not -31.1 kN {see Table 12.3), and Similarly for the moments.
Table 12,4 Forces In top chord for both dcslgn conditions
Members Ax:l:ll load (kN) Moment
fA) (D) fA) (D)
1,10 +144.7 - 52.2 -14.17 +6.04
2,9 +340.1 -122.3 -14.17 +6.14
3,8 +436.2 -156.8 -10.69 +4.63
4,7 +468.1 -168.3 -13.94 +6.04
5,6 +456.1 -166.3 -13.94 +6.04
As the top chord is to be fabricated in one length, I.e. contmuDUs, then the
most cntical portion of that length IS member 4 or 7, which hilS an axial
compression of 468.1 kN and a bending moment of i3.94 kNm for the deSign
case (A). The member IS pnmariiy a strut and the deSign will be based on
that fact, i.e. deSign for 'load case (A) and check for case (E). The' deSign
procedure IS essentially a tnai and error method. i.e. a section IS seiected and
then its adequacy checked agamst vanous design critena. If the section size IS
Inadequate or too large, then a different size is chosen.
Try 191 x 229 x 41 Tee (cut from 457 x 191 x 82 UB).
(a) This check has to be done from flISt pnnclples as
are not classified in the Se! guide(lO) The worst deSign conditions
for the top chord occur at a panel point, I.e. the stem of the T-sectlOn IS tn
compression for the deSign case (A). This means that the spec"l! limitatIOns,
noted in BS table 7, for stems ofT-sections, apply.
,= ../275/275 = 1.0
b 191.3 I
-=-- x -- = 6.0 < B.Os
, 2 16.0 -
plastic
d 230.1
= 23.2 > 191: slender










1 + . . .

=





























































< 1 . 0







F i g . 1 2 . 1 1 B u c k l i n g









182 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO 8S 5950
clause 4.83.2a
ciallse 4.2.5
clal/se 4.8.3.3.1
Le. the T-sectlOn IS slender and is governed by clause 3.6. Refemng to
clause 3.6.4 In pnrtJcular, then the design strength (PI') has to be modified by
the strength reductlOn factor given In SS table 8, for stems of T-sectlOns:
14 14
Factor = -d-- = ---= 0.77
__ , 23.2-5
[, "
Hence, reduced design strength for the section IS 0.77 x 275 = 212 N/mm
2
.
This reduced value of Py (p\) has to be used for the T-section whenever the
stem is In compressIOn. However, the code deems that such a reduction IS not
necessary when deslgmng connectIOns assQcmled with the stem.
(b) Local capacity check The deSign cntenon to be salisfied is:
Fe + < 1.0
Ar Mo-
Ag = 52.3 cm
2
Ma = = 0.212 X 142 = 30.lDkNm
468.1 X ID + 13.94 = 0.422 + 0.463 = 0.8B5 < 1.0
52.3x212 30.10
(e) Alember buckling check
Ft
---+-< 1.0
AgPt A'h-
Section OK
TIlls IS the Simplified approach; one really has no chOIce as a more exact
soiutlOn cannot be considered owmg to the reduced plastic moment of a
secllon not bemg readily available.
In order to denve Pc and kfb, the slenderness of the chord member about
the major and mmor axes has to be evaluated. In assessing the effectlve
lengths In these directions, I.e. (x" rum) and (y-y ruos),
It should be understood that the top chord will attempt to buckle ill plane
between the panel connections and out of plane between puriin positions, as
shown In Fig. 12.11. TillS pomt IS reinforced by clause 4.10. This clause
further states that for the purpose of calculaung the effectlve lengths of
members, the fiXity of connecllons and the rigidity of adjacent members may
be taken mto account.
For buckling It can be seen ITom Fig. 12.1a that the web members
effectively hold each panel length of the top chord in position at the
connectIOns and supply substantllll end restramt to these lengths. Therefore
the effective length III the x-x direction can conservahveiy be assumed to be
0.85 x panel length (on siope) (BS table 24). the buckling mode
(Fig. 12.llb) is such that the member behaves as though It IS
between purlin pOSitions which hold the chord effectively at those pomts, I.e.
effectlve'length IS i.O x distance between purlins (on slope).
Fig. 12.11
DESIGN OF SINGLE-STOREY BUILDING - LATTICE GIRDER AND COLUMN CONSTRUCTION
183
Buckling modes
of top chord
member
la) In-plane buckling oi chord
1 ++ 1
1 1 __ 1 I"J L --I 1 "
{bj Quiol-plane buckling 01 chord
0.85 x 3718 = 46
68_9
1.0 :< 1570 = 37
42.3
These values of slenderness comply with c\uuse 4.7.3.2a, which states that for
members resisting loads other than wmd loads, their slenderness should not
exceed 180.
According to clause 4.7.6, the compresslve strength Pc depends on the
larger of the two slenderness vulues, I.e. 46, the reduced deSign strength of
212 N/mm:! and the relevant strut table. In the strut selectIOn table (BS table
25) It states that table 27(c) has to be used, Irrespective orthe
m(JS about which buckling occurs. Refemng to table 27(c) reveals that the
lowest deSign strength tabulated is 225 N/mm::!. One can either extrapolate
down 10 a value of212 N/mm
2
in order to obtam Pc or alternallvely Pc may be
calculated from the formulae given III appendix C.
by extrapolation
by appendix C
Pc= 180
Pc= 179.8N/mm'2
Note that the value of Eused in the formulae has the uflItsN/mm'.!., not
kN/mm
2
as defined in section 3.1.2 of the code. Next Pb has to be evaluated,
10 order to define
clause 4.3.7.5 Now
In evaluatmg 11 , It must be recognized that the member IS loaded within ItS
unrestramed length between adjacent restramts (purlins) as mdicaled In Fig.
12.12. Also, the load does not have a destabilizmg eITeci on the member. BS
table l3 states that under these conditions the value of 11 can be denved from
BS table 15 or J 6. It can be shown by reference to Fig. 12.12 that the load
does not lie within the middle fifth of the member and therefore table 15 does
not apply. The problem with table l6 is Ulat the diagram associated with It
mdicates a moment distribullon, representatIve of a uniformly distributed
load, whereas the case bemg considered IS 'peaky' Guidance might be
obtamed from BS table 20, though there IS no direct reference 10 It 10 clause

