Apple II Reference Manual (Red Book), January 1978, pages 94-95.

*********************** * * * APPLE-II FLOATING * * POINT ROUTINES * * * * COPYRIGHT 1977 BY * * APPLE COMPUTER INC. * * * * ALL RIGHTS RESERVED * * * * S. WOZNIAK * * * *********************** TITLE "FLOATING POINT ROUTINES" SIGN EPZ $F3 X2 EPZ $F4 M2 EPZ $F5 X1 EPZ $F8 M1 EPZ $F9 E EPZ $FC OVLOC EQU $3F5 ORG $F425 ADD CLC CLEAR CARRY LDX #$2 INDEX FOR 3-BYTE ADD. ADD1 LDA M1,X ADC M2,X ADD A BYTE OF MANT2 TO MANT1 STA M1,X DEX INDEX TO NEXT MORE SIGNIF. BYTE. BPL ADD1 LOOP UNTIL DONE. RTS RETURN MD1 ASL SIGN CLEAR LSB OF SIGN. JSR ABSWAP ABS VAL OF M1, THEN SWAP WITH M2 ABSWAP BIT M1 MANT1 NEGATIVE? BPL ABSWAP1 NO, SWAP WITH MANT2 AND RETURN. JSR FCOMPL YES, COMPLEMENT IT. INC SIGN INCR SIGN, COMPLEMENTING LSB. ABSWAP1 SEC SET CARRY FOR RETURN TO MUL/DIV. SWAP LDX #$4 INDEX FOR 4 BYTE SWAP. SWAP1 STY E-1,X LDA X1-1,X SWAP A BYTE OF EXP/MANT1 WITH LDY X2-1,X EXP/MANT2 AND LEAVE A COPY OF STY X1-1,X MANT1 IN E (3 BYTES). E+3 USED STA X2-1,X DEX ADVANCE INDEX TO NEXT BYTE BNE SWAP1 LOOP UNTIL DONE. RTS RETURN FLOAT LDA #$8E INIT EXP1 TO 14, STA X1 THEN NORMALIZE TO FLOAT. NORM1 LDA M1 HIGH-ORDER MANT1 BYTE. CMP #$C0 UPPER TWO BITS UNEQUAL? BMI RTS1 YES, RETURN WITH MANT1 NORMALIZED DEC X1 DECREMENT EXP1. ASL M1+2 ROL M1+1 SHIFT MANT1 (3 BYTES) LEFT. ROL M1 NORM LDA X1 EXP1 ZERO?

F425: F426: F428: F42A: F42C: F42E: F42F: F431: F432: F434: F437: F439: F43B: F43E: F440: F441: F443: F445: F447: F449: F44B: F44D: F44E: F450: F451: F453: F455: F457: F459: F45B: F45D: F45F: F461: F463:

18 A2 B5 75 95 CA 10 60 06 20 24 10 20 E6 38 A2 94 B5 B4 94 95 CA D0 60 A9 85 A5 C9 30 C6 06 26 26 A5

02 F9 F5 F9 F7 F3 37 F4 F9 05 A4 F4 F3 04 FB F7 F3 F7 F3 F3 8E F8 F9 C0 0C F8 FB FA F9 F8

F465: F467: F468: F46B: F46E: F470: F472: F474: F477: F479: F47B: F47D: F47F: F480: F482: F484: F486: F488: F489: F48B: F48C: F48F: F491: F494: F495: F498: F49A: F49D: F49E: F4A0: F4A2: F4A4: F4A5: F4A7: F4A9: F4AB: F4AD: F4AE: F4B0: F4B2: F4B5: F4B7: F4BA: F4BB: F4BD: F4BF: F4C1: F4C2: F4C3: F4C5: F4C7: F4C8: F4CA: F4CC: F4CD: F4CF: F4D1:

D0 60 20 20 A5 C5 D0 20 50 70 90 A5 0A E6 F0 A2 76 E8 D0 60 20 65 20 18 20 90 20 88 10 46 90 38 A2 A9 F5 95 CA D0 F0 20 E5 20 38 A2 B5 F5 48 CA 10 A2 68 90 95 E8 D0 26 26

EE A4 F4 7B F4 F4 F8 F7 25 F4 EA 05 C4 F9 F8 75 FA FF FB 32 F4 F8 E2 F4 84 F4 03 25 F4 F5 F3 BF 03 00 F8 F8 F7 C5 32 F4 F8 E2 F4 02 F5 FC F8 FD 02 F8 F8 FB FA

