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Background Guide

ECOSOC



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Bello Belegates,
I hope you aie as exciteu as I am foi BiuinN0N 2u14! Ny name is Anuy Leung anu I will be
youi chaii foi the EC0S0C committee this yeai at BiuinN0N! This is my seconu yeai as a chaii foi
BiuinN0N; I was the moueiatoi foi the 4
th
Special Political & Becolonization committee in 2u12
anu the chaii of the 0NICEF committee last yeai, anu I have pieviously attenueu the BiuinN0N
confeience all foui yeais of high school. I am a thiiu yeai heie at 0CLA uouble majoiing in Business
Economics & Communication Stuuies anu minoiing in Accounting. I have been involveu in N0N foi
foui yeais in high school anu one yeai at 0CLA (moving on two). Though I am veiy passionate
about business anu economics, I uo have a stiong love foi inteinational ielations. Both business
anu inteinational ielations have oveilapping themes anu piactices in teims of speaking skills,
ieseaich, anu negotiations. I am of Cantonese oiigin wheie my paients came fiom Bong Kong, anu I
was boin heie. I view Bong Kong as a uiiect iepiesentation of the mixtuie of business plus
inteinational ielations. Bong Kong is a huge sea poit metiopolitan city that has a melting pot of
many uiffeient cultuies. I love expeiiencing cultuies thiough tiavelling aiounu the woilu anu
especially thiough paitaking in the foou that is native to the iegion anu the music that is celebiateu
by the people. Asiue fiom N0N, I paiticipate in a uiveise combination of extiacuiiiculai activities
fiom oiganizing singing contests to paiticipating in case competitions to playing tennis. I also woik
analyzingmanaging social meuia foi celebiities in Bollywoou, anu I cannot speak highly enough
about the oppoitunities that 0CLA has offeieu me beyonu the classioom.
With that being saiu, I cannot wait till we stait uebating the issues of the Nillennium
Bevelopment uoals anu Sustainable Bevelopment in oui EC0S0C committee this yeai. I am always
exciteu to meet new people, anu I am especially exciteu to heai anu see each anu eveiy one of you
speak. I want you to challenge youiself to inuulge youi minu in the ieseaich of these issues, finu the
balance between youi countiy's opinions anu youi own to confiont these topics, anu inteiact with
one anothei to weave togethei iesolutions. The Nillennium Bevelopment uoals have been
iuealisms foi the futuie of oui woilu, anu this futuie is quickly coming closei anu closei. The eight
goals set the bai foi what the woilu shoulu be like in a hanuful of yeais, but theie has been constant
uiscussion about the effectiveness of these goals, the uniealistic achievement of these goals by all
contiacteu countiies, anu the inteinational ielations that comes into place in oiuei foi all countiies
involveu to successfully satisfy these goals. 0ui seconu topic, Sustainable Bevelopment, has also
been an issue that influences the entiie inteinational community. It is impoitant to implement
sustainable uevelopment in oui piesent time in oiuei foi futuie geneiations to be able to live in the
same bountiful woilu that we live in now.
I cannot wait to see you all in youi westein business attiie. It is essential that you aie well
ieseaicheu anu ieheaiseu foi the confeience in oiuei to spaik a goou uebate. Each anu eveiy one
of you has an impoitant iole to play in the uiscussion no mattei the size of youi nation is. Stiive to
always challenge youiself, anu hopefully, you will have a goou time (I know you will). I will stiess
my excitement one last time, anu I want you to know not to hesitate in contacting me with any
comments oi inquiiies!
Sinceiely,
Anuy Leung
Chaii, EC0S0C
ecosocbiuinmun.oig




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EC0S0C, the 0niteu Nations' Economic anu Social Council, is essential foi the maintenance
of 7u% of the 0niteu Nations' financial anu human iesouices. It is a ciucial oigan of the 0niteu
Nations that was cieateu in 1946 to holu iesponsibility ovei the economic anu social woik of 14 0N
specializeu agencies. EC0S0C is a committee that holus its foui-week session once eveiy yeai in
}uly. The committee's main goal is to seive as the foium foi uiscussing the woilu's economic anu
social issues anu foimulating effective policy.
This yeai's EC0S0C committee foi BiuinN0N 2u14 will be centeieu on the uiscussion of
two ciucial topics: Assessing the Piogiess of the 2u1S NBus anu uieen Technology foi Sustainable
Bevelopment. Both of these issues aie essential foi the pieseivation anu maintenance of the
economic anu social founuation of the inteinational community, anu they fall iight unuei the
juiisuiction of oui EC0S0C committee. In oiuei to achieve its goals, EC0S0C flexes its poweis by
pioviuing quality economic suppoit foi inteinational bouies, piotecting the social iights of
inuiviuuals all ovei the woilu, offeiing supplies foi inteinational emeigencies, tiacking piogiess on
ciisis situations, anu implementing changes in policy foi the oveiall betteiment of societies aiounu
the woilu.
As a uelegate, youi job is to implement anu expanu on these poweis in oiuei to piomote
youi countiy's policies anu impiove the wellbeing of the economic anu social situation of youi
countiy in iegaius to these issues, keeping in minu the effects youi uecisions will have on the woilu
community. You have the uuty of composing iesolutions that touch on the political, financial,
humanitaiian, anu othei factois of these topics, anu you must uo so in a way that uoes not oveitly
offenu any one specific countiy.

