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Herm'aelogium; OR, AN ESSAY At the rationality of the Art of SPEAKING.
As a Supplement to Lillie's Grammer, PHILOSOPHICALLY, MYTHOLOGICALLY,
& EMBLEMATICALLY Offered by B. J.
In rational knowledges to depart from the received partitions, is no
disallowing of the same.
L. Veru|lam in his Advancement of Learning, p. 330.
London, Printed by R. W. for T. Passet, in St. Dun|stans-Church-yard in
Fleet-street, 1659.
The Contents.
THE Book analogizing words with things (particularly with Aristotle's
intrinsecal principles of things) is divided into four parts. Whereof,
• The first, under three Heads or Chapters, specifieth the analogie
• Of
• The word of Being or Noune Substantive
• The word of Motionor Verb
• The word of Quality or Ad|jective
• with
• Matter.
• Form.
• Privation.
• to fol. 10
• The second part, subdivided into five Chap|ters, sheweth the
variations and affections of the said word of Being, both in its de|
nominative Entity, and casual qualifica|tion, to fol. 39
• The third, under the same number of Chap|ters, sheweth the
variations and affections of the word of Motion, to fol. 63
• The fourth transiently examineth the state of the four undeclined Parts
of Speech, with their concomitant Mutes. And lastly of the Pronoune,
with the Arts therefrom proceedings, to fol. 73
Whereunto be added the Philosophical and Pedagogical uses of the whole;
with Em|blems of the same Mythologiz'd.
The Preface to the Reader.
AS some moneths sithence (Reader) I was, among my select companions,
engaged in a discourse relating to the Grammatical part of THE
ADVANCEMENT OF LEARNING, penn'd by the re|nouned Vicecount of St.
Albans, I casually fell upon this fansie: Which I profess to have published out
of no design to dis|grace, but a desire to advance the profes|sory way now
in use, in some degree to|wards that more prosperous State menti|oned
[Note: In Preface to the In|stauration, fol. 5. ] by his said Lordship,
wherein the mind may practice her own power upon the nature of things.
And therefore have I entituled it [...]. i. e. [...]. Taking the sighing Adverb
for an actuated wish, and the God of Speech for the Art of Speaking.
I say Art as observing the Creatures to be so far verbigerant as is requisite
both to the preservation and promulgation of their kind, and the paucity of
words in use not only among the Indians, but even that Nation whose
language is recorded to us as most venerable, to evince that Man at first did
not herein excell otherwise than as a distinction between specifical sound
rude [Note: Part 4. c. 1. ] and conformed may easily inform us.
But to what this conformity might be most naturally fansied: how, [Note:
(a) ] why and when graduated to that [Note: Part 2. c 5. & part 4. c. 2. ]
septuple excel|lency we now find it in, I thought worthy of enquiry. Since
that the Hebrew should be either to all speeches confounded, or that
language whence the rest should be derived; saving the implicit belief I re|
spectfully owe to the Assertors, I find not so much as the reason either of
discord or Symphonie. As for instance: Admit I granted that the Latine Cauis
were deri|ved from [...] of the Greeks; what were this to the Dog of England
or Houndt of Almayne; or either to KELEB of the Hebrew's?
Moreover I find, that besides the im|possibility of reconciling the [Note:
Part. 3. c. 4. ] Idioms, even in the respective refinement of the languages,
not only the Northern and Southern people have run a contray course (the
one multiplying Consonants as learn|edly as the other endeavour to baulk
them) But even the neighbour Greeks and Ro|mans; the one expressing the
Case of the Noun both by Article and Terminati|on; and the other usually
couching the Article under the Termination. It being their design aswell to
express much matter with little vocality, as to have several vo|calities for the
same matter or sense.
And I find lastly that the Orthoaepia of that very language is not in all
Countries the same; the Scio, folo, genus &c. of the German being by the
English rejected, the two first as a Plateasmus; and the last as sounding too
much of asperity; the English choosing to pronounce the [G] so placed, like
an [I] consonant; which again the French and Italian do reject; pro|nouncing
it rather like an [Sb] the [I] consonant sounding with them, and the
Germans, much as with the Greeks; so that they account the English vocal
sound thereof as a Jotacisme.
But as the [Note: [...]. ] REASON is one, so is it observable that the
expression thereof in and by man is in all Countries (quae Rea|son) the
same; In that the Nations, differ|ing in vocality according to the tempera|
ment of the respective climes they live un|der, do nevertheless in point of
Syntaxe agree as one; thereby also manifesting the product of words to be
more from nature; as of Sentences from Reason; distinguish'd nevertheless
but as so many gradual ema|nations of the same [Note: See the wisdom of
Solomon, ch. 7. v. 15. & 16. ] NATURING NATURE; by the first
understanding those secret emanations of rude Nature which the
Philosophers of old called Chance; and by the second that cultivated nature
in its several uses, through the [Note: See Al|sted. Arche[...] log. l. 1. ]
Scholastick state of mans life, known by name of Discipline, Science, or Art;
and now going under the general term of Phi|losophy; or, to speak strictly,
The Philo|sophic of Grammer: for so, by Mr. Watts, do I find his said
Lordship interpreted.
We will (saith he) [Note: In ad|vancement of learning, l. 6. p. 260. ] divide
Grammer into two sorts; whereof the one is lite|rary, the other
Philosophical; the one is meerly applyed to languages that they may be the
more speedily learned, or more correctedly and purely spoken; the other in
a sort doth minister, and is subservient to Philosophie.
In this latter part which is Philosophi|cal, we find that Caesar writ Books
D[...] Analogia; [Note: Suet. in Jul. ] and its a question whether those
books handled this Philosophical Grammer whereof we speak? Our opi|nion
is that there was not any high and subtile matter in them; but only that they
deliver'd precepts of a pure and perfect speech, not depraved by popular
custom, nor corrupted and polluted by over-cu|rious affection; in which kind
Caesar excell'd.
Notwithstanding admonished by such a work we have conceived and
compre|hended in our mind a kind of Grammer, that may diligently enquire
not the Ana|logie of words one with another; but the analogie between
words and things, or reason.---
On which words to quibble by questi|oning how an analogie can be
understood otherwise than as subordinate to its Pat|tern? And whether it
doth not follow that Caesars design also was to Analogize words with things
or reason: I should think almost as great a piece of incivility as is recorded
of [Note: See H. L. his reign of K. Charles. p. 62. ] that Doctor who was not
ashamed so to disport himself with the brain-pan.
And therefore shall silently trace his Lordship to the next page, where he
con|clusively sets down the literary Grammer as a Deficient. Thereby
manifesting his former division meant respectu status per|fectionis; as a
child is distinguishable from a man. And so I conceive his divided ex|
pression receptible, as if he had continu|ately said; There is a sort of
Grammer [such as Lilie's, &c.] compos'd on the meer score of Authority; no
way prying into the reasons those Authors had for their so speaking; As
Caesar in his Books De Analogiâ did; and our self thereby ad|monish'd have
conceived and comprehen|ded in our mind how to do.
Which conception or intendment is my security, that neither those writings of
Caesar, nor of any else [Note: The here|after so of|ten quoted Tract of
Sealiger, De causis Lin|gua Latinae, mainly in|terpreting the Philoso|phy of
that language more parti|cularly as it floweth from the Greek. ] precisely on
this Subject are extant. Being confident that if any since had writ thereon it
had been of publick use; as so tending to a recovery of the lost rationality of
Latine Syntax, now taught by meer observation; con|cluding an expression
congruous only be|cause its so read in Cicero, Terence, Virgil or Ovid. As if
the knowledge of things by accidents were equally certain to that which
cometh by their causes; and that notions entring through the doore of the
understanding come no better prepared for retention, then do such as like
meer sounds are only thrust in at the ear-windores.
His Lordships design in his propos'd Treatise of the divers properties of Lan|
guages;
That should shew in what point every particular language did excel, and in
what point it was deficient; that tongues might be inrich'd and perfected by
mutual entertraffique one with ano|ther; so that a pattern might be drawn
for the true expression of the inward sense of the mind from every part
which is excellent in every language; insomuch that observable conjectures
might be taken touching the natural dispositi|ons of People and Nations even
from their Languages.
--- I pretend to no such perfection in language, as to engage therein further
then as the diversity of Idioms shall invite me to their examina|tion in
pursuance only of my first declar'd intendment.
Wherein so worthy a pattern would have fortified the sedulity of my imitati|
on, had his Lordship been pleas'd to de|clare what course either his
Excellency took or himself designed for the stating of that Analogie, which,
at this largeness, the reasons [Note: Viz. in my address to the Uni|versity. ]
hereafter manifested invite me to select from Aristotle; with hope only that,
in an age wherein the wildest conceipts even of the transcendent entity do
find acceptance, I need not despair of pardon; If by reducing the received
parts of Speech to BEING, MOTI|ON and QUALITY, as their prin|ciples
analogical to his [Note: Arist. 1. Phys c. 6. text, 42. ] MATTER, FORM, and
PRIVATION, I do my Countryman but so much service as (in his passage
through the English and Latine Grammers) the easing of his me|mory from
the trouble of retaining more than hath been first digested by his rea|son.
These Books following are to be sold by Th[...] Basset in S
t
.
Dunstans-Church-yard in Fleetstreet.
THe General Practice of Physick.
Orbis Miraculum, or the Temple of Solomon pourtrayed by Scripture-light,
&c. by Samuel Lee, Minister at Bishopsgate, London.
Thirty Sermons preached at Milkstreet, London; by Anthony Farindon, B. D.
Baxters Treatise of Conversion.
--- Reformed Pastor.
Hooles Grammer.
Parnassi Puerperium, or some well-wishes to In|genuity, in the Translation of
Owen, Martial, and Sir Tho. Mores Epigrams, by Tho. Peck of the In|ner
Temple, Gent.
The Life and Reign of King Charles from his Birth to his Burial, by Peter
Heylin.
A Physical Discourse touching the Nature and Effects of the Couragious
passions, written in French by Le chambre, and translated into English by a
Person of Quality.
A Discourse of the Principles of Chiromancy, written in French by Le
chambre, and translated by a Person of Quality.
A Survey of the Law, containing Directions how to prosecute and defend
personal actions usu|ally brought at Common Law, with the Judges opinions
in several cases; by [...]illiam Glisson and Anthony Gulston, Esqs and
Baristers at Law.
The Exact Law-giver, containing the Chiefest grounds of the Laws of England.
The Principles of Christian Religion; by James Usher Archbishop of Armagh.
ERRATA.
PAge 11. line ult for being in a sort, read being a sort. p. 12 l. 19. after the
word right stop thus[;] p. 21. l. 20. blot out the first my. p. 40. l. 25. for as
r. at. p. 44. l. 20. for [i] conceive[.] p. 54. l. 7. for whtch r. which. p. 58. l.
ult. at the word action stop thus[.] p. 59. l. 1. blot out that. p. 65. l. 1. for
quantites r. quantities. p. 66. l. 6. & l. 30. for proposition r. preposition. Ibid.
l. 9. for minis r. nimis. p. 67. l. 4. for my score r. my own score. p. 68. l. ult.
for fo r. for. p. 71. l. 25. for n r. In: Ibid. in marg. for argumenti r.
argumentis. p. 93. l. 24. for quam read quum. p. 87. l. 4. blot out s.
1
Herm'aelogium; The first PART.
CHAP. 1. Treating of the said words in their se|veral respective
analogies. And first of the word of Being or noune sub|stantive in its
analogie to matter.
IN the first place I offer those words which serve to express the Essence or
Existence of the Uni|verse; whether in its innumerable parts or whole bulk,
actions or passions; as properly called words of Being; In regard they are
both the denomina|tors of entity, and also the basis of motion; even as
Matter is of Form. And as we cannot conceive Form without presupposing
Matter; no more may we, sententiously, express a motion without its pre|
cedent Being; all motion necessarily proceeding ab aliquo quiescente.
Also as matter doth appetere catch at or invade form in order to forms
formed; So Being directeth 2 Motion towards another Being [Note: Quies
priva|tio est & si|mul perfe|ctio[...]ei. See Com. Magyr. l. r. c. 6. ] qualified
for the complement of a Sentence. The first being the material, and the last
the formal or final cause of the motion.
Wherefore also as in the one place it is terminus à quo, active, and therefore
governing: It fol|loweth that in the tother it be terminus ad quem fit motus;
and consequently (sensu receptitiae perfe|ctionis) passive, and so governed.
The same is hinted at by our LILLIE, un|der the questions WHO or WHAT?
and WHOM or WHAT? The first as the nomina|tive case to, and the second
as the casual word of the Verb; which last I hereafter distinguish by name of
a word of Sense, in regard that by its sensuality it compleateth this
Phylosophie of a sen|tence. To which neither the Verb impersonal, its Latine
succedaneum the Gerund with the Verb of Being, nor the Infinitive Mood can
be an excepti|on. While the word or words mediately follow|ing the first, and
immedately the second, are, in sense, as their nominative case; In that they
are their material cause or basis; and the third signi|fieth no other then the
essence [Note: Part 3. cap 1. ] ot indefinit Being of a Motion. Which the
Greeks and English ob|serve, while they denominate their Verbs by the
Infinitve mood, as, [...], To love, &c.
Wherefore our Author teacheth that when two
Verbs meet together, the latter shall be the Infinitve Mood.
That Mood so placed bearing the same signification with an essential word of
sense; as when placed before the Verb it doth of a word of Being; and
serves either to govern or be Governed by the Verb accordingly.
And because it often doth this accompanyed; not only by words of the same
sort by way of 3 apposition, but by the Infinitive Mood and a word of Being;
so answering both the questions, WHOM and WHAT: Our Author adds, that
Aliquando ratio est verbo nominativus. Which aliquando I suppose he would
have understood as a conditional semper. As if he had said, Whenever you
meet with any number of words without a Verb in a Mood other then the
infinitive, know that they all can amount to no compleat sentence; but only
to such a Ratio as may serve for a nomina|tive case to the Verb. And the
reason therefore is, that they signifie no more then one word of Being, as is
evident even by the example he there in|stanceth out of Ovid:
---Ingenuas didicisse fideliter artes
Emollit mores.---
All which, but for the emphasis and verse, (which are but as the second
intentions of lan|guage) might have been as fully expressed by one word of
Being, as if he had said Literatura emollit mores.
4
CHAP. 2. Of the word of Motion or Verb, in its ana|logie to Form.
PRoceeding secondly to motion, [...], ac|cording to its, passage, I observe it
twofold, viz. either going from, or else coming towards the first sententiously
expressed Being: as, I love, or I am loved. Yet (transpositis terminis) this
duplicity will appear to be but so many gradual expressions of one and the
same motion. As when I say, JOHN LOVETH JOAN, I thereby but only
express the action of love as barely proceed|ing from John towards Joan;
and so a Cat may look upon a King. But if I say JOAN IS LOVED BY JOHN, I
then not only ex|press as much, but also manifest the energie of Johns love-
motion to be such, as that Joan is there|in passionately concern'd.
And hence (with submission to my more learned Readers) I conceive the
antients came todistinguish the one by name of a Verb passive, from that
other of an active. And particularly the Latins (with whom this voice is most
Idiomatical) to form the passive from the active by the only addi|tion of the
letter [R]. And that Magyrus also in his [Note: lib. 1. c. 4. ] Physiologie
comes to declare that Motus in duobus consistit (he doth not say duo motus)
in agente scil. & Patiente.
Thereby, however, excluding our Authors Neuter-passives, Common and
Deponents; as products of a vain attempt of reconciling the Latine and
English Idioms, not considering how 5 the first denominate their Verbs à
causâ causae, and the last à causâ causati.
Which once observed, it will be evident that the Romans were never [Note:
To multi|ply divisions to their low|est particu|larity is an errour in Science. L.
Vetu[...] ibid. ] guilty of troubling us with any such subdivision. As for
instance: Vapulo and Exulo must with them needs be Verbs active: It being
their Philosophie that Nemo laeditur nisi à scipso. And so must Precor and
Meditor be passives, since it was as well their Theologie that
--- Timor primos fecit in orbe Deos.
Loquor likewise and Argumentor, strictly under|stood, being when we speak
or argue the sense of others. Besides that, admitting of a gradation, it were
not Scholastick to multiply its comparative Arithmetick beyond a third,
[Note: (a) ] (where I state the Verb impersonal) as in the following Chapter
is expressed.
6
CHAP. 3. Of the word of Quality, or Noun-Adje|ctive, in its analogie
to Privati|on, &c.
