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EE2031MiniProjectReport

EnergySavingLightSystem

LABDAY:FRIDAY

GUJUNCHAO A0105750N
XIEKAI A0102016E

Introduction

InSingapore,manyofusmighthavenoticedthatsomelightbulbsareturnedonfor24hours
everyday.Duringthesunnydaytime,thiskindoflightsarenothelpingwithlightingatallexcept
forwastingtheenergyaway.Moreover,amoregeneralcaseisthatwemaynoticethatsome
lightsareturnedonforthewholenight.Whenitisaround2AM~6AM,actuallythereisalmostno
activityinsomeplacesbutthelightbulbstherekeepbeingon.Thesetwocasesresultinlarge
consumptionofelectricity,whichshouldhavebeensavedalotifthelightbulbscanapplycertain
energysavingfunctionality.

ProjectIdea

Therefore,ourprojectideaistobuildanenergysavinglightsystemthathasthefollowing
features:basicbrightnessisprovidedbasedontheenvironmentsluminance,andmaximum
brightnessisprovidediftherearesomeactivities.

Therearetwosetoflightsinoursystem:1.SmartLuminanceSensitiveLightsforbasic
brightness2.LightSoundControlledLightsforadditionalbrightness.

Forthefirstfunction,whenthesunlightisshining,ourenergysavinglightshouldbeofftosave
energywhentheskyiscloudyordark,SmartLuminanceSensitiveLightsareturnedonto
providenecessarybrightnessandtheirbrightnessiscontrolledbytheluminanceofthe
environment.Iftheenvironmentisdark,somelightsareturnedontoacertainbrightnessifthe
environmentgetsdarker,thoselightswillbeonwithmorebrightness.

Forthesecondone,whenitsintheevening(darkenough)andsomeonepassesby(ahuman
activity),LightSoundControlledLightswillbefullyonforsometime.Thereisathresholdof
luminanceforthissetoflightsandonceitisbelowcertainvalueandsomebodywalksby(sound
detected),oursystemwillprovidemorelightforpeopleatnight.

Aswholesystem,SmartLuminanceSensitiveLightswillworkwithLightSoundControlled
Lightsandwewanttoachieve:
1.Whentheenvironmentisverydark,SmartLuminanceSensitiveLightswillbeontoprovide
basiclightingandpeoplewillstillbeabletoseetheenvironmentsothattheyarenotafraidof
thedarkness
2.Whentheenvironmentisverydarkandpeoplewalkby,LightSoundControlledLightswill
beonforsometimetoprovidemorelightsothatpeoplewalkingunderthelightswillbeablesee
theenvironmentmoreclearly.
3.Whentheenvironmentisnotverydark,SmartLuminanceSensitiveLightswillnotbefully
ontosaveenergy.Buttheywillstillbefunctioningforpeopletogetaglimpseoftheareaunder
lightsandprovidebasiclightingcompensationofenvironmentlighting.
4.Whentheenvironmentisnotdarkatall,twokindoflightswillnotbeonatalltosaveenergy.

ComponentsList

OpampLM358x4,Quad2inputNAND74LS00x1,Quad2inputNOR74LS02x2,Up/down
binarycounter74LS191x1,LEDx9,LightDependentResistor(LDR)x1,Microphonex1,
somewires,resistorsandcapacitors.

CircuitDescription

GeneralDescription:thecircuitofourprojectcanbedividedinto2parts.Thefirstpartofthe
circuitreferstoourSmartLuminanceSensitiveLights,whichdealswiththeanaloginputand
output.Forthispart,webuiltaPulseWidthModulation(PWM)controlcircuit,inwhichthe
dutycycleproducediscontrolledbyLDR.ByusingthisPWMcontrolcircuitsoutputtodrive
LEDs,wecanadjustlightsbrightnessbasedontheenvironmentsluminance.Fortheotherpart,
whichisLightSoundControlledLights,anoscillator(timer)of~1HzisbuiltbyOpampinorder
todrivethecounter,andadetectorismadetodetectsoundsandluminance.Inaddition,
somelogicgatesareusedassupplementforLightSoundControlledLights.Thus,thesecond
circuitcanachievethatitwillturnonLEDsforsometime(usingcounter),iftheenvironmentis
darkenoughandtheressounddetected.