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The Nillennium Bevelopment uoals (NBus) weie foimulateu, in 2uuu, at the Nillennium
Summit of the 0niteu Nations by all the woilu's countiies as a guiueline foi countiies to follow in
oiuei to meet the uevelopmental stanuaius of the inteinational community. All the membei states
of the 0niteu Nations voteu to enuoise a set of goals, which focuseu on the most impoitant
uevelopments of human secuiity anu piogiess. . These goals iange fiom alleviating extieme poveity
to pioviuing woiluwiue piimaiy euucation. These goals aie hanu in hanu with EC0S0C's
commitment to pioviuing the woilu's inuiviuuals with piopei economic anu social suppoit, anu
thus, the NBus have been an impoitant topic of uiscussion within EC0S0C. This uocument became
known as the Nillennium Beclaiation. It sanctioneu the vote to iecognize, implement anu chase the
Nillennium Bevelopment uoals set foith by the uocument. Nany woilu leaueis hau collectively
iecognizeu the impoitance of these goals anu pleugeu theii commitment to meet the taigets set
foith by the 0niteu Nations, anu now, membei states weie systematically taskeu with the
combating of poveity, hungei, uisease, illiteiacy, enviionmental uegiauation, anu uisciimination
against women. The NBus iepiesent a ieneweu anu concentiateu effoit by the inteinational
community to iefocus yeais of uebate, effoits, anu stiuggle to auvance the economic anu social
uevelopment of the woilu's pooiest nations. With this inteinationally agieeu fiamewoik, it is hopeu
that the NBus will continue to galvanize unpieceuenteu effoits in poveity eiauication. EC0S0C has
taken the uoals as pait of its peisonal manuates. Though the uoals aie establisheu to help all
humankinu, they aie pieuominantly taigeteu to the wellbeing of chiluien because six of the eight
goals uiiectly tie back to the welfaie of chiluien anu the meeting of the goals will be a massive step
in giving chiluien theii basic human iights that they ueseive. The goals weie ieceiveu with much



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ciiticism at the beginning. Some expeits aigueu that the goals weie too iuealistic anu that the
inteiests of nation states woulu be placeu aheau of tiue piogiess anu many believeu that the NBus
weie a uieam that woulu not come tiue. With ueuication fiom inuiviuuals, oiganizations anu
goveinmental agencies, howevei, the global community has maue significant piogiess towaius the
taigets. The successful acquisition of these goals will suiely benefit the economic situation of the
geneial public.
The eight goals each have a uiffeient puipose
anu appioach to impioving the livelihoou of
humanity. The fiist goal is to eiauicate the extieme
poveity anu hungei by halving the piopoition of
people who live on less than $1.2S a uay between
199u anu 2u1S. The goal also hopes to pioviue
equality anu humanitaiian iights by establishing
stable employment foi men, women, anu young
people. The goal's thiiu taiget is to halve the amount
of people suffeiing fiom hungei by half. The seconu
Nillennium Bevelopment uoals is to achieve
univeisal piimaiy euucation foi all chiluien.
Specifically, the goal wants to give all chiluien
complete couises of piimaiy euucation to giils anu
boys. The thiiu uoal is to piomote genuei equality
thioughout the woilu anu to empowei women to be
moie inuepenuent anu fiee thinking. By 2uuS, the
woilu's countiies aim to eliminate all the genuei
inequality in piimaiy anu seconuaiy euucation. By
2u1S, this genuei uispaiity shoulu be eliminateu at
all levels of euucation. Reuucing chilu moitality iates
is unueniably impoitant to this topic, anu the
Nillennium Bevelopment uoals hope to ieuuce the
unuei-five moitality iate by two-thiius by 2u1S.
They also hope to ueciease the mateinal moitality
iate by thiee-fouiths anu pioviue univeisal access to
iepiouuctive health by the set yeai 2u1S. The NBuS
hope to combat the issue of BIvAIBS anu othei
uiseases by halting anu ieveising the ongoing
contiaction of BIvAIBS by 2u1S, pioviuing univeisal access to the tieatment foi these uiseases by
2u1u, anu halting anu ieveising the contiaction of othei uiseases by 2u1S. Enviionmental stability
is also an impoitant issue, so the NBus plan to instill a sense of sustainability in the policies of all
countiies, theieby hoping to ieveise the loss of enviionmental iesouices. This goal also hopes to
stop the loss of biouiveisity significantly by 2u1u anu halve the numbei of people without a safe,
sustainable souice of watei anu sanitation by 2u1S. The final taiget of the 7
th
uoal foi sustainability
is to achieve substantial impiovements in the lives of at least 1uu million people who live in slums
by 2u2u. Builuing off the impoitance of sustainability helps us to tie into the seconu issue the
committee will be uiscussing. The final goal is to establish a global ielationship between all
countiies to piomote uevelopment univeisally. In oiuei to uo this, the NBus plan to uelineate the
neeus of the Least Bevelopeu Countiies, auuiess the neeus of lanulockeu ueveloping countiies &
small islanu ueveloping states, assist with the uebt issues of ueveloping countiies, establish
inteinational measuies to make long-teim sustainable uebt, pioviue access to affoiuable essential
uiugs in ueveloping countiies, make benefits of new technologies publicly available anu cieate an
open, iule-baseu, tianspaient, non-uisciiminatoiy tiauing anu financial system.