D E S I G N T o 8 5 5 9 5 0
D E S I G N O F S I N G L E - S T O R E ? B U I L D I N G

G I R D E R A N D C O L U M N C O N S T R U C T I O N
1 8 5
I








N o w

















+ d i s t n b u t i o n














1 6 8 3










i

2
U s e


c o
c o n d i t i o n s



























. h o l d

















s u b s t a n t i a l
t h e r e f o r e


a
'".
I nul" I UHAL t:i 1l=I=L WORK DESIGN TO SS 5950
Fig. 12.12 Local bending
mOlnent
distribution
near node 10
BS table 13
t 0--
--11 D.9B5m
13.94
t-'---j-

\
\7'---_f--__ !..C0.92
2.23
4.3.7.5. The design case lies approximately half-way betv.'een that for a load
at mid-span and that at the quarter point. Therefore. taking a mean of 0.86
and 0.94 (see table 20) as the vaiue of n < then:
n =0.90
m =1.00
From Ihe seI guide (10) the followmg values have been obtamed:
11 =0.584
x =15.5
,lIx
Note Hmt A is defined in clause 4.3.7.5 as the minor axis slenderness. i.c. 37.
With reference to BS table 14, It can be seen that, because the stem T-
sectIOn IS in compressIon for the cnticaJ part of the length of member being
considered, then N = 0.0; hence the Interpolation:
v ==2.76
Note that In Ihis regIOn of table 14 it is recommended that Ihe value ofv
should be evaluated from appendix B2.5. rn this ex.ample, the difference
between the two values is nol significant.
ALT=O.90 x 0.584 x 2.76 x 37.18 =54
DESIGN OF SINGLESTOREY BUILDING - LAlTICE GIRDER AND COLUMN CONSTRUCTION
185
clause 4.8.3.2a
12.6.2.2
From BS table 11, by extrapolation down to p
y
=212 N/mm
2
(or by uSing BS
appendix B):
Pb = 185 N/mrn'
Mb = PbS:f
0.185 x 251 = 46.44 kNm
468.! x 10 + l.0 x 13.94 0.497 + 0.300 0.797 < l.0
52.3 x 180 46.44
Section is OK for lateral torslOnai buckling.
Now, if the more accurate valUe of axial load (472.4 kN), obtamed from a
computer anaiysis (see Fig. 12.10c), IS used then the axIal load mHo would
margmally increase from 0,497 to 0.502; that is, the small differences in axml
forces between different analyses are not significant and can be Ignored.
(d) Reverse load condition As a result of the wrnd suction on the gmler, the
design case (8) causes the top chord to act as a tic, I.e. 168.3 kN tensIOn
and a moment of -6.04 kNm which produces compressIOn ID the table of