BNE NORM1 NO, CONTINUE NORMALIZING. RTS RETURN. JSR FCOMPL CMPL MANT1,CLEARS CARRY UNLESS 0 JSR ALGNSWP RIGHT SHIFT MANT1 OR SWAP WITH LDA X2 CMP X1 COMPARE EXP1 WITH EXP2. BNE SWPALGN IF #,SWAP ADDENDS OR ALIGN MANTS. JSR ADD ADD ALIGNED MANTISSAS. ADDEND BVC NORM NO OVERFLOW, NORMALIZE RESULT. BVS RTLOG OV: SHIFT M1 RIGHT, CARRY INTO SIGN ALGNSWP BCC SWAP SWAP IF CARRY CLEAR, * ELSE SHIFT RIGHT ARITH. RTAR LDA M1 SIGN OF MANT1 INTO CARRY FOR ASL RIGHT ARITH SHIFT. RTLOG INC X1 INCR X1 TO ADJUST FOR RIGHT SHIFT BEQ OVFL EXP1 OUT OF RANGE. RTLOG1 LDX #$FA INDEX FOR 6:BYTE RIGHT SHIFT. ROR1 ROR E+3,X INX NEXT BYTE OF SHIFT. BNE ROR1 LOOP UNTIL DONE. RTS RETURN. FMUL JSR MD1 ABS VAL OF MANT1, MANT2 ADC X1 ADD EXP1 TO EXP2 FOR PRODUCT EXP JSR MD2 CHECK PROD. EXP AND PREP. FOR MUL CLC CLEAR CARRY FOR FIRST BIT. MUL1 JSR RTLOG1 M1 AND E RIGHT (PROD AND MPLIER) BCC MUL2 IF CARRY CLEAR, SKIP PARTIAL PROD JSR ADD ADD MULTIPLICAND TO PRODUCT. MUL2 DEY NEXT MUL ITERATION. BPL MUL1 LOOP UNTIL DONE. MDEND LSR SIGN TEST SIGN LSB. NORMX BCC NORM IF EVEN,NORMALIZE PROD,ELSE COMP FCOMPL SEC SET CARRY FOR SUBTRACT. LDX #$3 INDEX FOR 3 BYTE SUBTRACT. COMPL1 LDA #$0 CLEAR A. SBC X1,X SUBTRACT BYTE OF EXP1. STA X1,X RESTORE IT. DEX NEXT MORE SIGNIFICANT BYTE. BNE COMPL1 LOOP UNTIL DONE. BEQ ADDEND NORMALIZE (OR SHIFT RT IF OVFL). FDIV JSR MD1 TAKE ABS VAL OF MANT1, MANT2. SBC X1 SUBTRACT EXP1 FROM EXP2. JSR MD2 SAVE AS QUOTIENT EXP. DIV1 SEC SET CARRY FOR SUBTRACT. LDX #$2 INDEX FOR 3-BYTE SUBTRACTION. DIV2 LDA M2,X SBC E,X SUBTRACT A BYTE OF E FROM MANT2. PHA SAVE ON STACK. DEX NEXT MORE SIGNIFICANT BYTE. BPL DIV2 LOOP UNTIL DONE. LDX #$FD INDEX FOR 3-BYTE CONDITIONAL MOVE DIV3 PLA PULL BYTE OF DIFFERENCE OFF STACK BCC DIV4 IF M2<E THEN DON'T RESTORE M2. STA M2+3,X DIV4 INX NEXT LESS SIGNIFICANT BYTE. BNE DIV3 LOOP UNTIL DONE. ROL M1+2 ROL M1+1 ROLL QUOTIENT LEFT, CARRY INTO LSB RTS1 FSUB SWPALGN FADD

F4D3: F4D5: F4D7: F4D9: F4DB: F4DD: F4DE: F4E0: F4E2: F4E4: F4E6: F4E8: F4EA: F4EC: F4ED: F4EE: F4F0: F4F2: F4F4: F4F6: F4F7: F4F9: F63D: F640: F642: F644: F646: F648: F64A: F64C: F64E: F650: F652: F654: F656: F657: F659: F65B: F65D:

26 06 26 26 B0 88 D0 F0 86 86 86 B0 30 68 68 90 49 85 A0 60 10 4C 20 A5 10 C9 D0 24 10 A5 F0 E6 D0 E6 60 A9 85 85 60

F9 F7 F6 F5 1C DA BE FB FA F9 0D 04 B2 80 F8 17 F7 F5 03 7D F4 F8 13 8E F5 F9 0A FB 06 FA 02 F9 00 F9 FA

MD2

MD3

OVCHK OVFL FIX1 FIX

FIXRTS UNDFL

ROL ASL ROL ROL BCS DEY BNE BEQ STX STX STX BCS BMI PLA PLA BCC EOR STA LDY RTS BPL JMP ORG JSR LDA BPL CMP BNE BIT BPL LDA BEQ INC BNE INC RTS LDA STA STA RTS

M1 M2+2 M2+1 M2 OVFL DIV1 MDEND M1+2 M1+1 M1 OVCHK MD3 NORMX #$80 X1 #$17 MD3 OVLOC $F63D RTAR X1 UNDFL #$8E FIX1 M1 FIXRTS M1+2 FIXRTS M1+1 FIXRTS M1 #$0 M1 M1+1

SHIFT DIVIDEND LEFT OVFL IS DUE TO UNNORMED DIVISOR NEXT DIVIDE ITERATION. LOOP UNTIL DONE 23 ITERATIONS. NORM. QUOTIENT AND CORRECT SIGN. CLEAR MANT1 (3 BYTES) FOR MUL/DIV. IF CALC. SET CARRY,CHECK FOR OVFL IF NEG THEN NO UNDERFLOW. POP ONE RETURN LEVEL. CLEAR X1 AND RETURN. COMPLEMENT SIGN BIT OF EXPONENT. STORE IT. COUNT 24 MUL/23 DIV ITERATIONS. RETURN. IF POSITIVE EXP THEN NO OVFL.

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