OUR Author telling us that the coherence of the former word with its
nominative case is in respect of number and person: I reserve its said
superlative gradation, as more properly explain|able among those and the
variations of the whole three. The last whereof I now offer as the daugh|ter
of Privation, or (in corporeal naturalities) Proportion; both being here
understood in order to perfection. By which as we attain to the distin|ction of
great and little as a quantity; so of good and evil as a quality; and by it
come we to the useful knowledge of quantitative qualities, to make them
also adjectible to Beings.
For, although naturally they admit not of com|parison, the least drop being
logically as much water as is the whole Sea; Yet being coacervated, as they
take up the rooms of great and little, two being more then one, and three
then two, &c. they become convertible with good and evil; the biggest (as
we use to say, caeteris paribus) being alwayes the best.
And sithence we find dilatation and good to be euqally appetible by all
Beings, the conversion cannot be improper. [Note: As is partly demonstra|
ble by a Cyphon. ] Wherefore we call a great house a good house; and so do
we complement My very good Lord, &c.
Which nevertheless to wrest too much to a 7 Political sense, were to make
contentment no other than a lazie patience. Ot if to a Theological, to be
forced with that otherwise thrice learned [Note: Campanel|la in Athe|ismo
trium|phato. ] Dominican, sometimes of my acquaintance in PARIS, to
defend covetousness to be no sin; and consequently, with some Philosophers
of the Neotericks, be seduced, practically, to confound Honestum with Utile.
Wherefore its observable that both quantity and quality become
distinguishers of good and evil only mediately. The one by coacervation, as
aforesaid; and the other by separation: Unum, verum, bonum, ens,
quatenus ens, being alwaies the same.
But if we apply an Entity or Being to a praeterna|tural use, [Note:
Amygdalae amarae noxiae vulpibus. I. Mart. Met. sect. 6. ] then shall we
find (as was retorted by the Hollander) that English Ale is no better to thatch
housen, then is Dutch butter to stop Ovens.
Or otherwise, if we contemplate several beings of the same kind or sort, by
the privation of some particle of perfection in the one, we learn to value the
excellency of the other. And in case there be two beings herein compa|tible;
there the senses immediately summon a Court of Survey; where opinion
sitting as Judge decides the controversie by the line or measure of
comparison. Which subjects all qualities under so variable a construction: it
being impossible that all Beings should be affected to one and the same
Quality, more than all Qualities may be ratio|nally adjectible to one Being. Or
to instance that Elementary Being which is permanent in its affection
towards a single Quality or Being so qualified. Since as the temperament
alters, so must the Judgement; and Affection being to 8 Judgement, as the
Cause to the Effect: hence necessarily proceed both the [Note: I meddle not
with the supernal allyance of the stars. Only as my Vernacular Idiome
renders it, Kyfanian a G[...]rthani|an. ] Sympathy and An|tipathy of the
Universe.
This we may read most handsomly exemplified in the observations left us by
[Note: Hist. Bel|gic. ] Strada on the re|sults of the Council held at Madrid
before the Expedition which the Duke of Alva thereupon un|dertook for the
Netherlands. To which he adds,
That every man while he votes for the publike, votes for himself. And the
vote (saith he in Sir Philip Stapleton's language) which nature ex[...]orts, we
thinK we give to the cause, when, indeed, we do it to our own humor.
Nevertheless we find this wise Nature, in order to the preservation of it self
in its respective In|dividuals, to have stamped certain characters of general
reception on Good and Evil; even as by a number of mysterious lines on the
face, the fea|tures are promoted in order to beauty: as we may be more at
large satisfied concerning the one by the Mathematicks, as of the other
among the Ethicks.
My present part being only by this difficulty to instance how expedite it was
that the degrees of comparison should be carv'd exactly answerable to the
Hermetical Phylosophie of Vertue; which is, To be multiplyed in the second,
and compleated in the third. That number being worthily magni|fied by the
Antients as most perfect, in regard it is uncapable of an equal division;
[Note: (a) ] and so remains of Infinitness the nearest representative
imagina|ble. And this the French idiome confirms by its expression of most
by thrice: as, Grand, Plus grand, trois grand. Great, Greater, Greatest.
M[...]gnus, Major, Maximus: The rest, in the La|tine, having for the most
part their superlative 9 in [issimus] as faelix faelicissimus: Excepting such as
are called Anomola or irregular; or whose rise is mentioned affectedly: as,
M[...]lior for Mollior, or Maximus for Maximè optatus. To compare by magis
and maximè being proper only to words ending with a yowel before [us] In
regard [be|sides that the too much overture of concurrent vowels is in some
sort abhorred by all languages] the regular comparison renders such scarce
com|prehensible by any Latine verse, except the Lyric: And therefore do the
Romans compare them by their Adverbs; much as the English more and
most.
But to conclude. As Privation became known by contemplation of want, the
high way to nothing: So Quality can, Grammatically, signifie nothing, until it
be adjected to that Being whereof it shew's the quality; as to say, A fair
woman, a large hawk, &c. and therefore is the Adjective in what degree
soever plac'd to agree with its Sub|stantive in Gender, Case and Number, as
affecti|ons which by it are occasionally varyed as fol|loweth.
10
Herm'aelogium. The Second Part.
CHAP. I. Shewing the Rational Variations or Affections of the Noun
Substantive, whether in its Entitative denomina|tion or sensual
casuality. And first of its Articulation.
TO this word do belong first its articles: He, She, or It. The word Genus
being here, as I with the same submission conceive, understood by the
Latines in a mixt sense; For if we look upon it Logically, it will appear to be
rather Species generis than Genus. And if meerly Physically à generando:
Then must we take it only as an article manifesting the property of a Being
in point of generation; that is, Whether it be 11 male, female, or neither. The
English understand|ing it no further, whiles, until they be of years to
propagate, they articulate the noblest of Creatures by this neither or neuter
gender, as when they say: It's a pretty Girl or Boy.
Whereas the Latins use it not only to distinguish the Sex, but also the active
and passive qualities of Beings in point of use, as; Hic liber, haec Pila. The
book being look'd upon as an agent by which we are instructed, and the Ball
as a patient by the tossing whereof we are recreated. Which yet I find to
hold most in the articulation of such words as be radically Latine; such as
derive from the Greek being articulated commonly as most consonant with
their terminations. So, Hic lapis, Haec petra. Which I rather take with [Note:
De caus. ling. lat. l. 4. ] Scaliger from [...] and [...], than with the Antients
from pedem laeden|do and quià teratur pedibus; or from any experi|ment of
their growth found out by the Neote|rics.
Yet its observable that such Greek words as be Latiniz'd only quoad sonum
do sometimetimes herein outstretch our use of the Being, by a [Note:
Enallage generis. ] trope which the Latines declare themselves not a little
enamour'd with whiles not only the repesenta|tives of sometimes living
personages, as Statua; but such dead being as be either actually or po|
tentially but the containers [as the place and placed] of the living, are by
them numbred among the feminines: as, Manus, Domus, Civi|tas, &c.
So they articulate the names of all Cities, ex|cepting such as so strictly
follow the names of their Founders, that their termination cannot properly be
advanc'd to the feminin gender. And only these, being in a sort of more
remote tropical 12 feminines, do they articulate rather according to their
termination; which may be a reason why Londinum may not be declin'd
feminiely aswell as Glycerium.
Derivative Beings, whose names proceed from primitive Latine words, they
decline according to the nature of that word whence the derivation
proceedeth; and in case the derivative proceeds from more then one, they
take the denomination à fortiori; whether that be a word of Being, or a word
of Motion. For example, Fluvius if it had its denomination from the water or
the fish it is suppos'd to contain, must have been articula|ted femininly: But
sithence it is neither the wa|ter nor the fish, but the fierce flowing that
makes the Fluvius of the Latines [for they have their Rivi and Rivuli besides]
there it is known by the masculine gender.
And the denomination is right in regard that as every Spring doth not make
a River, no more doth every River contain fish. As the River Dulais of Neath
ultra in Glamorganshire, which, until of late years some Trouts were cast into
it, contained no fish but Eels; whose univocal generation being uncertain,
are therefore articulated doubtfully. Supposing always that I latinize them by
the old name of Anguis, [Snakes and Adders being num|bred among the
Oviparia] and not Anguilla; for then I make it an Epicaen.
The same rule standeth for Hermaphroditical creatures. And not unlike is
that way of articula|tion they call common, as Hic & Haec Canis. The main
end we keep Dogs for being in order to our pleasure of hunting them
according to their respe|ctive kinds, to which since we do not find that di|
stinction of sex doth add any thing, they are 13 properly articulated with
caution only that we distinguish them from dead Being.
As for our Authors Common of three, I observe that as proper only for the
declension of Adje|ctives; it being impossible a Being should be living and
dead at the same instant.
Vegetives, in regard their multiplication is at a distance, are, when their
termination invites it, content to be articulated neutrally: as, [Note: Mas &
se|mina. ] Absyn|thium. Otherwise for the most part we read them
promiscuously specified aswell by the masculine as feminine gender. The
distinguishment of their sex being a knowledge peculiar only to Phy|sitians.
So that I dare not induce a reason for our Au|thors strict muliebrity of Alnus,
quia alatur amne. While I find amnis both masculine and femininely declin'd.
Neither can his first special Rule oblige me to it; whiles Pinus coming also
within that verge, I find masculinely, and (by Mr. Hollyoak's observation)
aswell feminiely declin'd.
Wherefore where our Author saith, that Ap|pellativa arborum erunt muliebria
ut Alnus, I un|derstand him as only telling me he never read it otherwise.
But since its my present undertaking to endea|vour to reach the reason of
the Ancients for what our Author delivers on the meer account of ob|
servation: The use the Ancients made of that Tree being mainly for shipping;
as appeareth not only by the authority of Pliny, but also that the Brittains do
at this day call the Shipmast, although consisting of other timber, by name
of that [Note: Gwernen y Llong. ] tree; therefore were I not thereby
necessitated to hete|roclite it, I should, after Plinie's example, take the Tree
for the Ship that is thereof built, or at 14 least wise that by it is perfected,
and so make it a tropical feminine, as Domus. And who knoweth but that in
the infant refinement of the language it was so taken and declined, while Mr.
Hollyoake derives it from the same root with Quercus? Since as [Note: In
Epist. dedicat. ] Dr. Taylor well observes, Voces & familiaris sermo suas
habent vicissitudines; & magis convenit inter linguas Gallicam & Italorum,
quâm Latinitati sequioris aevi cum Ennianâ
CHAP. II. Of the Cases.
THe second variation of this word is according to the respective conditions it
may serve in, whether Genitive, Dative, Accusative, or Abla|tive. The service
it doth Vocatively being barely Salutatorie; and Nominatively, either as
apposited to a word of its own sort, or subjected only to its own motion. And
therefore do I rather adven|ture on this my own fancyed conditional
definition of the Cases, then comply with the learned Sca|ligers à Cadendo,
[...], as he [Note: Ibid. p. 183. ] renders it; that extraction too much
entrenching on the state of this Case; whose said imployment can be ad|
judged no more cadent than for one hand to serve another.
The services it performs in its other conditions are first as it is governed by
another word of Be|ing: And so it serves the English man commonly
Genitively: The house of his father, and the use of his friend sounding to him
alike. But with the 15 Roman the first bearing the sense of a possession, and
the second of an instrument; therefore that shall be govern'd Genitively, and
this Ablatively; and that for reasons in its motional governance speci[...]ed.
As for its Dative service, I observe that either to Substantives compounded
with such Prepositi|ons as our Author notes to bring the Verb so governing:
as, Mihi praefectus, advocatus, contu. &c. or else to a Being qua qualitative;
as, urbi pater i. e. Patronus: The English to the Adjective subjecting it all one
way, and in as many condi|tions as do the Latins, which is in all the four: As,
• Novitatis avida,
• Sis bonus tuis,
• Dives Nummis
• Gnomon septem pe|des longus,
• Greedy of news.
• Be good to thy own.
• Rich in money.
• A line seven foot loog.
Which last only soars up to the Latine rationality; the rest carrying their
signs before them; and so, in my opinion, may excuse the English man from
the trouble of conning our Authors dilatations on this Rule. Sithence as we
must necessarily know before we can compose; so doth the English in|form
what condition to place the goverened word in the Latine.
And its observable that where the English ele|vates it self above the pitch of
vulgarity, the La|tine, as in disdain of that pride, endeavours to soar higher:
witness that Authority cited by our Author out of Columella: Fons latus
pedibus tribus, altus triginta: Where the lateral measure governeth
Ablatively, and the direct Accusatively, by the same tacit reason as doth the
Verb.
In which Philosophical Concordancie consists 16 the main subtilty of the
Roman language, viz. In subjecting this word in order to the conclusion of a
sentence, according to the respective inclinations of the motion. As;
First, Genitively: And that to Verbs signify|ing Possession, Mercy, Memory,
Enjoyments, or most things that belong to tryals or Barre-affairs. And the
reason therefore will be obvious, if we but continue our observation of their
forecited me|thod, as of d[...]nominating, so of governing, secun|dum
causam causae, and not cousati, as do the Eng|lish.
A custom which I suppose first grounded on a Metaphysical consideration:
The Metaphysicks ac|counting the first as the more worthy, and there|fore
fittest for denomination and government. See jacob. Martin. in part.
Metaphysic. Sect. 7. Quest. 4.
But to come to our Authors instances, Miserere mei, Have mercy of, or [as
the English by their prepositionally noted idiome more properly ren|der it]
upon me: We shall by the said observation find it the same as to say, Let my
miser move your mercy to incline towards me. For by those words we may
observe my misery to be the Causa causae, your mercy the Causa causati;
and your in|clining of it towards me to be the Causatum. And so shall we
discern How miser[...]re mei carries the same rationality of expression as
Patris or Paterna do|mus. For my misery being come the cause of your
mercy makes your mercy to be mine.
I could illustrate this further, not only by the imitation of other languages; as
of the French, Pittie du moi, &c. but also by the [...]oman denomi|nation of
this motion or verb of Mercy from Mi|sery: Misereo, quasi miseriâ afflcior;
and Miseri|c[...]rdia, quasi aegritudo cordis ex miseriâ alterius. But 17 I
rather choose yet to explain it by another of our Authors examples: Furti
absolutus est. Where I also find Furti governed Genitively. In regard that if
the Prisoner had not first given some cause of suspition, neither Jury nor
Judge should have sate on him. Wherefore as the absolution is the Causati,
and so the prisoners own suspicious demeanure is the Causa Causae: which
proving but a suspition, doth lead the Judge to the absolution as of due be|
longing to the suspected. And so doth Absolve govern Furti Genitively,
because the suspected having deserved no other, hath entituled himself to
the absolution as his own. And by the like reason be all those fore-hinted
Verbs so for|tified.
And as possession doth presuppose acquisition, so doth our Author in the
next place subject it Da|tively; and that by such Verbs as are acquisitively
posited, which I mention by his his own word in regard he hath thereby said
all; the whole Regi|ment he after musters up being rationally compre|
hensible under acquisition. And that likewise by the fore-taught observance
of the remoter cause. For so it comprehendeth loss aswell as profit; si|
thence as there is no WHY without a WHERE|FORE; so no man damnifieth
another but in or|der to his own advantage, more then it is possible one
should give what he hath not re|ceived.
As for Verbs moving in order to payments, pro|mises, Negotiations,
commands and obsequies, their end is sufficiently expressed by the old
Rithme,
So ne do go, and some do runne,
But 'tis for money when all is done.
18
And its observable that this acquisitive inclina|tion of the Verb doth so badge
its governed case, that not only Verbs compounded with the notes usually
preposited to the governance of other cases do then require this; But also
that we intelligibly can express the word compleating their sense by no other
case, without the addition of a Preposition; which his fore-cited Lordship of
Verulam notes for a [Note: Ibid, fol. 262. ] loose, he might have said
pernicous, way of delivery.
Its unlimited use (as by our Author instanced) rendring both this and the
Genitive cases of the Noun useless Sithence the sense of this case becomes
so expressible by Prepositions serving to the Accu|sative; as of the other by
the Ablative: Excepting only when the Preposition tenus noteth possession
without desired acquisition; as Aurium tenus, it also handing a singular
Ablative: as Pube tenus. The misfortune (as we say in English) being not all
a case.
However, that it doth not regulate when the ca|sual word is to be expressed
by a Preposition, and when according to the inclination or line of the Verb, I
thought requisite to note for a serious de|fect in Grammer, and such as could
scarce be sup|ply'd without a preliminary examination How the infancy, state
and declination of the language did respectively use it.