PWMcontrolcircuitusingOpampandLDR

BelowisonescreenshotaboutourPWMcircuitoutput.TheyellowcurveisthevoltageofC1
againsttime,andthebluecurveisthevoltageofPWMoutputagainsttime.Notedthattheduty
cycleofthePWMoutput(bluecolor)is74.0%onthebottomrightcorner.Furtherdetailsabout
itscharacteristicscanbefoundinLDRCharacteristicssection.

Oscillator(timer)thatdrivescounter
AccordingtoT=2CRln(3),theperiodofthistimeris~0.5s

SoundandBrightnessdetection

Logiccircuitthatenablescounter
Theconditionthatenablescounteris(sounddetectedANDverydark)OR(countersoutputnot
equaltozero).Hence,whenthereissoundanditsdarkenough,thecounterisenabledto
countwhenitstartstocount,itsoutputbecomesnonzeroandthisalsoenablesittocontinue.
However,iftheenvironmentisbright,theresnosoundandoutputsstillzero,thecountercannot
beenabled.

GeneralOutputCircuit
LED1,LED3,andLED5refertoSmartLuminanceSensitiveLightsLED2,LED4,andLED6
refertoLightSoundControlledLights.

LDRCharacteristics
LabProcedures:
0.PlaceLDRrightbelowthebrightlightbulbwithconstantluminancetheresistorinserieswith
LDRis8.2Kohm.Thenpowerupthecircuitwithvoltage6.8v.
1.PlaceanA4hardcoverblackpaperabovetheLDRandensureitsparalleltothegroundhere
weusepapersverticaldistancetotheLDRtosimulatetheluminanceofthe
environment.
2.Startingfrom100cmheightfromLDR,wedecreasetheverticalheightofthepapergradually
untilthedistancereaches0cm.
3.ThenwerecordsthedutycycleofPWMoutputandthevoltageacrosstheLDRforevery
~10%changesindutycycle.
4.Repeatstep2~3untiltheverticaldistanceofpaperreaches0cm.

Belowisthecollecteddataandthegraphgeneratedfromthedata:

Vertical
Distance(cm)
DutyCycle Voltage(v)
acrossLDR
LDRResistor(K
ohm)
Ln(LDR
Resistor(K
ohm))
100 2.10% 1.20 1.76 0.563689113
19.1 10.10% 1.52 2.36 0.858918391
8.8 19.80% 1.92 3.23 1.17131412
6.6 31.00% 2.40 4.47 1.497998351
4.2 40.10% 2.78 5.67 1.735303179
2.7 50.00% 3.25 7.51 2.015841547
0.7 61.30% 3.88 10.90 2.388385692
0.5 70.20% 4.47 15.73 2.755654295
0.3 80.11% 5.51 35.02 3.556056559
0 100% 6.72 688.80 6.534950953

Application
Assumption1:thelightsareallof18W
Assumption2:theenergyconsumedbythecontrollingcircuitcanbeneglectedcomparedto18
W
Function1:Smartenvironmentlightingsensitivelights
Itisverydifficulttoquantifytheenergysavedbysmartenvironmentlightingsensitivelights
comparedtolightsthatareonfor24hoursadayasthevariablesforthiskindoflightsaretoo
many.Sowewillhavetomakemanyassumptionshere.
Assumption3:Duringdaytime,mostofthetimeenvironmentisbringenoughnottoturnonthe
smartenvironmentlightingsensitivelights.Onaverage,therewillbeonlyabout0.5hourwhen
lightswillbe5%on(PWMdutycycleis5%)(Forthisassumptionwedidnotdoanystatistical
experimentatallsothisisjustfortheconvenienceofcalculation.Inreality,wecancontrolthe
valueofresistorsinserieswithLDRthoughtocontrolthesystem)
Assumption4:During18:0020:00,thelightingconditionoftheenvironmentvariesanditfollows
alinearchangesuchthatPWMdutycycleofsmartenvironmentlightingsensitivelightswillhave
linearchangefrom0%to100%.Andthesameprincipleappliestotimeduring6:008:00butthe
PWMdutycycleisfrom100%to0%.
Assumption5:From20:00to6:00inthenextday,smartenvironmentlightingsensitivelightswill
befullyon.