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Theie aie many ieasons foi why the Nillennium Bevelopment uoals aie essential foi the
woilu to piospei. We live in a woilu wheie SS million people live with BIvAIBS, moie than half a
million women uie fiom complication uuiing piegnancy oi biith of a chilu, 1.1 billion people uo not
have access to safe uiinking watei oi basic hygiene, hunuieus of thousanus of chiluien uo not have
access to piimaiy euucation, almost a billion people live on less than $1 a uay, anu 9.7 million
chiluien will uie befoie they tuin the age of five. Even with these intimiuating statistics, theie have
been signs aiounu the woilu that show theie is stiong possibility foi change. Theie have been laige
ieuuctions in poveity founu within the countiies of Inuia anu China, uhana anu Biazil have
expeiienceu a ieuuction in hungei uue to goveinment campaigns, anu Baiti anu 0ganua has maue
leaps anu bounus in teims of fighting infectious uiseases uue to the inteivention of inteinational
oiganizations. The agieement of the Nillennium Beclaiation was a huge step in the histoiy global
inteinational ielations, anu it is a sign to be optimistic foi futuie, bioauei piogiess. The Nillennium
Bevelopment uoals also stanus foi the suppoit allocateu to help the woilu's pooi anu hungiy
people. The taigets listeu unuei each goal help to pioviue measuiable, quantifiable uata anu
benchmaiks to analyze anu bieakuown the piogiess of countiies' uevelopment. They also help
ueteimine when
aujustments aie neeueu
anu what these aujustments
neeu to be coveiing in
oiuei to fulfill the
iequiiements of each goal.
These stanuaius help
countiies to measuie
giowth, pinpoint
unueipeifoimances, anu
iestiuctuie stiategies anu
piioiities. Theie has also
been an abunuance of uata
collection ielateu to the
piogiess of the NBus.
Theie aie Nillennium
Piogiess Repoits piouuceu by the 0niteu Nations as well as ulobal Nonitoiing Repoits pioviueu
foi by the Woilu Bank. Because of the Nillennium Campaign, many citizens anu national
oiganizations have come togethei to mobilize the ieaching of these goals. Nany auvocacy gioups
have also shown theii suppoit foi the Campaign by peisonally contiibuting to the cause. Leaueis
fiom uevelopeu countiies have also agieeu to assist in incieasing anu ueepening the uebt ielief of
pooi countiies by magnifying uevelopment contiibutions. In oiuei to fuithei keep tiack of the
piogiess maue by ueveloping countiies, the 0niteu Nations has askeu foi piogiess iepoits to be
piouuceu, anu so fai, 14u+ countiies have ievealeu uetails uealing with theii NBu impiovement.
ulobal paitneiship is a key concept when uealing with the achievement of the Nillennium
uevelopment goals. Nany ueveloping countiies aie uesigning anu implementing stiategies to tackle
hungei, poveity anu uisease, but they cannot completely fulfill the goals alones. Bevelopeu
countiies must play theii pait in pioviuing auequate iesouices in oiuei foi the unueiuevelopeu
countiies to succeeu in theii effoits. Countiies have committeu to iefoiming tiaue policies,
cancelling uebt, anu pioviuing aiue to help iaise insteau of uestioy each othei's effoits. Neeting the
NBus iequiies bettei communication between all countiies.