The first (having no books by me that inform) I must guess at from Mr.
Robinsons (to our Author annexed) defective Heteroclites; which (leaving the
redundant as enough for his Sors and Authorum placita) I suppose
designedly so pass'd by the re|finers, as a monument to posterity what the
lan|guage formerly had been; that so their pains might be the more thank
worthy. For did we not 19 know that Carnu was once under that singl[...]
termi|nation declined throughout our Authors six Cases (excepting the
Vocative, which no dead Being can stand in, because uncapable of salute)
and so no otherwise distinguishable than by Epithets and preposited notes:
Lucan's --- Cornus tibi cura sinistri.
Had been no elegant expression at all; no more were our Authors Patris or
Paterna domus a refined Latin phrase; but for dumo or, as the modern have
it, Casa del Padre of the degenerate Italian.
This evinceth that as much of the art of Latine Grammer was plac'd in the
variation of the Nounes Termination according to (though seldom as manifold
as) its cases, and of them after the four inclinations or lines of the Verb; so
the end in both was to heighten the language above the laid preposited
vulgar way of speaking. How far then the design fell short in the projection
becomes hence considerable.
Wherein ere I proceed, I must remind my Rea|der how in the front of this
tract I only promised an Essay at the [...]ationality of Speech: If happily
some more literate and ingenious might vouchsafe its fostering to a perfect
grandeur. And on that ac|count shall I here expose such reasons as at
present to me occur dehortative to this intended banish|ment. The rather
being thereto encouraged by the fore-cited Noble Lord [Note: In mo|tives to
his [...] p. 1. ] where he saith:
It is better to give a beginning to a thing that may once come to an end,
than with an eternal con|tention and study to be enwrapp'd in those mazes
which are endless.
First then I observe that as the Euphonie of the 20 Southern Languages
consists in a smoothness of delivery, [Note: See the Pre|face. f. l. 2. ] so
must the multiplicity of concurrrent Vowels aswell as Consonants be by them
baulk'd as equally disrellishing. Hence comes it that the French do often
pronounce a fansied Consonant between; as when insteed of Este il disner?
hath he dined? they say Ete til dine? and that the Roman Idiome doth
interpose a Preposition; mine hoast with our Author so answering that
Summâ cum humanitate tractavit hominem.
Secondly, That the said lines are but Influx|us Causae; and consequently
indicating rational rather than material governances. Wherefore I say Amo
Virginem, but vado ad eam. And on this account do I suppose that Scaliger
calls the Pre|position by name of [Note: Motum ad locum. Sca|pul. ] [...]. It
being convenient that some expressed note should hand a corporal motion,
faculty or posture both in its [Note: Being or Essence. Essentia est
principium motus saith I. Mart. ] beginning, end and space between the
word of Being and word of Sence.
As when I say Lateo in sepe. So denoting rest in the Being.
Curro è sepe. Shewing the motions progress from it. Or
Propero ad Sepem. Indicating its ad|vance towards it as its formal cause or
word of sence.
Cum omne corpus (saith he) aut movetur aut quiescit: opus fuit aliquâ notâ
quae [...] significa|ret, [Note: Ibid. c. 157. ] sive esset inter duo extrema,
inter quae motus fit: sive in altero extremorum in quibus fit quies.
But (with due reverence to the memory of so renowned a Philosopher) the
most absolute need 21 of the Preposition I find to be when I am to men|tion
the whole three joyntly; as saying Salio trans sepem; so at once both
supposing a rest whence I take my leap; naming the hedge; and tending to|
wards a third place as the end of my motion. For these lines in their said
influx being no other than as imaginary Hierogliphicks cannot possibly indi|
cate several ways at once.
Else as one Case is prefer'd to another in go|vernance; so shall we find the
unusher'd cases to the Prepositionally noted ones wherever a material
motion may be reduc'd to a lineal sense: As when I say Dego Lutetiae;
rejecting Apud Lutetiam as barre (I will not say barbarous) Latine. And yet I
say Apud forum speaking of some Market even in Paris. For, it's possible I
may be at the market, and yet possess'd of nothing there saleable; therefore
do I hand the condition of that Noune by the Preposition. But since I cannot
properly be said to be at the City without my implying my pro tempore
possession of a Being there, I condition thar rather after the circular line of
the Verb, as when respecting the Inhabitants I do it after the oblique; my
being there so aswell supposing a benefit, were it but to the Tavern and Tay|
lor. Or, if my condition be mean, that I must have some way of acquisition to
subsist my said being amongst them. Wherefore I then say Parisiis. As when
I would intimate both the place and Inhabitants joyntly I express my self
Genitively, saying Lutetiae Parisiorum; that of the two being the most worthy
casual Position.
Dr. Taylor hath a Rule that (baulking the absurdity of teaching the Latine by
the English Idiome, which in this very particular confounds compleat with
imperfect narratives) depends much 22 on the same Phylosophy. [Note: See
his Grammar p. 76. ] Saith he
[of] after a Verb transitive is alwayes expressed by the Preposition [de] as
Loquor de Monarchia.
The reason is that the relation of the Monarchy being not absolute, it falleth
short of a transitive; and therefore being comprehensible by none other of
the said lines, the casual word must be usher'd by a Preposition.
And so our Authors Mereor cum adverbiis: the desert not reaching the whole
man, the Adverb is used circumstantially to express how well or ill, much or
little; which at most amounting but to a part, leaves the casual word under
the same con|demnation.
Where its further observable that motions tend|ing towards fixt Beings have
the circumstance of their failing more elegantly exprest by a note sup|plying
the sense both of Adverb and Preposition; as Propè Templum, procul urbe,
&c.
Thirdly, I finde the Preposition to be of use when ever the Causa propter
quam of a motion is expressible; [Note: Prepter do|tem. ] as to say, John
loveth Joan for her dowrie. The line of the Verb's governance reach|ing but a
termino in terminum. And
Fourthly, when the formal cause of a motion is also essicient; the said lines
as they indicate ra|tional rather than material governances; so do they the
formality, & not materiality or essence of the word of Sense. And therefore
saith our Author Baccharis prae ebrietate: and Terence, è Davo hoc
a[...]divi; as if he had said, Davus told it me. And the same 'tis when the
Active voyce of a Verb be|comes Passive; where instead of John loveth Joan,
I say Joan is loved by John; he so becoming an efficient cause of her
passion, as in the second chap|ter of the first part of this discourse hath
been al|ready shewed.
23
These as exceptions premis'd, I suppose our Author might safely proceed,
teaching that all Verbs admit an Ablative Case of the Instrument, Cause, or
manaer of an action. As
1 Naturam expellas furcá licet us[...] recurret.
2 Invidus alterius rebns macrescit opimis.
3 Jam veniet tacito curva senecta pede.
As if he had said; The condition of those and the like Ablatives are rationally
obvious without a preposited sign; although the first doth sound alike with
the Nominative, as do the other two like the Dative.
For whatever moveth from its material cause not attracted by the formal,
doth it weakly; and consequently, in order to assistance, laterally. As is
demonstrable either by a Spider or Cyphon. [Note: See the Em|bleme. ]
Else why cannot the Spider mount directly upwards more than the wine can
continue its ascending motion through a plain instrument aswell as a la|teral
we such as the Embleme notifies?
Sembl[...]bly in those examples, the motion having no attraction from the
word of Sense [nature at|tracting its expulsion no more than another mans
prosperity can naturally my leanness] must make use of a lateral help to
reach it.
Aud this the first of the said examples doth in|stance in lenminis: the
Categorical word of sense in the two last Being umbrated by the Verb: Ma|
cre[...]cit quasi macrum se r[...]ddit. So Senecta ve[...]ict, as if he had said
Nos assequetur seu depre|he[...]det.
And in like manner do I apprehend the word of Price: Teruncio non
emeri[...]. Something being ne|cessarily understood that is so bought.
24
Lastly, Whereas our Author noteth certain un|transformed passives, by him
called Verbs depo|nent, that govern and Ablative barely without Pre|position
or Categorical word either express or understood: as Fungor, Fruor, Utor.
I can no way understand this governance as pe|culiar to their said voyces;
while they are also read both with preposited Ablative notes and line|ally
casual Accusatives; as of utor Mr. Hollyoake observeth out of Gel. l. 15. c.
13. And therefore do I conceive it proper for these and the like Verbs only
when their final cause is incomprehensible by the formal; the casual word so
serving as an In|strument, Cause, or Mode; though commonly of a motion
other than that it immediately depends on, as in the Ciceronian example
there produc'd Qui adipisci veram gloriam volunt, Justitiae fungantur of|
ficiis: where the motion tendeth finally towards glory; the office being us'd
but as a lateral help to reach it.
As for those genitives he noteth as led away from this rule; the offence
cannot be impardonable while their Verbs move in order to possession; as,
Hujus indigeo patris, &c,
Saving of his excepted Tanti, quanti, &c. which I submit if I may not aswell
understand adver|bially. Sithence I can finde no reason why Quan|
ticun{que} may not b[...] so taken aswell as Quantum|enn{que}; both, and
the rest there cited, being equal|ly circumstantial; and circumstances often
duly prefer'd to demonstrations, as is Reason to Sense. Whence (although
the Commentator scruples it) I conceive the expression was no way below
Pe|tronius; while on the fall [Note: Whence probably our Gallants took up
their toss glass fashi|on. ] of TRIMALIO'S Cup he thus sung: 25
Heu heu nos miseros quam totus homuncio nil est!
Sic erimus cuncti postquam nos auferet Orcus.
Ergo Vivamus dum licet esse bene.
Neither do I find the like liberty less Emphati|cally taken by the English:
Witness that of Dr. Dunne's.
Both good and well should in our actions meet;
The wicked is not worse than th' indiscreet.
Conclusively, [Note: 4. Whether the Intro|duction be our Authors I question
not, since I finde the whole en|tituled by his name. ] our Author in his
Introduction tels us,
That Verbs transitives are all such as have af|ter them an Accusative case.
He might have added only] sithence its that go|vernance that makes a verb
transitive.
Other Verbs as well governing it accompany'd, as,
Aest mo te bujus.
Do litcras tibi.
Imperti[...] Parmenonem salute.
Whereas the transitive motion both directly tendeth towards, and centereth
in its formal cause; except when it runs as it were through it by govern|ing
two accusatives: Posce deum veniam so mani|festing a confidence of
obtaining. Whereas we say Veniam Petimus ab ipso. Quia poscimus
imperiose; at Petimus submisse.
As for the word transitive, I do not remember to have read it elsewhere,
save only in Scapula as La|tenizing [...]. The large signification of whose
praeposited part affordeth much of rea|son for the reception of this rule as
gene|ral.
Or if I derive it from [...]; and then (either in imitation of the Peripatetick
Phyloso|phie, 26 or the historical consideration of the great City in its
various respective conditions between the sheep-hook and the Crozier) but
form a circle of Cases: I shall find the Accusative, according to its name, just
opposite categorical or adverse to the Nominative.
As when I say John loveth Joan; there under|standing the action of love
directly transfer'd from John to Joan; and consequently teaching to place
Joan accusatively.
Or, thirdly, if I look upon this case as it is the center of the variations of the
Noune, because placed in the midst of five; [our Authors six cases making
but five variations] and then observe the natural intendment of all motion
towards the cen|ter as its final cause or perfection, I must thence conclude
this governance as natural as that John should love Joan, and consequently
understand our Author, as telling me, That, naturally, all Verbs do expect the
word of sence should serve Accusa|tively.
But sithence that there be also motions of design; such as the circular,
[Note: See the Emblem. ] oblique and lateral: and that accordingly some
Verbs move in order to possession: others to acquisition: and others to
occasional action. Therefore this rule is to be so understood, as that the
three other forecited may be received by way of Exception.
27
CHAP. 3. Of the Declansions of the Word of Being, or Noune
Substantive.
THe third variation of this word of Being is according to its respective
Declensions. An accident by which the Latines mainly excell in their fore-
noted [Note: See the preface fol. 2. ] magnum in parvo of speech. So
intelligibly couching the Article under the condi|tion of the Noune, as they do
the person or pro|noune under the termination of the Verb: which compells
them so to vary the terminations of both, declining the first respectively
after the five rules mentioned by our Author as followeth.
1. Words Masculine and Feminine terminating in [a] they decline after the
first rule, as Poeta, Musa, &c. But the neutrals in [a] they decline after the
third, as Dogma.
And the observance hereof is of use to the more ready manifestation of the
gender: the Neuter otherwise not so soon occurring, in regard of their
admittance of such dead Beings as contain the li|ving, among the Feminines,
as in the first Chapter of the second part hath been foreshewed.
2. Words Identically Masculine and Feminine ending in [us] or [ius] they
decline after the second rule, as, Cibus, Fluvius, Humus: but words Feminine
of quality they decline after the third, as, Salus. And so do they their
identical Neuters, as, Foedus.
But tropical neuters so terminatin[...], they de|cline after the second rule.
Whence ou[...] Author 28 notes them among the non-crescents, as Virus,
Pe|lagus --- &c.
Whereof the first is neutrally decline only in regard its operation so taken
tendeth towards death; [Note: Virus. ] yet after this rule; To manifest that
its killing energie is identical to the nature of the thing no otherwise than in
respect of the Dos, and manner of its use: there being otherwise among the
three natural bodies no greater Cordials than such as are prepar'd of Opium,
Viper, and Mer|curic.
Th[...] Naturality of the second's declension I can not well unrevel without
some elongation of dis|course. [Note: Pelagus. ] It being a word besides
which the Latine hath more appellations for the Sea then any other language
I know. Whereof four be most signifi|cant names; viz. Fretum, Mare, Pontus
and Aequor.
The first properly signifying Creeks or Ferries, which at ebbing water be
rough, current, and trou|blous. Whence Fretum quasi fervidum, saith Mr.
Hollyoake.
The second signifying all Seas in general;
--- Maria ac terras, caelum{que} Profundum
Quippe ferant rapidi--- [Note: Aen. 1. ]
Saith Virgil of the winds.
Mr. Hollyoake derives the word from Marath of the Hebrews; which I
understand not quoad gust|um, as he there insinuates, but quoad
transitum.---
Placata{que} venti dant Maria--- [Note: Aen. 3. ]
Saith the same Author.
The third denominating vast Seas; and so ele|gantly 29 formed ab absentiâ
P[...]ntis.
--- Coelum undi{que} & undi{que} Pontus.
Saith the Maronian in his fore quoted book.
And the fourth even or calm Seas; ab aequ[...]. As he elsewhere notes by
Aequora tuta silent.
The rest being rather Epithites than names, as Salum, i. e. Salsum.
Caerulum, i. e. Caeruleum. Ha|dria. i. e. Hadriaticum. So Oceanus, i. e.
Oceanum mare.
Which Epithites and names so amply denoting the Sea in all respects; I know
not what should in|duce them to borrow the only name that the Greek had
for it [Note: [...] Pelagus. ] , save for a more strict note of that Greek side
or arm of the Mediterranean, which over against Galatia and upwards,
themselves also called Mare mortuum: whether for its mourning colour, or
the deadly fewd betwixt them and the bordering Greeks: Or else from môr
marw of the Brittains (said to have since planted with Brennius their Captain
on that Greek side) môr in that language signifying a Sea, and marw still or
dead: that being the stillest (or according to the Brittish idiome, deadlyest)
Sea my Countrey-men had e're before crossed: It was rational this new word
of their should be declined neutrally. Yet with like caution as hath been fore-
noted of Virus: the sub|stance thereof speaking it no more neuter than Pon|
tus.
So Vulgus, as it represents a number of living men, must be Masculine:
saving when their joynt stupidity is mentioned with scorn by the more in|
genuous. And that Catachrestically beyond the bounds-foot of Dutch Boore,
by so much as a living dog can be supposed better than a dead Lion.
30
I have dwel't longer on this particular in regard I know not but there may be
more words thus va|ryed or at leastwise variable according to the Poet or
Orator's occasion. For, The Gender being but an affection of the Noune,
becomes alterable not only according to the use of the thing specified: but
also to the present passion or passionate recepti|on of the same.
Accede ad ignem hanc ---
saith Terence in Eunuchus.
But I return to our declensions: where the medi|ate Masculines and tropical
Feminines in [us] I observe declinable after the fourth rule, as Potus,
Domus, [Note: Ignorami socius. ] &c. Whereupon if the Question of Pe|
dantius in the Play should be renewed, viz. Cur non Potus facit Poti sicut
cibus cibi in genitivo?
The answer would be, That the first is supposed to be either water or the
juice of vegetives: but the other properly living creatures: as is observed by
the English, while they call nothing meat but flesh.
