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PROXIMATE COMPOSITIONS OF A HERBAL PURPLE SWEET

POTATO (IPOMOEA BATATAS L.) WINEjfpp_681 1..9


SANDEEP K. PANDA
1
, MANAS R. SWAIN
2
, SRADHANJALI SINGH
3
and RAMESH C. RAY
1,4
1
Regional Centre of Central Tuber Crop Research Institute, Bhubaneswar, Orissa 751013, India
2
Department of Biotechnology, College of Engineering and Technology, Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India
3
Department of Bioresources Engineering, Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India
4
Corresponding author. TEL:
+91-674-2470528; FAX: +91-674-2470528;
EMAIL: rc_rayctcri@rediffmail.com
Accepted for Publication January 19, 2012
doi:10.1111/j.1745-4549.2012.00681.x
ABSTRACT
A herbal purple sweet potato (PSP) wine was prepared from purple-eshed sweet
potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) and 18 medicinal plant parts (fruits of ink nut, Indian
gooseberry, garlic cinnamon, leaves of holy basil, night jasmine, Malabar nut, roots
of belladonna, asparagus, rhizome of ginger, etc.) by fermenting with wine yeast,
Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The starch present in PSP was enzymatically saccharied
(using commercial thermostable enzymes Termamyl [0.2%] and Dextrozyme GA
[1%]) to fermentable sugars, and the homogenized medicinal plant parts were
mixed to it at desirable quantities before subjected to fermentation. The herbal wine
had the following compositions: total soluble sugar (TSS), 4.0 Brix; starch, 0.24 g/
100 mL; total sugar (TS), 0.95 g/100 mL; reducing sugar, 0.38 g/100 mL; titratable
acidity (TA), 1.25 g tartaric acid/100 mL; phenol, 0.19 g (caffeic acid equivalent)/
100 mL; anthocyanin, 59.90 mg/100 mL; lactic acid (LA), 1.92 mg/100 mL; ethanol,
8.61% v/v; and pH, 3.34. The 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging
activity of the wine was 51.35% at a dose of 250 mg/mL. The herbal wine thus pre-
pared was presumed to contain the therapeutic and antioxidant properties of PSP as
well as those of medicinal plant parts added as adjuncts. Principal component analy-
sis reduced the 11 original analytical and proximate variables (TSS, reducing sugars,
starch, TS, TA, pH, phenol, DPPH, LA, ethanol, anthocyanin) to four independent
components, which accounted for 74.53% variations (PC1, 24.18%; PC2, 20.18%;
PC3, 15.41%; PC4, 14.76%).
PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS
Herbal purple sweet potato (PSP) wine prepared fromanthocyanin-rich PSP and 18
different types of medicinal plant parts is a novel and unique product with ethanol
content of 8.61% v/v. The wine is rich in antioxidants such as anthocyanin and
phenols and presumably possesses biological active ingredients as remedies for
common ailments like cold, cough, skin diseases and dysentery.
INTRODUCTION
Medicinal herbs and spices have been added to foods since
ancient times, not only as avoring agents but also as folk
medicine andfoodpreservatives (Beuchat 1994; Cutler 1995).
These herbs prolong the storage life of foods and beverages by
preventing spoilage through their antioxidant and bacterio-
static or bactericidal activity (Beuchat and Golden 1989) and
alsoenrichthe foods withphytonutrients, vitamins andessen-
tial minerals. A number of studies have been reported on
medicinal herbs used for production of wine either as sub-
strate (rawmaterial) or as adjuncts. Soni et al. (2009) reported
fermentation of Indian gooseberry (Emblica ofcinalis) fruits
(having medicinal properties like diuretic, laxative, carmina-
tive, stomachic, astringent, antidiarrheal, antihemorrhagic
and antianemic) to wine. Aloe vera known to be a panacea has
beenfermentedtowine (Pongparnchedtha andSuwanvisolkij
2011 http://www.aseanfood.info/scripts/count_article.asp).
