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Thermodynamics chemistry problems

Thermodynamics chemistry problems

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1.[20%] In an inkjet printer, letters are built up by squirting drops of ink at the paper from a rapidly moving nozzle. The

ink drops, which have a mass of 15 ng each, leave the nozzle and travel toward the paper at 18 m/s, passing through a

charging unit that gives each drop a positive charge q by removing some electrons from it. The drops then pass

between parallel defecting plates 2.0 cm long where there is a uniform vertical electric feld with magnitude

84000N/C. If a drop is to be defected 0.34 mm by the time it reaches the end of the defection plates, what magnitude

of charge must be given to the drop?

2.[20%] A nonuniform, but spherically symmetric, distribution of charge has a charge density (r) given as follows:

{ (r)= 0(1 r/R) for rR; (r) =0 for rR }, where 0 = 3Q/R3 is a positive constant. (a) Show that the total charge

contained in the charge distribution is Q. (b) Show that the electric feld in the region rR is identical to that

produced by a point charge Q at r = 0. (c) Obtain an expression for the electric feld in the region rR. (d) Graph the

electric-feld magnitude as a function of r. (e) Find the value of r at which the electric feld is maximum. (f) Find the

value of that maximum feld.

3.[20%] (a) Calculate the potential energy of a system of two small spheres, one carrying a charge of 1.70 C and the

other a charge of -3.80 C with their centers separated by a distance of 0.250 m. Assume zero potential energy when

the charges are infnitely separated. (b) Suppose that one of the spheres is held in place and the other sphere, which

has a mass of 1.50 g is shot away from it. What minimum initial speed would the moving sphere need in order to

escape completely from the attraction of the fxed sphere? (To escape, the moving sphere would have to reach a

velocity of zero when it was infnitely distant from the fxed sphere.)

4.[20%] For the capacitor network shown in the following fgure, the potential

diference across ab is 12.0 V. (Let C

1

= 8.00 F, C

2

= 4.05 F, C

3

= 6.00 F, C

4

=

10.00 F, and C

5

= 4.70 F.) (a) Find the total energy stored in this network. (b)

Find the energy stored in C

2

.

5.[20%] Electronic fash units for cameras contain a capacitor for storing the energy used to produce the fash. In one

such unit, the fash lasts for 1/675 s with an average light power output of 220kW. (a) If the conversion of electrical

energy to light is 96% efcient (the rest of the energy goes to thermal energy), how much energy must be stored in the

capacitor for one fash? (b) The capacitor has a potential diference between its plates of 140 V when the stored energy

equals the value calculated in part (a). What is the capacitance?

MULTIPLE CHOICE. [5% each]

1)

In the right fgure, the electric feld lines arising from two charges Q1 and Q2 are shown. From this drawing we can see that

1)

_______

A)

both Q1 and Q2 have the same sign.

B)

the electric feld could be zero at P

2

.

C)

the electric feld could be zero at P

1

.

D)

|Q1|>|Q2|

E)

None of these is true.

2)

Two uncharged metal spheres, #1 and #2, are mounted on insulating support rods. A third metal sphere, carrying a

positive charge, is then placed near #2. Now a copper wire is momentarily connected between #1 and #2 and then

removed. Finally, sphere #3 is removed. In this fnal state

2)

_______

A)

spheres #1 and #2 both carry positive charge.

B)

sphere #1 carries positive charge and #2 carries negative charge.

C)

sphere #1 carries negative charge and #2 carries positive charge.

D)

spheres #1 and #2 are still uncharged.

E)

spheres #1 and #2 both carry negative charge.

A hollow conducting sphere has radii of 0.80 m and 1.20 m. The sphere carries a charge of -500 nc. A point charge of +300

nC is present at the center.

3)

In the right fgure, the surface charge density on the inner spherical surface is closest to (10

-8

C/m

2

) :

3)

_______

A)

zero

B)

-6

C)

+6

D)

+4

E)

-4

4)

In the right fgure, the charge on the outer spherical surface, in nC, is closest to:

4)

_______

A)

zero

B)

-300

C)

-800

D)

-200

E)

-500

5)

Two conductors are joined by a long copper wire. Thus

5)

_______

A)

each carries the same free charge.

B)

no free charge can be present on either conductor.

C)

the electric feld at the surface of each conductor is the same.

D)

each conductor must be at the same potential.

E)

the potential on the wire is the average of the potential of each conductor.

6)

An electron is released from rest at a distance of 9 cm from a proton. How fast it moves when it is 3 cm from the proton (in

m/s)?

6)

_______

A)

106

B)

46400

C)

75

D)

130

E)

1060

7)

The square plates of a 9000-pF capacitor measure 50 mm50 mm and are separated by a dielectric that is 0.13mm thick.

The voltage rating of the capacitor is 600V. The maximum energy that can be stored in the capacitor, in mJ, is closest to:

7)

_______

A)

1.6

B)

2.0

C)

2.4

D)

3.2

E)

2.8

8)

In the circuit shown in the right fgure the capacitors are initially uncharged.

The switch is frst thrown to position A and then to position B. Let the charges

on the capacitors be Q

1

, O

2

, and Q

3

and the potential diference across them be V

1

,

V

2

, and V

3

. With the switch in position B:

8)

_______

A)

V

3

= V

0

B)

Q

1

+ Q

2

= Q

3

C)

V

1

= V

2

= V

3

D)

Q

1

= Q

2

= Q

3

E)

V

1

+ V

2

= V

3

1)

E

2)

B

3)

E

4)

D

5)

D

6)

A

7)

A

8)

E

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