# RYERSON UNIVERSITY

MEC626 APPLIED FINITE ELEMENTS LAB PROJECT No. 4 Rigid Frame
Program: Mechanical Engineering Section 3 Due Date: March 27, 2008 Prepared for: Dr. D.C.D. Oguamanam

NAME Kalashnikov, Andrey

Student ID 052098084

Signature

Department of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering

Introduction
A rigid frame is a structural framework or skeleton consisting of straight and curved members that is designed to resist loads. Members are mostly interconnected with rigid connections. They can take bending moments as well as shear and axial loads [1]. The rigid connections of the skeleton are designed so that the angles between them do not change with loads [2]. These types of structures can often have large amount of members, which makes it complicated to analyze. That’s when engineers have to use finite-element analysis method. It allows solving complicated indeterminant beam problems. In this case study, the rigid frame was given to be analyzed in the finite-element software ANSYS. The schematics of the frame can be seen on Figure 1. The structural load at C produces the axial load of 120 kip in member ED. The cross-sectional area of all the members is 4 in 2 . The Modulus of elasticity is given as 30 × 10 6 psi and the principal moment of inertia is 0.04 in 4 .

Figure 1 – The schematics of original design

The objective of this lab project was to evaluate the given rigid frame and then present the improved design that would decrease the load in member ED by at least 10%. The improved design was allowed to feature added or deleted structural members and increased cross-sectional area. The single restriction was that the member ED and its cross section were to be left unchanged.

Design Methodology

Calculations and FEM model
Axial _ stress ED = Load ED 120kip = = 30ksi Cross − sec tional _ Area ED 4in 2

Figure 1 – The original design deformation schematics

Figure 2 – The original design stress distribution chart

Table 1 – Displacements at nodes 1-6 for original design Node UX (inches) UY (inches) USUM(inches) 1 0 0 0 2 2.49E-03 -3.27E-03 4.11E-03 3 7.48E-03 -5.35E-02 5.40E-02 4 -9.59E-03 -2.14E-02 2.35E-02 5 -4.36E-03 -3.27E-03 5.45E-03 6 0.00E+00 -3.33E-03 3.33E-03

Table 2 – X and Y components of loads for elements of original design FX FY Element Node (pounds) (pounds) 1 99750 0 1 2 -99750 0 2 99750 0 2 3 -99750 0 3 99750 66500 3 4 -99750 -66500 5 99750 66500 4 6 -99750 -66500 6 0 66500 5 1 0 -66500 1 -5.82E-11 6.55E-11 6 5 5.82E-11 -6.55E-11 5 0 1.16E-10 7 2 0 -1.16E-10 2 -1.75E-10 8.73E-11 8 4 1.75E-10 -8.73E-11 4 99750 66500 9 5 -99750 -66500

Table 3 – X and Y components of reaction forces FX FY NODE (pounds) (pounds) 1 6 -99750 99750 66500 0

Load EB = Load 9 = FX 92 + FY92 = 99750 2 + 66500 2 Load EB = 119,885kip

Figure 3 – The improved design with loads applied

Figure 4 – The improved design deformation schematics

Figure 5 – The improved design stress distribution chart

Node 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Table 4 – Displacements at nodes 1-13 for improved design UX (inches) UY (inches) USUM (inches)

0 1.07E-03 2.58E-03 5.38E-03 7.87E-03 -4.60E-03 -2.89E-03 -3.63E-03 0 -3.87E-03 -3.97E-03 -2.42E-03 -2.07E-03

0 -2.41E-03 -5.34E-03 -1.78E-02 -4.31E-02 -1.79E-02 -4.60E-03 -3.88E-03 -2.82E-03 -1.71E-03 -2.74E-01 -2.43E-03 -3.22E-03

0 2.64E-03 5.93E-03 1.86E-02 4.38E-02 1.85E-02 5.44E-03 5.31E-03 2.82E-03 4.23E-03 4.82E-03 3.43E-03 2.21E-03

Element 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Table 5 – X and Y components of loads for elements of improved design FX FY FX Node (pounds) (pounds) Element Node (pounds) 1 85656 0 11 27623 2 -85656 0 16 8 -27623 2 1.21E+05 0 8 -12553 3 -1.21E+05 0 17 12 12553 3 1.12E+05 0 12 0 4 -1.12E+05 0 18 11 0 5 -99750 0 11 -11453 4 99750 0 19 13 11453 5 99750 66500 13 0 6 -99750 -66500 20 10 0 6 0 8098.8 10 8506.6 4 0 -8098.8 21 12 -8506.6 4 12148 8098.8 12 -37725 7 -12148 -8098.8 22 7 37725 7 -68202 0 7 24676 6 68202 0 23 11 -24676 6 -28027 18685 12 28492 3 28027 -18685 24 13 -28492 3 0 44391 13 0 7 0 -44391 25 1 0 7 0 43521 1 14094 8 0 -43521 26 12 -14094 8 59575 -39716 2 -17040 6 -59575 39716 27 13 17040 8 99750 66500 2 0 9 -99750 -66500 28 12 0 9 0 66500 2 -17949 10 0 -66500 29 7 17949 10 -8506.6 0 3 -19280 11 8506.6 0 30 12 19280

FY (pounds) 0 0 16737 -16737 -17632 17632 15270 -15270 -55158 55158 11342 -11342 0 0 32902 -32902 0 0 47709 -47709 -18791 18791 -22720 22720 -1212.9 1212.9 23933 -23933 -25706 25706

Table 6 – X and Y components of reaction forces FX FY NODE (pounds) (pounds) 1 9 -99750 99750 66500 0

2 2 Load EB = Load 12 = FX 12 + FY12 = 59575 2 + 39716 2