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation ISSN 1745-4549
1 Journal of Food Processing and Preservation (2012) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Tea (Cammellia sinensis) leaves have been fermented to wine,
having very good acceptance both on sensory and health
attributes (Aroyeun et al. 2005). Herbal tea has been prepared
by blending common South African medicinal herbs those
are known for combating arthritis, constipation, hangover,
cardiac andother diseases withtea andmarketedthe enriched
tea (Bhat andMoskovitz 2009).
Purple sweet potato (PSP) (Ipomoea batatas L.) is a special
type of sweet potato, and there is high content of anthocyanin
pigments in the roots of some sweet potato cultivars (Ray and
Tomlins 2010). The anthocyanins from PSP are more stable
than those fromstrawberry, red cabbage and other plants (Lu
et al. 2010). Many researchers reported PSP anthocyanins
could scavenge free radicals (Saigusa et al. 2005), attenuate
liver dysfunction (Han et al. 2007), enhance memory func-
tion (Wu et al. 2008), decrease blood sugar (Ray and Tomlins
2010) and lower insulin resistance (Kusano and Abe 2000)
and inhibit cancer cell growth (Wang et al. 2006). In our pre-
vious study, we have developed a red wine by fermenting the
starchy PSP roots with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the wine
has identical characteristics as that of commercial red (grape)
wine (Ray et al. 2011).
Infrared spectroscopy is an interesting tool for the analysis
of beverages and foods to determine the functional groups
(Lamet al. 2005). The analyses of food and beverages through
Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) have several advantages
as it is rapid, nondestructive and reproducible. Principal
component analysis (PCA) is a method used advantageously
for the evaluation in the food product analysis (Arvanitoyan-
nis and Tzouros 2005). PCAis used for the reduction of infor-
mation on large number variables into a small set, while
losing only a small amount of information (Hair et al. 1998).
The major feature of this method is a reduction of the dimen-
sionality in a set of variables by constructing an uncorrelated
linear combination of them. The combinations are computed
in such a way that the rst component accounts for the major
part of variance, that is the major axis of the points in the
P-dimensional space (Tzouros and Arvanitoyannis 2001).
In this study, an attempt has been made to prepare an
herbal wine using 18 different types of medicinal herbs and
plant parts (Table 1) and PSP. Evaluation of the wine charac-
teristics was carried out with reference to nutrients and proxi-
mate composition. The results of the proximate composition
were analyzedby multivariate statistical methods (correlation
analysis and PCA).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Medicinal Herbs and Plant Parts
Healthy medicinal herbs and plant parts (Table 1) were
selected from the local horticultural garden at Bhubaneswar,
India, during the month of November 2009 (day tempera-
ture, 28 2C and night temperature, 20 2C). Specic
parts of the herbs (Table 1) to be used in wine making were
thoroughly washed, sun-dried and crushed to get them in
powder forms.
PSP Roots
Freshly harvested and unbruised PSP roots (var. ST-13)
(starch, 178 g/kg; total sugar [TS], 25 g/kg; and fresh roots)
were collected from the experimental farm of Regional
Centre of Central Tuber Crops Research Institute (CTCRI),
Bhubaneswar, during the month of November 2009 and
immediately brought to the Microbiological Laboratory of
the Regional Centre of CTCRI. The roots were used within
24 h after harvest.
Wine Yeast
The wine yeast, S. cerevisiae was maintained on potato dex-
trose agar (PDA) slants at 4C in a refrigerator. This culture is
regularly used in wine making in our laboratory (Choudhury
and Ray 2007; Kumar et al. 2008). The yeast strain was pro-
vided by Dr. E. Suresh, principal scientist (Microbiology),
Division of Postharvest Technology, Indian Institute of Hor-
ticultural Research, Bangalore, India.