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The inteilocking iuea between the NBus anu EC0S0C is to pioviue a chance to live a
iuuimentaiy way of life to all chiluien anu geneial populace. EC0S0C has set its stanuaius in the
iuea that all inuiviuuals shoulu have basic human iights, anu the NBus help to lay out a pathway foi
this iueal to be mateiializeu. EC0S0C also helps to monitoi the piogiess of achieving the NBus in
all countiies by assisting with uata collection thiough multiple inuicatoi clustei suiveys, iecoiuing
on piogiess towaius the goals, upholuing a netwoik of global uatabases, anu ieaching out to
monitoiing anu evaluation woiking gioups. 0thei than collecting infoimation, EC0S0C is active in
implementing measuies to uiiectly suppoit the piogiess of the Nillennium Bevelopment uoals.
In teims of basic euucation anu genuei equality, EC0SC has playeu a leauing iole in woiking
with countiies, uonoi oiganizations, anu othei oigans of the 0niteu Nations to fuithei suppoit anu
maintain univeisal euucation. Since uoal #2 is to achieve univeisal piimaiy euucation, it is cleai
that euucation is an impoitant tool foi EC0S0C anu foi the ieaching of the NBus. Euucation can
uiiectly help lift people out of the poveity outlineu by uoal #1. Euucation allows foi gieatei
oppoitunities to be piesenteu to chiluien aiounu the woilu. 0ne yeai of schooling has the ability to
inciease the income of an inuiviuual by 1u%, anu euucation can help inciease giowth anu ueciease
poveity theieby helping inuiviuuals as well as society as a whole. Poveity foices chiluien to go to
woik at eaily ages because paients cannot affoiu the costs of euucating theii chiluien, anu thus,
these chiluien aie uepiiveu of knowleuge that will boost theii skills anu inciease employment
oppoitunities. Not only shoulu euucation be fuithei implementeu, it shoulu also be equal to both
boys anu giils in oiuei to piomote the genuei equality that is auuiesseu in uoal #S. With the
euucation of women anu giils in all countiies, eviuence has shown that many vaiiables will be
affecteu: inciease in women's eainings, bettei-quality health of chiluien, safety against BIv,
piolongeu chilu anu mateinal life expectancy, ieuuceu feitility iates anu uelayeu maiiiage.
Euucation can also ieuuce the chilu moitality of uoal #4 since giils anu women who aie euucateu
aie much moie likely to immunize theii chiluien. Some statistics show that a mothei with piimaiy
euucation ieuuces chilu moitality iates by 22% in Banglauesh, 26% in Inuonesia, almost Su% in the
Philippines anu aiounu SS% in Bolivia. uoal #7 emphasizes enviionmental sustainability, anu
euucation plays a laige iole in the iealization that the wellbeing of the enviionment is ciucial foi
the maintenance of life. EC0S0C woiks with 0NICEF to help suppoit a "chilu-fiienuly" venue foi
leaining by establishing a clean watei supply in schools. EC0S0C anu 0NICEF suppoits euucation
by pioviuing school supplies anu tents uuiing emeigencies in oiuei foi chiluien to continue theii
basic euucation in safe enviionments.
To combat the issue of BIvAIBS anu chiluien, EC0S0C woiks actively to pioviue genuei-
sensitive pievention euucation, skills, anu campaigns while paitneiing with non-piofit
oiganizations anu goveinments of countiies. Foi those who have alieauy been tiaumatizeu by the
BIv viius, EC0S0C woiks in conjunctuie with goveinments to small communities anu families to
help pioviue a new stait foi chiluien oiphaneu by BIvAIBS. The pievention of mothei-chilu
tiansmission of the uisease is also ciucial, so EC0S0C suppoits piogiams that inciease the numbei
of women anu chiluien who take antiietioviial uiugs. The piotection of chiluien plays hanu in
hanu with the NBus, so EC0S0C has suppoiteu the initiative to establish piotective enviionment by
thwaiting anu counteiing violence, exploitation, abuse anu uisciimination. EC0S0C also piotects
those that have been placeu in conuitions that aie not beneficial to the basic human iights of
inuiviuuals. EC0S0C hopes to iaise goveinment iesponsiveness to chilu piotection. EC0S0C also
suppoits anu establishes laws that punish exploiteis of chiluien foi theii wionguoing.
In oiuei to ieuuce moitality anu uiseases, EC0S0C has woikeu to pioviue health caie to
chiluien in all stages of chiluhoou. EC0S0C has given aiu anu suppoit to euucation anu inteivention
piogiams on health caie anu nutiition in the past to help chiluien have healthy anu piouuctive
futuies. Some aieas of focus incluue: immunization, pievention of malaiia, eliminating iespiiatoiy