Or if it should he ask'd, Why morbus is declin'd after the second rule, and
salus after the third?
The answer were, That the second is but a meer qualitative Being, but the
first a substantial one. For, (as the learned Capivaccius [Note: In cap. de
P[...]hisi. ] hath it) Omnis morbus est vel vapor vel minera. Thereby
excluding all the pretended diseases ab inanitione: because until there be a
peccant matter, as there can be no inequality, so no pain. It being a maxime
in medi|cine that Dolorisica actio fit à proportione majoris in|aequalitatis.
[Note: (a) ]
There do also belong to this declension all words ending in [um] and [ir] and
likewise some 31 flourishing Masculine in [er]. Others so termi|nating being
rationally transfer'd to the third rule: as in the next Chapter shall be shewed.
But as for our Author's Satur, I cannot finde it substantially posited by any
Latine writer: neither any word so terminating declinable after this rule.
The third claiming both that and all other not forementioned terminations
whatsoever: having of late left none declinable after the fifth. Save only the
monosyllable Res, and such as terminate in [ies].
A fraus bonesta, which I suppose committed in meer order to the
quadrupedation of Heroick verse. Plebs after the old way of declining Being,
when obliquely casual, thereby comprehensible no other|wise than as the
myrabolan nut of the Apotheca|rie's.
Quod nec Virgilius, nec carmine dixit Homerus,
Hoc ex unguento constat & ex balano.
32
CHAP. 4. Of the sensuality of the casual word: there|fore in this
Tract called a word of sence. Also of the declension of the word of
Qua|lity.
HAving in the first Chapter of the first part of this Tract shewed that the word
of Being be|comes sensual by mediation of Quality.
And, in the third, that the signification of this Quality can be sensually
fashion'd no otherwise than as either joyned or inserted to a Being: It re|
mains that the manner of this union be yet further examined.
The Angel in the Text (as checking the over|curious enquiry of Esdras) is
said to have bid
him measure an handful of wind, [Note: Esdr. 2, 4. ] and weigh an ounce of
fire.
A curiosity which the sons of Hermes yet cease not to pursue; By an
unwearied attempt to losen the fire from its entitative fixation: that so
incorporat|ing it self with the volateeles, it may, by their rule of rotation, so
defaecated, entice those spirits with it inseparably to cohabit Ad
perpetrandum miracula unius rei. [Note: In Tab. ] Saith that Father.
However this be not commonly known to suc|ceed in the practice: The
possibility of the work may, happily, appear less worthily ridiculous: If the
forecited process be but compar'd with what we may hourly observe in
common converse: viz. How that by declining a word of Being from its
denomi|native 33 state or condition, the hinges of its other|wise immoveable
essence are so shaken, that it be|comes thereby fitted for such a coition
with incor|poreal quality, as doth rationally advance it to an excellency
enabling its reception or all the ema|nations of Beings whatsoever. Insomuch
that the numberless notions of man are thereby made com|municative;
although the quality of the word have no outward appearance therein at all.
As to reinstance: when I say JOHN LO|VETH JOAN; the very Grammatically
casual position of Joan, as the formal cause of Johns love, sheweth in her
some perfection wanted by John. Whether qua animal for the perpetuation of
his entity; or also qua rationale, in order to future conveniency of living. And
so John loveth Joan either so fair, young, rich, &c. as his opi|nion shall
adjudge most for his own felicity. Which to understand is the summe of all
Gram|mer Syntax. The question and its answer being alike modable: and all
definitive, sentences either resolving a question already propounded; or ex|
pecting their answer, by confirmation, contradicti|on, or desired illustration
from the confabulant. So that whatever else can be expressed is but ad
voluptatem linguae, and on this depending. There|fore I shall endeavour to
render it yet more plain and perspicuous: Even by a Fable read of old by
Diotima to Socrates Where she feigneth how that as the Gods were
celebrating the birth-day of Ve|nus, Porus the son of Providence and God of
Wealth should be there amongst them: and, got drunk, should, as he went
forth to case him, fall asleep at the Gate where Poenia or [...]overty waited
for an Alms: Which she observing; That the indigency of her condition
overcoming the mode|sty 34 of her sex, should prompt her to allure Porus to
a congress, whereby she conceived and brought forth Love; who ever since
hath been a close companion of Venus; because begotten on her birth-feast,
as aforesaid,
By the same reason is the word of Sense as in|separable from its invisible
quality. And is the vi|sible, I mean worded Quality or Adjective ever declined
according to the substantial naturality of that word: as by our Authors three
first rules for declension of nou[...]es appeareth: Bonus domi|nus, Bona
musa, Bonum regnum: Tristis Pareus, Triste Cadaver, Faelix natalis; liber
Magister, libera Magistra, liberum Magisterium; few or no Adjectives
terminating in [er] being otherwise declinable. Acer, Pauper, Degener and
Uber so mentioned by our Author, being as often read The first Acris; and
the second, in no meaner Author than Plautus, Paupera. So that these are
little better than He|troclites; as the third is than a degenerate sub|stantive,
viz. a Substantive foyld with a preposi|tion, and so turn'd Adjective de
genere; and the fourth being a meer derivative Ube ab Ubere. So also
proving first that those Substantives in [er] which be declined after our
Author's second rule are naturally excelling those that be transfer'd to the
third: [Note: (a) ] which are either Feminine as Mater; or dividing from their
unity as frater; or else in the declination of the vigour of their Masculine per|
fection as Pater.
Secondly, it proveth that our Author's two last rules for declension of
Substantives were by the refiners of the Latine added. [Note: (B) ] The one
to distin|guish such words terminating in [us] as they were pleased by the
assistance of their Tropes to advance either from their naturali neutrality to
35 the Feminine gender, as Domus: or from their muliebrity to the Masculine
as Potus: which as it is water should be declin'd Femininely: but in re|gard of
its nourishing use shall be declin'd Mas|culinely; yet after the fourth rule: In
order first to a distinction between it and an Identical Mascu|line: and
secondly for manifestation of its advan|cing trope.
As for words ending in [U] their Heteroclity pronounceth them but vulgarly
regular; and some|what of a less esteem than the former, in regard they are
all Neuters.
The fist of our Authors rules as it was added so was it repeal'd. The
celebration of Heroick verse having for the most part rendred it imperti|nent
if not offensive, as in the foregoing Chapter hath been foreshewed.
Therefore have these rules no Adjective de|clinable after their terminations.
The Latine Qua|lity as well in its declensions as gradual ascentions being
strictly worded after the forecited Phyloso|phie of [Note: Excellen|tia
Ternarii largè vide|ri est apud Gerard. Dorn. in Philoso|phiâ Chem. Trithem.
in Ep. ad Gna|um Ger|man. alios{que} Philoso|phorum passim. Viz. in the
uses. ] Vertue; though [...]ll three sound alike from vulgar tongues.
Which worthily magnifies the Roman Ingenui|ty in framing their rules so that
thereby words as well as things should bear their witness.
Of which hereafter ---
36
CHAP. 5. Of number, with the Arts thereout eman|ing.
THis accident might deservedly have challenged the first place in respect the
others could not be discussed without it: the Genders, Cases, and
Declensions of the Noune being all distinguish|able by vertue of number. Yet
because of its small use in Grammer Syntax, I thought fit to marshal it here
in the arrear of the declension of the Adjective: its multiplication so taken
amount|ing to little more than the Adjective's Even and Odd. For as even
and odd cannot stand together in one number; so may not the same number
be both singular and plurally accounted; the least ad|dition to the singular
rendring it plural; and the most doing no mo[...]. Therefore are we glad to
ascertain the unities by the addition of a quanti|tative quality, As to say, two,
three, four, five, and so to the end of Arithmetick. By the Antients compil'd
to an Art according to their four rules of ADDITION, SUBSTRACTION,
MULTIPLICATION, and DIVISI|ON.
Which last they extended even to the division of an unity; and so produced
two arts more: whereof the one they called Geometrie, and the other
Astronomie; the word [...] signifying both number, order, and harmonie: The
last whereof originally to proceed from the motion of the spheres; and
consequently its knowledge as an 37 Art from the spherical part of
Astronomie, I con|ceive to need no better proof than what Cicero hath left
us in his transcendent tract de [Note: Legitur inter frag|menta, Ci|ceronis. ]
Somnio Scipionis.
Other notes on this accident observeable find I none. Save that custom doth
herein oversway both order, nature and reason. As (to say nothing of the
[Note: It is known to every one to what case the royal bloods of Portugal is
driven. Los San|gues --- So Don E|manuel in Reasons for his conver|sion, p.
8. ] received civil difference between per|sonages in point of extraction)
when mentioning the smoak of an hundred Chimneys exhaling, perhaps,
from as many respective combustible ma|terials: Or Latinizing all the sands
between Callis and Gravellin, I must express my self singu|larly. Whereas
traveling but a little further East|ward, I shall finde the damp'd mudd
whereon those Towns stand call'd by name of THE UNI|TED PROVINCES OF
THE NE|THERLANDS. An Alleotheta of such parti|cular ornament as I have
but small encouragement to endeavour the disswasion of the English Gran|
dees from owning for good genuine sense, by any addition of success my
experience found the con|trary reasoning of their Scaliger to have gained on
his Houghen Moughens there; his words on the place being these.
Terrae divisionem auspicati sunt à familiaribus occupationibus; Et jus ipsam
injuriam apellarunt; Ne{que} enim m[...]lius terra d[...]buit alii atque alii
tribui quam aer. [Note: Ibid. p. 176. ]
I aque natura vindicat sese; & mortuos Tyran|nos non majore tegit tumulo,
quam unum ex opressis: sese omnibus aequalem ostendens matrem.
Yet for certain plurally recorded festivals; since on their daies there were
also kept Fairs, Re|vellings, &c. to mention them accordingly, was but
rational. As the old Romans did their Floralia, 38 Bacchanalia, &c. No more is
it to name the co|acervation of many into one singularly, as populus, pars,
&c.
The Species or Shapes, [Note: [...]. Specus, uns de species. ] and Figures;
which are our Author's other accidents of a Noune: finding them of a meer
external consideration, I pass; as not competent to the intrinsecal design of
this dis|course.
39
Herm'aelogium; The third PART.
CHAP. 1. Shewing the variations and affections of the word of
Motion. And first of its distinguishment by number and person: Also
of the Verb imper|sonal.
IT descends first from its [Note: Anher|bhynedig bhôd. Themate primario.
So Dr. Das vis, p. 83. ] Infini|tive Essence in order to an affecti|onate
concordancie with the Be|ing whence it proceeds, in num|ber and person: I,
THOU or HE; WE, YE or THEY; under whom be comprehended, and by which
are personated the Basis of all motion whatsoever. All Verbs whereby on
speaks to a Being, of whatever 40 Gender, being naturally personable after
the se|cond. And all by which mention is made of a thing or things (except
of ones self or of things joyned to himself) being after the third. Where|fore
the Latines not only decline the note of the third person as a Pronoune
Adjective; but also manifest the esteem and singularity of the Being it under
that [Note: And some|times also the others, as, Ego [...]ste, [...]u ipse,
&c. ] person represents, by their triplicit distinction of Ille, Ipse, and Iste:
much as the English Thon and You, so much cavil'd at by our zealous
Tremblers.
Since then every motion necessarily proceedeth from a Being as
comprehensible by these pronomi|nal persons, some or one of them. It
follows that there can be no such thing as a Verb impersonal strictly taken;
more then that there may be Gold without weight and fixation. Wherefore
our Au|thor in his Institutions declareth his acceptation of that name in a
larger sense: by telling us not of a Verb that distinguisheth none; but that
doth not vary in point of personality.
Being declined throughout all Moods and Tences in the voice of the third
person singular only.
What might induce the Ancients to the inven|tion of such a Verb, I only
guess as by comparing exterior organick motions with the mental. The
perfection of the first being in its end; and there|fore thitherward followed
by the eye of the Spe|ctator, with avidity more or less, as the motion
tendeth towards acquisition: that, in respect of its grandizing faculty, being
appetible equally with Good: as the contrary is avoydable like hurt or Evill.
Hence comes it not only that young fencers com|monly shut their eyes at
the strokes of their [...], and that we enjoy those pleasures which 41 end in
loss with more freedom of delight in the dark; but also do account it a
fortitude not to contract and guard our eyes if a Hawk should but offer to
sowce at our face; although we behold her flight at a fowl with comparative
delight. The like might be instanced by a Shaft or Bowl, &c.
The same 'tis with the Eye of the understand|ing. And therefore when the
material cause of the motion is most worthy our observation, the Anci|ents
might rationally marshal it in the arrear of the formal; as saying, Oportet
mendacem esse me|morem: where the two last words are the Basis or
material cause of oportet; which, were they plac'd in the from of the
sentence, would render the Verb Personal, [for we also read oporteo] and so
the attention would be attracted towards menda|cem as the formal cause of
a transitive motion: which were divers from the intent of the sentence; The
memnonic Art being of such necessary use to a Lyar, that without it he could
never hope to thrive by his faculty.
Thus as the Passive voyce rendreth the proce|dure of its motion
comparatively excelling the Active by meer addition of the letter [R] and
transposition of its extreams, as hath been [Note: Part. 1. c. 2. ] fore|
shewed, doth the fixation of a Verb in this third person with a retirement of
its material cause to the arrear of the formal, declare a vehemency no less
then superlatively notable.
Which leadeth me to the observation of two like Ceremonies usual in
humanity; whereof the one is our incitation of importunity, or more earnest
solicitation, by a Maiden refusal of what in covert we ambiently affect; like
the Bishops [Note: Mes erat apud An|glos ut Ar|chiepiscopo promoventi,
Episcopa[...]|rus ter (vel ob modesti|am) respon|deret Nolo. ] Nolo; or that
coy dame of whom Virgil sings: 42
Et fugit ad salices, & se cupit ante videri. [Note: Ecl. 3. ]
The other is, our manifestation of respect towards our Confabulant by so
personating him according to his attributes. Dominatio vestra being the
article of salute beyond the Seas even between single Gentlemen; which in
England is in fashion only among the greater Nobility. Except while a Pai|
sant, to shew his respective distance, affordeth the attribute of WORSHIP to
the lesser. And to the same end also is the first Person so convertible; as
when for [I am] we say [Your Servant is]. The dignity of this number being
celebrated even by our natural unpolished gestures. In that the first and
second persons of the Verb be aswell digitally as vocally notified; but this
third person never digitally, saving in order to contempt. so that it was not
without reason that the old English usurp|ed it for the heightning of
perswasion. As Sir Geoffery Chaucer when representing the Cheat|ing
Alchymist
--- Thus said he in his game, [Note: The Cha|nons yeo|mans tale. ]
Stoopeth a down in faith you be to blame.
Delpeth me now, as I did you wylere,
Put in your hond looketh what is there.
There is another sort of Verb which Mr. Hoole in his [Note: Page 147. ]
Grammar calleth Verbs of an exempt power, as Fulgurat, Tonitruit, &c. These
(saith he) (though he is pleas'd to declare the nature of neither) come near
the nature of imperso|nals.
The neerness I find to consist meerly in their fixation in this Superlative
singularity of the per|son; 43 and that only by vertue of a reciprocality è
contrario. These last, until their causes were known, being apprehended with
a kind of timo|rous admiration; and therefore imitating the fore|said
shutting of the eyes.
I heard thy voice in the Garden (said Adam in the Text) and I was afraid and
did my self. [Note: Gen. 3. ]
From all which I conclude that however I read the third person singular of a
Verb Active usurp'd; I am thereby to understand a vehe|mency; yet not
equal with our Authors imper|sonals, unless also the Basis be post-posited
as aforesaid.
The Verb Impersonal of the Passive Voice I observe to vary from the sense of
its personality only while it fixeth our observance to it self; just as the fore-
quoted noble Chaucer doth by a per|sonal Active, where [Note: In Assem|
bly of fowls. ] he thus singeth:
As from awd ground MENSAITH com|eth Corn fro yeer to year.
So from a[...]d Books, by my faith, commen all new Science that men lere.
The Spoke though singular being so ren|der'd more considerable than the
plurality of the speakers.
44
CHAP. II. Of the Conjugations of the Latine Verb.
THe main end of this and the following varia|tions, as Roman, being [Note:
In Preface fol. 2. ] already manifested. It remains that their respective both
natural and vocal inclinations be now examined.