Preparation of Starter Culture
One hundred grams of good quality sweet grapes (var. Banga-
lore blue) was selected and washed under running tap water.
The grapes were mashed in a mixer-cum-grinder (TTK Pres-
tige Limited, Bangalore, India), and the juice was extracted
using a juice squeezer. The volume of the juice (ltered
through cotton cheese cloth) was measured, and an equal
volume of water was added. The mixture was boiled for
1015 min on a hot plate and was cooled at room tempera-
ture. After cooling, the grape juice was inoculated with S. cer-
evisiae culture from the stock culture under laminar air ow
(Klenzoides, Mumbai, India) and was incubated at 30C for
24 h to prepare the starter culture.
Enzymes for Saccharication
Two commercial enzymes (Termamyl and Dextrozyme GA)
were used for saccharication of PSP roots. Termamyl is a
thermostable (>90C) a-amylase enzyme, and Dextrozyme
(>45C) is a fungal amyloglucosidase (glucoamylase) enzyme.
The enzymes were procured from Arun and Co., Mumbai,
India.
SWEET POTATO HERBAL WINE S.K. PANDA ET AL.
2 Journal of Food Processing and Preservation (2012) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Fermentation Process
Sweet potato is a starchy crop that requires saccharicationby
enzymatic treatment for conversion of starch into sugars for
wine making.
Saccharication
Freshly harvested PSP roots were washed in tap water to
remove any dust or debris, and adhering water was wiped out
with a clean cloth. One kilogramof roots was de-skinned and
homogenized with 1 L of tap water using a mixer-
cum-grinder. The homogenized PSP roots were mixed with
0.2%Termamyl and incubated at 90Cfor 1 h for liquefaction.
The liqueed mash was cooled down to 45C, and 1% Dex-
trozyme GA was added to it with thorough mixing. The
enzyme-treated mash was incubated for 48 h at 45C in a bio-
logical oxygen demand incubator (Calton, Mumbai, India)
for saccharication.
After 48 h, the saccharied mash was further cooled down
to ambient temperature (28 2C) and squeezed through a
clean and sterilized cotton cloth to extract the juice (must).
The must taken in 1 L Erlenmeyer conical asks was treated
with sodium metabisulphite (SMS) (100 mg/mL) to inhibit
undesirable microorganisms such as acetic acid bacteria, wild
yeasts and moulds (Amerine and Ough 1980). The sugar
content of the must (16 Brix measured by a hand refractome-
ter, Sipcon, Jalandhar, India) was ameliorated to 20 Brix by
addition of cane sugar. The ameliorated must was thoroughly
blended with the crushed medicinal plant parts at desired
quantity (Table 1) before fermentation. The must was inocu-
lated with 24 h starter culture of S. cerevisiae (2% v/v), and
TABLE 1. MEDICINAL HERBS AND PLANT PARTS AND QUANTITY USED IN WINE PREPARATION (JAIN 1983)
Common English name Botanical name Family
Part of the
plant used
Quantity
(g/kg) Medicinal properties
Ink nut Terminalia chebula Combretaceae Fruit 5 Antiasthmatic, antidysenteric, antiparalytic in
piles
Belliric myrobalan Terminalia belerica Combretaceae Fruit 5 Anthelmintic, antiseptic, astringent, expectorant,
laxative, lithotriptic, rejuvenative
Indian gooseberry Emblica ofcinalis Phyllantheae Fruit 5 Diuretic, laxative, carminative, stomachic,
astringent, antidiarrheal, antihemorrhagic and
antianemic
Ginger Zingiber ofcinale Zingiberaceae Rhizome 3 Anti-dyspepsia and anticancer
Bael Aegle marmelos Rutaceae Fruit 5 Anti-chronic diarrhea, antidysentery, antipeptic