F/ M"
-+-
A"py Ma
Iv> the connecttons are welded at the panel pomt at whiCh worst deSIgn forces
occur, then A,,=A
g
. Also, because the stem of the IS not m
compreSSIOn, then the design strength is 275 kN/ml, hence:
J\lc:r. =PyZ = 0.275 x j42 = 39.05kNm
168.3 x 10 6.04
52.3 x 275 + 39.05 0.117 + 0.155 0.272 < 1.0
This means that the member is more than adequate to cope with the tensIOn
arismg from reversal of load conditions.
Use 191x229x41 Tee
Clearly, when the pnmary mode of a member is as a strut, then those loading
conditions that produced the compressJOn govern the deSign.
80nOM CHORD MEMBER
Commg to the deSign of the bottom chord member, it can be seen that its
primary functlOn IS a tie, with reversal of stress prodUCIng compression. One
finds that m spIte of the pnmary tensIOn bemg Significantly iarger than the
compression, the latter will probably govern. Even morc so with a member
like the bottom chord, where seemmgly there are no secondary members to
hold the chord at mtervals along its length (37m), which could result in an
ex.tremeiy large slenderness. However, clause 4.7 .3.2c states that any member
normally actmg as a lie, but subject to. reversal of stress resuHing from the
actIOn of wmd, is allowed to have a slenderness up to 350. Nevertheless, tn
order to comply with this requIrement, the bottom chord would need a
substantial member size and therefore would prove uneconomic.
S T E E L W O R I ( D E S I G N T O 9 S 5 9 5 0 D E S I G N O F S I N G L E - S T O R E ? B U I L D I N G L A T T I C E G I R D E R A N D C O L U M N C O N S T R U C T I O N 1 8 7


o c c u r














l e n g t h o f b o t t o m c h o r d I n


1 2 7 x 3 7 2 5 4

2 5 4 0 I
9 . 0 C 9 . S r c o m p a c t

. =
= 1 4 . 8

N / m m 2 .



6 4 . 6
0 , 8 5 x 3 7 0 0
r C 3 0 . 0
A s t h e

c m 2
= A S P C
= 4 6 . 4 i t 4 6 / l 0 = 2 1 3 . 4 k N > ( = 1 6 0 . 9 k N )
f e )
t h i s





i t 2 7 5 / 1 0 = l 2 7 6 k N
P ( 4 6 1 . 9 k N )
S e c t i o n



1 2 7




3 . 0 i t 1 1 1 0 0


P c

k N > F C ( 1 6 1 . 2 k N )