The first whereof useless in vulgar tongues, which for the most part express
the Mood and Tense by preposited notes, The Latines, doing it by their
various shaping of the Terminations, were therefore forc'd, as for the
declining of their Noun, so of their Verb, to invent Rules varying by alike
reason, according to the sound and nature of the word; which rules they
were pleasd to make known by name of CONJUGATIONS.
Whether by a Metaphor à Con ugio in regard that without these the
conjugated Pronoun cannot be made a femme covert (as our law renders it)
Iscruple not.
Only observe that as all Active Latine Verbs do terminate either in [o] [co] or
[io] the [...] of the language noteth no more Conjuga ions i & thence
conclude our Authors third Conjugation to be [even as the [Note: Part. 2. c.
4. (B). ] forementioned two last Declensions of the Noun] added, meerly for
a distinguisher of such Verbs as, by the same or like sor[...]d, convey a
different signification; whereof the significator of the most worthy action
terminating in [o] shall be of the first, and the less worthy shall be of the
third Conjugation. As for instance, That word [Note: Lego. ] by which our
Author exemplifieth this Conjugation we also read declinable after the first.
But sithence 45 To set a house in order, or to perform an Embassie be
actions so far transcending Reading, Stealing or gathering of hearbs;
although the language presents all alike; yet its no small demonstration of
its curiosity that the word is diversly conju|gated.
And as Verbs declinable after this Conjugation do, on this and such like an
account, descend to the third; so do others of the fourth ascend to it. [Note:
How genu|inely then some Au|thors do confound the Infini|tive of both I
submit. ] As for example: They properly decline Cupio after the fourth; in
regard it denotes want: but Capio because it expresseth the recovery or en|
joyment of a thing fore-wanted [although it also ends in [io] they strictly
decline after the third; which moreover I observe so placed, because
--- Facile est descensus Averni;
Sed revocare gradum; bic labor ---
Notwithstanding I find that some Verbs deri|vative from Nounes tetminating
in [io] stick not in their ascent even to the first Conjugation: as, Somnio
from Somnium, &c. And on that score have we also some Ver[...]s
terminating in [eo] so conju|gated, as Calceo from Calceus, &c.
Contrarily Eo, queo, veneo do descend to the fourth. So by their Conjugation
as well as Form proclaiming their Heteroclity: though not de|fect: as aio,
Cedo, Salve, &c.
46
CHAP. III. Of the Moods and Tenses.
THe Conjugations lead me thirdly to the Moods; which are modes, shapes or
faces of the Verb carved according to the inclination of the minde for the
stating of a motion under a certain time.
Of whose nature or product finding so full an account rendred by the learned
[Note: Ibid c. 114 ] Scaliger, I shall not shew my self so much a Plagiary as
to insert it otherwise than as the sense of his more able pen, which
summarily is:
That all things which act must needs be quali|fied with an appetible energie
or power to desire: that being the cause of motion as PRIVATI|ON is of It;
and whatever it be that desireth, doth it either inconsiderately by a certain
natural propension, such as is the fires to burn, &c. or else advisedly.
Which last sort o[...]esire standeth equally in|clined to two contraries; as a
man's either to walk or not. In which also there must be a cer|tain
deliberation; that is, an affection of the mind freely reasoning this election;
whether pro or con makes no difference. Sithence he that dis|swadeth doth
perswade not to do.
Whence it was necessary that things thus done should be declared by a
particular shape, face, or figure of words. Therefore things just now done
they called Indicative or Definitive. Things to be done before this election, or
on it depending they called con or Subjunctive. Things absolute 47 or no way
depending and yet in the power of another they distinguished; calling a vote
to|wards a greater Optative; and towards a lesser Imperative.
Lastly, whereas certain Verbs do barely express the will, power or Inclination
of the agent: as, vo|lo, cup[...]o, vadeo, &c. The object of those are ex|
pressible either simply, or else under time: thus, Volo cibum, cupio
imperium, video cursum. Meat being simply objected to the will; Rule to the
desire; and the course or race to the sight.
But if I were to manifest these objects under time and action joyntly: then
were I forc'd to find out some word that might express the action
Infinitively: that is, without Positively defi|ning either; as to say: Volo
comedere, cupio im|perare, video te currere. Which infinitive way of
expression cannot yet properly be called a Mood; sit[...]ence no inclination
of the mind is by it mani|fested.
Thus far Scaliger. So comprehending first the questioning Mood of the
Ancients under the Posi|tive, Definitive or Indicative. Secondly, the Hor|
tative under the Imperative; and thirdly, exclu|ding the Infit[...]tive as
aforesaid.
Dr. Taylor and Mr. Hoole (whose pardon I shall not despair of, if I transgress
the mode by quoting them in their dayes, when they know that scrib|ling
this at my paternal hermitage in Glamorgan|shire, besides their and the
fore-cited, I had the sight of no track on this Subject) Although out of
compliance with our Author they retain the In|finitive, yet make but one
Mood of the Optative, Potential and Subjunctive. And in my opinion as
tolerably. For if Scaliger couldmaintain his ex|clusion for want of a power to
particularize a tem|poral 48 inclination of the minde: why might not they
their reduction, [Note: See the de|finition. ] all three being expressible
under one figure or face?
Besides that the two last are not essential to the Philosophy, but
multilocution of a sentence, viz that thereby two sentences might be
expressible at once. The sound of the Potential Latine Mood, when single,
being alwayes expressed by the addi|tion of Possum, Volo or Debeo. And the
Subjun|ctive elsewhere quot[...]d by Scaliger, (and that as the sense of an
Ancient) to be Nonita dictus quia subjungeretur, sed quia subjungeret. So
implicit|ly confessing its defect, until another be joyned to it.
The same might be said of the Potential; which, so placed, as it intelligibly
comprehends Possum, &c is thereby made capable of the name. So that as
the Optative Mood is known by its Ad|verb; and the Subjunctive by its
conjunction; the Potential is manifested by its Subjunctive of|fice, without
either Adverb or Conjunction there|to joyned, under the face of an Optative.
But whether the Subjunctive deserves the honor of the name, as Mr. Hoole.
Or the Po|tential, as Dr. Taylor; Or the Optative added to the Subjunctive, as
Scaliger. Or since we can well explode neither with preservation of the
language from its ancient barbarity, whether it be not safest to retain them
all as we find them ranked by our Author, I shall not undertake to determine.
Only observe that the first intention of Lan|guage in and by the whole, but
teacheth mo|dably to question, define, require, perswade or wish according
to the three formal differences of time whether present, past, or to come.
The sub-division of the time past into [Did] 49 [Have] and [Had] appearing
to have been in|vented on the same account with the three last noted
Moods. The Ictus or nick of time being of such quickness as preventeth our
notice. So that fitst; To say an action is imperfectly passed is the same as to
say It is passed and not passed. Where|fore the exactest Latin Writers have
used both promiscuously.
So that as for Virgils authority cited in mainte|nance of the contrary, where
he sings
Hìc Templum Junoni ingens Sidonia Dido
Condebat --- [Note: Aeneid. 1. ]
On which our Author comments Erat enim adhuc in opere. I conceive our
Author is there to be understood Cum grano Salis, even as is the Poet. To
whose design then in hand, I think I need not be thought at all to derogate
from his known me|rit, if I allude a note of Ben. Johnsons, viz. That
---Poet never credit gain'd,
By writing truth, but things like truth well fain'd.
Chronologers agreeing that Troy was taken in the third year of HABDON,
Judge of Israel. [Note: See Hel[...]. ] And a Monument, yet remaining near
old Carthage, shewing that the builders or fortifiers of the place were of the
sons of Anack, who had thither fled from the face of that great Robber: So
they call'd Joshua the son of Nun.
Yet the cause of the first Punic war being by [Note: See Sir Walter R[...]|
leigh's Hist. of the world. l. c. c. 5. ] Historiographers rendred as scarse
honorable on the Roman side; It might be allowable in Virgil so to represent
both that Queen, Place and En|tertainment. To the end that, Aeneas his
desertion being once believed to have been by an especial [Note: Aeocid
[...] ] command from Jupiter, he might thereon state a 50 Theme for such a
Tract on that war as should much vindicate the reputation of his
Countrymen. For, As the Greeks, waging against them as Trojans for their
usurpation of a Lady, prevailed. The Carthaginians, grounding their quarrel
against them as Romans on a cause contrary, might by the same Justice be
render'd Authors of their own ruine. And thence might he conclude with very
seasona|ble dehortatives from effeminacy; and in|citements to a
perseverance in that prowess which already had deified their Caesars.
But be it as the Poet there fansieth. It appear|eth that it was the verse and
not the imperfection of the building that invited him to that expressi|on. The
words following being
---Donis opulentum & numine Divae.
Otherwise I submit it whether he might not have expressed himself by
Condidit as properly as Cicero could write ad Atticum, [Note: 4. --- ad
Attic. ] that Postridiè manè ad eum vadebat.
Secondly, To say it is more then perfectly passed is as to add to perfection.
Besides that HAD (except in certain English expressions of the having
motion, as I had, would have had, &c.) is of no use in a single sentence; And
therefore cannot be more then as a Verbial Conjunction of pass'd acti|ons.
Nevertheless in order to the foresaid design in Elocution, we shall find both
these Carabines of the Pretertense to be of excellent and precise use. As If I
were to say, When I had spoken I sate down. It were as if I had said Did fit.
But in case the expression of the Action were to antecede the Subjunctive
declaration, then HAVE would 51 be as proper. As to say: He spoke as he
had been an Oracle, i. e. Did speak or hath spoken. And if I were to begin
with the supposition; Then were I to express the following action
Perfectively; as to say: Had he been au Oracle he could not have more truly
spoken. Which sense in the Latine must sound Preter-perfectively. As; Si
adesset Apollo, rectius loqui non potuisset.
Where its observable that in that language the anteceding supposition is
expressible by the Preterimperfect as well as the Pluperfect tense, but never
by the Perfect: adfuerit, in that place, sound|ing more like the Future tense.
So that the conveniencie of these and such like connections advise us here
to understand Plus not as it comes from [...] Plenius; but from [...] multus
And so may we admit of this Preterpluper|fect tense; as being a Tense
besides, or rather by the side of the Perfect, expressing something more:
that is; somewhat else suffered or done before.
52
CHAP. IV. Of the Participial Variation of the Verb.
THe Participle I take for a sort of Motus per ac|cidens or a moving Quality.
The Verb so coming adjectible to a Being for manifestation of its qualities in
order to Action or Passion, and that in point of time either present or to
come.
I say ADJECTIBLE: in regard it must then adhere to the Substantive in all
respects like the Adjective after whose Termination it is de|clined.
I say IN ORDER TO ACTION OR PASSION: To distinguish it from a Noun
Adjective; whose part is to express the quality of the Being in order to
perfection; under which I comprehend Good and Evil, as all other qualities
under them.
I say IN POINT OF TIME: To di|stinguish it, not only from the Verbial
Adjective, as; Tempus edax rerum; which, if I convert to a Participial
expression, must be Edens res; But also from Participial voyces and Nouns.
That is: Not the Gerunds, so called by our Author. But Participles that be so
only Vocally. As when I say: A Loving man: The word Loving is a plain Vo|cal
[Note: The same is Caredig & Caradwu in the Brit|tish. ] Participle; there
being no such Adjective in the Language.
Or when in Latine I say Legendis veteribus; le|gendis being Vocally a passive
Participle of the Future tense.
53
Yet in regard, thus posited, those no[...]ifie no time, they are in sense no
more then Adjectives.
Wherefore our Author teacheth,
That a Par|ticiple taketh part of a Verb, as Tense and Signi|fication.
As if he had said: The Vocality cannot make a compleat Participle, unless
also it hath re|lation to a Tense.
Which, lastly, I have here confin'd to either PRESENT or FUTURE; to manifest
that all Qualities must be understood of Beings either Actual or Potential;
Sithence a third distinction of Being is not to be found in Nature. And con|
tingencies, whether complex'd or incomplex'd, be|ing but Vel praesentia vel
futura. So Jacob. Martin. in part. Met. Sect. 10.
Thereby clearly excluding our Authors Praeter|tense Passive. And, in my
conceit, justly. For, in confirmation of Martins said Philosophy, I observe that
this Preter-participle doth not answer our Authors definition.
First in respect that, in single sentences, it doth not take, but is part of a
Verb. Although the Verb or Verbial part of the word be not alwayes ex|
pressed. As in that example by our Author produced out of Virgil.
Nunc oblita mihi tot [...]armina---
As if he had said, Oblita sunt, fuerunt vel fuere.
Secondly: That in multilocutorie or compound expressions the time is not
noted by it, but by the following Verb. As when I say Lustratus urbem rus
ibam; or ibo. The latter (being the same in sense, as if I said Postquam
urbem lustratus fuero, rus tho) doth manifest that the time in the former is
not specified by Lustratus; but by the Verb tham.
54
Wherefore I submit to my more judicious Rea|der whether I may not here
close with the Rythme. (I think it be Sir William Davenants.)
Think no more on what is past,
Since time in motion makes such hast.
It hath no leisure to descry
The Errors which it passeth by.
Thus also becometh the Participle of so covert a cognizance, but most to the
Latine liberty of posi|tion; whereas the Northern languages, having the least
radical dependance on the Roman, do mainly so manifest it [Note: Viz. By
ranging their words according to their pecu|liar signifi|cation. ] yet after the
respectively different Idioms following.
The English always placeth the Adjective in the van of the Substantive; and
the Participle in the arrear either of the Substantive or Verb: as when they
say: A good man loving vertue liveth up|rightly. The word Loving is
sufficiently known to be a Participle meerly because placed after the
Substantive man, and not before it as the Adjective Good. And rationally: A
main use of the Parti|ple being by the Omission of a Conjunction to bring
two motions that accidentally proceed from one Being expressible also by
one sentence.
As for further instance: To read and to write are different actions. Yet its
possible they may at once proceed from the same Agent: At which time,
insteed of I write and I read, I may, so, more concinly say that I write
reading.
So a good man may be a bad Citizen. But when both capacities well qualified
do meet in one per|son: whereas verbially I must have said, That good man
loveth vertue and liveth uprightly; I may participially express all by one
sentence, say|ing: 55 That good man loving vertue liveth, &c.
The same position have all the languages coming from the Schlavonic and
High-dutch which I have heard sundry Gentlemen of those Countries main|
tain to be originally but one. Those that were otherwise minded ever
disputing the antiquity of tother language.
Contrarily the Brittish (being a language of more reality then complement)
as it alwayes placeth the Substantive in the front (it being non|sense to
them to prefer accidents to their sub|stances) so, when the casual word is
regular without a preposited note, doth their participial sense follow the
Adjective like a middle gerund of the Latine: Gwr da yn caru rhinwedh, &c.
I. e. Vir bonus in amando virtutem. (En aimant saith the Frenchman.)
An Idiome fully ratified in the sense of the fore-quoted flower of Leyden
where he saith; [Note: Iul. Seal. ib. l. 1. c. 143. ] Medium gerundiorum
servat vires participii: Sed tanto apti|ore modo quanto superabantur à
participiis verba.
But we must, with [Note: In prafat. ad Ethic. ] Dr. Case, confess that Ruina
Bangoriensi gloria Walliae nebulata fuit.
Ah! Sceler oedh y [Note: Saxon, Schelum. ] Scholan,
O'r Twr daflu'r Llyfrau'r tán.
The like position have the languages deriving from the Brittish: as Jaith
Gerniw and Jaith Lu|daw; i. e. The Cornish and the Armoric, commonly
called Little Brittaine; which, as Mr. Cambden af|firms, was the ancient name
of Ireland.
Where (saith [Note: In descrip. Hyberniae. ] he) the Brittsh language was
spoken until they were over-run by the Spaniard.
A verity, which, at my being in that Isle, I could discern more by the names
of some places there, 56 then any thing in the language; excepting only this
position. The said sentence being by them thus rendred.
For mach yn gra du S[...]elki i gamacht gy direcht. i. e. Vir bonus ex amore
virtutis expres è, seu sine do|lo, se gerit. The Substantive GRA, so placed,
being their Succedaneum both of Participle and Gerund.
CHAP. V. Of the variation of the Verb into Gerund and Supine.
THe Gerund I find with our Author going un|der a twofold cognizance: viz. In
his Intro|duction by name of a voyce belonging to the Infi|nitive Mood; and
in his Institutions by name of participial voyces.