ulcers and laxative
Bishops weed Carum copticum Apiaceae Fruit 3 Antispasmodic, antiseptic
Holy basil Ocimum sanctum L. Lamiaceae Leaves 5 Anti-bronchial, antiasthmatic, antimalarial,
antidysenteric, antiarthritis
Night jasmine Nyctanthes arbortristis Oleaceae Leaves 2 Antisciatica and antiarthritic, antipyretic and
ulcerogenic activity
Malabar nut Justcia adhatoda Acanthaceae Leaves 2 Antispasmodic, bronchodilator and mucolytic
agent in asthma
Five-leaved chaste tree Vitex negundo Lamiaceae Leaves 2 Anti-inammatory, antipyretic, tranquilizer,
bronchial smooth muscle relaxant,
antiarthritic, anthelminthic and vermifuge
Garlic Allium sativum Amaryllidaceae Fruit 3 Hypolipidemic, antithrombotic, antioxidant,
anticancerous and antimicrobial effects
Cardamom Elleteria cardamomum Zingiberaceae Fruit 2 Antiasthma, anesthetic in burning sensation,
anti- cold and cough, protects from diseases of
bladder and kidney
Cinnamon Cinnamonum verum Lauraceae Fruit 2 Anti-atulence, anti-piles, anti-amenorrheal,
antidiarrheal
Indian aloe Aloe vera Xanthorrhoeaceae Leaves 2 Anesthetize tissues, acts against bacterial, fungal
and viral growth, anti-inammatory, dilate
capillaries, anticancer and enhance blood ow
Belladonna Atropa belladona Solanaceae Root 2 Promoter for wound healing
Asparagus Asparagus adscendens Liliaceae Root 2 Anti-spermatorrhea, anti-chronic leucorrhea,
antidiarrhea, antidysenteric symptom
Round leaf buchu Barosma betulina Rutaceae Leaves 2 Stimulates kidney, cleanses blood, antiseptic, acts
as tonic and promotes sweating
Neem Azadirachta indica Meliaceae Bark 0.5 Analgesic, alternative, curative of fever
S.K. PANDA ET AL. SWEET POTATO HERBAL WINE
3 Journal of Food Processing and Preservation (2012) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
(NH
4
)
2
SO
4
at 0.1% concentration was added as the nitrogen
source. Fermentation was carried out at ambient temperature
(28 2C) for 5 days. Three replicates were maintained for
conducting this experiment, andthe experiment was repeated
twice. The data given were the mean of the two experiments.
Racking and Bottling
After fermentation, rst racking (decanting the top uid
portionfromthe residue, settledat bottom) was carriedout at
ambient temperature. Racking of wine was carried out when
total soluble sugar (TSS) reached around 23 Brix. This
process was repeated three times at 20 days interval to discard
the settled residues. Bentonite (0.04%) was added before the
nal racking to remove the last remaining residues. After nal
racking, SMS (100 mg/mL) was added as preservative before
bottling. The bottles were lled full with wine, corked and
sealed with beeswax. The ow chart for making sweet potato
herbal wine is shown in Fig. 1.
Biochemical Analysis
The biochemical compositions of the wine were determined
as follows. Total titratable acidity (TA), tannin, lactic acid
(LA), anthocyanin and ethanol contents of must and wine
were determined by using the methods described by Amerine
and Ough (1980). Starch and TS were quantied in the must
and wine by anthrone method and reducing sugar was esti-
mated by Nelsons method. (Mahadevan and Sridhar 1993).
Total phenolic content was quantied by FolinCiocalteu
method(Bray andThorpe 1954). The pHwas measuredusing
a pH meter (Systronics Ltd., Ahmedabad, India), and 2,
2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity of
wine was measured by spectrophotometric method as
described by Marxen et al. (2007).
