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THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS CHEMISTRY FORM 4

ATOMIC MODEL

DALTON
Atom is small, indivisible.
Atom cannot be created,
destroyed or divided.
JJ THOMSON
Sphere of positive charge
which contains a negatively
charge particles (electron)

RUTHERFORD
Discovered nucleus as centre
HISTORICAL of atom and positively charge
DEVELOPMENT OF (proton)
ATOMIC MODELS
Nucleus contains proton

Electron
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Electron in shell

Nucleus contains proton


Shell

NEILS BOHR
Discovered electron shells.
Electron move in shells
around the nucleus.

Nucleus contains proton and


neutron
Shell
JAMES CHADWICK
Electron in shell Discovered neutron.
Proton and neutron are in
nucleus.

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THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS CHEMISTRY FORM 4

SUBATOMIC PARTICLES

Proton
 Symbol : p
 Relative charge : +1
 Relative mass : 1
 Position : in the nucleus

NUCLEUS
Neutron
 Symbol : n
 Relative charge : 0
 Relative mass : 1
 Position : in the nucleus
Electron
 Symbol : e
 Relative charge : -1
 Relative mass : 1/1840
 Position : in the shells

SYMBOL OF ELEMENTS

Nucleon Number
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Nucleon number is the


total number of protons

A
X
and neutrons in atom.

Neutron = p + n Symbol of element

Z
Proton Number

Proton Number is a
number of protons in
atom of an element.

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THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS CHEMISTRY FORM 4

ISOTOPES

Atoms of the SAME element with SAME NUMBER of PROTON but DIFFERENT NUMBER OF NEUTRONS.

1 2
1𝐻 1𝐻
Hydrogen -1 Hydrogen -2

Hydrogen – 1 Hydrogen – 2
Proton Number 1 1
Neutron Number 0 1
Nucleon Number 1 2

i. Hydrogen – 1 and Hydrogen – 2 are ISOTOPES.


ii. Both has SAME number of proton but DIFFERENT number of nuetron.
iii. ISOTOPES have SAME CHEMICAL properties but DIFFERENT PHYSICAL properties.

USES OF ISOTOPES

COBALT - 60
To destroy bacterian in food without
changing the quality of food.
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SODIUM-24
Used to detect leakage in pipes
carrying gas.

COBALT - 60
USES OF ISOTOPES Radiotheraphy for cancer treatment

CARBON - 14
To estimate the age of fossils and
artefacts

PHOSPHORUS - 32
To study the metabolism of
phosphorus in plant

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THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS CHEMISTRY FORM 4

ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF ATOM

First shell is filled max 2 electrons (duplet)

Second shell is filled max 8 electrons (octet)

Third shell is filled max 8 electrons (octet)

VALENCE ELECTRON – the electrons in the outermost shell.

THIRD Shell can hold max 8 electrons if the number of


electrons les than 20. If electron more than 20, the third
shell can hold max 18 electrons.

Sodium Atom
Symbol of element 23
11 𝑁𝑎
Proton Number = 11
Na Nucleon Number = 23
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Neutron Number = 12
Electron Number = 11
Electron Arrangement : 2.8.1

Argon Atom
Symbol of element 40
18 𝐴𝑟
Proton Number = 18
Ar Nucleon Number = 40
Neutron Number = 22
Electron Number = 18
Electron Arrangement : 2.8.8

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