( 2 i t 2 4 i t 8 . 6 + 2 x 2 4 1 4 . 2 ) t O _ 2 3 5 . 5 c m 2
c l a u s e


i . 2 A , , ,
i . 2 3 5 . 5

= 4 2 . 6 i t 2 7 5 / 1 0 = 1 1 7 2 F , ( 4 6 9 . 3







a p p e a r a n c e
186 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO SS 5950
This apparent problem can be overcome by the use of longitudinal hes,
which run tbe full length of the building to a braced palUt and hold the bonom
chord at selected posJtions. In this exercise, assume longitudinal tiCS OCCUr
at connec1ions 9 and 15, I.e. the length IS divided roughly mto thirds (see
Fig. 12.7). This means that the unrestramed lengths In the y-y din:chon are
12.95 m for the outer leqgths (nodes 1-9 and 15-23) and 11.IOm for the
middle length (nodes 9-15). In the x-x direction, the member will buckle
plane between panel pomts (3.70 m), similar to the top chord. The
longitudinal tICS are designed in Section 12.8.3.4.
The bottom chord sustains only aXlallond under either design case (A) or
(8). From Table 12.3, the maximum design forces in the outer lengths are
461.9 kN (tensIOn) and 160.9 kN (compressIOn) and for the middle iength
469.3kN and 161.2kN, respechvely. Though the outer lengths have slightly
smaller loads tban that of [he middle length, their length IS longer, gIVIng a
larger slenderness and hence a lower compresslve strength. Therefore, design
for compressIOn lO the outer lengths and if satisfactory, check the design size
against the conditions that prevail for the middle length.
Outer length of bottom chord In chOOSing the sectIOn for the bottom chord at
this stage, It should be borne III mmd that the end lattIce gnders fann part of
the braced bays (SectIOn 12.8.3.2) and therefore attract additional loading.
Try 254 x 127 x37 Tee {cut from 254 x 254 x 73 UB).
(a) Classification
b 254.0 I
- = --x -- = 9.0::; 9.510 compact
T 2 14.2
d
,
127.0
8.6
= 14.8::; 19.510 sellll-compact
The T-secuon IS semi-compact and therefore the deSign strength
py=275N1mm
2
.
(b) Check compresslOlI resistance Assume the connechons to the columns at
nodes I and 23 give some restrnlnt In the y-y direction to one of the ends of
each outer length, Le. make Ly=0.95L, hence:
Ly 0.95x 12950
190<350
ry 64.6
L", 0.85 x3700
-=:-- =105
30.0
As the secnon selected 15 a T-secllon, use BS table 27(c), fTOm which:
P. =46N/mm
2
Ag =46.4 cm
2
Pc =Ag/lc
=46.4 x 46/10=213.4 kN > "< kN)
(e) Check tenslOlI capaci!J' Now check the selected member sectIOn for the
pnmary funchon as a he carrying 461.9 kN. As there are no site splices m this
DESIGN OF SINGLE-STOREY BUILDING - LATIICE GIRDER AND COLUMN CONSTRUCTION 187
SS table 27c
dause 3.3.2
length, then:
A" =Ag
p, =Ag P
y
46.4 x 275/10 = 1276 kN > 1", (461.9 kN)
SectIOn OK
Clearly, the smaller compressIOn force dominates tbe of the bottom
chord, the pnmary functIOn of which IS ns a he.
Middle length of bottom chord Use the same sectIOn for the middle length of
bottom chord as for the outer lengths, Le. 254 x 127 x 37 Tee. The deSign
loads have been noted as 469.3 kN (tension) and 161.2 kN (compressIOn).
(a) Check compresSIOn resistance From the prevIOus check on the
compressIOn reSistance, It IS clear that only the slenderness about ),-1' aXIs
needs to be examined, as the value of the x-x slenderness will be lower.
LEy LO x 11 100
172
64.4
'y
Pc = 54N/mm
1
Pc = 46.6 x 54/10 = 250.6 kN > F 161.2 kN)
(b) Check tenSion CQPQCIf)' As SIte splices occur m this portion of the bottom
chord, It IS anticipated that the IS connected through both Its table
(flange) and stem (see Fig. 12.26b). BS clause 4.6.3.3 lOdicates that Ihe
denvatlOlI of the net area of a T-secllon connected in this manner IS governed
by clause 3.3.2, I.e.:
A
Mf
=46.4"- (2 x 24 x 8.6+ 2 x 24 x 14.2)IO-2=35.5cm
2
However, clause 3.3.3 stales that the effective area A" of each elemcnt at a
connectIOn where fastener holes occur, may be taken as Kc times liS net area,
but no more than Its gross area. Kt" for grade 43 steel IS L2, therefore:
=
= 1.2 x 35.5 < Ag (46.4 cm
2
)
=42.6 cm
2
PI =42.6 x 275/10= 1172 kN > F
f
(469.3 kN)
Section OK
Use 254xI27x37 Tee
If the had been bolted only through Its flange, then dause 4.6.3
would apply. As that particular clause defines the effective area of a
T-sectlOn. then the modification allowed by clause 3.3.3 cannot be used. An
alternative approach for the bottom chord is to use a lighter seC!iOn, this
would require additional longitudinal lies, which would produce a less
pleaSing appearance and probably cost more overalL
M E M B E R S
T h e


























M E M B E R S 2 4 , 4 1
T a b l e


M e m b e r s












5 4 . 8




7 . 3




3 1 . 1


























c o r n p r e s s j o , ,










, c c L v v u r i i \
t o
D E S I G N O F S I N G L E . S 1 ' O R E Y B U I L D I N G
L A ' f l ' I C E G I B b E R A N D C O L U M N C O N S T R U C T I O N
1 8 9
A s