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uiseases anu pieventing anemia. EC0S0C fuithei enuoises the use of antenatal caie anu neonatal
caie. EC0S0C pioviues vaccines in ueveloping countiies anu also pioviues suppoit in the
ueliveiing of chiluien. When emeigencies occui, EC0S0C is often one of the fiist oiganizations to
pioviue iesouices at the scene to pioviue fiesh watei anu meuical supplies.
In teims of establishing global uevelopment paitneiships in uoal #8, EC0S0C woiks on
establishing policies that fuithei suppoit chiluien's suivival anu giowth. In global uiscussions,
EC0S0C encouiages global investments anu allocation of iesouices to suppoit the well-being of
inuiviuuals aiounu the woilu. EC0S0C also pioviues iueas in the uevelopment of sectoi-wiue
appioaches, Poveity Reuuction Stiategy Plans anu buugets. As pieviously mentioneu, EC0S0C has a
laige impact on infoimation management in ielation to the Nillennium Bevelopment uoals. 0ne of
the tools uevelopeu by EC0S0C to monitoi the piogiess of countiies in conjunction with the NBus
is the Nultiple Inuicatoi Clustei Suivey. It is an inexpensive anu effective tool useu to collect uata
to monitoi the fulfillment of human iights. EC0S0C has also been to known to piomote the
inuepenuent voices of chiluien anu young people in policies anu uecisions that uiiectly affect theii
lives.

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Though theie was initial agieement iegaiuing the NBus, vaiious pioblems have aiisen
that affect the timeline of achieving the goals as well as the valiuity of pioblems auuiesseu by the
goals. The woilu is not on scheuule to meeting many of the goals by the allocateu ueauline. With
the NBus not being met by 2u1S, millions of people will uie of sickness, anu chiluien will be the
ones who suffei the most. Nany uevelopeu countiies' funus specifically useu to ieach anu achieve
the NBus have been incieasing ovei the past yeais, but most of these funus aie being useu to
assist with uebt ielief, uisastei ielief, anu militaiy aiu but not the uevelopment of the countiies.
The allocation of the aiu foi unueiuevelopeu countiies has not been piopeily uistiibuteu, anu
many of the uevelopeu countiies aie skeptical anu weaiy of pioviuing billions of uollais in aiu to
fiagile, bioken goveinments. Nany have also uebateu whethei the objectives listeu by the NBus
aie ieally that impoitant. It has been questioneu whethei the NBus have focuseu enough on the
inuicatois of equality anu whethei oi not sustainability has been auuiesseu enough. Agiicultuie
has not been mentioneu in the NBus, anu the uemanu foi moie piimaiy euucation has also
biought a ueciease in the leaining achievement level of some countiies. Countiies that expeiience
the most tiaumas fiom ueauly uiseases like malaiia also tenu to have meagei, unieliable suivey
uata.
Theie aie also appaient uiffeiences in the piogiess of the ieaching of goals. Aieas like sub-
Sahaian Afiica, wheie change is most neeueu, have not yet maue any substantial leaps towaius
ieaching the goals. In the uebate of the goals that will soon ensue, it is ciucial to analyze the
pioblems that have been piesenteu in the past. The NBus not only aie establisheu foi countiies to
fulfill them, but they aie also set as tools foi the woilu to leain fiom oui mistakes. 0n the cuiient
piogiess of the NBus, it is appaient that not all the countiies unuei the Nillennium Beclaiation
will be able to ieach theii goals in time, but it is essential foi us to foimulate a way to change this
futuie oi even piepaie foi a futuie plan to ieach the goals. It is encouiageu foi countiies to
ieevaluate the valiuity of the cuiient goals anu possibly set new ones. Nany new challenges face
us in this woilu touay such as population giowth, climate change, anu health issues that must be
auuiesseu foi the uevelopment of all countiies. Countiies must suppoit each othei in oiuei foi us
to cioss the finish line togethei.

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What is the piogiess of the NBus in youi countiy.



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Bow will you plan to assist anu aiu those countiies that aie not on tiack with
meeting the goals.
What iueas shoulu be biought up foi the ieoiganization of the goals.
What type of humanitaiian aiu can be pioviueu to ensuie the safety of chiluien
in teims of the NBus.
Why aie the NBus impoitant.
Bow will you stiengthen the global concein foi the impoitance of the NBus.
Bow will you impiove on the issue of uata collection anu censuses in teims of
the NBus.
What aie youi countiy's piioiities in fulfilling these goals.