My apprehension is that by his first appellation he chiefly meaneth the third
Gerund; as by his second he notes the other two; but more pre|cisely the
middle its sense being clearly partici|pial, excelling only in that it relates to
the action rather than the person acting; whereas the first, substantially,
expresseth the essence of a mo|tion in a middle way between a participle
and a Substantive; being fortified in its governance according. to the rules of
the Genitive of a Sub|stantive, after Adjectives or Substantives; as a verbial
action proceeding from a Being either qua Being, or qua so qualified: as;
Amor ha|bendi, certuo eundi, i. e. Aeneas certus eundi.
57
As for our Author's design in converting this Gerund to an adjectible
signification by his Virgili|an Authority of
--- Generandi gloria mellis:
I must submit whether that seeming Gerund be other than as one of the
participial voices fore|mentioned. For were it a Gerund, then should it be
govern'd as the action of Gloria; and must also govern mellis accusatively.
Our Author's own rules teaching that
Participles, Gerunds and Supines do govern by such cases as do the Verbs
that they come of.
A domination beyond the verge of those participial voices, in regard they
denote no time, as aforesaid.
Which I instance, to ease may readers memory from the trouble of conning
those many substan|tives our Author in his Introduction observes to require
this Gerund instead of the infinitive mood. That rule amounting to no more
than as if he had said: When ever the essence of an action proceed|eth as
out of the possession of a Being, it is more emphatically express'd by this
Gerund than either by its Verb, or Substantive. Amor habendi Cecropias apes
sounding with more vehemency, than either apes possidere, or possessionis
apum. So also do we say Otium scribcndi literas, rather than Scribere, litera|
rum scripturae, or Scriptionis; although the Eng|lish seldom express this
otherwise than by the sound of the Infinitive Mood.
Yet sithence sometimes, as well as to write, they manifest their leisure of
writing. Dr. Taylor, [Note: Pag. 9[...]. ] to an English translator, gives an
excellent note to this particular, viz. that
The English of the Infinitive Mood, or the Participle of the present Tense
with|out 58 a Substantive coming after an Adjective, or Substantive which
govern a Genitive with the sign [of] is put in the Gerund in [di].
And (saith he again)
The English of the Participle of the present Tence coming without a
Substantive, and following an Adjective, Verb, or Participle with the sign [of]
or any sign of the Ablative Case, is made in the Gerund in [do] with or
without a Preposition.
To which [for I pretend not to much reading; and therefore in rules taken
from observation, do wholly submit to more literate heads] I only add: That
preposited signs being badges of the vulgari|ty of a language (and therefore
industriously avoided by the Latine, [Note: Part 2. c. 2. ] as hath been fore-
shewed) may be suspected to have crept in hither with the familiarity of
common converse. The original Latine design, by these and the following
variation of the Verb so meerly tending to the heightening of their Idiome,
not probably admitting of such al|laies.
And this our Author tacitly observes, while for their governance he picketh
out Authorities free from those clogs: as,
Efferor studio videndi paren[...]es.
Defessus sum ambulando;
Utendum est aetate.
--- Scitatum oracula Phaebi
Mittimus ---
Where the Poet, to avoid the said vulgarity, choos|eth the voice of a Supine
for his expression of a Gerundian sense.
This third Gerund only transcending the Infini|tive Mood by stating the cause
along with the acti|on: 59 which our Author confirms teaching: that,
The English of the Infinitive Mood coming after a reason, and shewing the
cause of a reason is put in the Gerund in Dum.
Yet Scaliger takes liberty to extend that faculty to the whole three: Saying,
[Note: Ibid. ] Quoniam causam ge|rundia statuunt, idcirco plus indicant
quam verba aut participia; His end thereby probably being their Pass under
the same rationality of appellation. Gerundia quia rerum gerendarum
causam unà indicant. In order whereunto (this compleating the num|ber)
what in special belong'd to it, I conceive, he might lawfully attribute to the
whole three, by a Synechdoche à retrò.
Whatever may excuse me for this reduction of our Author's parts of speech:
Besides my igno|rance why a Gerund should not be accounted a part of
speech as well as a Participle: It being con|fessed to indicate more; and as
well known to de|cline into, and [Note: Declinatio est Tractio dictionis per
casuum se|des. So Dr. Davis. p. 60. ] caroch among, its prescribed Con|
ditions or Cases.
Unless that finding both Participle, Gerund and Supine to be but so many
variations of the word of motion, I may be adjudged pardonable while I so
comprehend them.
Conclusively noting, that as this Gerund doth out-do the Infinitive Mood, by
stating the cause along with the action:
So doth the Supine transcend it; First in point of Confidence; and secondly,
of security.
Confidence: In that it expresseth future actions as if they were already come
to pass. As when I say Venio ad pagnandum: I thereby manifest a future
Tence. But when I express my self by Pugnatum, the futurity appeareth so
certain as p[...]sent. Dictum puta saith Socia in Terence. And rationally, in
re|gard 60 all natural motions, the nearer they approach their end or center,
move more swiftly; and con|sequently more vigorously. The apprehension of
which strength must necessarily introduce confi|dence: and that, security;
as the end or perfection of the motion.
So that as the first Supine intimates the said mo|tion in viâ: the other doth
it in fine. Venio Pugna|tu, expressing the business so done, that for the fu|
ture I may rest securely.
Wherefore Scaliger observes how that the Poet describes Melibaeus as a
person strugling with For|tune, [Note: Ibid. Virgil. Ec|log, 1. ] and managing
his aff[...]irs with more courage than good luck: And Tylyrus lying under the
shade supinely.
Yet he remains dissatisfied with the Quare of the word; slighting Theodors
[...] as too mean, U[...] Latinis auribus satisfiat: those are his words.
My sense is, that a higher reason for it is not to be found below the Moon:
[...] signifying carelesly or securely, as well as with the face up|wards. And
that posture naturally following secu|rity as the effect doth the cause.
Wherefore the muscle moving the eye upwards Anatomists do read
Superbus, and that in the sense of Noble or Excellent: and but deservedly;
as is easily demon|strable by a Land-skip. I mean, when we view any place
with our head between our legs, or otherwise inverted. For so shall we find
the appearance of the same object excelling even to admirati|on.
Hence comes it that when men have once forti|fied themselves with a
settled fortune of wealth: they naturally look upwards.
A Gentleman of the first head [except while the Spaniard swell's in being the
son of his own 61 right hand] seldom known to refuse the Herauld, more
then the Nobles of Rome could Virgil after he had so solemnly sung their
extraction from [Note: Aen[...]id. 6. ] Elyztum: And Caesar's from the Gods,
---Deus nobis haec otia secit. [Note: Eclog. 1. ]
Most acceptably compounding the delinquency of that Antonian.
And thus as security banisheth care, doth it ad|mit fansies restinguible in no
lower a sphere.
A Naturalism well known to the Aegyptian; his reprehension of the Hebrews
importing, They were Idle, Proud, Secure and Careless; [Note: Exod. 5.8. ]
therefore they said, Let us go Sacrifice.
So much for the name and nature of the Supine, which I confess doth not
satisfie our Author's last, which follow Adjectives: and he would have under|
stood passively Neither know I well how the end of a motion may be so
rendred. It being analogi|cal to a Physical Ret. And say the Metaphysicks,
Finis & effici[...]ns entitativè ejusdem sunt perfectionis. The only difference
being that Essentia est quod dat esse rei, & est primum principinm motus.
So Jac. Mart. in part Met. Sect. 13.
Shall we then, with the fore-quoted Phylosopher, [Note: [...]cal. ibid. l. 7. c
144. ] exclude those as being nominals, rather then ver|bial Supines?
[Vocatu Drusi, saith he in the same place, i. e. Vocatione: facile expugnatu,
i. e. expug|natione.] Or may we not rather take them at the rebound? i. e.
with such motions as in their end meet with resistance and so become
passive? For then the difference will not be great whether we deduce them
from the Noune, or the Infinitive Mood of the Verb. The Supine being to the
Verb much as is the Adverb to the Noune. Sithence as 62 from Homo we
have Humanus, Humaniter, and thence Humanitas. So from voco, or rather
vocare, we have vocand, vocando, vocandum, vocatum, vo|catu. Where the
motion end's, unless we begin again with vocatio.
So vocatu, in its passive reception, standing be|tween vocatio and vocari;
[that voice admitting of no Gerund by reason of the impossibility that I
should have more than a guess at the cause of mo|tions than proceed from
another towards me.] Why may not the motion as well be fansied to rebound
so far: especially our Author noting it, facile factu or facile fieri? Which being
but a nicity like the mincing of Cummin attributed of old to Antonius Pius;
and of small use, even by the La|tines themselves, [Note: Dion, in Ant.
pium. ] other than to have gradual waies to express the same sense by, I so
pass.
63
Herm'aelogium; The fourth PART.
CHAP. I. Being a transient disquisition of the state of our Author's
four unde|clined parts of Speech; with their Concomitant Mutes; and
lastly of the Bronoune.
OUr Author's other four parts of Speech being of the same conside|ration, as
is before expressed of his Shapes and Figures: [Note: Part 2. c. 5. ] I
conceive it scarce modest for a person of my small reading, to the sedulous
collections and observations of the forecited Gentlemen hereon, toattempt a
Supplement. Yet least it be objected that I might by the same rea|son 64
have passed the Adjective; It, although decline|able, of it self signifying as
little: and therefore as unworthy to bear a part, much less a Principle, in
speech.
I must add, That notwithstanding it may justly be said of i[...] as Virgil sung
of his usurped verses:
Sic vos non vobis---
Yet that it is of an intrinsecal consideration, as be|ing analogical to Privation:
which is such a Prin|ciple in nature, without which as MATTER cannot receive
form: So [Note: Privatio & ma[...]eria[...]dem sunt Re & Ratione. See Com.
Magyr. l. 1. c. 2. ] Being cannot so subsist. Therefore that QUALITY, so
considered, is no way inferiour to BEING. But together with it as the same *.
I say together: as finding the separation, I mean the decision of what it is in
it self, and what to us, to have puzled as able [though I must con|fess I
affirm it much as a blind man judging of col|ours] a [Note: Sir Walter
Raleigh in his Sceptic. ] Penman as that Age had in Eng|land.
But these be only extrinsecal appendants to the first mentioned parts or
principles of Speech; as meer notes either of their connection, temperament,
or circumstance. And this our Author seems to in|form us of by his calling of
them UNDE|CLINED. Declension and Rise in condition be|longing properly to
the Lord, [Note: See his Grammer, p. 261. &c. ] and not the Lacquey. Which
servilety of theirs is further probable, in that the governing power Mr. Hoole
attributes them is not of themselves; but of the Being, Motion, or Quality
they so personate or usher. As is exem|plary: First by the Adverb; which
suppose in|vented in order to this threefold use, viz.
1. The abbreviation of Sentences.
65
2. The gradation of incompatible quantites and qualities. And
3. A prescripion to the innumerable circum|stances of Action, Time and Place
1. In the first employment I observe its note to be sometimes rude, and
sometimes conformed. Whereof the first do notifie things present; [Note:
(a) ] (and that commonly with the assistance of some exterior sign or
gesture) and do govern by vertue of the Noune or Verb they so obumbrate,
as: En quatuor aras. That is, Vide nunc. Behowld; saith the Englishman.
But in case there be two several Verbs couched under this note: and that the
Verb in the follow|ing sentence expressed be of the same sort with the last
understood; then doth the Adverb govern as by that expressed Verb is
requireable. For example: En Priamus, sunt hìc etiam sua praemia laudi. As
if he had said, Vide nunc, Priamus hìc est; sunt hìc etiam sua praemia laudi.
Whereas if the Verb sunt had been absent, the expression must have been
En Priamum, sua{que} praemia laudi.
The word of motion vide, in the person of the Adverb, there governing: as in
the tother the go|vernance proceeds from the Verb of Being.
Which manifests the Adverb to be but a meer substitute: besides that sic,
and such other Adverbs as have no representative power either of Noune or
Verb, dare not aspire to that eminence.
2. The conformed Adverbs of this use are numberless, in regard of the
nearness of this notes relation to the word of Being. But the go|vernance is
ever on the same account; as, Pridie Calendarum: i. e. Priori die.
Calendarum being there genitively governed as the latter of two Sub|
stantives.
66
Or if I say Pridie calendas. It will be the same as Dics prae, or antc calendas.
i. e. the day just or directly before. And therefore is Calendas govern|ed
accusatively: the straightness of the motion in the space between its
extreams being so noted by the proposition.
2. The second sort of Adverbs are alwaies ex|pressed along with the
Qualities they so explicate; as, Valde bonus, minis longus, egregie
impudens, &c. and therefore do they not govern at all; the command of the
Officer being so excluded by the presence of the Lord.
3. The other speciously governing Adverbs are generally a sort of dethroned
Adjectives; so offi|ciating in order to their like manifestation of the accidents
of the Verb, as while Adjectives they did of the Substantive. And therefore
do we say Similis cantus; but similiter c. nit; and doth our Author note that
canit similiter buic; quia (saith he) Dativum adm[...]tunt nominum unde
deducta sunt. And so of the rest according to the respective casual
governance of the Noune or Verb whence they proceed.
Their pretended governance of Verbs our Au|thor mentions with so many
Interdum's as evinceth its subjection to the reason of the delivery; nei|ther
can I understand his conjunction of similaty and dissimilary Cases, Moods
and Tenses other|wise.
The Proposition I confess our Author himself somewhat seemeth to promote
to a governing state, while he teacheth that Praepositioni accidit casuum
regimen; but he adds, S[...]ve constructio. As it he had said, Earum
regimen, si vis, constructi|onem, [...], i. e. orationis structuram appelles.
That being the end of their position before other 67 parts, as hath been fore-
shewed: [Note: Part 2. c. 2. ] And [that I may not seem either to expound
our Author, or contradict such as positively affirm the said gover|nance
altogether on my score] I find tacitly rati|fied by my fore-quoted Countrey-
man Joannes Davidas Rhaesus [known in England by name of Doctor
Davies; and in Italy by a Tract he there writ in the Florentine Idiome de
structu[...]á Latini Sermonis] who in his Institutiones Cym[...]aecae, or
Latine Welsh-Grammer, where he mentions these governances, hath no such
word as Regunt; but nectuntur, u[...]ctunt, serviunt; respectively discour|
sing of the Adverb, Conjunction and Preposi|tion. The same I also find in Dr.
Taylor's, viz. The first joyned, the second joyning, and the third serving.
As for the Interjection: To ascribe it a regular governance, were to confound
it with a Paren|thesis. And therefore doth our Author note it ad Placitum.
O fostus dies.
O fortuna[...]os nimium.
O formose puer, &c
It rather governing its concomitant Mute; and so from an imperfect, scarce
worded, voice be|coming the most absolute ornament of Speech.
As those who have received their education from the sedulous Lectures of
Academick Profes|sors can amply witness: And recommend as wor|thy of
ingenious consideration, and publick. Were not these gestures in most
Countries singu|lar; and therefore best attainable by observation of their
attractive effect on the attention of re|spective Auditories.
As I remember once merrily hinted at by a no less grave than ingenions
Preachet in Leyden; who 68 to satisfie the importunity of a young Divine of
his acquaintance, having lent him an elaborate and, in that very place, often
approved Sermon to be delivered by this Candidate In order to his ad|
mission into the Pastorship, but not taking, had no shift to disabuse my new
Levite, other than by perswading him That the fault lay in his own for|
getfulness, that he had not borrowed his Bow as well as his Fidle. Both,
indeed, proceeding from the same root: As may be instanced by a Bowler.
Whom we shall ever see shouldering, puffing, stamping, or drawing back, as
the condition of his cast seems devious.
But if he finds it equally running its right mea|sured ground: Then, he either
directly followeth, or stedfastly look's on, as in his posture of con|fidence.
That these Gestures (though accompany'd with, or proceeding from, never
so strong incina|tions of an unfascinating mind) can either take from, add to,
or otherwise direct the motion once passed the Gamesters hand, I shall not
suspect.
Yet having often laugh'd at them in others, and endeavour'd to forbear them
my self, but with more i[...]ksomness than success, I cannot but think them
natural.
Especially while I observe the same, compa|rably, to hold with the Orator.
And that accord|ing to the perfection of his language. Which as it doth least
multiply its attendants with these notes, or (that I may not causlesly vary
from our Authors language) parts of Speech; so requireth is fewer outward
signs for its ornament. For ex|ample: The Latine Adverbial note Olim,
signify|ing a rassed as well as future time. The note cum, used both fo an
Adverb, Conjunction and Prepo|sition: 69 As it serves either to declare the
significa|tion of a Verb; to joyn sentences; or else as a preposited badge to
the Ablative case of a word of Being. Whereas in vulgar languages its sense
is expressed by notes severally differing according to the said respective
imployments.