1 2 7
2 7 5




c a n




2 6 2

2 0 5














w h e r e


i s










1 9 . 7 4














m e m b e r s







.... ,' ' ........ ' Ullr'l"" .:I! Ut:ctlll:iN ! U tiS 5950
12.6.2.3 : WEB MEMBERS
The diagonal members are 10 be fabricated from nng'le sectIons. From
practical conSiderations the minimum size of angle used should be
These diagonals will be welded direct to the stem of the
T-sectJOns fonnmg the top and bottom chords (see Fig. 12.21), Though the
nom mal lengUls of members range from 2.89 m to 4.14 m, there IS a greater
vanation In the axial forces ITable 12,5) ami therefore the diagonals will be
designed according to the magllllude of Ule member load, Table 12.5
summanzes the vanous axial forces in the diagonal members. The members
canymg the heaviest compresslve force will be designed first, followed by
the other members in descending order of loading, until the mlIumllIU
practtcal size IS reached.
DIt\GONAL MEMBERS 24, 41
Table 12,5 AxIBJ forces In the diagonai members CkN)
Members Length Load case Member! Length Load case
Im} (A) (B) fm) lA) (B)
23,42 2.62 -203.6 +723 24,41 2.89 +187.5 -66..5
25,40 2.89 -1163 +39,2 26,39 3.18 +109.8 -37.0
27,38 3.18 - 54.8 +19.0 28,37 3.49 + 52.6 -17.9
29,36 3,49
-
7.3 -11.0 30,]5 3.81 + 7.1 + 8.1
32,33 4.14 -31.1 +185 31,34 3.81 + 3LB -17.9
These particular members have to sustam an axial compression of 187.5 kN
or a tensIOn of 66.5 kN. Because the members are discontinuous, then an
equai angle IS preferred as It is structurally more effiCIent (weight for weight)
than an unequal angie and therefore marc economic. Using the SCl guide{lO),
refer 10 p.IO!, which gives a table (for members welded at ends) listing the
compression resistance of equal angle struts for different nominal lengths.
Given the nominallenglh IS 2.89 m. the table mdicates that a 100 x 100 x 12
angle can support 192 kN over a nommallength of3.0 m. This sectlOn size is
selected, because It provides suffiCient compreSsIOn resIstance for least
weIght, I.e. compare areas of other sectIOns. AJthough a check on the
adequacy of the 100 x 100 x 12 angle IS not necessary, one is now undertaken
to illustrate the validity of the values given In tbe Sel guide.
(a) Check COnlDreSS101l re.Slsiance Since (he strut is connected directly to
another member by welding, then for smgJe angle members (clause 4.7.10.2)
lhe slenderness A. should not be less than:
0,85L1r"" or O.7Llr",,+30
where r "" and r"" are dermed in BS table 28 for discontinuous angie struts
{see also Fig. 6.5).
0.85 x 2890
J = -=-;:--
19,4
or
0.70 x 2890
--=7-+ 30 = 127 or 97
30.2
DESIGN OF SINGLESTOREY BUILDING - LATTICE GIRDER AND COLUMN CONSTRUCTION 189
As with the T:'sechon, BS tnble 27c must be used for rolled angle seclions,
irrespective of the buckling aXls. Therefore, knowmg Ihut .{ = 127 and
p}'=275 N/mm2, Pe IS evaluated as 89 N/nun
2
, hence:
P
o
=22.7 x 89/10=202.0 kN > Fo (187.5 /eN)
However, the strut tables for equal angles, given in the Sel guide{lO\ can be
used directly and by mterpolation of the tabulated vaiues a very good
estimate of compressIOn resIstance can be obtamed. Thus, refemng to