Preparation of Samples for FT-IR Analysis
Herbal PSP wine and a commercial grape wine (Port wine
1000, Nashik Vintners Pvt. Ltd., Maharashtra, India) were
subjected to FT-IRanalysis for the evaluation of the composi-
tional difference. Two milliliters of the respective samples
were applied on oval glass (having a diameter of 1 1 cm)
and allowed to air dry overnight and then subjected to FT-IR
for recording the spectra. The spectra were obtained with a
Perkin-Elmer 2000 spectrometer (Perkin-Elmer, Norwalk,
CT) at 4/cm resolution with a narrow band liquid N
2
-cooled
mercury cadmium telluride detector.
Statistical Methods
The analytical variables of herbal PSP wine were subjected to
PCA to group the related variables into smaller components
for interpretation of their relationship. All analyses were per-
formed using statistical software SPSS (SPSS Software for
Windows release 17.0, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
In our previous study, we have developed a red wine from
PSP variety ST-13 having the following proximate composi-
tions: ethanol, 9.33% v/v; TA, 1.34 mg/100 mL; total phenol
content (TPC), 0.36 g/100 mL; LA, 1.14 mg/100 mL; and
DPPH scavenging activity, 58.95% (Ray et al. 2011). The
wine was prepared by saccharication of PSP roots by com-
bined treatment of a thermostable a-amylase (Termamyl)
Purple sweet potato
Liquefaction of pulp was done by adding
Termamyl (0.2%) and incubated at 90C for 1h
Washing, de-skinning and crushing with tap water
Saccharification of pulp was done by adding
Dextrozyme G.A. (1%) and incubated at 45C for
Pressing and juice extraction
Amelioration of must
a. Adjustment of sugar to 20 Brix with cane sugar
b. Addition of SMS (100g/ml)
c. Addition of grinded medicinal plant parts
Inoculation with 24h starter culture (2%) along with
0.1% (NH
4
)
2
SO
4
as nitrogen source
Fermentation at 282C for 5 days
Racking
First racking carried out at 3-4Brix.
Racking was repeated for 3 times in 20 days interval
Clarification with 0.04% bentonite before final
racking
Bottling and corking
100g/ml SMS was added
Bottle was filled full, corking was done and the
bottle was sealed with bee wax
Herbal PSP wine
FIG. 1. A FLOW CHART FOR MAKING HERBAL PSP WINE
SWEET POTATO HERBAL WINE S.K. PANDA ET AL.
4 Journal of Food Processing and Preservation (2012) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
and an amyloglucosidase (Dextrozyme GA) and subsequent
fermentation of the must using S. cerevisiae as the starter
culture. In the present study also, PSP roots were saccharied
by the combination of Termamyl and Dextrozyme GA, and
in the process, there was 97% conversion of starch into
sugars. From the initial content of 178 g/kg starch in the
roots, the TS obtained after saccharication was 189.92 g/kg
roots. The must obtained after saccharication was mixed
with medicinal plant parts and fermented to prepare the
herbal PSP wine (Fig. 2). The composition of the herbal PSP
wine is presented in Table 2. The wine had a pHof 3.34, TAof
1.25 g tartaric acid/100 mL and LA of 1.92 mg/100 mL.
Similar results were obtained with wines prepared from
Indian gooseberry (E. ofcinalis) (Soni et al. 2009), herbal
wine from infused tea leaves (Aroyeun et al. 2005) and other
tropical fruits such as litchi (Litchi cinensis Sonn.) (Kumar
et al. 2008), mango (Mangifera indica) (Reddy and Reddy
2005), jamun (Syzygium cumini L.) (Choudhury and Ray
2007), etc. The carbohydrate content of the wine was low
(starch, 0.24 g/100 mL; TS, 0.95 g/100 mL; and TSS, 4.0
Brix). TPC of the wine was 0.19 g/100 mL, which is appar-
ently equal to those reported for red wines (Sanchez-Moreno
et al. 1998; Piaxao et al. 2007). The polyphenol content of a
tea wine after 6-months maturation varied from 0.0013 g/
100 mL to 0.0091 g/100 mL depending upon the clone type
(Aroyeun et al. 2005). In our study, total phenolic content
(0.19 mg/100 mL) of the herbal PSP wine might be the
cumulative polyphenol contents of PSP and herbal additives.