Normallightsthatareonfor24hours Smartenvironmentlightingsensitivelights
18W*24Hour=0.432kw*h 18W*10%*0.5Hour+18W*(100%+
0%)/2*2Hour*2+18W*100%*10Hour=
0.216kw*h

Energysavedperlight:50%

Function2:LightSoundControlledLights
Forthisfunction,wearealsoassumingabouthumanactivityandtherealtimesystembutthe
assumptionsaresimpler.
Assumption6:Normallightsduringnightwillbeonfrom18:006:00inthenextday.For
LightSoundcontrolledlightsinoursystemthoughwillonlybeonfrom20:006:00inthenext
daywhenhumanactivitiesaredetected.
Assumption7:LightSoundcontrolledlightswillbemostlyonfrom20:001:00inthenextdayas
weassumehumanactivityareratherfrequentduringthistimeinterval.Butfor1:006:00inthe
nextdaythesystemwillbeonlybeonforabout0.5hour.

Normallightsforlightingatnight LightSoundcontrolledlights
18W*12Hour=0.216kw*h 18W*(5Hour+0.5Hour)=0.099kw*h

Energysavedperlight:54.17%

Conclusionofthewholesysteminenergysaving

Normallightsthatareonfor
24hours(6lights)
Normallightsforlightingat
night(6lights)
Energysavinglightsystem(6
lights)
0.432(kw*h)*6=2.592kw*h 0.216(kw*h)*6=1.296kw*h 0.099(kw*h)*3+
0.216(kw*h)*3=0.945kw*h
100%(reference) 50% 36.46%

Clearly,thecomparisonshowsthatoursystemisveryeffectiveinsavingenergyandbesides
that,oursystemiscontextsensitiveandthereforewillbeabletoprovideenoughlightingwhen
peopleneedit.

Possibleimprovements
Forthisproject,wearejustdoingashowcaseoftheidea.Toinstallthesystemandmakesure
thesystemwillbeabletoworkinreallife,manyimprovementsandextensionscanbedoneto
thecurrentdesign.
1.Onedeficitinourcurrentsimulation,theLEDssimulatinglightsarenotpowerfulenoughto
influencetheLDR.Therefore,therealtimefeedbackeffectoflightingcontrolledbyLDRtoLDR
sensoritselfcannotbesimulated.Thiseffectisveryimportantandthereforeweneedmore
experimentonthisaspect.
2.CurrentlyweareusingcountertoprovideashortamountoftimeforLightSoundControlled
Lightstobeon.However,fromourobservation,counterheatsupveryfastandthereforecannot
continuouslyfunction.Also,theideaofusingcounterneedstoberevised.

Conclusion
Thisexperimentshowsthatwecansavealargeamountofenergywithbalancebetweensaving
energyandprovidingenoughlightbasedonpeoplesneedbyrealizingcontext/environment
sensitivityandflexibleoutputformat.Thoughsomedeficitsremainintheexperimentbutwecan
seethepotentialofthisapplicationinenergysavingandimprovingsmartnessoflightingsystem.
Also,academicallythisexperimentalsomeansalotasitmakesuseofdifferentkindsof
sensors,appliesanaloginput/output,digitalinput/outputinparallelandmakesuseofopampto
formcomparatorsandoscillators.