Po = (est) = 262
(2.89 - 2.50)(252 - 192)
(3.00 - 250)
205.2kN
Such 'mterpolation gives a slight overestimate of the value of Pe. Therefore, if
the interpolated value of Pe is within 2-3% of Fe, one might have to resort to
first pnnciples, usmg BS 5950.
(b) Check tension capacity Now eheck the tensIOn eapnt:lty of the selected
member. With reference to clause t. the effecllve art:il of a smgle angle
IS given by:
where a I is the net area of connected leg
Q2 IS the gross area of unconnected leg
As one leg of the angle section is connected by welds to tbe chordS, then there
are no holes to be deducted in the connected leg, I.e.:
a, = (b = (100 - 6)12 = IL28cm'
a2 = a! = 11.28 cm
2
which means for this specml case for equal angles then:
A .. = 1. 75a) = 1.75 x 11.28 = 19.74 cm
2
Pt = 19.74 x 275110=543 kN > Ft (66.5 kN)
SectIOn OK
This is the identical vaiue for Pt for a 100 x 100 x 12 angle noted in the SCI
guide; see table for tensIOn capacity of equal angle ties connected with one
leg given on p.lll{lO)
Use lOOxlOOx12 angle
The rest of [he diagonaJs have been proportIOned direct from the guide(lO)
and the relevant deSign detaiis and member SIZes are sununarized m
Table 12.6. Note Uml the end vertical members arc ill fact Ule upperporttO!1s
of the column members. as can be seen from Fig. 12.13.










D E S i G N O F S I N G L E ' S T O R E Y B U I L D I N G L A T T I C E G I R D E R A N D C O L U M N C O N S T R U C T I O N 1 9 1
i s


2 8 8 6
5 0
1 5 1
1 3 5

1 2 6

= 3 5 3 2





O F M E M B E R S
T h e















1 . 4


1 9 0 S T R U C T U R A L S T E E L W O R K O E S I G N T O O S 5 9 5 0















c h o r d s :



, a l e n e c t i o n f l w o o I d b y t r a s i i o n s , , e a c h c a d o r
t h e m e m b e r , w h i c h w o o l d i e s u t i a i c i t t .
7 0 s 7 0 s e t a n t i ' s e t ! , O s w o u l d a u t h o r f o r t h i s s e x t e t , b u i a C t s S t s b s e c i , o n h a s t h e s a m e 5 5 0 . T h e
l i i i , , i s i s b e e s s e I e r i , d i n a n a i i c s n p i i s s i a n d a s d i z e o n s e e b o s s l u r s w h e r , , s r p o s s i b l e a s t h i s r i d s t o
e c 0 0 0 n y . T h e b e s e f l i a d i i i t h r m i p r o s r d p r o p e m s i r s .
' T i s o u 5 t , a n t a x t a x r a i d h a v e b e e t , m c d , s 9 0 . 0 0 ' i t h a b e e n p o e f e r r e d i n o e d a s t o o t s e d i o d i a r .
' T I , . t i k N l o u d a s s o i r s i i s r o t t h e d e s , 5 , , r i s e I A ) a n d t i i ' s , i t i n C , 8 . 1 t N m a d r o e c a s e ( 1 5 ) ; s e e T a b l e
i 2 . 3 . i t , I i n , o m i o o o f i t o c a s e ( A ) a s o p p o s e d i n 3 5 0 l o t ( B ) w i l t t h e d t s s g s
o r m e m b e r .
1 2 . 6 . 3 A d d i t i o n a l d e s i g n c h e c k s
e m
t E n