Recent epidemiological studies have shown that avonoid-
rich foods and beverages, such as red wine, have benecial
effects on cardiogenesis and cardiovascular diseases (Soleas
et al. 1997). Further the lower pH (3.34) of the wine is highly
favorable for the stability of the polyphenols as they are
known to auto-oxidize with increase in pH (Mochizuki et al.
2002). The anthocyanin content of the herbal PSP wine was
estimated to be 59.90 mg/100 mL. PSP anthocyanins are
natural color pigments and also work as antioxidants. DPPH
is a stable synthetic that has been commonly used for the
determination of antioxidant capacity in plant extracts. The
DPPH scavenging activity was 51.35% in wine at a dose of
250 mg/mL. The wine had a moderate ethanol concentration
(8.61% v/v) similar to that of wine produced from infused
tea leaves (Aroyeun et al. 2005). Certain biological active
compounds are present in the herbal additives such as nimbi-
din, margolone and margolonone in neem (Azadirachta
indica) (Biswas et al. 2002), latex (activity against Corynebac-
terium, Salmonella, Streptococcus, S. aureus) in aloe vera
(Cowan 1999), allicin and ajoene in garlic (Allium sativum),
atropine in belladonna (Atropa belladona), xanthotoxol,
imperatorin, alloimperatorin and alkaloids like aegeline
and marmeline in bael (Aegle marmelos) (Joy et al. 1998).
Indian gooseberry (E. ofcinalis) is a rich source of natural
vitamin C and contains cytokinin-like substances namely
zeatin, zeatin riboside and zeatin nucleotide (Joy et al. 1998).
The basic cardamom (Elleteria cardamomum) aroma is
produced by a combination of the major components,
oc-terpinyl acetate and 1,8-cineole. Eugenol (l-hydroxy-2-
methoxy-4-allylbenzene), the active constituent present in
holy basil (Ocimum sanctum L.) has been found to be largely
responsible for the therapeutic values (Prakash and Gupta
2005). Medicinal foods and beverages are enriched in various
nutrients and phytochemicals, all of which are supposed to
confer specic health benets. These chemical compounds
of the medicinal plants described previously, presumably
present in the herbal PSP wine, may contribute many health
benets.
FIG. 2. HERBAL PSP WINE FROM SWEET POTATO
TABLE 2. COMPOSITION OF HERBAL PSP WINE AND STANDARD
DEVIATIONS
Parameter
Wine
(mean value)
Standard
deviation
TSS (Brix) 4.00 0.44
Reducing sugar (g/100 mL) 0.38 0.12
Starch (g/100 mL) 0.24 0.06
Total sugar (g/100 mL) 0.95 0.07
Titratable acidity (g tartaric acid/100 mL) 1.25 0.04
pH 3.34 0.12
Phenol (caffeic acid equivalent) (g/100 mL) 0.19 0.02
Anthocyanin (mg/100 mL) 59.90 1.30
Lactic acid (mg/100 mL) 1.92 0.32
Ethanol (% v/v) 8.61 1.88
DPPH (%) 51.35 0.19
PSP, purple sweet potato; TSS, total soluble sugar; DPPH, 2, 2-diphenyl-1-
picrylhydrazyl.
S.K. PANDA ET AL. SWEET POTATO HERBAL WINE
5 Journal of Food Processing and Preservation (2012) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
FT-IR Analysis
FT-IR spectroscopy is a promising technique to provide
information on antioxidant potential of red wine (Versari
et al. 2010). InFT-IR, the wave numbers selected by the math-
ematical algorithm are associated with the absorption bands
of the most important compounds in wine. In the mid FT-IR
region, the main ranges selected (3,7003,000/cm, 1,700
1,400/cmand 1,2001,000/cm) correspond to the absorption
bands of OH, C = O and CC/CO stretching vibration
(Colthup et al. 1990).