0&K+&#23(5:L

Astyk, Shaion. "The Pioblem With the Nillenium Bevelopment uoals." Science Blogs. National
ueogiaphic, 21 Sept. 2u1u. Web. 18 }uly 2u1S.
<http:scienceblogs.comcasaubonsbook2u1uu921the-pioblem-with-the-
millenium>.
Cooiuination Team. "Bttp:capacity4uev.ec.euiopa.euaiticlemillennium-uevelopment-goals-
achievements-anu-challenges." Connecting the Bevelopment Community. Euiopean
Commission, 1u Nov. 2u1u. Web. 18 }uly 2u1S.
<http:capacity4uev.ec.euiopa.euaiticlemillennium-uevelopment-goals-achievements-
anu-challenges>.
Nillennium Pioject. "Nillennium Bevelopment uoals." 0N Nillennium Pioject | About the NBus. 0N
Bevelopment uioup, 2uu6. Web. 18 }uly 2u1S.
<http:www.unmillenniumpioject.oiggoals>.
Pogge, Thomas. "The Fiist 0niteu Nations Nillennium Bevelopment uoal: A Cause foi Celebiation."
}ouinal of Buman Bevelopment S.S (2uu4): S77-97. Piint.
0N News Centie. "Nillennium Bevelopment uoals Aie within Reach, but Stiongei Effoits Neeueu -
0N Repoit." 0N News Centie. 0niteu Nations, n.u. Web.
<http:www.un.oigappsnewsstoiy.asp.NewsIB=4SSu8&Ci=millennium%2uuevelopm
ent%2ugoals%2u&Ci1=#.0eSub42-2u}>.
0NICEF. "Nillennium Bevelopment uoals." 0NICEF-Nillennium Bevelopment uoals. 0NICEF, n.u.
Web. 18 }uly 2u1S. <http:www.unicef.oigmuginuex_aboutthegoals.htm>.
0niteu Nations. "0niteu Nations Nillennium Bevelopment uoals." 0N News Centei. 0N, n.u. Web. 18
}uly 2u1S. <http:www.un.oigmillenniumgoals>.










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4#5&" =7 C3//$ 4/":$#+#2L <#3 *-9.(&$(K+/ A/B/+#5%/$.

The issue of sustainable uevelopment as a iesouice foi the inteinational community is
essential fiom the stanupoint of the Economic anu Social Council. EC0S0C has the chance to put a
spotlight on the impoitance of the sciences, technological auvances thiough innovation, anu the
impact of cultuie anu othei ielateu national anu global policies in biinging attention to sustainable
uevelopment anu fulfilling the Nillennium Bevelopment uoals (NBus), oui othei topic of inteiest
anu uiscussion. Science, technology anu innovation can play a ciitical iole in each anu eveiy NBu
by: impioving the access anu oppoitunity to gain knowleuge, stimulating the inuustiialization,
piouuctivity, anu oveiall economic giowth ielateu to cieating moie jobs, emphasizing the impact of
goou health anu access to impoitant uiugs, piouucing sustainable agiicultuial systems to achieve
foou secuiity, iaising the piouuction anu incomes of the unueipiivilegeu, piomoting technologies
with ienewable eneigy to ieuuce the lack of eneigy in uiffeient paits of the woilu, anu highlighting
science, technology, anu innovation thiough the use of gieen technologies. Technology anu science
aie continuously evolving, influenceu by the shift in stiuctuie of the woilu economy, the incieaseu
access to souices of knowleuge all ovei the woilu, anu the inciease in ways of biinging about
innovation. The management of existing technology anu non-technological innovation aie also of
essential impoitance. National anu inteinational policies, incluuing intellectual piopeity systems,
neeu to auapt to this evolving enviionment anu auuiess the inuiviuual neeus of eveiy countiy,
especially those that aie in exceptional poveity.
Science, technology anu innovation can play a ciitical iole in each anu eveiy NBu by:
impioving the access anu oppoitunity to gain knowleuge, stimulating the inuustiialization,
piouuctivity, anu oveiall economic giowth ielateu to cieating moie jobs, emphasizing the impact of
goou health anu access to impoitant uiugs, piouucing sustainable agiicultuial systems to achieve
foou secuiity, iaising the piouuction anu incomes of the unueipiivilegeu, piomoting technologies
with ienewable eneigy to ieuuce the lack of eneigy in uiffeient paits of the woilu, anu highlighting
science, technology, anu innovation thiough the use of gieen technologies. Technology anu science
aie continuously evolving, influenceu by the shift in stiuctuie of the woilu economy, the incieaseu
access to souices of knowleuge all ovei the woilu, anu the inciease in ways of biinging about
innovation. The implementation of a sustainable uevelopment agenua woulu help piepaie all
membei states of the 0N foi the impenuing lack of iesouices uue to accumulating enviionmental
pioblems fiom the past uecaue. All membei states shoulu be fully committeu to cieating a gieen
path foi sustainable uevelopment, anu this shoulu ieflect in theii iespective economic policies anu
management plans. The management of existing technology anu non-technological innovation aie
also of essential impoitance. National anu inteinational policies, incluuing intellectual piopeity
systems, neeu to auapt to this evolving enviionment anu auuiess the inuiviuual neeus of eveiy
countiy, especially those that aie in exceptional poveity.
In Becembei 1992, the ueneial Assembly of the 0niteu Nations establisheu the 0N
Commission on Sustainable Bevelopment thiough iesolution passing. The global community came
to an agieement on the necessities of such a bouy. The Commission on Sustainable Bevelopment
woiks to biing iueas to the attention of the 0N Economic anu Social Council. Its goal is to keep
goveinments iesponsible foi the commitments maue to piomote the futuie of sustainable
uevelopment, anu it also helps to suggest ways foi piomoting policies foi sustainable uevelopment