And hence probably comes it that the Spanish Reel or French Shrugge be not
yet fashonable among the Italians: whose discourses they render no less
magnetick by the interjection of certain nodds, stops, and change of
countenance; which, the word Blush being too young, I want expres|sion
for; [Note: The Flavour is still the Flavour. ] Other than (as we say of the
Flavour of Wine) that they are becoming the gravity of an Italian.
Whether there be any Books writ on this sub|ject, I am not certain. But
observe that, before the use of Bandstrings, this gravity hath been emu|
lated by the English. The noble Chaucer, as he en|comiat's the deportment
of the Arabian Envoy in the Tartarian presence; thus singing;
Accordant to his woords was his chere; [Note: The Squier Tale ]
As teacheth art of speech hem that it lere.
70
CHAP. 2. Of the Pronoune with the Arts from it pro|ceeding.
I Conclude with the note of the Nodd the Pro|noune: which our Author calls
A part of Speech much like to, and indeed is the same with a Noune;
although it differeth from his Noune Adjective in that it denotes a personal
Be|ing; and from his Substantive, first in respect that this personality is
neither proper nor appellative: and secondly, in that it imply's number: I,
THOU and H E.
Under which be comprehended the other twelve: and to whom is added the
officious Relative, as the Gentleman Ipocrifat in Herauldrie.
Wherefore our Author adds that it is used in shewing or rehearsing.
viz. The Pronoune in shewing: as, I love: and the Relative in rehearsing: as,
I who love.
Ille ego qui quondam ---
Which also is the office of its Verb And that ei|ther in order to its own being;
or Passions; as, I am, or I am called upon; or else in order to its personal
posture: as, I sit, or sleep. All which must have the casual word
nominatively placed, because the motion terminates in it self: And so
remain's a monument of the primitive unity.
71
I, THOU, and HE living as one, until they came to distinguish MINE, THINE
and HIS.
These introduc'd Trade; and that the multiplicity of clinshing words and,
tropical sentences in order to perswasion. Insomuch that such is the present
excellency of that Art: as it might be taken for no Paradox (saving the
gravity of a [Note: Qui ratio naliterutitur argumentis ad persua|dendum
Ora|toris nomen meruit eti|amsi non persuaserit. Quint. ] Qu ntili|anist)
from the young O[...]ator while he maintain|ed the moneys he had promised
his Tutor for teaching him the whole Art of Rhetorick were not due, until he
could, by that Art, perswade him to part with the summe he neither yet had,
nor in|tended for him when he had it And that, he must expect, would create
a dispute. Mercurie not re|covering his altitude until he doth Iater duos lo|
quentes media currere ut Logicè reciprocetur oratio [Note: N. Comes. ] . An
Art whose Circumstantials the experience of my short step of travel could
not observe so long d[...]elt upon beyond the Seas, as in the English Uni|
versities is usual. And therefore cannot sufficient|ly applaud the Epitome
given it by my most worthily honoured friend Sir K[...]nelme Dig|bie [Note:
In Treat. of Bodies. part. 2. c. 3. ] .
[...]n argument (saith he) The assumed Term, unto which the other two are
enterchangeably joyn'd, is either said of them or they are said of it. And
from hence do spring three different kinds of Syllogism. For either the
assumed or middle term is said of both the other two: or both they are said
of it: or it is said of one of them, and the other is said of it. And this is the
my|steric of the three Figures our Clerks so much talk of.
Which (having elsewhere occasionally cleared the Mathematical Spring of
A[...]) I 72 here mention, to manifest how that those seven that the civilized
part of the world do honour with the Epithite of Gent: or Liberal be no other
than Grammer expanded. And so pro|ceed to the use of this its present
Reduction.
73
The Use of the whole TREATISE.
THe Text saith;
There are three that bear witness in heaven? The Father, the Word, [Note:
Joh. Ep. I. 5.7. ] and the Holy Ghost; and these three are one. There are
three that bear witness in earth; the Spi|rit, the Water, and the Blood; and
these three agree in one.
As I am no quarreller at Scripture; so am I not certain whether the Original
sounds [...] or [...]. However, both coming from [...], [Note: Spiro. ] had
the more strict present occasion of the Evangelist per|mitted the Translators
to have expressed the Blood by name of Winde, they had thereby saved me
the use of faith; sithence I should then have understood the assertion
Philosophically; as knowing the water, wind and Spirit to be one, viz. [Note:
Submis[...] Religioni Philosoph[...], clavibus son[...] sus legitim[...] utamini.
Verul. ad. Acad. Can|tabrig. ] The wind a rarified water, and the Spirit a
rarified wind. And consequently, the wind to be a coagu|lated spirit, and the
water a coagulated winde. So bearing their witness of the infiniteness of the
opening and the shutting:
Mens agitans molem, & coeco se corpore miscens.
74 As the Maronian in the fourth of his Georgicks hath it; [Note: See the
last Embleme. ] (probably) out of Thales Milesius, whose sense Cicero in his
books De Natnrâ Deorum so much depends on; and we find abundantly con|
firmed in the twelfth chapter of that admirable Book of Job; and elsewhere
throughout the Text.
My intent hence is not, with [Note: In Relig. med. ] Dr. Brown, to maintain a
multiplicity of worlds. But to in|duce first how Aristotles principles of the
world do bear the same witness. Form being no other then a vivified matter,
as proportionated Beings be the au[...]optic gallantry of that Form formed;
and wherein the respective decay of heat is the recess of the life towards its
abscondity. So secondly (the excellency of the microcosme consisting in its
dis|cursive faculty, [Note: Plato in Timan. ] as the manifested expansion of
the unity of mans soul to its trine) How it must also in its Philosophie bear a
like testimony. The word of motion being a word of Being actuated; as
amare is a word essentially declaring the action of Amor; and modable
according to the temporal in|clination of the lover towards whatever Being
he therein can fansie perfection.
Whence the Ancients fained Cupid in as many shapes as they do Venus,
[Note: See the Em|bleme. ] or (as Pausanias latinized hath it) Tot amores
quot Veneres. Yet they com|prized all under Greatness and Goodness:
which, as saith the same Author, are but one; Quia iden|tidem appetitum
alliciunt.
And its observable that the perfection towards which a motion is thus
directed or attracted is of|ten invisible, even as is the fire in water; yet
known to be there by reason of its flowing. For when the ambient cold
sorceth the fire to its center; the water, as it ceaseth its flowing, is no 75
more water, but ice; until the fire be invited to its pristine expansion by
exterior warmth.
Even so, in what ever, whether visible or invisi|ble, quality of a Being my
opinion fanfieth per|fection; this perfection but so thence vanishing, the
motion of my love immediately retires to its first essentiality.
And thus as John loveth or not loveth Joan, be the cogitations of man
expressible by the said [Note: Intelligete, movere, & generare es|sentialiter
idem sunt. See D. Da|vison in Currie. Chymic. part 2. ] TRINE-U NE words
occasionally varyed and attended as in this Treatise I have assayed to mani|
fest. So that I can at present think of no remaining intricacie saving when, in
order to a more copious or concise delivery, I am induced to compound the
termini of a sentence some or one of them; which conjoyned branches,
although they contain a Verb respectively in themselves, do yet amount to
no more than either a Supposition, Declaration, Re|lation, or Reason.
1. Whereof the first is known by its preposited note of doubt; as when, with
our Author, I say: Si cupis placere magistro utere diligentiâ.
2. The second by its subjoyning office, as to say; ut placeas.
3. The third by the Relative; as Qui cupis placere.
4. And the fourth by the absence of a Verb otherwise than infinitively
posited. As if I were to say Cupiens placere magistro utere diligentiâ.
In all which the understood Noun Personal or Pronoun [Tu] must be the
Being whence the Verb utere moveth towards diligentia as the word ter|
minating the sentence. And the governance is la|teral in regard the Verb
m[...]veth not as attracted by it, but as a mode of pleasing the Master. See
Part. 2. c. 2.
76
Yet that what hath been said may be made more supplemental to our
Author, I shall further partize his Example, after the usual Pedagogick
manner, supposing my self a Pupil questioned by my Tutor what part of
Speech is supplyed by the word Cupis?
Answ. The Verbial part.
Quest. How know you it to be a Verb?
A. In that it is a word of motion; that is, moving between the desiring and
the desired Being.
Q. What kind of Verb is it?
A. In that it moveth from the said understood Pronoun (which is its material
cause) simply to|wards its formal: It is a Verb Active. But, that I offend not
my more curious Grammarian, I must also call it a Verb Neuter; in regard
forsooth we do not read Cupior. Although the English love as well to be
desired.
Q. After what Conjugation do you decline it?
A. The fourth. And the reason therefore see in Part. 3. c. 2.
Q. What part of speech is Magistro?
A. A Noun Substantive.
Q. How know you it to be a Noun Substantive?
A. In that it manifests a Being; see Part. 1. c. 1.
Q. How do you articulate it.
A. In the Masculine Gender.
Q. Why so?
A. In regard it denotes Rule, which necessarily implyeth Action See Part. 2.
c. 1.
Q. Aster which of our Authors rules is it de|clined?
A. The second.
Q. Why so?
A. Because that whether I take the word from [...]; which jumps with the
French Idiome 77 thrice more; or from magis and [...] i. e. greater in
station; It followeth that it be declined after the most honourable way
incident to its termina|tion
Q. Would you hence infer that such words termi|nating in [er] as carry the
more honourable[...] significa|tion should be declin'd after this second Rule,
and the less worthy after the third?
A. I thought you had been thereof already so satisfied in Part. 2. c. 4. that to
urge me here to reaffirm it were impertinent.
Q. But how comes it then to pass that Puer is de|clined after this, and Pater
after that; sithence it's pass'd question but the last is more honourable?
A. I confess it quoad hominem; but not quoad naturam: For, Propagation
being the eternizor of nature, Naturalists do deservedly state it as the chief
of mans life. Therefore doth love follow the off-spring; and are the steps
from the womb to the wedding more honorable than those between it and
the reduction of the Creature; and that by so much as life is more desirable
then death. Whence I conclude that such Masculines terminating in [er] as
on the wheel of life be placed between the state and the end are naturally
declinable rather after the third rule. I will not say alwayes declined; for that
(as one notes) Sermo Inter agrestiaing ma pri|mum ortus doctiorum legibus
aliquand[...] refragatur.
Q. What case conceive you Magistro there to stand in?
A. The Dative.
Q. Why so?
A. Because it stands governed by the acquisi|tively posited Verb Placere. See
part. 2. c. 2.
Q. How cometh Magistro to be gover[...]d by the Infinitive Mood placere, it
to me seeming but us only 78 joyned with it, by way of apposition, to make
up the word of sense; This answering the (whom) as the other doth the
(what)?
A. Our Author doth not tell us that the casual word must answer the
questions whom and what; but whom or what;
and that the word that com|eth next the Verb as answering to either of
those, is (saving his exceptions) the casual;
which therefore is here due to Placere, as so answering the question. Desire
what? To please. To please whom? The Master. So that Magistro comes hi|
ther not by apposition; but as a word governed of placere. The Infinitive
Mood, when so serving, no way quitting its governing prerogative more than
doth a Participle or Gerund. I say so serving; for that as To please by
answering the question (whom) becomes as a casual word; and a word of
sense as it denotes a perfection wanted by the placitor [Note: Part. 2. c.
4. ] : THOU COVETEST TO PLEASE so making up a compleat sentence. Even
so, when I thus particularlize this pleasing, doth the sense a|mount to a
Reason; as hath been fore-proved by our Authors Ovidian Authority cited,
Part. 1. c. 1. where the first and third words add nothing to the Reason; only
encomiate the quality of Arts, and express a necessity of fixation in the
learner. So that it were the same if I said Placere magistro requirit
diligentiam.
Q. Suppose you were to express placere by an es|s[...]ntial word of Sense;
as to say: If thou covet the pleasure or delight of the Master. How would you
latinize it?
A. Si cupis delectamentum Magistri.
Q. In what case woud you conceive the word De|lectamentum, so placed, to
stand in?
A. The Accusative.
79
Q. And why?
A. As governed by the Verb Transitive Cupis.
Q. How know you Cupis to be a Verb Transitive?
A. Because it answereth all the expectations of that Verb manifested, Part. 2.
c. 2. It being none of those motions of design; but a down right natural one,
as Amo; whether we take the word from Ca|p[...]o, or à cupidine amoris; as
Mr. Holyoake.
Q. Admit you were to define this supposition by one word; as of the Reason
hath been fore-noted in Part. 1. c. 1. How would you express your self?
A. Obsequens utitur or (to continue the first hor|tative mode of speech) Tu
obsequens utere diligentiâ.
Q. By name of what part of speech would you call Obsequens so placed?
A. Properly by neither of our Authors eight. It there being only a participial
voice, or (as Mr. Hoole would have it) Noun, [...]. A Participle signifying no
time; and therefore governing no otherwise than as a Noun Adjective. As in
Part 3. c. 4. hath been foreshewed.
Q. Pro[...]eeding with our Authors example where he adds Nec sis tantus
cessator ut calcaribus indigeas: I would in the first place know w[...]at part
of speech is Nec?
A. A Conjunction coupling the foregoing and following clauses.
Q. What part of speech is Cessator.
A. A Noun Substantive or word of Being.
Q. How is it declined?
A. Masculinely aster our Authors third rule.
Q. Why Masculinely?
A. In regard the very being Slugge denotes action: as we use to say; Its
better be idle then do nothing. See Part. 2. c 1.
Q. Why is it declined after the third rule?
80
A. By reason of its termination; as hath been shewed, Part. 2. c. 3.
Q. what condition or case doth it here stand in?
A. The Nominative.
Q. Doth it so govern the Verb Sis, or is it governed by it?
A. It is governed by it; and yet cannot proper|ly be called a word of Sense in
regard of its fore|going Conjunction.
Q. From what being then doth Sis move towards Cessator?
A. From the Pronoun Tu; which is understood as couched under the
personality of the Verb. See Part. 2. c. 3. and Part. 3. c. 1.
Q. If Cessator stands here as a word governed, why doth it not decline its
Nominative condition or case?
A. By reason that the motion governing is a Verb of Being, See Part. 4. c. 2.
Q. What part of speech is Tantus?
A. A Noun Adjective, or word of Quality.
Q. How cometh it to be understood as a Quality, si[...]hence it denotes
Magnitude, and not Bonitude?
A. The identity of quantity and quality hath been already shewed, Part. 1. c.
3 But for your fur|ther satisfaction know that (the slothful being concluded
vitious) its quantitative signification implyeth so much of evil; as to say
Tantum or tam magnum vitium.
Q. Whnt Case, Gender and Number doth it stand in?
A The Nominative Case, Masculine Gender, and singular Number.
Q. How so?
A. In that it is here adjected to Cessator; which is a word of Being at
present, so affected, See Part. 1. c. 3.
81
Q. What part of speech it ut?
A. A Conjunction causal joyning Calcaribus in|digeas to the subjunctive
declaration foregoing.
Q. Why call you it not a Sentence?
A. Because the presence of the Conjunction ren|ders it subordinate to
another less clogged Clause or Sentence; as to say ut calcaribus indigeas
utere diligentiâ. Whence if I take off ut, and so deliver my self definitively,
the first will be a compleat sen|tence as well as the last. As to say: Ego sum
cessa|tor, or Ego calcaribus indigeo; tu uteris or utere di|ligentiâ.
Q. Might not these be joyned by Quòd aswell as Ut; It also being a
Conjunction causal, and giving the same English sound?
A. The design of avoiding a multiplicity of these Attendants hath been
throughout this Tract so canvassed, that to find them retained by any recom|
mendation below a precise necessity, or being re|tain'd to be mistaken Dick
for Robin, were to espie a contradiction inconsistent with the Roman inge|
nuity. Which induceth me to observe that Sen|tences thus joyned necessarily
implying one of the formal differences of time mentioned. Part. 3. c. 3. do
require their Conjunction by notes most sutable to that time. And therefore
to joyn a fu|turity by a note sounding so neer the Relative as Quod, were
such a piece of vulgarity as would ren|der the expression to be scarce Latine
sense. A Re|lation being ever understood of things or actions pass'd, the
present being no sooner mentioned than passed. And that therefore the
Latines by Quòd do joyn such sentences only as imply a past or present
tense, as they do those that speak a futurity by ut; it sounding so near the
wishing Adverb Utinam As in this particular Ut calcaribus indigeas; where the
82 Verb potentially moded manifesteth a future need by voyce of the present
Tense. See Part. 3. c. 3.