Samples of herbal PSP wine and a commercial grape wine
were subjected to FT-IR analysis for detection and compari-
son of functional groups (Fig. 3). The spectra (05,000/cm)
were interpreted by using the guidelines of Stuart (2004). The
strong phenol OH stretch detected at 3,591/cm was indica-
tive of the presence of alcohol and phenol groups in both
herbal and commercial wine. Similarly, peaks detected at
1,843/cm showed the presence of anhydrides group (C =
O stretching) in both the samples. Azo compound (n =
Nstretching) was detected at 1,495/cm, second overtone CH
stretching was detected at 1,179/cm and alkynes (=CH
bending) was detected at 773/cm in both the wine samples.
Further, the CN stretching bands showed the presence of
amines. Aromatic amines showed bands in the range of
1,3231,250/cmandaliphatic amines showedbands at 1,220
1,000/cm in both the samples. Primary (NH
2
), secondary
(NH) and tertiary (no hydrogen attached to N) amines may
be differentiated by using the infrared spectra. Some addi-
tional new bands were detected in case of herbal-enriched
PSP wine samples such as at C = O stretch bands at 1,710/cm
and aliphatic CNstretching at 1,269/cm. Asimilar study was
conducted by Versari et al. (2010) to predict the total antioxi-
dant capacity of red wine using FT-IR spectra in a range
of 6004,400/cm. The result revealed a strong correlation
betweenphenolic content and the total antioxidant activity of
red wines (Versari et al. 2010).
PCA of the Analytical and Proximate Data of
PSP Wine
The correlation analyses among the proximate and analytical
variables are presented in Table 3. The most important
correlations were starch-TSS (-0.524), ethanol-reducing
sugar (-0.556), LA-anthocyanin (0.625), DPPH-anthocyanin
(0.549), DPPH-LA(0.815). Using PCA, the 11 original proxi-
mate and analytical variables were reduced to four principal
components (PC1PC4), which had eigenvalues larger than 1
and retained for rotation (Hair et al. 1998). PC1, PC2, PC3
and PC4 accounted for 24.18%, 20.18%, 15.41%and 14.76%,
respectively, and the total variations (74.53%) are presented
in Table 4.
FIG. 3. INFRARED SPECTRA OF HERBAL PSP WINE AND A COMMERCIAL (GRAPE) WINE
SWEET POTATO HERBAL WINE S.K. PANDA ET AL.
6 Journal of Food Processing and Preservation (2012) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
To assist the interpretation of dimensions, the factor
pattern was rotated using the varimax method. Based on the
guidelines provided by Stevens (1992), anattribute was corre-
lated to load heavily on a given component in the factor
loading was greater than 0.72. All the 11 analytical variables
loaded heavily on the dimension. Three analytical variables
i.e., TS (+ve), anthocyanin (+ve), DPPH (+ve) and LA (+ve)
were loaded heavily on PC1. TSS (-ve) and starch (+ve) have
been loaded substantially on PC2. Reducing sugar (+ve) and
TA (+ve) were loaded on PC3 and PC4, respectively.
Plotting PC1 loading against PC2 loading depicted these
relationships visually (Fig. 4).