1 2 . 7 . 1 F o r c e s i n c o l u m n m e m b e r s
1 2 . 6 . 4 S e l f w e i g h t o f g i r d e r
I - l a v t n g
190 STRUCTURAL STEELWORK DESIGN TO as 5950
Table 12.6 Design aelnils of diagonal members
r-.lemhers Length
(m)
24,41 2.89
26,39 3.18
23,42 2.62
28,37 3.49
25,40 2.89
31,34 3.81
32,33 4.14
27,38 3.18
30,35 3.81
29,36 3.49
Design loads Allowable
Compression Tension J\Iax. Angle size Compression Tension Actual
(kN)
187.5
109.8
723
52.6
39.2
31.8
18.5
19.0
7.1
4
12.6.3
({oN) 1 (kN) (kN) 1
66.5 180 llOxlOOx12 205.2 543 127
37.0 {80 100xlOOx8 118.3 370 138
103.6 350 90x 90x6 85.0 25{ 125
17.9 {80 90x 90x6 55.3 25{
167
116.3 350 90x 90x6
1
73.6 25{
138
17.9 fBO 90x 90x6 53.0 251 182
1
31.1 350 90x 90x6
J
41.8 25{ 198
54.8 350 90x 90x6
J
64.0 25{
152
180 90x 90x6 53.0 25{ 182
1
11.0 90x 90x6 251
'l1le slelldemell of 1112 just eJtuew the limibllon of 1110.11 CM be ugued, to pnttical coru;ideralilltU,
the 1I0mlllDllellgltl lu:tv.een 1II1="-"lioOI) would be re<Lced atlenl 10mm al each cnd of
the wrueb would =ul! m.( < 1110.
2 A 70 x 70 x 11 angle wlluld fllr thil member, but iI 90 x 90 x b Iet:Mn bn thc.umc ;nu. ihl=
bller h;u !>een in M al!etnl'l 10 stwdMtlizc on leCiJlln u.es pouible as thU le;u\! In
econnmy. The bcncfit IS tb3\ the l.:uger "fJglc ha propel1les.
111,ough JUl 80 x 80 x 6 tould b-n 1Ul:d, a 90 x 90x 6 has been ptl:felRd in oldOl' to lWldMdi2:"
'111e 1, I\;N 10ad!lS IIIlu:d is rnr tile nse {A} Md is Jell Ihan the a.ltN load rnt cue (D); lee
12.3. limllJlion of IgG rnr tasc lA) as opposed to 350 for {B) wiU eonltol the dulgII
or tile memher.
Additional design checks
When a lattice fonus part ofa brnced bay (see Section 12.8), then It has
to sustam additional brncmg forces. After the relevant forces have been
delenmned (SectIOn 12.8.2), Ihe top and bottom chords have 10 be checked to
see whether or not the chosen member sizes reqUire modificatIOn (see
SectIOns 12.8.3.1 and 12.8.3.2). Also, dependent on the gable frnmmg chosen
(see comments m SectIOn 12.8.1.1), one or two lines of sheetmg rails may
have to be supported by some of the diagonal members m the end girders.
The trnnsference ofloads from the miles) would induce additional forces into
these diagonals, m which case the appropnate members need to be checked
(see SectIOn 12.10).
11.6.4 Self weight of girder
Havmg deSigned the vanous members of the lattice gtrder, lhe deSigner
C,"'lT,
-';
DESIGN OF SINGLESTOREY BUILDING - tATIICE GIRDER AND COLUMN CONSTRUCTION 191
IS now in a position to check the esHmaled total self wClght of the girder, I.e.
34.0kN, used in the detennmallOn of the dead load forces. AI! that is needed
IS a rapid assessment, I.e:
chords:
diagonals:
(41 +37) x 37.0
2 x 9.6 x 2.6
2x(J7.8+8.3)x29
2 x (12.8+8.3) x 3.2
2x(8.3+8.3)x3.5
2 x (8.3 + 8.3) x 3,8
2 x 8.3 x 4.1
total
2886
50
151
135
116
126


There has been a small underesllmnte of the self weight, I.e. 0.6 kN, which
represents an error of 0.25% In a total dead load of 227.6 kN. A qUick scan of
the girder design mdicates that member sizes would not be affected. Though
there IS no need to revise the caiculabons, 0.3 kN must be added to both
vertical reactIOns.
11.7 DESIGN OF COLUMN MEMBERS
::::r
l.55J
0';5;
FIg, ]2,13 Arrnngement of
sheetmg rails
12.7.1
The columns, in supportmg the lattice girders m space, transfer the load from
the ends of tile lattice girder down to the ground and inlo the foundntlOn. In
addition to the roof loads and the weIght of the waU cladding, the coiumn has
to be deSigned to resist the side wind loading (see Fig. 12.5). Assummg that
the same sheetjng rail (R145130) IS used for both side and end walls and with
the probability of the gable post spacIng bemg In the 6.0-6.5 m range (see
Seclton 12,8.1 for exact posltiorung), the maximum rail spacmg IS limIted to
about 2.0 m(B}. As a sheeting rail is reqUired at the bottom chord level to
provide restramt to the glrrler, then Fig. 12.13 shows n possible arrangement
of the rails along the side elevations, while Fig. 12.20 Indicates the rail
spacmg for the gable walls.
Forces In column members
The axial load actmg on either column IS the cumulative total of:





the end reactIOns from lattIce girder, depending upon which deSign
case IS bemg considered (see next paragraph)
weight of vertical cladding: Q. i3 x 6 . .0 x 6.8 = 5.3 kN
(including msuiahon+liner panel)'
welg-ht of side mils: 5 x 0.045 x 6.0 = \.4 kN
self weight of column: 50 x 6.8 x 9.81/1000=3.3 kN
weight of gutter(lI.12}. 0.15 x 6.0 =0.9kN







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