HUMAN RIGHTS in the

Middle East
KNOW THE FACTS
Produced by StandWithUs

Middle East

Religious Intolerance
in Arab Countries
2003 less than 100 200 11,000 100 100 0 5,500 less than 100 1,500 200 Israel 1948 Algeria Egypt Iran Iraq Lebanon Libya Morocco Syria Tunisia Yemen 140,000 75,000 100,000 150,000 20,000 38,000 265,000 30,000 105,000 55,000 1948 160,000 2003 1.4 million

Only one country in the Middle East fosters religious freedom.
Population figures based on US State Department, 2000 Annual Report on International Religious Freedom reported in Mitchell Bard, Myths and Facts: A Guide to the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 2001.

Regional Map
Iran

Arab League Countries Non-Arab League Countries * Iran is not an Arab country, but it is a Muslim theocratic republic that sponsors terrorism.

Religious Tolerance
in Israel
Although it is a Jewish state, Israel protects religious freedom and officially recognizes fifteen different religions.

Political Rights

Country Egypt Iran Iraq Jordan Lebanon Libya Palestinian Authority Saudi Arabia Sudan Syria Israel

Freedom Free & Opposition Minority House Rating* Fair Elections Parties Legal Participation Scale 1-7 Minimal Minimal NO 6 NO NO Limited NO NO NO NO NO NO YES Minimal NO Limited Limited NO Minimal NO NO NO YES NO NO Limited Limited NO NO NO NO NO YES 6 6 5 5 7 5 7 7 7 1

* Freedom House, founded in 1940, is a non-partisan, broad-based non-profit organization that monitors and evaluates democracy and freedom around the world. It ranks nations on a scale of 1 to 7 1 is an open democratic society with fair and free political life 6 is an autocratic regime with minimal political rights 7 is an autocrat regime with severe oppression See the 2006 Freedom House Annual Report at www.freedomhouse.org

Sexual Freedom
Country Egypt Homosexuality Legal YES
(But gays are prosecuted under lewd conduct laws.)

Legal Protection for Gays from discrimination and hate crimes NO

Honor Killing* Outlawed NO

Iran Jordan

NO
(Gays are put to death.)

NO NO

NO NO

YES
(But reports of gays seeking asylum elsewhere)

Lebanon Libya Palestinian Authority Saudi Arabia Syria Israel

NO NO YES
(But no protection from hate crimes)

NO NO NO NO NO YES

N/A N/A NO NO NO YES

NO
(Gays are put to death.)

NO
(3 years imprisonment)

YES

* “Honor killing” is when a male kills a female family member who has had sex – or is rumored to have had sex – outside of marriage, either by choice or because she was raped. Some countries have no or only light penalties for this kind of killing. Sources: Amnesty International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender Division at www.ai-lgbt.org (information updated as of 2004); on PA, The New Republic, 8/19/02, Yossi Klein Halevi, “Refugee Status,” www.tnr.com. Honor Killings: The Star (Amman) 11/30/99; MEMRI Special Dispatch no. 63 at www.memri.org; U.S. Department of State, 2004 Human Rights Reports at www.state.gov/g/drl/hr/c1470.htm.

Women’s Rights

Country Egypt Iran Iraq Jordan Libya Palestinian Authority Saudi Arabia Syria Israel

Travel Restrictions % Illiterate (Require husband’s or % of Women in (Age 15 and older) male relative’s consent) Labor Force 56.4% women YES 21% 29.6% women 75% women 15.3% women 28% women 23% women 30.7% women 36% women 4.4% women YES YES YES YES N/A YES YES NO 12% 18% 21% 21% 11.4% 13% 19% 45% (same as US statistics)

Literacy Sources: A Gap Analysis report on the Status of Palestinian Women Prepared by Women’s Centre for Legal Aid and Counseling, www.wclac.org. CIA Factbook (2003) at www.gov/cia/publications/pubs.html Travel Restrictions: US Dep’t of State, 2003 Human Rights Report, at www.state.gov/g/drl/hr/c1470.htm Work force: UN Stats unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/ww2000/tables.html

Civil Rights

Country Egypt Iran Iraq Jordan Lebanon Libya Palestinian Authority Saudi Arabia Sudan Syria USA United Kingdom Israel

Religious Freedom Free Speech Fair and Freedom House Rating* and Assembly Open Trials Protected Scale 1-7 Minimal NO NO 5 NO NO Limited Limited NO NO NO NO NO YES YES YES NO NO Limited NO NO NO NO NO NO YES YES YES NO NO Limited Limited NO Limited NO NO NO YES YES YES 6 5 4 4 7 5 6 7 7 1 1 2

For more information, see www.knesset.gov.il, www.cbs.co.il, www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/mideast/israel.htm, www.state.gov/g/drl/hr/c1470.htm * Freedom House, founded in 1940, is a non-partisan, broad-based non-profit organization that monitors and evaluates democracy and freedom around the world. It ranks nations on a scale of 1 to 7 – 1 is an open democratic society with fair and free political life; 6 is an autocratic regime with minimal political rights; 7 is an autocrat regime with severe oppression See the 2006 Freedom House Annual Report at www.freedomhouse.org

Freedom of Ideas
Country Egypt Iran Iraq Jordan Libya Saudi Arabia Syria Israel Free Entry of Free Freedom to Free Media Criticize Academic Artistic Foreign Arts/ (uncensored) Religion Freedom Expression Books/Press NO NO NO NO NO NO NO YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO YES NO NO NO PARTIAL NO NO NO YES NO NO NO PARTIAL NO NO NO YES NO NO NO PARTIAL NO NO NO YES

Sources: Freedom House Reports 2005 at www.freedomhouse.org; US Dep’t of State, Human Rights Reports, 2004 at www.state.gov/g/drl/hr/c1470.htm; United Nations Arab Human Development Report, 2002, p.2 at www.undp.org.

Facts about Arabs living in Israel
• • • • • • 1.4 million Arab-Israelis live within Israel. There are 5 official Arab parties. Arab-Israelis make up 18-20% of the total population. Arabic is an official language and on equal footing wiht Hebrew. Arabs have held as many as 12 of 120 seats in the Israeli parliament. All Arab municipalities receive government funding for education and infrastructure.

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