Several studies have been conducted by using PCA for the
evaluation of fermented food products. Panda et al. (2009)
have demonstrated the application of PCAin the production,
nutritional and proximate composition of anthocyanin-rich
sweet potato pickle. PCA reduced the 11 original analytical
and proximate variables (pH, TA, LA, starch, TS, anthocya-
nin, organic matter, ash, fat, protein and calories) into three
independent components (factors), whichaccountedfor 91%
of the total variations. PCA was applied for evaluation of
proximate compositions of litchi wine, inwhicheight original
proximate variables were reduced to two independent com-
ponents (PC1 and PC2) that accounted for 100% variations
inlitchi wine. Inanother study, PCAreducedthe six analytical
variables of LA fermented cabbage juices to two independent
TABLE 3. CORRELATION COEFFICIENT FOR ANALYTICAL + PROXIMATE VARIABLE OF HERBAL PSP WINE
TSS
Reducing
sugar Starch Total sugar
Titratable
acidity pH Phenol Anthocyanin Lactic acid Ethanol DPPH
1.000 -0.112 -0.524 0.187 -0.0293 -0.386 0.037 0.000 -0.341 0.333 -0.398
1.000 0.048 0.071 0.256 -0.027 -0.048 -0.049 0.193 -0.556* 0.046
1.000 0.214 0.209 0.273 -0.071 0.099 0.386 0.026 0.414
1.000 0.163 -0.055 -0.357 0.247 0.410 0.159 0.184
1.000 0.133 -0.116 0.241 0.094 0.026 0.090
1.000 -0.055 0.255 0.248 -0.030 0.316
1.000 -0.247 -0.337 0.000 -0.092
1.000 0.625* 0.220 0.549*
1.000 -0.107 0.815
1.000 -0.102
1.000
* Correlation is signicant at the 0.05 level (two-tailed).
Correlation is signicant at the 0.01 level (two-tailed).
PSP, purple sweet potato; TSS, total soluble sugar; DPPH, 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl.
TABLE 4. RESULTS OF PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS ANALYSIS OF WINE
PROXIMATE VARIABLES OF HERBAL PSP WINE
Parameter PC1 PC2 PC3 PC4
TSS 0.158 -0.909 -0.137 -0.145
Reducing sugar 0.118 -0.006 0.949 0.198
Starch 0.258 0.721 0.113 -0.036
Total sugar 0.727 -0.391 -0.295 0.176
Titrable acidity 0.080 0.057 0.324 0.827
pH 0.101 0.579 -0.052 0.227
Phenol -0.156 -0.194 0.168 -0.685
Anthocyanin 0.747 0.096 0.008 0.373
Lactic acid 0.872 0.089 0.432 0.134
Ethanol 0.048 -0.436 -0.593 0.359
DPPH 0.831 0.443 0.033 -0.202
Variance explained (%) 24.18 20.18 15.41 14.76
Eigenvalue 3.28 2.26 1.38 1.33
Extraction method: principal component analysis.
Rotation method: varimax with kaiser normalization (eigenvalue).
PSP, purple sweet potato; TSS, total soluble sugar;
DPPH, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl.
-0.50 0.00 0.50
Principal Component 2 (20.18%)
0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
P
r
i
n
c
i
p
a
l

C
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t

1

(
2
4
.
1
8
%
)
TSS
RS
Starch
TS
TA
pH
Phenol
Anthocya
LA
Ethanol
DPPH
FIG. 4. GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS
PC1 VERSUS PC2 OF ANALYTICAL VARIABLES FROM HERBAL PSP WINE
S.K. PANDA ET AL. SWEET POTATO HERBAL WINE
7 Journal of Food Processing and Preservation (2012) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
components, which accounted for 87.10% of the total vari-
ance (PC1, 63.80% and PC2, 23.30%) (Karovicova et al.
2001).
CONCLUSIONS
Herbal-enriched PSP wine, developed from medicinal herbal
parts and PSP is a unique and novel product, which presum-
ably behold remedies for common ailments like cold, cough,
chronic dysentery, diabetes, skin diseases, etc.. The wine has a
higher anthocyanin (59.90 mg/mL) content and higher free
radical scavenging activity. The correlation between DPPH
and anthocyanin depicts the health benets of the herbal-
enriched PSP wine. The wine is moderately alcoholic (8.61%)
and has a medicinal avor. The dark color of the wine is
attractive.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors are thankful to the Director, CTCRI, Thiru-
vanathapuram for their encouragement.
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