All which our Author teacheth showing that the reduction of the Infinitive
Mood by Quòd and Ut, must be precisely in hunc modum; viz. Quòd tu re|
d[...]sti incolumis gaudeo. ut tu fabulam agas volo.
Where I break up School; wishing some through|ly enabled linguist would so
fabulam agere, that mankind might as no longer speak as Parats; So not
want the fruition of those other advantages in the altitude of such a Venus
[Note: Verulam, ibid. p. 261. ] of Apelles supposed le|gible by the noble
Origin of this Essay; which therefore I Corollarily prostrate envelloped by the
following Embleme.
[Figure:
The Representors are
• 1 Caelus or Perfection.
• 2 Saturn or Beings.
• 3 Cupid in Mercuries disguise.
• 4 Venus Popularis.
• 5 Venus hortensis.
• 6 Venator.
• 7 Venus Terrestris.
• 8 Venus Caelestis.
]
84
The Huntsman Speaks!
AS I was winding of my morning Call,
(Whether I strain'd beyond my usual
Force I not well remember) Such a fright
Invaded me when I me saw (poor wight)
Associated and compass'd as you see,
That stun'd I stood; till viewing Mercury
Thus placed in the round I to him said:
Son of great Jove! my Guide to whom are paid
My constant vows: and to whose flying fame
Be Sacrific'd the (a) Tongues of all the Game
That ever yet in forest wild I slew:
Vouchsafe the meaning of this enterveiw
To thy astonish'd Suppliant.
---Which Prayer
The son of Main (B) hovering in the Air,
Thus answered. ---
--- Courage Woodman! for this shall
Create thee no more trouble than thy call.
The Scheme (C) erected being by the Art
Of thy King Saturn's (D) Son; who make'st his part,
Thus to detect what the ensuing fate
Shall be 'oth' Roman Tongue as well as (E) State.
(a) The Tongues of all Sacrifices the Ancients of|fered to Mercury; as God
not only of Speech, but also of Reason and Prudence. And there|fore doth
the Woodman, on this occasion, choose him for his chief rather then Diana.
See Nat. Com. Mytholog. l. 5.
(B) Maia the Daughter of Atlas and Pleion: A Nymph on whom Jupiter begat
Mercurie. See Virgil Aeneid. 8.
85
(C) Or Hieroglyphick Schaema. i. e. Orationis exter|na pars & dignitas. H. O.
(D) Picus most skilfull in Augurie, and therefore fain'd transformed to a
Wood-pecker. Ovid. Met. 14. Although by the word Augurium the Romans
understood not only the divination particularly taken from the chattering of
birds, but also from all other observable causes or Ostents whatsoever
appearing in Heaven, Air, or Earth; as affirmeth Dionysius, and out of him
Gasper Peucerus in l. de Augu|riis, pag. 374.
(E) That is, how the state of Rome shall degene|rate from its golden
condition in the successi|on of Provincial Potentates. Who, seeking af|ter
their particular more then the publick wellfare, shall subject it to want;
whose very apprehension as it ushers all kinds of selfish|ness, so shall be
multiplyed the Mode and Cases of the language. The first being Origi|nally
but one, as hath been already shewed part. 2. c. 4. And the second but two,
viz. The Nominative and the Accusative, that is, The condition of a
substantial Being whence the motion taketh its rise, and of the qualified
Being towards which it formally tendeth.
The Vocative being comprehensible under the Nominative, as only
distinguishable by our position of the person in the arrear of the Verb, and
the rise of our voyce in the close of the period. Or else of this Additional note
of the Writer[?], and the oblique cases an|swering the respective indirect
motions of the Verb, since invented, as by the division of Ve|nus is here
represented.
86
Wherefore bright (F) CAELUS over Saturns face
Having the curtain drawn resumes his place.
To shew Perfection beneath the skie
Henceforth to seek shall be a vanitie.
Save what weak loves by their descent retain
On self-design; (which therefore Poets fain.
From th' loins of CAELUS in the (G) third degree)
At which in them to aim this Dietie
In SATURNS bosom leaves the purblind (H) spark.
Opinionately roving at his mark.
(F) By others call'd CAELIUS son of the Skie and Day; for his excelling and
permanent beauty styled Perfection. Bonum and Pulchrum being convertible;
as hath been fore shewed. And that these qualities were in him perfect, is
manifest in that from him the Heavens were called Caeli.
He was father to SATURN who was God of Plenty; whence his Age might be
called Golden. His name also coming a Satu|rando, aswell as from the
Hebrew SATAR. i. e. To hide or shut up; both typifying the witnessed in the
Philosophical use of this Tract forementioned. See more of his golden age in
Fulgentius his Mythologie; as of his veil and succession in Sir Walter
Raleigh's Hi|storic of the World, l. 2. c. 24.
(G) VENUS being daughter to JUPITER son of SATURN.
(H) CUPID suppo'[...]d originally blinded with Saturns veil, and therefore
shooting rovingly as his fansie shall occasionally incite him to|wards either
VENUS.
He shoots Saturns arrows, as personating the word of motion conveying the
indigent 87 desires of the word of Being towards its formal cause or word of
sense here represented by VENUS. Wherefore also he stands in
MERCURIES's disguise: SATURN MERCURY and VENUS now figuring the
remnant of that wisdom which before the veyling was specified by Celius,
Saturn and Mercurie; As averreth Trismegistus. Neither could Mercurie
represent these several moti|ons in his own person, he being no Archer.
If any then be so critical as to question how I dare add arrows to Saturn: I
wish he would conceive them to be those which, erst, Mercu|rie, having
stoln from Apollo, hid here under Saturns veryl for the present use of Cupid;
and so pass my application with the same face that HORACE observes
PHAEBUS to have done the theft:
Te, boves olìm nisi redidisses
Per dolum amotos, Puerum minaci
Voce dum terret, viduus Pharetrâ,
--- Risit Apollo, l. 1. Od 10.
Which also shews there shall in SATURNS state
Provincial Kings succeed; whose love and hate;
Both politick and corporal shall be
Guided alone by self-conveniencie.
Then may you hear Romes Counsl'ar (I) Orator
Perswading these four Venus's to' adore.
Which I forbear to blazon; since (Sans doubt)
When by such means your state is come about,
(Through various fortunes) from the Sheephook to
The Crozier; they will be so known that so
The world shall speak their language. 88
--- what to make
Yet of this tail devouring heast the Snake,
Other then as it the vicissitude
Of time and things denotes, I not conclude.
Though when the Crozier is outwor'n of all
Its idolized fukes Canonical,
Some think things shall again turn Saturnine.
But that conceipt I pass to my Divine.
(I) Cicero who in his third book D[...] Naturâ Deo|rum mentioneth four
Venus's. Three whereof I find sitnamed by Nat. Comes Mytholog. l. 4. viz.
Caelestis, Hortensis and Popularis. The first of which typifying the word of
sense answer|ing the direct natural motion of the Verb, I have here plac'd as
the Accusative case of the Noun. The second as figuring possession, and
consequently answering the circular motion, I have marshall'd Genitively.
The third, as carrying an analogie with Romes Political confederacy, I have
seated Ablatively. And lastly, Cicero's fourth (which I conceive to be Venus
terrestris, and so the end of Acquisition) I have ranked Datively.
For which reasons I further distinguish the first by its natural amorous
aspect no way diverted by imployment. The second by the Spindle. The third
by the Silkworms; and the fourth by the Cyphon. That so they might
distinctly represent the four re|spective motions of the Verb in the second
Chapter of the second Part of this Discourse already mentioned.
As for the Vocative Condition of the Noun: Its incapacity of receiving any
shot of Cupid's invited 89 me to represent it by a Huntsman. Whom a sight
so resembling the [Note: See Mr. Sands Em|blem before Ovid Met. 30 ]
Gargaphian might terrifie to a religious compellation of his Genius thus to
ex|plicate.
And Reader! now (though Caelus be ascended)
If thou but fain our Venus's contracted;
And Cupid's seat to Mercurie resigned,
The Analogie will soon appear compleated.
[Figure:
Matter
Beinge
Saturne
forme
Motion
Mercuri[...]
Priuation or Proportion
Quality
Venus
]
The Antients as when distinguishing between spiritual and corporeal nature
they likened the one to a Trine and the other to a square; So did they typifie
the whole by water. Finding it, as in its orbicular form to be the Trine of a
square; So in its substance or entity to contain the Fire, Love or Life of all
Beings; like as the Mathema|ticians Center doth his Lines.
90
This fire, &c. The Greek Philosophers called [...] or [...], i. e. The mind [or
rather mental motion; [...], i. e. mente agito] And the He|brew Divines
ELOHIM, which our vulgar translation englisheth God. [Note: Gen. 1.2. ]
Vpon the face of the waters (saith Moses) moved the Spirit of God.
To whom alone in his trin-unity won|derful be the glory for ever.
91
Rectori magnifico & Professoribus in almâ matre inclytâ Frisiorum
Academiâ quae est Franequerae S.
TRactatulum hunc relegenti confide|rantia mihi occurrit de communi librorum
fato Censurâ. Quae quanquam ut cerebri anfractus variegata sit: interim
tamen (dum Vota nihil definiant) ne|cessario, quoad hoc, reducibilis videbam
in quid unum: Num scil. Philosopho, an cum ratione insanienti potius
quadret. Quapropter, & quum judicium omne plenam supponit judicandi
cognitionem, exseminariò rem dissecandam censui: Alstedio tradente
modum.
In omni disciplinâ (inquit [Note: In ency. clopaed. Philosoph. l. 4. ] ill:)
oportet spe|ctare primò Cur:
& secundo Quomodo sit dis|cenda. i. e. Finis & modus ad finem tendens.
Finis hujus ex libri epigraphe patet ut sit Sermo|nis rationalitas. Conamen
quod, dum incompara|tum restat, duo imprimis consideranda praebet: Op|
tabilitatem scil. & Possibilitatem rei.
Prior ex Aristotele c[...]nfirmari est, ubi docet
In re|bus eligendis quàm detrahere oportet eligendorum 92 excellentiam.
[Note: Topic. l. 3. Tract, 2. c. [...]. ] Quia si honore dignius est optabilius;
etiam id quod honore est dignum est optabile.
Sic enim si per causas scire praestat quàm per acci|dentia, (quod ex
Scientiae definitione patet) etiam rationalis Grammatices authoritativae ut
praestet ne|cesse est; & per consequens, quod optabile quid talis sit. Quia
quin ars Grammaticalis est honore digna Credo neminem inficias ire, vel
exinde quo inter ho|minem & belluam distinguit.
Ratificatam invenio Posteriorem per Praenobilem Franciscum de Verulam:
Heroen in omni Philoso|phiae genere e[...]imiè agnitum. [Note: Tom. 6. cap.
1. ] Qui in magnâ sua Scientiarum Instauratione (libro per Europam us{que}
adeò celebrato ut vestrâ quin in Bibliothecâ locum tenet nil moror) non
solum asserit Artem Gramma|ticalem posse reddi Philosophicam: sed &
ipsummet Grammaticen quandam mente sibi tenuisse conceptam,
quae non verborum cum verbis, sed cum rebus ana|logian monstraret.
Hocque (Excellentissimi viri) lucubratiunculic hisce m[...]is ortum dedit. Id
enim cum legeram, mihi potenter aurem vellere fateor. ut qui Romanâ in lin|
guâ (omniferae doctrinae Brittano maximè necessa|riâ) per nostratis Lelii
Grammaticen è pucritiâ dun|taxat instructus fueram. Donec paulò ante
designa|tam peregrinationem, cum Nobilibus quibusdam trans|marinis, tunc
temporis Oxoni[...] commorantibus, memet affociando, ea mihi familiaris
facta est, ut antea, eo|dom solo conversationis medio, Anglicana fuerat. Aliâ
de loquendi ratione ut prius som[...]iarem tam procul aberat.
Illiuc verò quasi experrectus: Auxesis uti scientiae maerorem intendit;
[Note: Eccl. 1.18. ] Itidem (quoad voti modum) tunc anxiè dolebam
Authorem suam siluisse Prosopo|paeian, carum sive institutionem rerum ad
quas verba sic aptius conformart possent.
93
Donec Doctiss. Hereis Effigiem libro suo praepositem contemplans
observaram. Ut Album in manu tenens, sub libri titulo, in Paginâ dextrâ haec
bina verba quasi scripserat [mundus mens] In sinistrâ{que} quì sedac vel
addens [connubio jungam stabili.]
Quod annuere mihi videbatur ad divini Platonis in Tymaeo comparationem
animae boninis cum Triangulo, in cujus apice sit unitas; Ex uno latere se
dilatans in numeros pares, 2.4.8. Ex altero in impares, 3.9.27. Pares numeri
(ut notat [Note: In Tym. ] Proclus) corruptibili|tatem, ut & impares
aeternitatem demonstrantes. Erin|de{que} perpendens Naturam &
Rationem, quoad Na|turantem, idem esse [quod & sacra [Note: Joh. 1.1. ]
Pagina pro|bat] ideòque ad Trianguli apicem apprimè compara|bilem: à quo
dein ut natura in mundum descendens di|viditur in Intellectualem &
visibilem. Visibilis suo modo Intelleitualem attestans. Sicque Ratio in men|
tem prolapsa ut in cogitativam & loquutoriam parti|tur; [idam enim docet
Aristoteles in libro de Inter|pret. Ubiverba esse Cogitationum imagines
perhibet] Putabam analogian adeo facilem; ac si libata [Ut Ulyssen olim per
Circen instructum fecisse fertur] Um|bra dixisset.
Quod voves (Spectator) quam ad ineffabilia non pertinet, hum lori sede
quam Idaeis Platonicis acquiescit. Unde fit quod cum Aristotelicâ vel sal|tem
Hermeticâ Philosophiâ [quae Platonicae corpo|rca est] aptius cohaeret.
Quamsbrem sicuti per Ari|stotelis Materiam, Formam & Privationem tota
nobis patefit natura. Sic per verba Entitatis, Mo|tus & Qualitatis absolvitur
loqucla; quum ceterae partes Orationis vel in ea sunt [...]educibiles, aut ut
satellites illis adstant. Unicè saltem requiritur alte|ratio haec: quòd scil.
(quum Qualitas ut objectum supponit Perfectionem: ideo{que} perceptibilis
non sit uisi verbo Entitatis adjuncta, [...]t indelligibiliter in|serta) 94
formetur ejus analogiae ad formam formatam sive Proportionem. Quod enim
Privatio in in|tellectualibus, idem & Proportio in corporeis quod sit nullus non
intelligit.
Ob id verò, ut defectum, si ad Hermeticos te ver|tere mavis. Innumera
corum volumina in Trinuni|tate hâc assentiri percipiás, viz. Ut Mercurius pu|
rotechnic[...] Saturni scintillâ impregnatus, coquatur in Venerem quam
cognominant Filiis notam.
Projectio (mi Praestantissimi) utcun{que} Practicis vix succedere videtur.
Interim tamen si à speoulati|onibus quae sub sensum cadunt ad eas quae
intelligen|tiâ solâ percipiuntur ascendamus, quid inde nobis in|telligendum
erit aliud quàm Entitas movens ad Per|fectionem. Ut (licèt liber ipse
vobiscum vernaculari non mereatur) vel ex emblematibus cerni est.
Et sic mundus factus est. Inquit Hermes. [Note: In Tab. ]
Quae mea igitur andacia est dum Mentem per trinuna illa verba
communicativam reddere tento, vo|his submittitur.
R Reliquus liber horum examinat accidentia & usus; medum{que}, obiter,
quo ceterae quas liberales vocamus artes ex illis pendent.
De quibus, [...]uper, dum apud familiares (inter po|cula) pro hâc ratâ
Sermocinabar: Eorum, ut Rha|psodemata ista chartis darem, [Note: Vos
horter ut Scientia|rum Instau|rationi in|[...]umbatis. Et veterum labore;
ne{que} nihil, neque omnla esse putetis. Idem Verul. ad Acad. Oxon. ]
corrogationes abnuere nolui. Ni Verulamii nostri hortamina (quae Doctiores
nimium jam diu perpessos putaham) ex integro sem|per neglecta maneant:
aut (dum aegris adstare non ar|ridet) Laurus, quam viginti nunc annis è
vobis pub|licè receptam ambio, radicitus mecum st[...]rilesccre vi|deatur;
omnigeno quasi literarum usu[...] decsset vester
Ab eremo paterno in agro Glamorganiae Cambriae Calendis Martii. [...]
Bassert{us} J[...]anesius.