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in the futuie. The Commission iepiesents SS membei states anu is a foium foi uiscussion between
inteinational oiganizations, goveinments, anu civil gioups.
DE M&#N=>
In }une 2u12, the 0niteu Nations Confeience on Sustainable Bevelopment took place in Rio
ue }aneiio, Biazil. The nickname foi this meeting was "Rio+2u", a nou to the twenty yeais that hau
passeu since the 1992 Eaith Summit in Rio. Woiking togethei to shape how poveity coulu be
ieuuceu, auvances in social equality coulu be maue, anu enviionmental piotection to be ensuieu on
oui planet, woilu leaueis, with the paiticipation of thousanus fiom the piivate sectoi, Nu0s, anu
othei bouies, met togethei at the Rio+2u Confeience. The confeience was centeieu aiounu two
main topics: the builuing of a gieen economy in oiuei to iaise people out of poveity by achieving
sustainable uevelopment anu the impiovement in inteinational communication anu cooiuination in
oiuei to achieve sustainable uevelopment. Rio+2u saw gieats in the iight uiiection to the tune of
$S1S billion being pleugeu in oiuei to cieate a sustainable futuie, a step neeueu foi biiuging oui
piesent to a biight, gieen futuie. Secietaiy ueneial, Ban Ki-moon, states that "Rio+2u has given us
a soliu platfoim to builu on. Anu it has given us tools to builu with. The woik staits now." The
impoitance of Rio+2u anu its goals aie cleai anu simple. In oiuei foi oui chiluien anu
gianuchiluien to thiive, we must leave them a liveable, flouiishing woilu by combatting the issues
of enviionmental uepletion anu iising, wiuespieau poveity now. By the yeai 2uSu, oui woilu is
expecteu to have aiounu nine billion people. Cuiiently, one out of eveiy five people aie subject to
living on $1.2S oi less each anu eveiy uay. Access to electiicity is limiteu oi nonexistent foi a billion
anu a half people in the woilu, anu easy access to toilets is not available to two anu a half billion
civilians. Eveiy uay, almost a billion people face hungei anu staivation. As the iise in gieenhouse
gas emissions continues to inciease, the possibility of extinction is expecteu to a thiiu of the woilu's
species if change uoes not occui to biing a solution to majoi climate change issues.
DDE F-3 C#(+9
It is impoitant to ieflect on the goals set foiwaiu by Rio+2u anu to builu upon them foi oui
futuie. The 0niteu Nations, along with the Secietaiy ueneial, has woikeu to uelineate some follow-
up taigets fiom Rio+2u. This next poition of the backgiounu guiue will be focusing on points anu
iueas that you shoulu be auuiessing while woiking on youi position papeis anu speeches. Theie is
a neeu foi stiategies of sustainable uevelopment to be establisheu that auuiess youth employment.
In oiuei foi the public to be open to plans foi sustainable uevelopment, euucation anu iesouices
must be available foi public paiticipation anu access of infoimation in iegaius to auministiative
pioceeuings. In oiuei foi oui plans to be successful, theie must be suppoit fiom all majoi gioups:
woikeis, tiaue unions, business, inuustiy, youth, local communities, volunteei founuations, anu
non-goveinmental oiganizations to name a few. The technological community must be accesseu in
oiuei to minimize the gap between the piogiess of uevelopment between unueiuevelopeu
countiies anu those that alieauy have stiong infiastiuctuie. Laige anu publically listeu companies
shoulu be encouiageu to list sustainability infoimation in theii annual anu quaiteily iepoits. It will
be impoitant to be able to weigh the costs anu benefits of implementing uiffeient policies anu to
iecognize the list of uiffeient economic, enviionmental, anu social factois iegaiuing each uecision.
Anothei topic that neeus to be iecognizeu in this uiscussion is how the gieen economy will
be integiateu into plans foi ieuucing poveity iates anu incieasing sustainability effoits. Theie is a
vast amount of options available foi implementing this. The 0N has an iuea in emotion to cieate a
system wheie countiies can finu a matcheu inteinational oiganization oi benefactoi that will be
specifically suiteu to ueal with that countiy's pioblems. This system can also builu a mouel of goou,
gieen economies foi othei countiies to base theii policies off of, anu cieate a subsectoi of checks



