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# Uni on Col l ege

## Mec hani c al Engi neer i ng

MER 312: Dynami c s and Ki nemat i c s
(of Mec hani sms) / AT
Degr ee of Fr eedom
No. of independent coordinates needed to define position of body
How many DOF does a body in three-space (3-D) have?
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Mec hani c al Engi neer i ng
MER 312: Dynami c s and Ki nemat i c s
(of Mec hani sms) / AT
Definitions
All of the above contain linkages which consist of:
J oints
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Mec hani c al Engi neer i ng
MER 312: Dynami c s and Ki nemat i c s
(of Mec hani sms) / AT
A link is a nominally rigid body that
possess at least 2 nodes.
A node is an attachment point to other
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Mec hani c al Engi neer i ng
MER 312: Dynami c s and Ki nemat i c s
(of Mec hani sms) / AT
- The order of a link indicates the number of
joints to which the link is connected (or the
There are binary (2 nodes), ternary (3 nodes),
- Can be any shape (not just those shown)
-Link order = number of nodes
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MER 312: Dynami c s and Ki nemat i c s
(of Mec hani sms) / AT
- Are assumed to be rigid bodies
- Have nodes for attachment
- Can be any shape (not just those shown)
-Link order = number of nodes
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MER 312: Dynami c s and Ki nemat i c s
(of Mec hani sms) / AT
J oints
allow
DOF
between
J OINTS
A joint is a connection between
two or more links at their nodes,
which allows
motion to occur between the
A pivot is a joint that allows
rotary motion,
A slider is a joint that allows
linear motion.
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Mec hani c al Engi neer i ng
MER 312: Dynami c s and Ki nemat i c s
(of Mec hani sms) / AT
J oints
allow
DOF
between
J OINTS
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Mec hani c al Engi neer i ng
MER 312: Dynami c s and Ki nemat i c s
(of Mec hani sms) / AT
J oi nt s Reduc e
Syst em DOF
2.5: Det er mi ni ng DOF or Mobi l i t y
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Mec hani c al Engi neer i ng
MER 312: Dynami c s and Ki nemat i c s
(of Mec hani sms) / AT
J oi nt s Reduc e
Syst em DOF
2.5: Det er mi ni ng DOF or Mobi l i t y
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Mec hani c al Engi neer i ng
MER 312: Dynami c s and Ki nemat i c s
(of Mec hani sms) / AT
Kinematics Diagrams
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Mec hani c al Engi neer i ng
MER 312: Dynami c s and Ki nemat i c s
(of Mec hani sms) / AT
Determining Mobility or DOF
Gruebler & Kutzbach Equations
Grueblers
Equation is the
most commonly
used equation
for evaluating
simple
Kutzbachs equation
is modified
Grueblers Equation
that takes into
consideration full (1
DOF) and half (2
DOF) joints.
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Mec hani c al Engi neer i ng
MER 312: Dynami c s and Ki nemat i c s
(of Mec hani sms) / AT
Determining Mobility or DOF
Grubler & Kutzbach Equations
Lower pairs (first order joints) or full-joints (counts as J = 1 in
Grueblers Equation) have one degree of freedom (only one motion can
occur):
- Revolute (R): Also called a pin joint or a pivot, take care to ensure that the
axle member is firmly anchored in one link, and bearing clearance is present
in the other link , washers make great thrust bearings, snap rings keep it all
together
A rolling contact joint also counts as a one-degree-of-freedom revolute
joint
- Prismatic (P): Also called a slider or sliding joint, beware Saint-Venant!
- Helical (H): Also called a screw, beware of thread strength, friction and
efficiency
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Mec hani c al Engi neer i ng
MER 312: Dynami c s and Ki nemat i c s
(of Mec hani sms) / AT
Determining Mobility or DOF
Gruebler & Kutzbach Equations
Joints: Multiple Degree-of-Freedom
Lower Pair joints with multiple degrees of freedom:
Cylindrical (C) 2 DOF
A multiple-joint (J = 2)
Spherical (S) 3 DOF
A multiple-joint not used in planar mechanisms (J = 3)
Planar (F) 3 DOF
A multiple-joint (J = 3)
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Mec hani c al Engi neer i ng
MER 312: Dynami c s and Ki nemat i c s
(of Mec hani sms) / AT
Determining Mobility or DOF
Gruebler & Kutzbach Equations
J oints: Higher Pair Multiple Degree-of-Freedom
Higher Pair joints with multiple degrees of freedom:
Link against a plane and a force is required to keep the joint closed
(force closed)
A half-joint (J 2 = 1 in Kutzbachs equation)
The link may also be pressed against a rotating cam to create
oscillating motion
Pin-in-slot
Geometry keeps the joint closed (form closed) (Slide and pin)
A multiple-joint (J = 2 in Grueblers equation)
Second order pin joint, 3 links joined, 2-DOF
A multiple-joint (J = 2 in Grueblers equation)
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Mec hani c al Engi neer i ng
MER 312: Dynami c s and Ki nemat i c s
(of Mec hani sms) / AT
Kinematics Diagrams
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MER 312: Dynami c s and Ki nemat i c s
(of Mec hani sms) / AT
Appl yi ng Mobi l i t y Equat i ons - 1
M = 3 (L-1) 2(J 1) J 2 = 3(8-1) 2(10) 0 = 1
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MER 312: Dynami c s and Ki nemat i c s
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Appl yi ng Mobi l i t y Equat i ons - 2
M = 3 (L-1) 2(J 1) J 2 = 3(6-1) 2(7) 1 = 0