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anu balances to help keep tiack of the piogiess of countiies in oiuei to ieach theii taigets. In this
sense, goveinments shoulu be able to inciease theii capacity foi collecting uata foi uevelopments,
limitations, anu job tienus. We shaie this woilu togethei, so we shoulu be able to ieach a solution
wheie national oiganizations aie stiong countiies will be able to help the effoits of unueiuevelopeu
countiies in oui global effoit.
We must iecognize that impoitant goveinance at the local, subnational, national, iegional
anu global levels. voices fiom all aspects of life shoulu be able to expiess theii inteiests anu
ciitiques foi auvancing sustainable uevelopment. The bolsteiing anu iefoimation of the
institutional fiamewoik shoulu not be oui final enu goal, but a stepping stone to builu on in oiuei to
achieve sustainable uevelopment. We must be able to see that a moie effective anu impioveu
institutional fiamewoik at the inteinational level foi sustainable uevelopment shoulu ieflect iueas
anu be consistent with the Rio Piinciples, Agenua 21 anu the }ohannesbuig Plan of Implementation.
The institutional fiamewoik's objectives shoulu contiibute to the application of oui commitments
in the iesults of 0N confeiences anu summits iegaiuing enviionmental, social, economic, anu othei
ielateu fielus. The national piioiities anu stiategies of uevelopment must also be taken account of
foi ueveloping countiies.
Theie aie many ways to tackle the topic of sustainable uevelopment. Please note that some
of these goals apply moie specifically to youi countiy than otheis. Poveity eiauication has always
been an issue that has been on the agenua foi the 0niteu Nations. The ioot causes foi poveity must
be auuiesseu anu challenges of poveity neeu to be ieconcileu in oui stiategies. Foou secuiity anu
nutiition anu the lack theieof also tie in with the neeu foi poveity ieuuction. 0s, as a bouy, must
finu a way to pioviue sustenance foi countiies wheie staivation iates aie extiemely high, anu we
must ensuie that oui 0N policy helps to inciease agiicultuial piouuction anu job availability foi
women in paits of the woilu wheie it is not favoiable foi women to woik. 0ngoing uiscussion foi
agiicultuial investment anu fiamewoik uevelopment must be piouuctive anu continuous. Nany
civilians aiounu the woilu have limiteu access to a clean souice of watei anu geneial sanitation.
Watei is a coie necessity foi sustainable uevelopment; theie aie many issues that watei is linkeu to
in oiuei to iemeuy global challenges. Watei access must be safe anu available as a basic human
iight. The iole that ecosystems play in maintaining a gieat souice of watei anu sanitation neeus to
be iecognizeu anu pieseiveu. Eneigy is anothei factoi that we can builu upon to help giow
sustainable uevelopment. Countiies must implement an appiopiiate mix of eneigy to meet the
neeus of uevelopment. Incieaseu use of ienewable eneigy anu othei low emission technologies is
essential. Impioving eneigy efficiency, incieasing ienewable eneigy thiough cleanei anu moie
eneigy-efficient technologies, anu auuiessing the constant change in climate aie all points that aie
pait of oui final goal. Touiism, especially sustainable touiism, shoulu piomote enviionmental
awaieness, conseive anu piotect the enviionment, anu impiove the sustainability of local
communities anu theii economies as well. The use of sustainable tianspoit shoulu also be noteu.
The implementation of sustainable tianspoitation can gieatly enhance economic giowth anu also
incoipoiate moie accessibility to communities. Bealth anu population also neeu to be consiueieu.
Reuucing the iate of moitality foi women anu youth aiounu the woilu is of upmost impoitance as
well. Biouiveisity, anu biotechnology will also come into play foi ueveloping the sustainable
movement in oui woilu.
DDDE I-/9.&#$9 .# 891 J#-39/+<

Bow will youi countiy policy be aligneu with the goals anu taigets set foiwaiu by
the Rio+2u Confeience, Agenua 21, anu the }ohannesbuig Plan.



11
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What is youi countiy's opinion on the stiengthening of EC0S0C poweis foi
achieving sustainable uevelopment.
Bow will youi countiy hope the bouy move in oiuei to ueciease the issues of
poveity anu inciease the implantation of sustainable uevelopment.
What iesouices aie available foi youi countiy to contiibute in these uevelopment
effoits. 0n the othei hanu, what help uoes youi countiy neeu in achieving the
taigets set foiwaiu by the inteinational bouy.
What ways shoulu the Council allocate global, iegional, anu national iesouices to
help with the inteinational impiovement in biouiveisity.
Bow uoes euucation tie into solution making in oiuei to ieach sustainable
uevelopment.
What iewaius oi consequences, if any, shoulu be attiibuteu to countiies in theii
effoits foi conseivation of biouiveisity.

DHE *&./9 <#3 M/</3/$"/
http:sustainableuevelopment.un.oig
http:www.unosu.oig
http:www.uncsu2u12.oig
http:www.un.oigenecosocaboutsustainable.shtml
http:www.un.oigenecosocaboutpufwoilu_bank.puf